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Sample records for qualitative phenomenological approach

  1. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  2. Qualitative Methods and a Phenomenological Perspective in Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Joseph P.

    A phenomenological approach to library research utilizing qualitative research methods is contrasted to a positivist-behaviorist approach utilizing quantitative methods. Psychological understanding of a situation attained by means of accurate description, and subjectivity and associated intentionality are presented as part of the phenomenological…

  3. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address. PMID:27106878

  4. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  5. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  6. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers who delivered nutrition education in their classrooms. Inductive coding was used to determine invariant constituents, reduce constituents to categories, and cluster categories into themes. Reliability and validity were accomplished through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Results: Results identified 5 core themes related to roles teachers play in nutrition education, the importance placed upon nutrition, motivation for supplementary activities, barriers, and a triadic relationship between students, teachers, and curriculum. Discussion: Findings reveal interactions within the nutrition education experience in which teachers balance barriers with their value of nutrition education and motivation to help students make healthy choices. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students. PMID:27226814

  7. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  8. Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia.

  9. Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. Methods This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. Results In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Conclusions Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia. PMID:26229650

  10. Alternative approaches to research in physical therapy: positivism and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Shepard, K F; Jensen, G M; Schmoll, B J; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J

    1993-02-01

    This article presents philosophical approaches to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one approaches research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of phenomenology (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two approaches are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both approaches in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy. PMID:8421722

  11. Teachers' Interactive Whiteboard Training in Title I Mathematics Classrooms: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of teachers at an urban Title 1 elementary school regarding the training, beliefs and use of interactive whiteboards as a resource to raise student mathematical achievement levels. The problem addressed in this qualitative phenomenological study was the…

  12. Hearing voices: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Bracken, Patrick; Leudar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The word "phenomenology" has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief outline of Merleau-Ponty's theory of embodiment, and contrast this with the dominant, epistemological (or Cartesian) view of experience. Through the example of a woman who experienced bereavement hallucinations, we try to show how this approach can open up a hermeneutic approach to the experience of hearing voices. An understanding of embodiment can help to counter reductionism, whether biological or social, and dualism (body/mind and mind/society). It is only when we consider the totality of human experience that we can understand its meaning. This has two main benefits. First, it legitimates the claims made by those who hear voices that their experiences are intrinsically meaningful. Second, it can provide a framework for those who work with voice hearers and who are interested in understanding these experiences. In this sense, phenomenology can become a valuable clinical tool. PMID:16571572

  13. [Interprative phenomenology: a qualitative research method for nursing care].

    PubMed

    Spichiger, Elisabeth; Prakke, Heleen

    2003-06-01

    This paper aims at discussing interpretive phenomenology as a research method and at demonstrating its usefulness for nursing. The philosophical background of phenomenology and aspects of the philosophical perspective underlying interpretive phenomenology are discussed. The research process with data collection, analysis, and presentation of the results, as well as the evaluation of such studies are elucidated. Interpretive phenomenology allows insights into the daily world of ill or disabled people and their families. The articulation of their experiences gives them a voice and has the capacity to bring about positive changes in nursing practice. PMID:12838721

  14. Phenomenological approach to mechanical damage growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed phenomenological universality (PUN) approach and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested. PMID:18999489

  15. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  16. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  17. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience with Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education.…

  18. A Qualitative Narrative Phenomenological Study: Parental Perceptions in Choosing Online Educational Classes for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Kirsten L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of parents of gifted student children who live in the United States, who have gone through the process of locating and selecting an online class, and who have worked with the online educational environment offering the class. Parents often select online…

  19. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  20. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  1. An Exploration of How Foster Parents Educationally Assist Foster Children: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are academically at risk as a result of abuse, neglect and family disruptions. Findings from previous studies have underscored the critical role played by foster parents in monitoring the academic progress of the children placed in the home. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify the skill…

  2. Experiences of Community College Students with ADHD: A Qualitative Study in the Tradition of Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Charla Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary educational institutions of all types have seen increases in the number of enrollees diagnosed with ADHD. Despite such increases less in known about ADHD among college students because the majority of research has focused on children and adolescents. This qualitative study conducted in the tradition of phenomenology, explored the…

  3. Perceptions of Women Laid off from Technology Positions: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in the information technology (IT) profession has fluctuated along with the growth of business. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions of women who had been laid off from IT positions during the economic downturn period between 2007 and 2010. The research study was designed to…

  4. What Is Wrong with the Phenomenological Approach to Religious Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and nature of the phenomenological approach to the study of religion. Examines the way in which this approach has become accepted as a suitable methodology for religious education. Argues that certain features of this approach are untenable in the light of recent work in the philosophy of language and mind. (CAJ)

  5. A phenomenological approach to assessing a DUI/DWI program.

    PubMed

    Narag, Raymund E; Maxwell, Sheila Royo; Lee, Byung

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a phenomenological approach, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs. PMID:22297773

  6. Family Therapy: A Phenomenological and Active Directive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1978-01-01

    A "third force" in family therapy is outlined in this paper, which combines a phenomenological-humanistic approach with a highly active-directive attempt to help family members surrender their misperceptions of themselves and others and to make profound philosophic changes in their intrapersonal and interpersonal attitudes and behaviors. (Author)

  7. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  8. Making sense of denial in sexual offenders: a qualitative phenomenological and repertory grid analysis.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Gregson, Mick; Thorne, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Denial in sexual offenders represents the first barrier to successful treatment a clinician is likely to face. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to overcoming denial, with most programs having a focus on disclosure and "accepting responsibility." This is the first study that has aimed to make sense of sexual offenders' denial through a rigorous qualitative analysis. The main objective was to explore the experiences and lived worlds of sexual offenders in denial. A qualitative phenomenological methodology combining interpretative phenomenological analysis and repertory grids was implemented. Ten incarcerated sexual offenders in categorical denial participated in the research. The analysis revealed the narrative, relational, and self-reconstructive properties of denial and discusses the role and function denial may be playing for sexual offenders. The results highlight that denial can be viewed as a form of "sense making" and that clinically relevant treatment targets can be elicited without disclosure. It is concluded that viewing denial as a barrier to treatment impedes constructive work with offenders, and implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:24442912

  9. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  10. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  11. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  12. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

  13. Towards a New Approach to Dual Resonance Model Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    We have taken steps toward finding a dual-resonance (DR) model appropriate for phenomenological fits that can be built from an DR operator formalism which is attractive for its projective group gauge symmetries and factorization properties. This is done by attempting to generalize an approach [Szczepaniak, Adam, and Pennington, M.R., Application of the Veneziano Model in Charmonium Dalitz Plot Analysis, arXiv:1403.5782] of isolating DR poles by making all but one of the residues of on infinite sum of modified beta functions vanish. This leaves a closed-form amplitude that has a finite set of adjustable parameters and with only one ad hoc modification necessary for maintaining Regge asymptotic behavior. We have generalized this approach to double and single Regge limits of the DR five-point function with a pending application to pγ* -->K+K- p . Generalizations for (N - 3) -tuple Regge limits for N-point amplitudes can be gleaned from this work but a more rigorous treatment has been considered. Preliminary results suggest that these amplitudes may take the form of an expectation value of an infinite sum of an alternating product of vertex operators and Gervais-Neveu propagators. We have taken steps toward finding a dual-resonance (DR) model appropriate for phenomenological fits that can be built from an DR operator formalism which is attractive for its projective group gauge symmetries and factorization properties. This is done by attempting to generalize an approach [Szczepaniak, Adam, and Pennington, M.R., Application of the Veneziano Model in Charmonium Dalitz Plot Analysis, arXiv:1403.5782] of isolating DR poles by making all but one of the residues of on infinite sum of modified beta functions vanish. This leaves a closed-form amplitude that has a finite set of adjustable parameters and with only one ad hoc modification necessary for maintaining Regge asymptotic behavior. We have generalized this approach to double and single Regge limits of the DR five

  14. A phenomenological density-scaling approach to lamellipodial actin dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Wilson, Kerry; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The integration of protein function studied in vitro in a dynamic system like the cell lamellipodium remains a significant challenge. One reason is the apparent contradictory effect that perturbations of some proteins can have on the overall lamellipodium dynamics, depending on exact conditions. Theoretical modelling offers one approach for understanding the balance between the mechanisms that drive and regulate actin network growth and decay. Most models use a ‘bottom-up’ approach, involving explicitly assembling biochemical components to simulate observable behaviour. Their correctness therefore relies on both the accurate characterization of all the components and the completeness of the relevant processes involved. To avoid potential pitfalls due to this uncertainty, we used an alternative ‘top-down’ approach, in which measurable features of lamellipodium behaviour, here observed in two different cell types (HL60 and B16-F1), directly inform the development of a simple phenomenological model of lamellipodium dynamics. We show that the kinetics of F-actin association and dissociation scales with the local F-actin density, with no explicit location dependence. This justifies the use of a simplified kinetic model of lamellipodium dynamics that yields predictions testable by pharmacological or genetic intervention. A length-scale parameter (the lamellipodium width) emerges from this analysis as an experimentally accessible probe of network regulatory processes. PMID:25485077

  15. A qualitative approach to electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haertel, Hermann

    1987-09-01

    In the teaching of physics, the study of electricity and magnetism typically follows the introduction of the basic concepts of mechanics. However, there are some new concepts associated with electromagnetic fields that seem at first to the student to be unrelated to, or even incompatible with, Newton's third law as learned in mechanics. Furthermore, the transition from electrostatics to studies of moving charges and associated magnetic phenomena seems to many thoughtful students not to be consistent with concepts learned earlier in the course. This report describes approaches to electrostatics, to elementary circuits, and to the effects of moving charges in a way carefully designed to be fully consistent throughout, so that the thoughtful student is not left with quandaries about the relationship of each set of basic concepts to the other sets in the course.

  16. A qualitative, phenomenological study on the lived experiences of science teachers in The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklewhite, Thalia Vionne

    This phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences and perceptions of secondary science teachers in the archipelagic country of The Bahamas and how these teachers make meaning of the secondary science program in The Bahamas through the lens of life in a democratic society. The study's purpose was to answer the question: What are the lived experiences of secondary science teachers in The Bahamas in terms of their working conditions'? Using principles of phenomenological research to approach meaning, in-depth interviewing was conducted with six secondary science teachers on four islands of The Bahamas, including the capital of New Providence. The participants and the selected islands are representative of the diversity of teachers, the population, and school climates and structures throughout the country. Narratives were obtained via three ninety-minute interviews with each participant; and thematic analysis was the instrument by which three central themes emerged. Analysis of narratives reveals that lived experience of secondary science teachers revolve around themes of: (1) The Professional Self, (2) Curriculum Leadership, and (3) Curriculum. Most participants are in the career of secondary science education as second choice but are still committed to the profession. Participants overwhelmingly commented that there was a lack of supportive frameworks for critical elements of their daily work, and a need for clear, visionary and decisive curriculum leadership by The Ministry of Education and private School Boards. Participants also desired more appropriate and alternative science curricula that would meet the need of non-academically inclined Bahamian students. Antecedent to their calls was a pressing recognition that they lacked participatory democratic voice in national secondary science education evidenced by years of unrecognized and unattended suggestions sent to those in authority. As a result of these findings, the researcher was propelled towards

  17. Why Students Procrastinate: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Grund, Axel; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we adopted an impartial view on academic procrastination in order to gain new insights for the development of intervention programs. Following a qualitative approach, we thereby explored antecedents of procrastination by attending to the actual voices and experiences of 29 students. Students' subjective theories were in line…

  18. The Phenomenology of Hair Pulling Urges in Trichotillomania: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Madjar, Shai; Sripada, Chandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by recurrent urges to pull out one's hair, but the experiential characteristics of hair pulling urges are poorly understood. This study used a comparative approach to understand the subjective phenomenology of hair pulling: participants with trichotillomania symptoms were asked about their hair pulling urges as well as their urges to eat unhealthy foods. Participants who reported experiencing problematic unhealthy food urges were identified and asked to compare the phenomenological characteristics of their hair pulling and unhealthy food urges across a variety of dimensions. Results revealed significant differences for only some urge properties measured, and differences that existed were small to moderate in magnitude. Qualitative comparisons of the two urges revealed situational characteristics of hair pulling that could explain these small to moderate differences between the two urges. We conclude that hair pulling urges may be more comparable to ordinary urges such as unhealthy food urges than one might expect, but that hair pulling urges may nevertheless be rated as slightly more severe due to situational characteristics of these urges. This conception may improve clinician and lay understanding of the condition, assist with destigmatization efforts, and facilitate the development of treatment strategies. PMID:26925017

  19. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  20. Understanding the lived experiences of patients: application of a phenomenological approach to ethics.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-08-01

    This perspective article provides a justification, with an overview, of the use of phenomenological inquiry and the interpretation into the everyday ethical concerns of patients with disabilities. Disability is explored as a transformative process that involves physical, cognitive, and moral changes. This perspective article discusses the advantages of phenomenology to supplement and enhance the principlist process of ethical decision making that guides much of contemporary medical practice, including physical therapy. A phenomenological approach provides a more contextual approach to ethical decision making through probing, uncovering, and interpreting the meanings of "stories" of patients. This approach, in turn, provides for a more coherent and genuine application of ethical principles within the "textured life-world" of patients and their evolving values as they grapple with disability to make ethical and clinical decisions. The article begins with an in-depth discussion of the current literature about the phenomenology of people with disability. This literature review is followed by a discussion of the traditional principlist approach to making ethical decisions, which, in turn, is followed by a discussion of phenomenology and its tools for use in clinical inquiry and interpretation of the experiences of patients with disabilities. A specific case is presented that illustrates specific tools of phenomenology to uncover the moral context of disability from the perspective of patients. The article concludes with a discussion of clinical, educational, and research implications of a phenomenological approach to ethics and clinical decision making. PMID:20539020

  1. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

  2. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked to tape…

  3. Understanding Qualitative Research: A Strategic Approach to Qualitative Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husband, Robert; Foster, William

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the basic character of qualitative, humanistic research, identifying its philosophical and theoretical commitments. Provides a taxonomy of investigative strategies employed, including naturalistic inquiry, contextualization, maximized comparisons, sensitizing concepts, and analytic induction. Classifies methods employed as participant…

  4. Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

    1985-11-01

    A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

  5. The phenomenological approach to modeling the dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In this mini-review we discuss first why we should investigate cosmological models beyond ΛCDM. We then show how to describe dark energy or modified gravity models in a fluid language with the help of one background and two perturbation quantities. We review a range of dark energy models and study how they fit into the phenomenological framework, including generalizations like phantom crossing, sound speeds different from c and non-zero anisotropic stress, and how these effective quantities are linked to the underlying physical models. We also discuss the limits of what can be measured with cosmological data, and some challenges for the framework.

  6. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  7. The Sociopolitical Importance of Genetic, Phenomenological Approaches to Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science…

  8. Concurrent growth of phenotypic features: a phenomenological universalities approach.

    PubMed

    Barberis, L; Condat, C A; Gliozzi, A S; Delsanto, P P

    2010-05-01

    Different physical features of an organism are often measured concurrently, because their correlations can be used as predictors of longevity, future health, or adaptability to an ecological niche. Since, in general, we do not know a priori if the temporal variations in the measured quantities are causally related, it may be useful to have a method that could help us to identify possible correlations and to obtain parameters that may vary from population to population. In this paper we develop a procedure that may detect underlying relationships. We do this by generalizing the recently introduced concept of phenomenological universalities to the complex field. In this generalization, allometric growth is described by a complex function, whose real and imaginary parts represent two phenotypic traits of the same organism. As particular solutions of the resulting problem, we obtain generalizations of the Gompertz and the von Bertalanffy-West growth equations. We then apply the procedure to two biological systems in order to show how to determine the existence of mutual interference between trait variations. PMID:20051249

  9. Phenomenological explanation of an experiential curriculum in medical education: A feministic approach

    PubMed Central

    Keshtiaray, Narges; Vajargah, Kourosh Fathi; Zimitat, Craig; Foroughi, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study addresses the design and validation of the experiential curriculum model for medical education using a Feministic approach. Method: The present study was conducted on two non separable planes. On the first plan, the model was designed based on the Feministic approach using the theoretical study method and emphasizing the perspectives ascribed to Nell Noddings, Madeline Grumet and Janette Miller. Results: The levels of this model include Expected Curriculum, Imaginal Curriculum, Concealed curriculum, Interactive curriculum (Manifest Curriculum, Latent Curriculum, Look the parenting), Transferential Curriculum and Self Determination. On the second plane, to validate the combined model, a phenomenologically qualitative study was conducted. In this study, using goal-oriented sampling, undergraduate and graduate (Master's degree) students majoring in Dentistry, Nursing at Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan as well as those at at Esfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected. Deep interview was used to collect data. The findings were analyzed using Van Manen's six-stage model. To determine the reliability of the findings, reliability of reality reconstruction were used. Conclusion: The results obtained suggested that: Education is in need of some conceptual reconstruction. On this way, women's perceptions and experience of education and of the interior epistemological and curricular system which shape the discourse and performance of education must be addressed. Serving as a research model offering the various planes of the experiential curriculum and focusing more sharply on the dimensions of curriculum than the formal plane, the present study is recommended to the decision-makers of higher education curricular system. PMID:23555111

  10. QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Peter O.

    2006-09-25

    A review is presented on the contributions of Mexican Scientists to QCD phenomenology. These contributions range from Constituent Quark model's (CQM) with a fixed number of quarks (antiquarks) to those where the number of quarks is not conserved. Also glueball spectra were treated with phenomenological models. Several other approaches are mentioned.

  11. Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

  12. A Heideggerian Phenomenology Approach to Higher Education as Workplace: A Consideration of Academic Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heidegger's early works provide his most important contribution to our understanding of being, while his discussion of the effects of technology on that being in his later works is one of his best known contributions. I use his phenomenological approach to understanding the workplace and then, from a range of potential applications, choose to…

  13. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  14. On a New Approach to Meson Phenomenology with the Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Carina; Hilger, Thomas; Gómez-Rocha, María; Krassnigg, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    We investigate capabilities of the effective interaction in a rainbow-ladder truncated meson model of QCD within a covariant Landau-gauge Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach. Based upon past success for the light- as well as heavy-quark domains, we discuss the range of applicability and features of an effort with comprehensive phenomenological claim and goals.

  15. Staff Nurses’ Perceptions and Experiences about Structural Empowerment: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Peremans, Lieve; Diltour, Nadine; Van heusden, Danny; Dilles, Tinne; Van Rompaey, Bart; Havens, Donna Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study reported in this article was to investigate staff nurses’ perceptions and experiences about structural empowerment and perceptions regarding the extent to which structural empowerment supports safe quality patient care. To address the complex needs of patients, staff nurse involvement in clinical and organizational decision-making processes within interdisciplinary care settings is crucial. A qualitative study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews of 11 staff nurses assigned to medical or surgical units in a 600-bed university hospital in Belgium. During the study period, the hospital was going through an organizational transformation process to move from a classic hierarchical and departmental organizational structure to one that was flat and interdisciplinary. Staff nurses reported experiencing structural empowerment and they were willing to be involved in decision-making processes primarily about patient care within the context of their practice unit. However, participants were not always fully aware of the challenges and the effect of empowerment on their daily practice, the quality of care and patient safety. Ongoing hospital change initiatives supported staff nurses’ involvement in decision-making processes for certain matters but for some decisions, a classic hierarchical and departmental process still remained. Nurses perceived relatively high work demands and at times viewed empowerment as presenting additional. Staff nurses recognized the opportunities structural empowerment provided within their daily practice. Nurse managers and unit climate were seen as crucial for success while lack of time and perceived work demands were viewed as barriers to empowerment. PMID:27035457

  16. Staff Nurses' Perceptions and Experiences about Structural Empowerment: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Peremans, Lieve; Diltour, Nadine; Van heusden, Danny; Dilles, Tinne; Van Rompaey, Bart; Havens, Donna Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study reported in this article was to investigate staff nurses' perceptions and experiences about structural empowerment and perceptions regarding the extent to which structural empowerment supports safe quality patient care. To address the complex needs of patients, staff nurse involvement in clinical and organizational decision-making processes within interdisciplinary care settings is crucial. A qualitative study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews of 11 staff nurses assigned to medical or surgical units in a 600-bed university hospital in Belgium. During the study period, the hospital was going through an organizational transformation process to move from a classic hierarchical and departmental organizational structure to one that was flat and interdisciplinary. Staff nurses reported experiencing structural empowerment and they were willing to be involved in decision-making processes primarily about patient care within the context of their practice unit. However, participants were not always fully aware of the challenges and the effect of empowerment on their daily practice, the quality of care and patient safety. Ongoing hospital change initiatives supported staff nurses' involvement in decision-making processes for certain matters but for some decisions, a classic hierarchical and departmental process still remained. Nurses perceived relatively high work demands and at times viewed empowerment as presenting additional. Staff nurses recognized the opportunities structural empowerment provided within their daily practice. Nurse managers and unit climate were seen as crucial for success while lack of time and perceived work demands were viewed as barriers to empowerment. PMID:27035457

  17. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  18. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The University Student's Studies within the Lifeworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greasley, Kay; Ashworth, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The "Approaches to Studying Inventory" (ASI) was based on qualitative research by Marton and Saljo, which established "surface" and "deep" approaches to study. This article attempts a new qualitative explication of the meanings of study. A heuristic due to Husserl is employed which distinguishes between the "noema", the "subjective object" of…

  19. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The Idiographic Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Peter; Greasley, Kay

    2009-01-01

    "Approach to studying" research focuses on the "manner" (deep, surface, etc.) in which studying is grasped. This is the Husserlian "noesis", the mental orientation, to studying. In this article, it is argued that attention must also be given to the subjective meaning of studying and of what is studied--the Husserlian "noema". However, the…

  20. Transport Coefficients of High Temperature SF6 in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Using a Phenomenological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Zong; Rong, Ming-Zhe; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yi

    2014-03-01

    The transport coefficients of high temperature sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium are calculated using collision integrals derived in a phenomenological approach which could be a valuable tool in the calculation of complete data sets for complex mixtures, including interactions hardly handled in the accurate multipotential methods. A systematic comparison with transport coefficients obtained using an old data set and experimental test is performed to check the reliability of the proposed approach in evaluating transport cross sections.

  1. A Novel Approach for Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophadt, Charles E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a freshman chemistry laboratory program involving nontraditional qualitative investigations of metal ion properties is explained. Experiments are discussed which focus on synthesis of a metal salt, properties of metal ions and their separations, and oxidation states of metals. (DT)

  2. Estimating Sampling Selection Bias in Human Genetics: A Phenomenological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide; Taglioli, Luca; De Iasio, Sergio; Gueresi, Paola; Alfani, Guido; Nelli, Sergio; Rossi, Paolo; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This research is the first empirical attempt to calculate the various components of the hidden bias associated with the sampling strategies routinely-used in human genetics, with special reference to surname-based strategies. We reconstructed surname distributions of 26 Italian communities with different demographic features across the last six centuries (years 1447–2001). The degree of overlapping between "reference founding core" distributions and the distributions obtained from sampling the present day communities by probabilistic and selective methods was quantified under different conditions and models. When taking into account only one individual per surname (low kinship model), the average discrepancy was 59.5%, with a peak of 84% by random sampling. When multiple individuals per surname were considered (high kinship model), the discrepancy decreased by 8–30% at the cost of a larger variance. Criteria aimed at maximizing locally-spread patrilineages and long-term residency appeared to be affected by recent gene flows much more than expected. Selection of the more frequent family names following low kinship criteria proved to be a suitable approach only for historically stable communities. In any other case true random sampling, despite its high variance, did not return more biased estimates than other selective methods. Our results indicate that the sampling of individuals bearing historically documented surnames (founders' method) should be applied, especially when studying the male-specific genome, to prevent an over-stratification of ancient and recent genetic components that heavily biases inferences and statistics. PMID:26452043

  3. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  4. Evaluating the Olympic Education Program: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoilos, Vasilios; Hassandra, Maria; Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide further information regarding factors associated with educational evaluation, using a qualitative approach. Fifty-five interviews were carried out with school principals. The results of the present study supported the notion that the qualitative methods could provide information that quantitative procedures…

  5. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  6. Women, Anger, and Aggression: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.; Shaw, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This study reports a qualitative phenomenological investigation of anger and anger-related aggression in the context of the lives of individual women. Semistructured interviews with five women are analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. This inductive approach aims to capture the richness and complexity of the lived experience of…

  7. Self-Disturbance in Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Approach to Better Understand Our Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob; Postmes, Lot; Goedhart, Saskia; Sno, Herman N.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological approach explains the apparently unintelligible experiences of patients with schizophrenia as a disruption of the normal self-perception. Patients with schizophrenia suffer from a decline of “me,” the background core of their experiences. Normally tacit experiences intrude into the forefront of their attention, and the sense that inner-world experiences are private diminishes. These patients lose the sense that they are the origin of their thoughts and actions; their self-evident network of meanings and a solid foundation of life disintegrate. Subsequently, their experiential world is transformed, alienated, intruded, and fragmented. In this article, a phenomenological investigation of the self-experiences and actions of 4 patients with schizophrenia is presented. PMID:23724352

  8. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

  9. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  10. A phenomenological approach to multisource data integration: Analysing infrared and visible data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for combining multisensory data for remote sensing applications. The approach uses phenomenological models which allow the specification of discriminatory features that are based on intrinsic physical properties of imaged surfaces. Thermal and visual images of scenes are analyzed to estimate surface heat fluxes. Such analysis makes available a discriminatory feature that is closely related to the thermal capacitance of the imaged objects. This feature provides a method for labelling image regions based on physical properties of imaged objects. This approach is different from existing approaches which use the signal intensities in each channel (or an arbitrary linear or nonlinear combination of signal intensities) as features - which are then classified by a statistical or evident approach.

  11. Study of nuclear structure of odd mass 119-127I nuclei in a phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    By using the phenomenological approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), the positive and negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 119-127I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of backbending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work. Besides this, the reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B (E 2) and B (M 1), are obtained from the PSM wavefunction for the first time for yrast bands of these isotopes.

  12. Estimating losses in an entanglement concentration scheme using the phenomenological operator approach to dissipation in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, N. G.; Moussa, M. H. Y.; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a phenomenological-operator technique aiming to simplify the estimate of losses due to dissipation in cavity quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, we apply that technique to estimate losses during an entanglement concentration process in the context of dissipative cavities. In addition, some results, previously used without proof to justify our phenomenological-operator approach, are now formally derived, including an equivalent way to formulate the Wigner-Weisskopf approximation.

  13. Understanding the Coping Strategies of International Students: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international…

  14. Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation: A Regional Conference-Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant; Cayago-Gicain, Ma. Socorro

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a conference held at the Leyte Institute of Technology, Tacloban City, The Philippines. Entitled: Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation, it was a cooperative venture between the College of Arts and Sciences at the Leyte Institute of Technology and the School of Education at Flinders University. A central purpose of…

  15. Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: Phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2005-05-01

    Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed.

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  17. [Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a phenomenological approach].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. Phenomenology was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were approached. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning. PMID:23887790

  18. The cycloid type and its differentiation from core schizophrenia: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, D; Mundt, C

    1999-01-01

    The heterogeneity within schizophrenia or the group of schizophrenias remains a vexing and limiting problem. An alternative to the "classic" explanatory construct of a schizophrenic unitary psychosis is the current concept of a positive/negative dichotomy with or without mixed type. However, the validation by findings from brain imaging, specificity, and prognostic validity of these multiple-entity approaches are still uncertain. Psychopathology is challenged to identify discrete types as homogenous as possible, providing closer relationship to distinct disease processes. Such types are to be defined by one or more axial syndromes, syndromes in an essential, not correlative, sense. One of these types is embraced by the term cycloid psychosis, implying a good prognosis. Using an integrative phenomenological methodology, the present study is able to show the specific quality of phenomena occurring in this type to pinpoint their "inner" relationships and to demonstrate cycloid syndromes as axial syndromes in the phenomenological sense. Thus, it is shown that positive symptoms in the cycloid type are different from those in core schizophrenia. In addition to the quality and inner coherence of the constituent elements, the absence of structural deformations of (1) emotional expression and affect, (2) thought, and (3) movement impulses and sequences is the decisive specificity feature that allows differentiation of the cycloid type from poor-prognosis core schizophrenia. These syndromes of structural deformations are the axial syndromes of core schizophrenia, occurring with or without "productive" (positive) phenomena. Its conceptualization makes a contribution to the actual negative-symptom discussion shifting the perspective from a low specific level (e.g., abulia) to phenomena of higher specificity. On the basis of a precise definition of cycloid axial syndromes, previous operationalization suggestions are reviewed and evaluated, and an alternative approach is

  19. Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

  20. Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duobliene, Lilija

    2013-01-01

    The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

  1. Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan

    2010-01-21

    Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

  2. Educational Needs Assessment for Psychiatry Residents to Prevent Suicide: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Majid; Aminoroaia, Mahin; Samimi, Seyed Mehdi Ardestani; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Attari, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a commonly encountered and stressful event in professional life of any psychiatrist. Suicide risk assessment is a major gateway to patient treatment and management. It is a core competency requirement in training of psychiatry. The present study designed to assesseducational needsfor suicide prevention in residents of psychiatry in two medical schools in Iran, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBUMS) inTehran. Methods: This was a qualitative triangulation study, conducted in two steps. The first step was based on a phenomenological approach and the second was based on focus groups. The studied population was the psychiatric residents of IUMS and SBUMS. Purposive sampling was implemented until saturation. Interviews were performed. Colaizzi method was used to analyze the data. In the second step, participants attended a session, in which all final codes of the first step were discussed, and regarding the views, educational priorities and needs were listed. Results: A total of 2047 codes, extracted from 31 interviews, analyzed through Colaizzi method, were categorized in three groups: Educational, facilities and processes, human resources. Conclusions: According to defects of current educational program, we suggest regular reevaluations and revisions of clinical training programs according to current needs. PMID:24319561

  3. Investigating Reasons for CPAP Adherence in Adolescents: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prashad, Priya S.; Marcus, Carole L.; Maggs, Jill; Stettler, Nicolas; Cornaglia, Mary A.; Costa, Priscilla; Puzino, Kristina; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Bradford, Ruth; Barg, Frances K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represent an important but understudied subgroup of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors related to adherence from the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: Individual open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 21) and caregivers (n = 20). Objective adherence data from the adolescents' CPAP machines during the previous month was obtained. Adolescents with different adherence levels and their caregivers were asked their views on CPAP. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we identified themes and developed theories that explained the adolescents' adherence patterns. Results: Adolescent participants (n = 21) were aged 12-18 years, predominantly male (n = 15), African American (n = 16), users of CPAP for at least one month. Caregivers were mainly mothers (n = 17). Seven adolescents had high use (mean use 381 ± 80 min per night), 7 had low use (mean use 30 ± 24 min per night), and 7 had no use during the month prior to being interviewed. Degree of structure in the home, social reactions, mode of communication among family members, and perception of benefits were issues that played a role in CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Understanding the adolescent and family experience of using CPAP may be key to increasing adolescent CPAP adherence. As a result of our findings, we speculate that health education, peer support groups, and developmentally appropriate individualized support strategies may be important in promoting adherence. Future studies should examine these theories of CPAP adherence. Citation: Prashad PS; Marcus CL; Maggs J; Stettler N; Cornaglia MA; Costa P; Puzino K; Xanthopoulos M; Bradford R; Barg FK. Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1303-1313. PMID:24340293

  4. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and

  5. A Phenomenological Approach to Uncovering the Essence of Grieving Experiences of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergene, Lisa Beth

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that during their time on campus, as many as half of all undergraduates will experience the death of a loved one (Balk, 2001; Balk, Walker, & Baker, 2010; Holland & Neimeyer, 2010). The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological method to uncover a thick, rich description of the lived experience of…

  6. The meaning of illness: a phenomenological approach to the patient-physician relationship.

    PubMed

    Toombs, S K

    1987-08-01

    This essay argues that philosophical phenomenology can provide important insights into the patient-physician relationship. In particular, it is noted that the physician and patient encounter the experience of illness from within the context of different "worlds", each "world" providing a horizon of meaning. Such phenomenological notions as focusing, habits of mind, finite provinces of meaning, and relevance are shown to be central to the way these "worlds" are constituted. An eidetic interpretation of illness is proposed. Such an interpretation discloses certain essential characteristics that pertain to the experience of illness, per se, regardless of its manifestation in terms of a particular disease state. It is suggested that, if a shared world of meaning is to be constituted between physician and patient, the eidetic characteristics of illness must be recognized by the physician. PMID:3668399

  7. The problem of truth in psychotherapy: a phenomenological approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Draeger, J H

    1983-01-01

    Scientific method cannot establish whether a patient's productions in psychotherapy are truthful because of the nature of Cartesian dualism. Phenomenology, however, is an alternative that clarifies what is truthful in therapy and provides insight into the process of therapeutic change itself. Basic ideas of Paul Ricoeur and the epistemology of Michael Polanyi are applied to the treatment setting to evaluate change. Clinical examples illustrate the usefulness of exegesis as a paradigm for understanding the process of therapy. PMID:6857296

  8. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  9. Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The process of acculturation often results in changes in the health behavior of international students. This study employed an open-ended, qualitative approach in an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the acculturation process for physical activity, diet, and drinking behavior among international students. Eighteen undergraduate international students (average age 19.20, standard deviation 1.21) were interviewed for 45-60 min. Most of the international students became more physically active after they arrived in the United States. Facilitators included accessibility, weight management, free time, and role modeling. Most international students were unsatisfied with the food on campus. Their strategies for adjusting to this included ordering food from restaurants, visiting supermarkets, and moving off campus. Most international students felt uncomfortable with the drinking culture in the United States, although some of them felt drinking was a good way to socialize with Americans and explore American culture. Colleges and universities should adopt strategies to better help their international students build lifelong healthy behaviors. PMID:26273820

  10. Case Study Research in Education. A Qualitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    A practical guide for designing and carrying out qualitative case study in education is provided. How-to advice for managing all phases of case study research is included. The focus is on case studies that draw from what is commonly known as the qualitative research paradigm rather than a quantitative, positivistic, experimental orientation. Three…

  11. Phenomenological contributions to understanding hypnosis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick

    2003-12-01

    This article provides a summary of the available qualitative literature on hypnosis of importance to empirical study of hypnosis. The author advocates a link between phenomenological research and the qualitative research of perceptual theory to deepen an understanding of hypnosis previously missing in the research literature and in debates on the theoretical approaches to hypnosis. The author suggests linking Giorgi's and Wasicsko's research methodologies to advance qualitative research. Researchers could conduct more qualitative research on the experience of hypnosis to expand and explicate subjective experiencing and enhance exploration of individual differences that cannot be captured in artificially controlled environments. PMID:14723451

  12. A Phenomenological Lagrangian Approach to Two Kaon Photoproduction and Pentaquark Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Winston Roberts

    2004-08-01

    We examine cross sections for the processes {gamma} N {yields} NK{bar K} in the framework of a phenomenological Lagrangian. We include contributions from {Lambda} and {Sigma} resonances up to spin 3/2, as well as those from an exotic {Theta}{sup +}. We allow the {Theta}{sup +} to have spin 1/2 or 3/2, with either positive or negative parity in each case. We also allow the state to be either isovector or isoscalar. We find that the scenario that most closely matches observations at Jefferson Laboratory requires a very large coupling of the {Theta}{sup +} to NK*.

  13. Psychosocial aspects of Taiwanese postpartum depression phenomenological approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Wu, H Y; Tseng, Y F; Chou, F H; Wang, S Y

    1999-01-01

    To understand how Taiwanese women experience postpartum depression, a phenomenological study was conducted. A purposive sample of six mothers participated in the present study. All the subjects' interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed. The transcription of each subject's oral description of postpartum depression experience was analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological methodology. Three categories, with ten themes, were derived from the analysis. The first category is unbalanced role-enacting. It includes these four themes: (1) the discrepancies in the husband-wife relationship; (2) the shadowy position of a daughter-in-law; (3) the incompetence as a mother; and (4) the dilemma of a woman's identity. The second category is fragmented time-space representation. The themes included are: (5) cultural bondage; (6) loss of ideals; and (7) reinterpretation of family history. The third category is the uneasy self. It contains the themes of: (8) psychological disability; (9) sense of self-dissatisfaction; and (10) the notion or behavior of destruction. PMID:10063795

  14. A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  15. A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

  16. District Partnership Approach to Inclusion: A Qualitative Evaluation of Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Vandercook, Terri; Kraljic, Mary McDevitt; Medwetz, Laura; Nelson, Marilyn; Sauer, John; Walz, Lynn

    This monograph reports on a qualitative evaluation of the Together We're Better (TWB) program, an effort in Minnesota to develop an inclusive, positive, supportive educational system. The TWB project focused on: (1) general education/special education collaboration within the state department of education; (2) district partnerships; (3) personnel…

  17. Resolving the Quantitative-Qualitative Dilemma: A Critical Realist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2007-01-01

    The philosophical issues underpinning the quantitative-qualitative divide in educational research are examined. Three types of argument which support a resolution are considered: pragmatism, false duality and warranty through triangulation. In addition a number of proposed strategies--alignment, sequencing, translation and triangulation--are…

  18. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

  19. Barriers to Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southall, Kenneth; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to describe and better understand barriers to accessing low vision rehabilitation services. Methods: A qualitative description research paradigm was employed. Focus group participants were recruited through their involvement in the Montreal Barriers Study in Montreal, Canada. Six focus groups (n = 21 participants)…

  20. Data driven approaches vs. qualitative approaches in climate change impact and vulnerability assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebisch, Marc; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Petitta, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade the scope of climate change science has broadened significantly. 15 years ago the focus was mainly on understanding climate change, providing climate change scenarios and giving ideas about potential climate change impacts. Today, adaptation to climate change has become an increasingly important field of politics and one role of science is to inform and consult this process. Therefore, climate change science is not anymore focusing on data driven approaches only (such as climate or climate impact models) but is progressively applying and relying on qualitative approaches including opinion and expertise acquired through interactive processes with local stakeholders and decision maker. Furthermore, climate change science is facing the challenge of normative questions, such us 'how important is a decrease of yield in a developed country where agriculture only represents 3% of the GDP and the supply with agricultural products is strongly linked to global markets and less depending on local production?'. In this talk we will present examples from various applied research and consultancy projects on climate change vulnerabilities including data driven methods (e.g. remote sensing and modelling) to semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches. Furthermore, we will discuss bottlenecks, pitfalls and opportunities in transferring climate change science to policy and decision maker oriented climate services.

  1. Energetics of Glucose Metabolism: A Phenomenological Approach to Metabolic Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Diederichs, Frank

    2010-01-01

    A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca2+] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O2 consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output. PMID:21152283

  2. To Learn More about Learning: The Value-Added Role of Qualitative Approaches to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    As we face increasing accountability in higher education, how we measure student learning should exceed the calls for an account of learning that places students at the center. Qualitative approaches to assessment and theoretical underpinnings gleaned from the qualitative research tradition may provide a way that we can support a more holistic…

  3. Qualitative Research on College Students: Philosophical and Methodological Comparisons with the Quantitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes and contrasts philosophical and methodological assumptions, goals, and data collection methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research on college student behavior. Provides brief illustrations of two qualitative studies of college students using interview methods, ethnomethodology, and conversation analysis. (Author/NB)

  4. A Qualitative Approach to Upward Evaluation of Leadership Performance: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrentine, Cathryn G.; Lener, Edward F.; Young, Michelle L.; Kok, Victoria T.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative upward evaluation of the leadership performance of library managers. Follow-up studies were conducted, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative approach to upward appraisal. The authors discuss pros and cons to guide others who might use this methodology for upward appraisals in the…

  5. Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

  6. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  7. Greek intensive and emergency care nurses' perception of their public image: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Nicolaou, Christiana; Koutroubas, Anna; Lemonidou, Chrysoula

    2011-01-01

    The public image of the nurse constitutes an important factor for recruitment into the profession, retention, and also for work satisfaction. The aim of this qualitative study was to disclose the way nurses internalize their professional public image and professional worth, as well as nurses' feelings about that image. Findings showed that although nurses have made a tremendous effort to improve the public image of their profession, negative nursing stereotypes still persist. Therefore, nurses have to actively participate in policy making and enhance their educational and cultural profile through the media. PMID:21307691

  8. Massive neutrinos, Lorentz invariance dominated standard model and the phenomenological approach to neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šoln, Josip

    2009-08-01

    For the electroweak interactions, the massive neutrino perturbative kinematical procedure is developed in the massive neutrino Fock space. The perturbation expansion parameter is the ratio of neutrino mass to its energy. This procedure, within the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS)-modified electroweak Lagrangian, calculates the cross-sections with the new neutrino energy projection operators in the massive neutrino Fock space, resulting in the dominant Lorentz invariant standard model massless flavor neutrino cross-sections. As a consequence of the kinematical relations between the massive and massless neutrinos, some of the neutrino oscillation cross-sections are Lorentz invariance violating. But all these oscillating cross-sections, some of which violate the flavor conservation, being proportional to the squares of neutrino masses are practically unobservable in the laboratory. However, these neutrino oscillating cross-sections are consistent with the original Pontecorvo neutrino oscillating transition probability expression at short time (baseline), as presented by Dvornikov. From these comparisons, by mimicking the time dependence of the original Pontecorvo neutrino oscillating transition probability, one can formulate the dimensionless neutrino intensity-probability I, by phenomenologically extrapolating the time t, or, equivalently the baseline distance L away from the collision point for the oscillating differential cross-section. For the incoming neutrino of 10 MeV in energy and neutrino masses from Fritzsch analysis with the neutrino mixing matrix of Harrison, Perkins and Scott, the baseline distances at the first two maxima of the neutrino intensity are Lsime281 and 9279 km. The intensity I at the first maximum conserves the flavor, while at the second maximum, the intensities violate the flavor, respectively, in the final and initial state. At the end some details are given as to how one should be able to verify experimentally these neutrino

  9. Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

  10. Exploring why girls smoke in Malaysia--a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Binns, Colin W

    2008-10-01

    The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media. PMID:19533855

  11. [Self-medication: a qualitative approach of its motivations].

    PubMed

    Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de; Carvalho, Christine Maria Soares de; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar

    2010-06-01

    A qualitative research was realized to verify the occurrence and motivations for self-medication and the quality of the information rendered by pharmacies. We conducted 3 focus groups with 25 patients of a reference public health service for STD treatment in Brasília, Brazil. We used the critical discourse analysis to interpret the data obtained during interviews. The analysis revealed that self-medication was a common practice among participants, motivated mainly by discontentment with the long waiting period and the quality of the public health services. Other motivations included: previous experience with medications, advice from friends and family members and the search for an anonymous service provided at pharmacies due to embarrassment and inadequate care environment at health care services. Care provided at pharmacies was also considered unsatisfactory. Viewed essentially as a commercial establishment, pharmacies have become, yet, an easy accessible alternative. Most of participants perceived the pharmacists as ordinary employees seeking only to increase profits. The results suggest a need to improve access to health care services, as well as to render it more humane. Community pharmacies should to be turned into health establishments to participate in health education and orientation for rational drugs use. PMID:20640337

  12. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  13. Cultural identity and internationally adopted children: qualitative approach to parental representations.

    PubMed

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  14. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  15. GPs’ approaches to documenting stigmatising information: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Almas; Welch, Lisa C

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete medical documentation is essential for continuity of care, but the competing need to protect patient confidentiality presents an ethical dilemma. This is particularly poignant for GPs because of their central role in facilitating continuity. Aim To examine how GPs manage medical documentation of stigmatising mental health (MH) and non-MH information. Design and setting A qualitative sub-study of a factorial experiment with GPs practising in Massachusetts, US. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 128) were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Results GPs expressed difficulties with and inconsistent strategies for documenting stigmatising information. Without being asked directly about stigmatising information, 44 GPs (34%) expressed difficulties documenting it: whether to include clinically relevant but sensitive information, how to word it, and explaining to patients the importance of including it. Additionally, 75 GPs (59%) discussed strategies for managing documentation of stigmatising information. GPs reported four strategies that varied by type of information: to exclude stigmatising information to respect patient confidentiality (MH: 26%, non-MH: 43%); to include but restrict access to information (MH: 13%, non-MH: 25%); to include but neutralise information to minimise potential stigma (MH: 26%, non-MH: 29%); and to include stigmatising information given the potential impact on care (MH: 68%, non-MH: 32%). Conclusion Lack of consistency undermines the potential of medical documentation to efficiently facilitate continuous, coordinated health care because providers cannot be certain how to interpret what is or is not in the chart. A proactive consensus process within the field of primary care would provide much needed guidance for GPs and, ultimately, could enhance quality of care. PMID:26009532

  16. Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

  17. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  18. TMD Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmino, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    The transverse momentum dependent partonic distributions and fragmentation functions should reveal new properties of the three-dimensional structure of nucleons and of the quark hadronization process. Many experimental data are now available and much progress has been made in their phenomenological interpretation. A short summary of the situation is presented.

  19. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent–professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals’ knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and “obligated” partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers’ lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families. PMID:26202906

  20. Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

  1. Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…

  2. Phenomenological study of the Bc→BP, BV decays with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Chang, Qin; Lu, Gongru

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by the recent LHCb measurements and forthcoming great potential on Bc meson, we study the exclusive Bc→BqP, BqV decays with the perturbative QCD approach, where q =u, d, s and P and V denote the lightest pseudoscalar and vector SU(3) nonet meson, respectively. By retaining the quark transverse momentum, employing the Sudakov factors, and choosing the typical scale as the maximum virtualities of the internal particles, we calculate the Bc→B transition from factors, and our results show that about 90% of the contribution to form factors comes from the αs/π <0.3 region. The contributions of penguin and annihilation to branching ratios are very small due to the serious suppression by the CKM factors. There are some hierarchy relations among the Bc→BP, BV decays. The branching ratios for Bc→Bd ,sπ, Bd ,sρ, BsK are large and could be measured by the running LHCb.

  3. Meaning of well-being among Iranian women: A phenomenological descriptive approach

    PubMed Central

    Dalvandi, Asghar; Rohani, Camelia; Mosallanejad, Zahra; Hesamzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Well-being is a subjective concept and means different things to various people. Most of the research investigating the experience has concentrated on its problematic and pathological aspects. The aim of this research was to enhance the understanding of the contextual meaning of well-being based on personal life experiences of the participants. This will be of help to experts in the field of health for monitoring, diagnosis, nursing, treatment, and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by utilizing the Husserlian approach which involves direct exploration analysis and the description of a particular phenomenon. Data were collected by conducting unstructured, in-depth interviews of 20 Iranian young and middle-aged women. Analysis was conducted using the Colaizzi's methodology. Results: The general meaning of the phenomenon, well-being, is understood as having the feeling of peace in life by the participants in this study. Well-being was identified by six major themes, including enjoying and being satisfied with life, the feeling of belonging together (or relating to others), the feeling of being healthy, the feeling of a relationship with God, to be able to afford what one needs to buy, and life as a whole (interconnection between different aspects of a person's life). Conclusions: Well-being as a feeling of peace in life can originate from both hedonic and eudemonic perspectives. A person's state of satisfaction in different aspects of her life can lead to the experience of well-being. All these aspects should be taken into account when health practitioners plan to promote the state of well-being among people. PMID:25709686

  4. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in the study of poverty and adolescent development: separation or integration?

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. Quantitative research has the merits of objectivity, good predictive and explanatory power, parsimony, precision and sophistication of analysis. Qualitative research, in contrast, provides a detailed, holistic, in-depth understanding of social reality and allows illumination of new insights. With the pragmatic considerations of methodological appropriateness, design flexibility, and situational responsiveness in responding to the research inquiry, a mixed methods approach could be a possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches and offers an alternative strategy to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. PMID:21870673

  5. A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

  6. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  7. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  8. Generational Differences and Participant Experiences in Leadership Development: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedies, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examines generational cohort perceptions as they apply to civilian leadership training within the DOD. Zenger, Ulrich and Smallwood (2000) describe that a new approach for developing future leaders is necessary. Identifying whether generational perceptions of ELDP members positively or negatively impact DOD…

  9. A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

  10. Phenomenological Characteristics of College Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters Zelbovitz, Karyn T.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to explore why students leave college before graduation and draws upon their phenomenological insights, educational experiences, and readmission reflections. This study used a convergent parallel design that matched the qualitative content from interviews and quantitative responses to questionnaires to…

  11. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  12. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  14. Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitanova, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

  15. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  16. A Quantitative vs. a Qualitative Approach to the Teaching of English Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azabdaftari, Behrooz

    1981-01-01

    Briefly describes hypotheses that teachers teaching learners to write a composition in a second language should be concerned with quality or quantity. Concludes attention to quality cannot but be rewarding, all students can benefit from qualitative approach, and a positive attitude toward language activity is a major factor contributing to…

  17. Criteria of Career Success among Chinese Employees: Developing a Multidimensional Scale with Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenxia; Sun, Jianmin; Guan, Yanjun; Li, Yuhui; Pan, Jingzhou

    2013-01-01

    The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure on the criteria of career success in a Chinese context. Items on the criteria of career success were obtained using a qualitative approach among 30 Chinese employees; exploratory factor analysis was conducted to select items and determine the factor structure among a new sample of…

  18. An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

  19. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical

  20. A Phenomenological, Evaluative Approach to Developing Ecology Virtual Field Trips for Undergraduate, Non-Major College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, James A., II

    2011-12-01

    Field trips are an important source of support for the ecology curriculum. Virtual field trips (VFTs) may provide a similar experience, but limited research existed on the specific format of a VFT that would support its use to replace the actual ecology field trip (PFT). In attempting to delineate potential design considerations for the VFT, this study employed a phenomenological approach to elicit participant input on design considerations for the ecology VFT. The study focused on narration, text, still and video images, and instructor participation in the VFT. Undergraduate, non-major biology students comprised the study population. Two surveys instruments were used to gather information on VFT design from participants: an initial attitudinal survey and an expanded survey. The initial participant group of 30 individuals viewed ecology VFTs designed for the study and completed the initial survey, after which a focus group was formed to complete the expanded survey. Using information contained in the surveys, 18 unique themes were then developed from the perspectives and narratives provided by participants. Initial themes that emerged during analysis suggested that the VFT be instructor designed and that the instructor should actively participate in the VFT media. It was found that having the instructor participate in the VFT, both in the design and in the media presentation itself, was considered essential by the students. Participant developed themes suggested emphasizing the perceived strengths of the individual media components by combining media components to increases the effectiveness of the VFT and remediate individual component weaknesses. Each individual component was seen to provide a specific cognitive function within the VFT and all were seen as necessary to include in the VFT. However, the studied components increased the effectiveness of the VFT only if used with reference to those specific design considerations suggested by participant input. The

  1. Qualitative Approach to Attempted Suicide by Adolescents and Young Adults: The (Neglected) Role of Revenge

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Paduanello, Matteo; Lachal, Jonathan; Falissard, Bruno; Sibeoni, Jordan; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide by adolescents and young adults is a major public health concern, and repetition of self-harm is an important risk factor for future suicide attempts. Objective Our purpose is to explore the perspective of adolescents directly involved in suicidal acts. Methods Qualitative study involving 16 purposively selected adolescents (sex ratio1∶1) from 3 different centers. Half had been involved in repeated suicidal acts, and the other half only one. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results We found five main themes, organized in two superordinate themes. The first theme (individual dimensions of the suicide attempt) describes the issues and explanations that the adolescents saw as related to themselves; it includes the subthemes: (1) negative emotions toward the self and individual impasse, and (2) the need for some control over their lives. The second main theme (relational dimensions of attempted suicide) describes issues that adolescents mentioned that were related to others and includes three subthemes: (3) perceived impasse in interpersonal relationships, (4) communication, and (5) revenge. Conclusions Adolescents involved in suicidal behavior are stuck in both an individual and a relational impasse from which there is no exit and no apparent way to reach the other. Revenge can bridge this gap and thus transforms personal distress into a relational matter. This powerful emotion has been neglected by both clinicians and researchers. PMID:24802777

  2. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. PMID:23932101

  4. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  5. Phenomenological nursing research: methodological insights derived from Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers' adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the choice of research methodology can be argued for, and is judged to be coherent with, both the philosophical tone of the research and the nature of the research question. In this article the concepts underpinning Heidegger's interpretive phenomenological philosophy are examined and discussed in terms of the methodological insights they provide for the conduct of nursing phenomenological research. PMID:15680616

  6. Phenomenological models.

    PubMed

    Braby, L A

    1991-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. PMID:1811477

  7. Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions. PMID:22953194

  8. Qualitative Research Applications in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A.; Parker, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. Background: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. Description: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. Applications: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540

  9. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  10. Philosophical foundations of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Boyd, C O

    1993-08-01

    Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable conflict between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It is important to recognize this conflict, avoiding illogical compromise. Yet, proponents of each paradigm need to applaud both the existence of the other and the hybrid paradigms that inevitably are born of conflict. An apt beginning would be broader definitions of what constitutes science and research in nursing, eliminating the sense-organ bias that is so contrary to our philosophy for practice. This alone would provide qualitative nurse researchers with the sanction they need to progress in their exploration of various approaches to creating a science and a body of knowledge in, for, and about nursing practice. In the chapters to follow, readers will be introduced to several qualitative research approaches. Each approach represents an interpretation of the qualitative paradigm in nursing research, grounded in the general perspective of phenomenological philosophy. This perspective focuses on phenomena as they appear and recognizes that reality is subjective and a matter of appearances for us in our social world. Subjectivity means that the world becomes real through our contact with it and acquires meaning through our interpretations of that contact. Truth, then, is a composite of realities, and access to truth is a problem of access to human subjectivity. This perspective guides the qualitative researcher in nursing to the subject matter of lived experiences, which are the original contacts with a world, and of the processes and content of interpretation--the meaning attributions that constitute realities and perspectives for a future of possibilities in the world. Other consequences of a phenomenological

  11. Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive phenomenological approach. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive phenomenological approach. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497

  12. Capturing the experiences of patients across multiple complex interventions: a meta-qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Fiona; Christian, Jennifer; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Hawker, Gillian; Levinson, Wendy; Naglie, Gary; Pham, Thuy-Nga; Rose, Louise; Schull, Michael; Sinha, Samir; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Upshur, Ross; Wilson, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The perspectives, needs and preferences of individuals with complex health and social needs can be overlooked in the design of healthcare interventions. This study was designed to provide new insights on patient perspectives drawing from the qualitative evaluation of 5 complex healthcare interventions. Setting Patients and their caregivers were recruited from 5 interventions based in primary, hospital and community care in Ontario, Canada. Participants We included 62 interviews from 44 patients and 18 non-clinical caregivers. Intervention Our team analysed the transcripts from 5 distinct projects. This approach to qualitative meta-evaluation identifies common issues described by a diverse group of patients, therefore providing potential insights into systems issues. Outcome measures This study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data; therefore, no outcome measures were identified. Results We identified 5 broad themes that capture the patients’ experience and highlight issues that might not be adequately addressed in complex interventions. In our study, we found that: (1) the emergency department is the unavoidable point of care; (2) patients and caregivers are part of complex and variable family systems; (3) non-medical issues mediate patients’ experiences of health and healthcare delivery; (4) the unanticipated consequences of complex healthcare interventions are often the most valuable; and (5) patient experiences are shaped by the healthcare discourses on medically complex patients. Conclusions Our findings suggest that key assumptions about patients that inform intervention design need to be made explicit in order to build capacity to better understand and support patients with multiple chronic diseases. Across many health systems internationally, multiple models are being implemented simultaneously that may have shared features and target similar patients, and a qualitative meta-evaluation approach, thus offers an opportunity for cumulative

  13. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    PubMed

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. PMID:26196088

  14. A Mother’s Heart is Weighed Down with Stones: A Phenomenological Approach to the Experience of Transnational Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere “gender false consciousness.” This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers’ undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family. PMID:19101786

  15. Playing the power game for qualitative researchers: the possibility of a post-modern approach.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, C; Beech, I

    1998-04-01

    The later work of Wittgenstein (1953) takes language and meaning as arising in use. A local 'grammar' is created. Ethical/research awarding committees have developed, and clashing, meanings about what constitutes 'good' research. The fixed rule language game of the committee is implicitly powerful because it is part of well-rehearsed societal narratives which equate science and knowledge. This creates a force on the qualitative researcher to conform to the authoritative grammar which it is difficult to counter. In these circumstances, qualitative researchers may choose to inhabit two, parallel research universes by 'storying' their research proposal according to the audience. But a question arises as to whether ethical approval has been gained when a 'Trojan horse' approach is used. Moving between worlds involves the researcher living with a dual identity. The postmodernist movement away from structure, form and singular truth is seen as setting a context for a new archaeology of knowledge which transcends good/bad dichotomies in relation to research. The qualitative researcher is encouraged to enter into dialogical communication with committees with the hope that a shared grammar may emerge. PMID:9578210

  16. Two approaches to improving mental health care: positivist/quantitative versus skill-based/qualitative.

    PubMed

    Luchins, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The quality improvement model currently used in medicine and mental health was adopted from industry, where it developed out of early 20th-century efforts to apply a positivist/quantitative agenda to improving manufacturing. This article questions the application of this model to mental health care. It argues that (1) developing "operational definitions" for something as value-laden as "quality" risks conflating two realms, what we measure with what we value; (2) when measurements that are tied to individuals are aggregated to establish benchmarks and goals, unwarranted mathematical assumptions are made; (3) choosing clinical outcomes is problematic; (4) there is little relationship between process measures and clinical outcomes; and (5) since changes in quality indices do not relate to improved clinical care, management's reliance on such indices provides an illusory sense of control. An alternative model is the older, skill-based/qualitative approach to knowing, which relies on "implicit/ expert" knowledge. These two approaches offer a series of contrasts: quality versus excellence, competence versus expertise, management versus leadership, extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards. The article concludes that we need not totally dispense with the current quality improvement model, but rather should balance quantitative efforts with the older qualitative approach in a mixed methods model. PMID:23179033

  17. A guide to phenomenological research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthea

    2015-04-22

    Phenomenological research is a method with strong philosophical origins, which can sometimes be challenging for novice investigators. However, developing an appreciation of these philosophical origins can enhance and strengthen the research design. A fundamental challenge is to understand the range of philosophical and empirical approaches to situate one's own research. Such phenomenological approaches are often characterised and differentiated by the degree to which it is accepted that an investigator can achieve objective descriptions of, or interpret, lived experience. This article explains these issues, relating the philosophy to the research practicalities. PMID:25902251

  18. Qualitative Investigations into Schools and Schooling. Volume 11, Readings on Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Qualitative approaches in educational research are challenging traditional postivistic, psychometric paradigms by emphasizing: (1) close contact over detachment; (2) multiple techniques in obtaining data; (3) bottom-up inductive frameworks; and (4) phenomenological approaches. Section 1, "Ethnographic Investigations into High Schools," includes…

  19. [The mother figure of children with malformations. A phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M C

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this research refers to children suffering congenital malformation through an analysis of their mothers' reactions in dealing with such a situation. It deals with a descriptive study along the qualitative line through the phenomenological approach. In order to attain that purpose, interviews were made and data collected. The analysis was built under the view of meaning, the orientation of those mothers, i.e. the outlook of the world from their perspective, which was tracked from the meanings (units of meaning) to actual sense based on the philosophical insight of Dr. Martin Heidegger, aiming at characterizing the mother-being in her daily life. PMID:9775933

  20. Qualitative evaluation: A critical and interpretative complementary approach to improve health programs and services

    PubMed Central

    Tayabas, Luz María Tejada; León, Teresita Castillo; ESPINO, JOEL MONARREZ

    2014-01-01

    This short essay aims at commenting on the origin, development, rationale, and main characteristics of qualitative evaluation (QE), emphasizing the value of this methodological tool to evaluate health programs and services. During the past decades, different approaches have come to light proposing complementary alternatives to appraise the performance of public health programs, mainly focusing on the implementation process involved rather than on measuring the impact of such actions. QE is an alternative tool that can be used to illustrate and understand the process faced when executing health programs. It can also lead to useful suggestions to modify its implementation from the stakeholders’ perspectives, as it uses a qualitative approach that considers participants as reflective subjects, generators of meanings. This implies that beneficiaries become involved in an active manner in the evaluated phenomena with the aim of improving the health programs or services that they receive. With this work we want to encourage evaluators in the field of public health to consider the use of QE as a complementary tool for program evaluation to be able to identify areas of opportunity to improve programs’ implementation processes from the perspective of intended beneficiaries. PMID:25152220

  1. Diagnosing headache in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs’ approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bösner, Stefan; Hartel, Simone; Diederich, Judith; Baum, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache is one of the most common symptoms in primary care. Most headaches are due to primary headaches and many headache sufferers do not receive a specific diagnosis. There is still a gap in research on how GPs diagnose and treat patients with headache. Aim To identify GPs’ diagnostic approaches in patients presenting with headache. Design and setting Qualitative study with 15 GPs in urban and rural practices. Method Interviews (20–40 minutes) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guideline. GPs described their individual diagnostic strategies by means of patients presenting with headache that they had prospectively identified during the previous 4 weeks. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two independent raters. Results Regarding GPs’ general diagnostic approach to patients with headache, four broad themes emerged during the interviews: ‘knowing the patient and their background’, ‘first impression during consultation’, ‘intuition and personal experience’ and ‘application of the test of time’. Four further themes were identified regarding the management of diagnostic uncertainty: ‘identification of red flags’, ‘use of the familiarity heuristic’, ‘therapeutic trial’, and ‘triggers for patient referral’. Conclusion GPs apply different strategies in the early diagnostic phase when managing patients with headache. Identification of potential adverse outcomes accompanied by other strategies for handling uncertainty seem to be more important than an exact diagnosis. Established guidelines do not play a role in the diagnostic workup. PMID:25179066

  2. Psychological and psychotherapeutic approaches for people with motor neuron disease: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rabbitte, Mary; Bates, Ursula; Keane, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review current psychological and psychotherapeutic approaches for people with MND used by therapists in Ireland and to gain an insight into approaches used elsewhere. We used a qualitative study collecting data from eight therapists in Ireland and two therapists in the UK and Italy using semi-structured interviews and analysed the results using principles of grounded theory. Therapists' approaches included supporting the person in the 'here and now' by providing a 'fine focus' on what they can still do, re-affirming the person in their ability to have an active role in their life and supporting the person in exploring their emotions. The desired outcome was to provide the person with space to talk, express feelings and be able to self-direct. In conclusion, there is no consensus about a specific approach, due to the complexity of the disease and the variety of presentations. Different approaches may be required during disease progression. The findings indicate that therapists would benefit from having experience of MND, the limitations in mobility, communication and cognitive processing. PMID:25734219

  3. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  4. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to

  5. Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265

  6. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  7. Psychology and phenomenology: a clarification.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic psychology and philosophical phenomenology both employ a human science approach to psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of a person's subjective existence. Maslow's and Heidegger's formulations are both fulfillment theories in that they specify moral values that suggest how life ought to be lived. Natural science methodology rejects the possibility that moral imperatives can be validated, whereas human science methodology allows phenomenological convictions to justify recommendations about a fulfilled life and a good society. The social role of psychology is analyzed within the framework of phenomenological convictions and scientific truth. PMID:15943524

  8. [Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos S; Oliveira, Patrícia C P

    2002-01-01

    This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level) of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs. PMID:12244350

  9. The teaching-learning approach and critical thinking development: a qualitative exploration of Taiwanese nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chih; Han, Chin-Yen; Pan, I-Ju; Chen, Li-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. This study uses a qualitative approach to explore how teaching strategy affects the development of critical thinking (CT) among Taiwanese baccalaureate-level nursing students. Data collected from 109 students' reflection reports were analyzed using content analysis. Three categories generated by the analysis were the teaching-learning strategy, enhancing CT, and transiting into a different learning style. The teaching-learning strategy consisted of concept mapping, question and answer, and real-life case studies. CT was enhanced alternately by self-directed learning, the realization of the gap between known and unknown, and connecting the gap between theoretical nursing knowledge and clinical practice. The study results emphasize participants' perceptions of becoming a critical thinker, turning into an active learner, and eventually achieving self-confidence. These learning effects invest the wisdom of teaching-learning with a far-reaching significance. PMID:25839955

  10. Phenomenology as a paradigm of movement.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Wainwright, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Phenomenology is a well-founded qualitative methodology that is frequently used by nurse researchers and considered of value when addressing research questions in nursing practice and nurse education. However, at present, nurse researchers using phenomenology tend to divide phenomenological methodology into the descriptive and interpretive formats. The nursing literature suggests that there is a deep divide between researchers following the methodological underpinnings and basic precepts pertaining to these two camps. If we are to reach a clearer understanding of the theory underlying phenomenological methods it would be more helpful if we started to recognise that there are also important associations between transcendental and interpretive phenomenology. One such association is that a paradigm of movement exists that is not unique to transcendental and interpretive phenomenology but is common to them, as well as being inherent within a variety of fields of study. If we consider the universality of such imagery, looking to examples through parallel texts, we can obtain insights into phenomenology and its transposition into a workable scientific method that can be of use to the nurse researcher. PMID:16918790

  11. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594925

  12. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduku, Enita Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…

  14. Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological reference of…

  15. When expressions make impressions—Nurses’ narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding

    PubMed Central

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses’ lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs’ lived experience of patients’ expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: “Sensing vulnerability” and “Empathizing with.” The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, “Feeling exceptional” and “Being trusted.” The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, “Being disappointed” and “Being angry.” The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: “Being generous or reserved.” Patients’ expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role. PMID:24138930

  16. Evaluating the Process of Online Health Information Searching: A Qualitative Approach to Exploring Consumer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiksdal, Alexander S; Kumbamu, Ashok; Jadhav, Ashutosh S; Cocos, Cristian; Nelsen, Laurie A; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is a common resource that patients and consumers use to access health-related information. Multiple practical, cultural, and socioeconomic factors influence why, when, and how people utilize this tool. Improving the delivery of health-related information necessitates a thorough understanding of users’ searching-related needs, preferences, and experiences. Although a wide body of quantitative research examining search behavior exists, qualitative approaches have been under-utilized and provide unique perspectives that may prove useful in improving the delivery of health information over the Internet. Objective We conducted this study to gain a deeper understanding of online health-searching behavior in order to inform future developments of personalizing information searching and content delivery. Methods We completed three focus groups with adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, which explored perceptions of online health information searching. Participants were recruited through flyers and classifieds advertisements posted throughout the community. We audio-recorded and transcribed all focus groups, and analyzed data using standard qualitative methods. Results Almost all participants reported using the Internet to gather health information. They described a common experience of searching, filtering, and comparing results in order to obtain information relevant to their intended search target. Information saturation and fatigue were cited as main reasons for terminating searching. This information was often used as a resource to enhance their interactions with health care providers. Conclusions Many participants viewed the Internet as a valuable tool for finding health information in order to support their existing health care resources. Although the Internet is a preferred source of health information, challenges persist in streamlining the search process. Content providers should continue to develop new strategies and technologies

  17. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature (T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours (t sun), and wind speed (U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  18. A Qualitative Study of Parenting Stress, Coping, and Discipline Approaches among Low-Income Traumatized Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kistin, Caroline J; Radesky, Jenny; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Tompson, Martha C; O’Connor, Erin; Silverstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of harsh discipline is a risk factor for child maltreatment and is more common among families in which mothers have previously experienced trauma. We sought to understand the stressors experienced by low-income traumatized mothers and the perceived impact of those stressors on their discipline approaches. Methods We conducted 30 in-depth qualitative interviews with low-income mothers with a history of trauma. We triangulated the results with experts in behavioral health, and with a subset of the informants themselves, to ensure data reliability. Results We identified the following themes: 1. Repetitive child behaviors are the most stressful. 2. Mothers commonly cope by taking time away; this can result in prolonged unsupervised periods for children. 3. Harsh discipline is used deliberately to prevent future behavior problems. 4. Mothers relate their children’s negative behaviors to their own past experiences; in particular, those who have suffered domestic violence fear that their children will be violent adults. Conclusions Our findings suggest that trauma-informed interventions to promote positive discipline and prevent child maltreatment should help mothers predict and plan for stressful parent-child interactions; identify supports that will allow them to cope with stress without leaving their children for prolonged periods; and explicitly address long-term goals for their children and the impact of different discipline approaches. PMID:24633062

  19. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity. PMID:23035337

  20. A qualitative assessment of a community pharmacy cognitive pharmaceutical services program, using a work system approach

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.; Mott, David A.; Maxwell, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background Although lack of time, trained personnel, and reimbursement have been identified as barriers to pharmacists providing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) in community pharmacies, the underlying contributing factors of these barriers have not been explored. One approach to better understand barriers and facilitators to providing CPS is to use a work system approach to examine different components of a work system and how the components may impact care processes. Objectives The goals of this study were to identify and describe pharmacy work system characteristics that pharmacists identified and changed to provide CPS in a demonstration program. Methods A qualitative approach was used for data collection. A purposive sample of 8 pharmacists at 6 community pharmacies participating in a demonstration program was selected to be interviewed. Each semistructured interview was audio recorded and transcribed, and the text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner by 3 analysts. Themes were identified in the text and aligned with 1 of 5 components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system model (organization, tasks, tools/technology, people, and environment). Results A total of 21 themes were identified from the interviews, and 7 themes were identified across all 6 interviews. The organization component of the SEIPS model contained the most (n = 10) themes. Numerous factors within a pharmacy work system appear important to enable pharmacists to provide CPS. Leadership and foresight by the organization to implement processes (communication, coordination, planning, etc.) to facilitate providing CPS was a key finding across the interviews. Expanding technician responsibilities was reported to be essential for successfully implementing CPS. Conclusions To be successful in providing CPS, pharmacists must be cognizant of the different components of the pharmacy work system and how these components influence providing CPS

  1. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband’s violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women’s reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Results: Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. Conclusion: In the present study, ways of coping with a husband’s violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman’s capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account. PMID:26925908

  2. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment. PMID:26152227

  3. Risk Perception of Nonspecific Low Back Pain among Nurses: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Sedigheh; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Enjezab, Behnaz; Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background:Low back pain (LBP) is a common medical problem among nurses. A better understanding of nurses’ experiences about LBP may help to develop preventative approaches. The study aimed to explore risk perceptions of nonspecific LBP among nurses in Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran. Methods: This qualitative study conducted as directed content analysis in 2013. Private semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 30 nurses with minimum of 1-year working experience in hospital. The interview questions were based on perceived severity and vulnerability structures of Protection Motivation Theory. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Perceived Severity had the following sub-themes: developing disorders in one’s own life and profession, psychical and mental consequences, conflicts and problems in family life, and financial problems. Two sub-themes (problems and limitations in hospital’s working system, nature of nursing profession) were identified in relation to perceived vulnerability. Conclusion: Nurses reflected their concerns about the impact of LBP on their job security and their considerations about how their back pain might be interpreted by their employers and co-workers. Importance of transparent medical diagnostic procedure and clinical evidence to justify degree of LBP and its burden on the nurses’ performance was also addressed. PMID:25648952

  4. Perception and awareness of patients regarding ovarian cysts in Peshawar, Pakistan: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Almas, Iffat; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Azhar, Saira; Ismail, Mohammad; Hussain, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Women health is one of the key issues in developing countries including Pakistan. To improve the women's quality of life, awareness about health is necessary. The objective of this study is to evaluate the patient's perception regarding ovarian cyst and the awareness of the patients about the symptoms and health management in ovarian cyst. Material and methods A qualitative approach was used to conduct this study. An interview guide was prepared for the data collection. The interview guide had 29 questions which were asked from the patients. The duration of each interview was about 15–20 minutes and conducted in native language (Urdu) which was then translated to English language for the purpose of documentation. Snowball technique was adopted and the sample size was estimated from the point of saturation. Results All the interviews were conducted in the Gynecology ward of Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, Pakistan. Results were thematically analyzed. Thematic content analysis yielded 5 major themes: 1) Irregular menstrual cycle, 2) nausea and vomiting, 3) difficulty in emptying urinary bladder completely, 4) emergency due to severe pain, and 5) Physical works. Conclusions There is a need of time that patients should be counseled at the time of discharge of the patient from the hospital. This is the right of the patient that they know about their disease and benefits of the successful treatment outcomes. Compliance can only be achieved through the counseling of the patients, resulting good quality of life and less economic burden over the patients. PMID:26843848

  5. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  6. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  7. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

  8. Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru. PMID:22269578

  9. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help

  10. Qualitative mathematical modelling of coupled coast and estuary morphodynamics: a modified Boolean network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in coastal geomorphology is the prediction of morphological change at a meso-scale (10 to 100 km; 10 to 100 yr). This scale sits awkwardly between understanding of geomorphological processes at the micro-scale, and broader aspects of coastal evolution informed by the Holocene stratigraphic record. In this paper, we explore the potential of a new kind of qualitative mathematical model implemented at a system level. Qualitative models derive predictions from the structure of the system rather from the detailed physics of the underlying processes. Although systems thinking is well established in geomorphology methodologies for converting system diagrams into simulation tools have not been widely investigated. In a recent Defra-funded project in the UK, a Boolean network approach was piloted and applied to the simulation of generic aspects of estuary response to environmental and anthropogenic forcing. We build on this to present a generic approach to the construction of system diagrams for estuaries and adjacent open coasts and their conversion into a network graph. In a Boolean model, each node of this graph is assigned a binary value, the state of which is determined by a logical function that specifies the combined influence of other nodes to which it is connected. System evolution is simulated by specifying a set of initial conditions and repeatedly evaluating the logical functions until an equilibrium condition is reached (either a steady state or a cyclical sequence between two end states). In our enhanced Boolean scheme, changes in morphology are allowed to feed back into intrinsic process variables (e.g. estuary waves or tidal prism), although some processes are externally imposed (e.g. sea-level rise). Arbitrary time lags condition the response of morphology to a change in process, such that some landforms adjust more rapidly than others. We also present a simulator architecture based around a solver and externally specified model components

  11. A Qualitative Study of Oncologists' Approaches to End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer; Matsuyama, Robin; Lakoma, Mathew D.; Sullivan, Amy M.; Arnold, Robert M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Block, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To understand how oncologists provide care at the end of life, the emotions they experience in the provision of this care, and how caring for dying patients may impact job satisfaction and burnout. Participants and methods A face-to-face survey and in-depth semistructured interview of 18 academic oncologists who were asked to describe the most recent inpatient death on the medical oncology service. Physicians were asked to describe the details of the patient death, their involvement with the care of the patient, the types and sequence of their emotional reactions, and their methods of coping. Grounded theory qualitative methods were utilized in the analysis of the transcripts. Results Physicians, who viewed their physician role as encompassing both biomedical and psychosocial aspects of care, reported a clear method of communication about end-of-life (EOL) care, and an ability to positively influence patient and family coping with and acceptance of the dying process. These physicians described communication as a process, made recommendations to the patient using an individualized approach, and viewed the provision of effective EOL care as very satisfying. In contrast, participants who described primarily a biomedical role reported a more distant relationship with the patient, a sense of failure at not being able to alter the course of the disease, and an absence of collegial support. In their descriptions of communication encounters with patients and families, these physicians did not seem to feel they could impact patients' coping with and acceptance of death and made few recommendations about EOL treatment options. Conclusion Physicians' who viewed EOL care as an important role described communicating with dying patients as a process and reported increased job satisfaction. Further research is necessary to determine if educational interventions to improve physician EOL communication skills could improve physician job satisfaction and decrease

  12. Acceptance of chronic neuropathic pain in spinal cord injured persons: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Penelope; Ellis, Jacqueline; Logan, Jo; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; D'Eon, Joyce

    2012-12-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) in spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant problem that has physical, functional, and psychosocial repercussions beyond the consequences of SCI. The notion that acceptance may be a viable alternative to suffering when resolution of pain is unattainable was explored. Studies indicate that acceptance of pain is associated with lower pain intensity, less pain-related anxiety and avoidance, less depression, less physical and psychosocial disability, more daily active time, and improved work status in patients who have other types of chronic pain. This exploratory qualitative study examined acceptance of pain in SCI individuals who have CNP. Grounded theory was used to develop a conceptual framework to describe acceptance in people with CNP and SCI. Data were obtained from in-depth interviews with seven SCI individuals. Six phases were identified, including: "comprehending the perplexity of CNP," "seeking pain resolution," "acknowledging pain permanence," "redefining core values," "learning to live with the pain," and "integrating pain." Two driving forces, "increasing independence" and "evolving pain view," were noted to move the process of acceptance forward. The findings in this study suggest that acceptance of pain appeared to be beneficial in terms of reducing suffering and facilitating a more satisfying and fulfilling life in these SCI individuals. A decreased emphasis on continued searching for a cure for CNP and movement toward a self-management approach was associated with increased pain coping for these SCI individuals. Clinical implications suggest that early intervention to facilitate effective coping and an exploration of the notion of acceptance could be beneficial. PMID:23158703

  13. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate

  14. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  15. A Qualitative Study of Fitness Instructors' Experiences Leading an Exercise Program for Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzal, Carolyn E.; Wright, F. Virginia; Stephens, Samantha; Schneiderman-Walker, Jane; Feldman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Children with arthritis face challenges when they try to increase their physical activity. The study's objective was to identify elements of a successful community-based exercise program for children with arthritis by investigating the perspectives of fitness instructors who led the program. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach.…

  16. [A genetic algorithm approach to qualitative analysis in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Liu, Ke-ling; Li, Zhi-min; Wang, Yue-song; Huang, Tu-jiang

    2002-06-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) is used in automatic qualitative analysis by a sequential inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICP-AES) and a computer program is developed in this paper. No any standard samples are needed, and spectroscopic interferences can be eliminated. All elements and their concentration ranges of an unknown sample can be reported. The replication rate Pr, crossover rate Pc, and mutation rate of the genetic algorithm were adjusted to be 0.6, 0.4 and 0 respectively. The analytical results of GA are in good agreement with the reference values. It indicates that, combined with the intensity information, the GA can be applied to spectroscopic qualitative analysis and expected to become an effective method in qualitative analysis in ICP-AES after further work. PMID:12938334

  17. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.

  18. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  19. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Audience's Perceptions of Creativity in Online Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I seek to inquire upon audience's perceptions of creativity in online advertising--a heretofore poorly understood area. This paper initially outlines current academic understanding of creativity in online advertising, mainly derived from quantitative assessments. It then advances a qualitative methodology including diary-interviews…

  20. Listener Perceptions of Stuttering across Two Presentation Modes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles; Brouwer, Kyle; Susca, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare participants' quantitative and qualitative judgments of various forms and frequencies of stuttering, during either audiovisual or audio-only presentation modes. A total of 64 participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned and exposed to only one of the…

  1. Musical Ways of Knowing: A Personal Approach to Qualitative Inquiry in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In this comparative essay, I examine how musical ways of knowing inform my educational research. To understand this question, I employ dual perspectives as a musician and qualitative researcher. I use Eisner's concept of the art of educational evaluation (1985a, 1985b, 1997)--particularly as educational evaluation relates to connoisseurship and…

  2. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  3. Attention, Awareness of Contingencies, and Control in Spatial Localization: A Qualitative Difference Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Joaquin M. M.; Fiacconi, Chris; Milliken, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative difference method for distinguishing between aware and unaware processes was applied here to a spatial priming task. Participants were asked simply to locate a target stimulus that appeared in one of four locations, and this target stimulus was preceded by a prime in one of the same four locations. The prime location predicted the…

  4. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  5. Challenges Encountered in Implementing Constructivist Teaching in Physics: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wheijen

    2008-01-01

    The development of constructivism has resulted in teaching modifications in the science classroom. While the majority of the literature has focused on the promising outcomes of the teaching reform, the present study reports various minor but persistent criticisms. This paper qualitatively analyzes skeptical students' criticisms regarding the…

  6. The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

  7. Learning through the Arts in Denmark: A Positive Psychology Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This article disseminates the results of a qualitative, case-based study carried on in Danish schools in 2008-2011. Results show that learning outputs can be seen as more than academic achievement, and the arts' contribution to learning can be viewed as more than the ancillary support of academic performance. Learning within an artful mindset…

  8. The Analysis of Qualitative Data in LIS Research Projects: A Possible Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2004-01-01

    Despite often brief and superficial coverage in research reports, discussion of the processes through which qualitative data has been analysed in a particular project is an essential part of the recording of the work. A recent PhD thesis examining the information-seeking behaviour of young people described in some detail the procedures in this…

  9. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  10. Learning Phenomenology with Heidegger: Experiencing the Phenomenological "Starting Point" as the Beginning of Phenomenological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, John

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…

  11. Oxygen distribution in tumors: A qualitative analysis and modeling study providing a novel Monte Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-09-15

    lower end, due to anoxia, but smaller tumors showed undisturbed oxygen distributions. The six different models with correlated parameters generated three classes of oxygen distributions. The first was a hypothetical, negative covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO-C scenario); the second was a hypothetical positive covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO+C scenario); and the third was the hypothesis of no correlation between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (UP scenario). The VPO-C scenario produced a distinctly different oxygen distribution than the two other scenarios. The shape of the VPO-C scenario was similar to that of the nonvariable DOC model, and the larger the tumor, the greater the similarity between the two models. For all simulations, the mean oxygen tension decreased and the hypoxic fraction increased with tumor size. The absorbed dose required for definitive tumor control was highest for the VPO+C scenario, followed by the UP and VPO-C scenarios. Conclusions: A novel MC algorithm was presented which simulated oxygen distributions and radiation response for various biological parameter values. The analysis showed that the VPO-C scenario generated a clearly different oxygen distribution from the VPO+C scenario; the former exhibited a lower hypoxic fraction and higher radiosensitivity. In future studies, this modeling approach might be valuable for qualitative analyses of factors that affect oxygen distribution as well as analyses of specific experimental and clinical situations.

  12. The population health approach: A qualitative study of conceptual and operational definitions for leaders in Canadian healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Huynh, Tai; Sebold, Anne; Harvey, Jean; Neudorf, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The population health approach is increasingly recognized for its role in health system reform; however, its broad scope and definition have been criticized for being a barrier to clear communication. This qualitative study examined the way senior healthcare leaders in Canada conceptualize and operationalize the population health approach in planning and decision-making. Findings: Core elements of the population health approach included focusing on health and wellness rather than illness, taking a population rather than individual orientation, understanding needs and solutions through community outreach, addressing health disparities/health in vulnerable groups, addressing the social determinants of health and inter-sectoral action and partnerships. Conclusion: The population health approach is increasingly recognized for its role in reducing healthcare demand and contributing to health system sustainability. This study demonstrated the growing need to clarify terminology among multiform partners to establish a foundation for future healthcare integration and inter-sectoral action. PMID:26770704

  13. A tutorial on the validation of qualitative methods: from the univariate to the multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    López, M Isabel; Callao, M Pilar; Ruisánchez, Itziar

    2015-09-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the validation of qualitative analytical methods, with particular focus on their main performance parameters, for both univariate and multivariate methods. We discuss specific parameters (sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates), global parameters (efficiency, Youden's index and likelihood ratio) and those parameters that have a quantitative connotation since they are usually associated to concentration values (decision limit, detection capability and unreliability region). Some methodologies that can be used to estimate these parameters are also described: the use of contingency tables for the specific and global parameters and the performance characteristic curve (PCC) for the ones with quantitative connotation. To date, PCC has been less commonly used in multivariate methods. To illustrate the proposals summarized in this tutorial, two cases study are discussed at the end, one for a univariate qualitative analysis and the other for multivariate one. PMID:26388364

  14. The experience of being a trauma nurse: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lisa; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, Frances; Rashotte, Judy

    2014-02-01

    The lived experience of being a trauma nurse was explored using a phenomenological qualitative research approach. Seven registered nurses employed in a trauma unit from one large metropolitan Canadian teaching hospital participated in in-depth conversational interviews. Data analysis revealed four sub theme clusters embedded within the overarching theme of Seeing Through Cloudy Situations: being on guard all the time, being caught up short, facing the challenge and sharing the journey. Even though trauma nurses are able to find meaning and satisfaction in their work, the findings of this research reveal the need for support and the assurance of safe work environments as trauma nurses can live with violence and aggression in their daily nursing practice. PMID:23958431

  15. A Qualitative Case Study Approach To Examine Information Resources Management. (Utilisation d'une Approche Qualitative par Methode de cas pour Etudier la Gestion des Ressources D'information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative approach was used to study the complex and poorly defined concept of information resources management. Explains the general approach to data collection, its advantages and limitations, and the process used to analyze the data. Presents results, along with lessons learned through using method. (Author/AEF)

  16. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  17. Endoscopic and Keyhole Endoscope-assisted Neurosurgical Approaches: A Qualitative Survey on Technical Challenges and Technological Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature reflects a resurgence of interest in endoscopic and keyhole endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches as alternatives to conventional microsurgical approaches in carefully selected cases. The aim of this study was to assess the technical challenges of neuroendoscopy, and the scope for technological innovations to overcome these barriers. Materials and Methods All full members of the Society of British Neurosurgeons (SBNS) were electronically invited to participate in an online survey. The open-ended structured survey asked three questions; firstly, whether the surgeon presently utilises or has experience with endoscopic or endoscope-assisted approaches; secondly, what they consider to be the major technical barriers to adopting such approaches; and thirdly, what technological advances they foresee improving safety and efficacy in the field. Responses were subjected to a qualitative research method of multi-rater emergent themes analysis. Results Three clear themes emerged: 1) surgical approach and better integration with image-guidance systems (20%), 2) intra-operative visualisation and improvements in neuroendoscopy (49%), and 3) surgical manipulation and improvements in instruments (74%). Discussion The analysis of responses to our open-ended survey revealed that although opinion was varied three major themes could be identified. Emerging technological advances such as augmented reality, high-definition stereo-endoscopy, and robotic joint-wristed instruments may help overcome the technical difficulties associated with neuroendoscopic approaches. Conclusions Results of this qualitative survey provide consensus amongst the technology end-user community such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be defined. Systems integrating these advances could improve the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches. PMID:24533591

  18. From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Dartevelle, Sebastian

    2007-10-01

    Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

  19. Phenomenology and Connectionism

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the “open dynamics” of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a “supervenience function” linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  20. Restoring particle phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    No-go theorems are known in the literature to the effect that, in relativistic quantum field theory, particle localizability in the strict sense violates relativistic causality. In order to account for particle phenomenology without particle ontology, Halvorson and Clifton (2002) proposed an approximate localization scheme. In a recent paper, Arageorgis and Stergiou (2013) proved a no-go result that suggests that, even within such a scheme, there would arise act-outcome correlations over the entire spacetime, thereby violating relativistic causality. Here, we show that this conclusion is untenable. In particular, we argue that one can recover particle phenomenology without having to give up relativistic causality.

  1. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies. PMID:26064687

  2. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies. PMID:26064687

  3. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among a purposive sample of 50 current adult users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. Results Several important themes emerged. Although most users started with “closed system” products, the majority switched from that type of e-cigarette to “open system” devices. Responses were diverse on preferred flavors, although mixing flavors was a common practice. Many users had difficulty estimating the total amount of e-liquid they used within a given period and described an iterative process in which they experimented with different nicotine levels to determine their preferred concentration. Reported frequency of use and puffing behaviors varied greatly between users and also differed from the way traditional cigarettes are smoked. Conclusion Results from this study have implications for developing appropriate survey metrics for e-cigarette surveillance, the regulation of flavorings, and reporting of e-cigarette product constituents. PMID:26766848

  4. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). PMID:26143599

  5. A qualitative study of the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches in overweight/obese Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dieting has historically been the main behavioural treatment paradigm for overweight/obesity, although a non-dieting paradigm has more recently emerged based on the criticisms of the original dieting approach. There is a dearth of research contrasting why these approaches are adopted. To address this, we conducted a qualitative investigation into the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese Australian adults. Methods Grounded theory was used inductively to generate a model of themes contrasting the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives of 21 overweight/obese adults. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Results Several categories emerged which distinguished between the adoption of a dieting or non-dieting approach. These categories included the focus of each approach (weight/image or lifestyle/health behaviours); internal or external attributions about dieting failure; attitudes towards established diets, and personal autonomy. Personal autonomy was also influenced by another category; the perceived knowledge and self-efficacy about each approach, with adults more likely to choose an approach they knew more about and were confident in implementing. The time perspective of change (short or long-term) and the perceived identity of the person (fat/dieter or healthy person) also emerged as determinants of dieting or non-dieting approaches respectively. Conclusions The model of determinants elicited from this study assists in understanding why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted, from the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese adults. Understanding this decision-making process can assist clinicians and public health researchers to design and tailor dieting and non-dieting interventions to population subgroups that have preferences and characteristics

  6. Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

    2008-05-05

    We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

  7. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  8. Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking. PMID:20181322

  9. Learning Processes and Trajectories for the Reduction of Antibiotic Use in Pig Farming: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fortané, Nicolas; Bonnet-Beaugrand, Florence; Hémonic, Anne; Samedi, Carole; Savy, Arnaud; Belloc, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, French public policy has been encouraging a reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal farming. The aim of this article is to look at how some farms have already managed to lower their consumption of antibiotics, and to highlight the levers of change in farming health practices. Our research uses a qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with farmers and veterinarians in the French pig-farming sector. We use the notion of “trajectory of change” to examine, over time, the intersection of the technical, economic, social and organisational determinants which affect the reduced use of antibiotics. The “learning process” concept makes it possible to take account of the way in which the actors assimilate, appropriate and implement new health practices. We have identified three interdependent levels of learning: technical learning, cognitive learning and organisational learning. PMID:27025634

  10. Patients’ experience compared to physicians’ recommendations for the treatment of fecal incontinence: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To compare physician-recommended treatment options for fecal incontinence to patients’ knowledge of treatment options using qualitative methods. Our hypothesis was that physician recommendations were not being communicated well to patients’ and that this impaired patients’ ability to cope with fecal incontinence. Methods Cognitive interviews were conducted with physicians who routinely care for women with fecal incontinence. Physicians were asked to describe their typical non-surgical treatment recommendations and counseling for fecal incontinence. Women with bothersome fecal incontinence were recruited to participate in focus groups and asked about personal experience with fecal incontinence symptoms and treatments. For both the physician interviews and patient focus groups, qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology. Results Physicians identified several barriers patients face when seeking treatment: lack of physician interest towards fecal incontinence and patients’ embarrassment in discussing fecal incontinence. Physicians universally recommended fiber and pelvic floor exercise; they felt the majority (approximately 70–80%) of patients will improve with these therapies. Collectively, patients were able to identify all treatment recommendations given by physicians although many had discovered these treatments through personal experience. Three concepts emerged regarding treatment options that physicians did not identify but that patients felt were important in their treatment: hope for improvement, personal effort to control symptoms and encouragement to go on living life. Conclusions While physicians had treatment to offer women with fecal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence had found the best treatments through personal research and effort. Women want to hear a message of hope, encouragement and personal effort from providers. PMID:24573357

  11. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members

  12. Ethics Review for Qualitative Inquiry: Adopting a Values-Based, Facilitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Kate; Reid, Adela

    2007-01-01

    In many institutions, the institutional review board/research ethics board (IRB/REB) uses the traditional audit approach that emerged from the biomedical community (e.g., Nuremburg Code, Belmont Report) to review the ethical acceptability of research using humans as participants. This approach is guided by participant protection and risk…

  13. The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Max

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)

  14. Foot orthoses for the management of low back pain: a qualitative approach capturing the patient’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The onset of non specific low back pain is associated with heavy lifting, age, female gender, and poor general health, with psychological factors being predictors of it becoming chronic. Additionally, it is thought that altered lower limb biomechanics are a contributory factor, with foot orthoses increasingly being considered as an appropriate intervention by physiotherapists and podiatrists. However, research into the effect of foot orthoses is inconclusive, primarily focusing on the biomechanical effect and not the symptomatic relief from the patient’s perspective. The aim of this study was to explore the breadth of patients’ experiences of being provided with foot orthoses and to evaluate any changes in their back pain following this experience. Method Following ethical approval, participants (n = 25) with non-specific low back pain associated with altered lower limb biomechanics were provided with customised foot orthoses. At 16 weeks after being provided with the foot orthoses, conversational style interviews were carried out with each patient. An interpretivistic phenomenological approach was adopted for the data collection and analysis. Results For these participants, foot orthoses appeared to be effective. However, the main influence on this outcome was the consultation process and a patient focussed approach. The consultation was an opportunity for fostering mutual understanding, with verbal and visual explanation reassuring the patient and this influenced the patient’s beliefs, their engagement with the foot orthoses (physical) and their experience of low back pain (psychological). Conclusion Clinicians need to adopt ‘psychologically informed practice’ in relation to the provision of foot orthoses. Likewise, researchers should consider all the influencing factors found in this study, both in relation to their study protocol and the outcomes they plan to measure. PMID:23651579

  15. [Alternative and complementary medicine in the basic health system network in Brazil: a qualitative approach].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Silvana Cappelleti; Queiroz, Marcos de Souza

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on the social representations of health professionals about the introduction of complementary and alternative medical practices in the public health service network in Campinas city (SP, Brazil). Based in an essentially qualitative methodological perspective, the article analyses the general conditions, the problems and the obstacles related to the implementation of such practices. The success of this inclusion was found in four main reasons: the clientele disposition which gives support and demands this kind of service; the health vision of the sanitarian doctors, which is open to such project; the wide support given by the non-medical health professions, which intend to add value and amplify their practice and, finally, the own perspective of the alternative and complementary medicines, which agree with the Unified Health System (SUS) proposals. Despite the success in the implementation of such practices in the health basic system, two negative aspects were detected: the insufficient planning and the simplified vision which converts such rationalities in mere techniques, which follow the same mechanistic principles of the allophatic medicine and the same reified understanding of disease. PMID:21519669

  16. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity in Rural Midwestern Adults: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults. PMID:24662894

  17. Understanding factors influencing Latina women’s screening behavior: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Essie; Erwin, Deborah O.; Treviño, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand influential factors associated with decisions to obtain breast or cervical cancer screening by diverse Latinas after attending a community-based educational program. Forty-five interviews were conducted in Arkansas, New York City and Buffalo, New York. Thematic data analyses were conducted to understand influential factors following from the intervention. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: Social Capital, Screening Utilization, Health Care Provider (HCP) Communication and Social Networks. Social Capital included resources, access or screening knowledge women had prior to participation in the program and new resources and contacts gained through the program that influenced care seeking. Screening Utilization factors included past health experiences and participation in the program. HCP Communication included perceptions of quality of care and communication issues with HCPs that positively and negatively impacted screening. Social Networks included women’s networks regarding emotional support, encouragement to discuss health issues, overall family network and how these may influence health-seeking behaviors. These findings suggest that participating in group-based health outreach programs empowered women by increasing their knowledge and awareness about the health care system and enabled them, with the tools provided, to become proactive in their health care-seeking behaviors. PMID:23131588

  18. The evolution of medical imaging from qualitative to quantitative: opportunities, challenges, and approaches (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs), which are defined as "objectively measured characteristics derived from in vivo images as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or response to a therapeutic intervention"1. To evolve qualitative imaging assessments to the use of QIBs requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QIB applications relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informatics as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QIBs will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response (and the heterogeneity of that response) and outcome. Such non-invasive quantitative measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research and will contribute significantly to the goals of precision medicine. This presentation will focus on 1) outlining the opportunities for QIB applications, with examples to demonstrate applications in both research and patient care, 2) discussing key challenges in the implementation of QIB applications, and 3) providing overviews of efforts to address such challenges from federal, scientific, and professional organizations, including, but not limited to, the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. 1Sullivan, Obuchowski, Kessler, et al. Radiology, epub August 2015.

  19. Exploring knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills among university students in Jamaica. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, A; Becker, D; Fletcher, H; Garcia, S; Mitchell, S

    2004-01-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important option for university students who may be at high risk for unplanned pregnancies. In the Caribbean, little research has been carried out on university student's knowledge and opinions of this method. This study uses qualitative methodology to explore knowledge and opinions on ECPs among university students attending The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona campus. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 71) with female and male university students at The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, in March 2000. The group discussions lasted approximately two hours. We tape-recorded discussions and then transcribed and analyzed them by coding responses according to themes. General knowledge of ECPs was high, but students lacked specific information about the method such as its time frame and its mechanism of action. Most students supported the method, especially after learning correct information. However, several students were concerned about its side effects and the potential for abuse or irresponsible use by young adults. Although the university students in this study lacked detailed information about ECPs, their opinion toward the method was favourable. We suggest further research to investigate the prevalence of misinformation about the method among other groups of Jamaicans. PMID:15114892

  20. Influences of Social Capital on Health and Well-Being from Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano

    2013-01-01

    The social capital surrounding health including health and well-being, the way in which they function as multi-dimensional constructs, and the potential stability of relationships among the social capital were examined across universities in Hawaii and Japan. Maintaining or strengthening social factors of collective and individual health and well-being is a core factor of social capital and is instrumental in reducing worry and increasing trust. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 64 male and female college students (32 college students at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; 32 college students at Reitaku University in Japan) were used to collect information on social capital of health and well-being and associated concepts; students’ perceptions were grouped under 11 themes. The data indicates that social capital has an impact on college students’ health and well-being. They also suggest that differences in health status and well-being can be plausibly attributed to processes associated with socio-environmental circumstances and situations. PMID:23985117

  1. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  3. Inquiry Skills: A Phenomenological Study on the Perceptions of First-Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the specific factors associated with inquiry skills as a component of success with college level coursework. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted to gain an understanding based on interview responses to questions about learning experiences as perceived…

  4. Assistant Principals' Lived Experiences with Managerial Skills Needed for Promotion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Melnice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of assistant principals in what they deem to be the needed managerial skills for promotion to campus principal. The sample for the study included 20 assistant principals in an urban school district located in Texas. The process of phenomenological enquiry…

  5. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Lived Experiences of Successful First Generation Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Christina C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the lived experiences of five successful first generation Hispanic college students. Participants' interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2007) six steps for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study affirm the factors for student success in college regarding…

  6. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  7. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  8. Fatigue and sleep disturbance in HIV-positive women: a qualitative and biomedical approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Lee, Shih-Yu; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane M; Pan, Chengen; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives This study explores how sleep and energy levels were affected in Chinese women diagnosed with HIV in China employing the Actiwatch actigraphy system to collect data on the women’s sleep characteristics. Background The worldwide AIDS pandemic, a major impetus behind the recent focus on global aspects of health, is one area in which the behavioural and biomedical expertise of nursing science is sorely needed. In particular, few studies of HIV+ women have examined the association of HIV-related stress with sleep disturbance and fatigue. Especially, fatigue and sleep disturbances are a common complaint among people with HIV. Design A qualitative study with actigraphy device used. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 HIV+ women in Shanghai, China, from December 2009–March 2010 and within this group, nine of the women agreed to wear an Actiwatch actigraphy device for 72 hours. Results Two major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews are as follows: sleep disturbance and fatigue. Participants presented varying amounts of sleeplessness, and fatigue resulting from nightmares, worrying about whether to disclose their diagnosis, and whether they might transmit the disease to their partners or children. Among the nine Actiwatch study participants, data shown that those who experienced fragmented sleep also slept more during the daytime. Conclusions In this study, Chinese HIV+ women described how stress had caused them to become sleepless. The objective data collected via Actiwatch showed that these women required longer nap times, which indicates they did not have refreshing nocturnal sleep. Designing a culturally acceptable stress management intervention for these women is urgently needed. Relevance to clinical practice Sleep and fatigue level should be evaluated in each visit with HIV care. Nurses need to be trained in evaluating the HIV+ patients’ sleep and fatigue status and refer them to psychologist and/or relaxation technique

  9. Jordanian men's attitudes and views of birth-spacing and contraceptive use (a qualitative approach).

    PubMed

    Petro-Nustas, Wasileh; Al-Qutob, Rae'da

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to understand the meaning that Jordanian men attach to birth-spacing/family planning and to identify their attitudes and practices regarding contraceptives. Six focus group discussions were conducted over a 3-month period starting April 1996, with each group containing 6-10 men. The sample consisted of Jordanian men residing in Amman. Education, social class, and marital status stratified men's selection. The discussions were moderated by a social psychologist of the same sex. With respondents' consent, data gathered in the discussion groups were tape-recorded, transcribed, and critically analyzed using the content analysis method. The researchers found that there was a consensus among all men about the link between the concept of birth-spacing/family planning and the concept of better health for the mother and the child. Yet, the practice of contraception was influenced by some religious and cultural beliefs including that of "RIZK" (or fortune) which comes when the child is born. Moreover, some knowledge deficits concerning modern methods of contraception, and their side effects in particular, were noted. Some unfavorable attitudes of men for themselves using male contraceptives were also noted. Most men in the study indicated that spousal communication takes place on issues related to family planning, but the final decision is, in most cases, left to the husband alone (the head of the house). The demand for an increasing number of male children and the resistance of males to use condoms were among the most prevalent unexpected phenomena noticed in this study. The study concludes by recommending that special attention be directed to males when delivering family planning services. PMID:12418974

  10. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-03-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5μgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100μgkg(-1), resulting in a 10μgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples. PMID:26717834

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches to Assess Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Although there is dissimiliarity in theoretical research approaches to subjective well-being and to assessments of well-being, there is agreement regarding the value of well-being, especially among student populations. In the highly structured, achievement-oriented, non-optimal context of a classroom, individual well-being is a necessary…

  12. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  13. Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Alderson-Day, Ben; Callard, Felicity; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory hallucinations—or voices—are a common feature of many psychiatric disorders and are also experienced by individuals with no psychiatric history. Understanding of the variation in subjective experiences of hallucination is central to psychiatry, yet systematic empirical research on the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations remains scarce. We aimed to record a detailed and diverse collection of experiences, in the words of the people who hear voices themselves. Methods We made a 13 item questionnaire available online for 3 months. To elicit phenomenologically rich data, we designed a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions, which drew on service-user perspectives and approaches from phenomenological psychiatry, psychology, and medical humanities. We invited people aged 16–84 years with experience of voice-hearing to take part via an advertisement circulated through clinical networks, hearing voices groups, and other mental health forums. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and used inductive thematic analysis to code the data and χ2 tests to test additional associations of selected codes. Findings Between Sept 9 and Nov 29, 2013, 153 participants completed the study. Most participants described hearing multiple voices (124 [81%] of 153 individuals) with characterful qualities (106 [69%] individuals). Less than half of the participants reported hearing literally auditory voices—70 (46%) individuals reported either thought-like or mixed experiences. 101 (66%) participants reported bodily sensations while they heard voices, and these sensations were significantly associated with experiences of abusive or violent voices (p=0·024). Although fear, anxiety, depression, and stress were often associated with voices, 48 (31%) participants reported positive emotions and 49 (32%) reported neutral emotions. Our statistical analysis showed that mixed voices were more likely to have changed over time (p=0·030), be

  14. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  15. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

  16. Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…

  17. Teacher Accountability and Cultural Competence: A Phenomenological Study in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporan, Tammy L. Chavez

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify factors that contribute to teachers' feeling culturally competent as they are being held accountable for student achievement under the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in the area of north Texas. Within the last decade, the most influential school policy has…

  18. Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…

  19. A Phenomenological Exploration of Faculty Experiences Using Lecture Capture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Voort, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to describe the perceived experiences of faculty who use lecture capture systems in face-to-face class meetings at small and medium-sized, four-year, highly residential, undergraduate colleges and universities with enrollments between 1,000 and 9,999 students. Through audio-recorded…

  20. A Phenomenological Study: Perceptions of Student Voice on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marberry, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore rural high school graduates', teachers', and administrators' perceptions of student voice on academic success. This study was designed to examine the following three questions: What were the common beliefs regarding opportunities for input, or student voice, on the educational…

  1. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

  2. Re-searching an Ethnographic Study from a Phenomenological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Linda

    The methodology and problems of research on cross-age tutoring are reported. Using a phenomenological framework, the two researchers involved in the study worked toward a research method and design that would account for the backgrounds of both; one was trained in the quantifiable methods of natural science, the other in qualitative methods of…

  3. Educators' Perspectives on Having Been Cyber Harassed: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of individuals through electronic means, typically of students by other students, has been researched extensively. The electronic abuse of other individuals through electronic means has received a dearth of research attention. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to explore, describe, and expand the…

  4. Philosophical Phenomenology: A Methodology for Holistic Educational Research. Multicultural Research Guides Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…

  5. The General Practitioner's Consultation Approaches to Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henriette Schou; Rosendal, Marianne; Fink, Per; Risør, Mette Bech

    2013-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms (MUSs) in primary care is about 10-15%. The definition of MUS is descriptive and there are no specific diagnostic criteria for MUS in primary care. Furthermore, a general practitioner's (GP's) categorisation of patients with MUS shows large variation. The aim of the present study is to investigate how GPs employ the definition of MUS and how they manage patients with MUS in daily practice. Methods. With a grounded theory approach five focus group interviews with GPs were performed. The interviews addressed how GPs managed MUS and their reflections on the course and prognosis for MUS patients. Results. Consultations about MUS develop around the individual patient and usually include several appointments. We identified three different types of consultations: (1) "searching for a disease," (2) "going by the routine," and (3) "following various paths." These types of consultations spanned from a biomedical approach to an approach where multiple explanations were offered to explain the patient's problem. The choice of consultation types was influenced by the GP, the patient and contextual factors which, in turn, affected the diagnostic process. Conclusions. A diagnosis of MUS is contextually embedded and the diagnostic process is shaped by the consultation. PMID:24967320

  6. The complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism as a philosophical perspective for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Todres, L; Wheeler, S

    2001-02-01

    The focus of this paper draws on the thinking of Husserl, Dilthey and Heidegger to identify elements of the phenomenological movement that can provide focus and direction for qualitative research in nursing. The authors interpret this tradition in two ways: emphasizing the possible complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism, and demonstrating how these emphases ask for grounding, reflexivity and humanization in qualitative research. The paper shows that the themes of grounding, reflexivity and humanization are particularly important for nursing research. PMID:11137717

  7. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  8. Genotoxicity testing: moving beyond qualitative "screen and bin" approach towards characterization of dose-response and thresholds.

    PubMed

    Pottenger, Lynn H; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    For more than 40+ years, genotoxicity data have been interpreted in a qualitative, binary mode; a chemical is considered either positive or negative for a response in the test system. Although dose-response information is sometimes used in this decision, it is not routine to obtain the amount of information needed to inform risk assessment, for example to determine no-observed-genotoxic-effect-levels, primarily due to the historical view of genotoxic responses as "linear, no-threshold." Only recently have researchers begun to address this issue through robust experimental designs and application of statistical models. A growing body-of-evidence supports the existence of response thresholds for a number of mutagenic agents, in vitro and in vivo. Clearly, simple observation of a "hockey-stick" dose-response curve is not sufficient to establish a threshold. Collection of robust empirical data must be supported with an analysis of biological plausibility for the observed threshold. In this context, a chemical-specific mode-of-action (MOA) approach, which identifies key events responsible for the observed mutagenic effect, is extremely valuable. Biomarkers of key events, providing qualitative and quantitative information, can be integrated in a weight-of-evidence-based assessment of genotoxicity data from multiple test systems and used to identify data gaps to resolve/reduce uncertainties during the risk assessment process. To this end, specific recommendations on study design and data analysis are proposed. As the Environmental Mutagen Society celebrates its 40th anniversary, the field of genetic toxicology is marking a milestone on the path to a new paradigm, using a MOA, data-driven approach to answer questions about thresholds for genotoxic agents. PMID:20806283

  9. Who is in control? Clinicians’ view on their role in self-management approaches: a qualitative metasynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola; McPherson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician perceptions of involvement in delivery of self-management approaches. Setting All healthcare settings. Design EBSCO, Scopus and AMED databases were searched, in July 2013, for peer-reviewed studies in English reporting original qualitative data concerning perceptions of clinicians regarding their involvement in or integration of a self-management approach. Of 1930 studies identified, 1889 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Full text of 41 studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers; 14 papers were included for metasynthesis. Findings and discussion sections were imported into Nvivo-10 and coded line-by-line. Codes were organised into descriptive themes and cross-checked against original sources to check interpretation, and refined iteratively until findings represented an agreed understanding. Studies were appraised for quality. Results Delivering self-management in practice appeared to be a complex process for many clinicians. The issue of ‘control’ arose in all studies, both in the qualitative data and authors’ interpretations. The first theme: Who is in control?—represented ways clinicians talked of exercising control over patients and the control they expected patients to have over their condition. The second theme: Changing clinician views—reflected what appeared to be an essential transformation of practice experienced by some clinicians in the process of integrating self-management approaches into the practice. A range of challenges associated with shifting towards a self-management approach were reflected in the third theme, Overcoming challenges to change. Tensions appeared to exist around forming partnerships with patients. Strategies found helpful in the process of change included: dedicating time to practice reciprocity in communication style, peer support and self-reflection. Conclusions A consistent finding across studies is that ‘control’ is a key feature of how self-management is viewed by

  10. Anatomy of life and well-being: A framework for the contributions of phenomenology and complexity theory

    PubMed Central

    Mugerauer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an anatomy of the phenomena of life and of correlate qualitative modes of empirical research, theory, and professional practice concerned with health and well-being. I explicate the qualitative dynamic operative at every level of order, from the biological realm of cells and organisms, through distinctively human lifeworld experiences and practices, to communities of organisms in ecosystems and bio-cultural regions. This paper clarifies the unity of the dimensions of life and aligns these with demonstrated and emerging contributions of hermeneutical phenomenology and current complexity–autopoietic theory (including disciplinary and professional interpretations of empirical findings). The intent is begin to delineate a common framework upon which we could build—facilitating better understanding of the distinctive contributions of each specialization as well as the integration of diverse qualitative approaches with each other (and with quantitative complements). PMID:20616889

  11. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  12. Chameleons and Their Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin

    2016-03-01

    If dark energy consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a ``fifth force'' between ordinary-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. The manifestation of chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which in turn leads to striking experimental signatures. I will review chameleon field theories, their phenomenology, and recent experimental constraints using atom interferometry.

  13. Tools, strategies and qualitative approach in relation to suicidal attempts and ideation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; de Sousa, Girliani Silva; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Moura, Rosylaine; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Grubits, Sonia; Conte, Marta; Cavalcante, Ana Célia Sousa; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; Fachola, María Cristina Heuguerot; Izquierdo, Giovane Mendieta

    2015-06-01

    The article analyses the quality and consistency of a comprehensive interview guide, adapted to study attempted suicide and its ideation among the elderly, and imparts the method followed in applying this tool. The objective is to show how the use of a semi-structured interview and the organization and data analysis set-up were tested and perfected by a network of researchers from twelve universities or research centers in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. The method involved application and evaluation of the tool and joint production of an instruction manual on data collection, systematization and analysis. The methodology was followed in 67 interviews with elderly people of 60 or older and in 34 interviews with health professionals in thirteen Brazilian municipalities and in Montevideo and Bogotá, allowing the consistency of the tool and the applicability of the method to be checked, during the process and at the end. The enhanced guide and the instructions for reproducing it are presented herein. The results indicate the suitability and credibility of this methodological approach, tested and certified in interdisciplinary and interinstitutional terms. PMID:26060945

  14. Scoring of sperm chromosomal abnormalities by manual and automated approaches: qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G; Cheng, Siu Yan; Gillott, David J; Handyside, Alan H; Thornhill, Alan R; Griffin, Darren K

    2010-03-01

    It is now well known that levels of sperm disomy correlate to levels of infertility (as well as other factors). The risk of perpetuating aneuploidy to the offspring of infertile males undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a hotly debated issue in assisted reproduction; however, there remain barriers to the practical implementation of offering sperm disomy screening in a clinical setting. The major barrier is the operator time taken to analyze a statistically meaningful (sufficient) number of cells. The introduction of automated 'spot counting' software-hardware combinations presents a potential solution to this problem. In this preliminary validation study, we analyzed 10 patients, both manually and using a commercially available spot counter. Results show a statistically significant correlation between both approaches for scoring of sperm disomy, but no correlation is found when scoring for diploid sperm. The most likely explanation for the latter is an apparent overscoring of two closely associated sperm heads as a single diploid cell. These results, and similar further studies that will ensue, help to inform cost-benefit analyses that individual clinics need to carry out in order to decide whether to adopt sperm aneuploidy screening as a routine tool for the assessment of sperm from men requiring ICSI treatment. PMID:20037599

  15. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. PMID:25808423

  16. A complexity basis for phenomenology: How information states at criticality offer a new approach to understanding experience of self, being and time.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2015-12-01

    In the late 19th century Husserl studied our internal sense of time passing, maintaining that its deep connections into experience represent prima facie evidence for it as the basis for all investigations in the sciences: Phenomenology was born. Merleau-Ponty focused on perception pointing out that any theory of experience must accord with established aspects of biology i.e. be embodied. Recent analyses suggest that theories of experience require non-reductive, integrative information, together with a specific property connecting them to experience. Here we elucidate a new class of information states with just such properties found at the loci of control of complex biological systems, including nervous systems. Complexity biology concerns states satisfying self-organized criticality. Such states are located at critical instabilities, commonly observed in biological systems, and thought to maximize information diversity and processing, and hence to optimize regulation. Major results for biology follow: why organisms have unusually low entropies; and why they are not merely mechanical. Criticality states form singular self-observing systems, which reduce wave packets by processes of perfect self-observation associated with feedback gain g = 1. Analysis of their information properties leads to identification of a new kind of information state with high levels of internal coherence, and feedback loops integrated into their structure. The major idea presented here is that the integrated feedback loops are responsible for our 'sense of self', and also the feeling of continuity in our sense of time passing. Long-range internal correlations guarantee a unique kind of non-reductive, integrative information structure enabling such states to naturally support phenomenal experience. Being founded in complexity biology, they are 'embodied'; they also fulfill the statement that 'The self is a process', a singular process. High internal correlations and René Thom

  17. Barriers to Sexual Expression and Safe Sex Among Mexican Gay Men: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Verduzco, Ignacio Lozano

    2016-07-01

    Same-sex sexual practices among men in Mexico City are stigmatized. This article analyzes sexual practices and experiences of gay men in Mexico City and its implications on emotional and sexual health. The concept of sexual practices is used from a public health perspective, and the concept of sexual experiences from a psychological one, intending to understand both physical and emotional discomfort and pleasure in sexual contexts. The aim of this article is to analyze sexual practices and experiences of gay men in Mexico City and its implications on health, particularly emotions that can lead to depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and unsafe sex. Fifteen in-depth interviews were carried out with gay men of three generations who live in Mexico City. The data were analyzed using techniques from grounded theory to identify categories, and critical discourse analysis as an analytical approach to understand how social discourses affect subjectivity, emotions, and practices. Sexual practices and experiences are the result of homoerotic desire, which gender and heteronormative culture encourage to be kept hidden and clandestine. This leads men into risk contexts where practices are hardly negotiated, thus exposing themselves to sexually transmitted infections and abuse. These practices also produce a series of emotions such as guilt, shame, fear, and sadness that may develop into mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Interventions at all levels must consider homophobic discrimination as part of gay men's daily lives and should be oriented toward decreasing it, to diminish discomforting emotions and reduce the probability of unsafe sex practices. PMID:25504646

  18. The ACCE method: an approach for obtaining quantitative or qualitative estimates of residual confounding that includes unmeasured confounding

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors.  Method:  A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of  “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors.  Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s) that substantially predicts treatment exposure.  Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s) and outcome. Results:  Several hypothetical examples are provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met.  Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding. Limitations:  Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1) predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2) minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3) adjusting for the association of the introduced variable(s) with outcome, and 4) deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach). Conclusions:  To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method's basic approach is

  19. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  20. Approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in the NICU: a qualitative study in three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Forcella, Emanuela; Blondel, Béatrice; Draper, Elizabeth S; Agostino, Rocco; Cuttini, Marina; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore differences in approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 3 European regions. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study carried out by means of face-to-face semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and supplemented by data-driven concepts and codes. Setting 4 purposively selected NICUs in each of 3 European regions in 2010 (Ile-de-France in France, Lazio in Italy, and the former Trent region in the UK). Participants NICU staff members (n=22). Results Policies and practices for managing mother's own milk for very preterm babies differed between regions, and were much more complex in Ile-de-France than in the Trent or Lazio regions. Staff approaches to mothers to initiate lactation differed by region, with an emphasis on the nutritional and immunological value of human milk in the Trent region and on the ‘normalising’ effect of breastfeeding on the mother-child relationship in Lazio. French and English staff expressed conflicting opinions about the use of bottles, which was routine in Italy. Italian informants stressed the importance of early maternal milk expression and feeding, but also mentioned discharging infants home before feeding at the breast was established. In Ile-de-France and Trent, successful feeding from the breast was achieved before discharge, although this was seen as a factor that could prolong hospitalisation and discourage continued breastfeeding for some women. Conclusions Targeted health promotion policies in the NICU are necessary to increase the number of infants receiving their mother's milk and to support mothers with transfer of the infant to the breast. Integrating knowledge about the different approaches to lactation and breastfeeding in European NICUs could improve the relevance of recommendations in multiple cultural settings. PMID:26129632

  1. Misinterpretive phenomenology: Heidegger, ontology and nursing research.

    PubMed

    Paley, J

    1998-04-01

    This paper argues that Heidegger's phenomenology does not have the methodological implications usually ascribed to it in nursing literature. The Heidegger of Being and Time is not in any sense antagonistic to science, nor does he think that everydayness is more authentic, more genuine, than scientific enquiry or theoretical cognition. It is true that social science must rest on interpretive foundations, acknowledging the self-interpreting nature of human beings, but it does not follow from this that hermeneutics exhausts all the possibilities. Positivist approaches to social science are certainly inconsistent with Heidegger's ontology, but realist approaches are not and structuration theory, in particular, can be seen as a sociological translation of his ideas. Social enquiry in nursing is not therefore confined to studies of lived experience. Indeed, lived experience research constitutes not a realization, but rather a betrayal, of Heidegger's phenomenology, being thoroughly Cartesian in spirit. PMID:9578213

  2. The Phenomenological Circle and the Unity of Life and Thought.

    PubMed

    Atwood, George E; Stolorow, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the important role of our deep immersions in philosophy in the development of our phenomenological-contextualist approach to psychoanalysis. Influenced most particularly by the phenomenological movement, our collaborative dialogue over more than four decades has led us to a shared commitment to reflection upon the philosophical underpinnings and constitutive contexts of origin of all our theoretical ideas. The growth of our thinking follows an endlessly recurring phenomenological circle joining theoretical perspectives with the inquirers from whose emotional worlds they arise. PMID:27248037

  3. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

  4. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

  5. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynitch, Anatoli

    2016-04-01

    The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused

  7. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making. PMID:25876262

  8. Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigrams after maximal coronary artery vasodilation with intravenous dipyridamole: comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, D.A.; Collins, S.M.; Go, R.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Van Kirk, O.C.; Marcus, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    Eighty-six patients had thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigrams after intense coronary artery dilation with i.v. dipyridamole. Tomographic and planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were obtained in each patient. Tomographic scintigrams were interpreted using quantitative or visual criteria; planar scintigrams were assessed using visual criteria only. When visual criteria were used, interobserver variability was 40% for tomographic scintigrams and 44% for planar scintigrams. In the 24 patients with normal or nonsignificant CAD, quantitative analysis of the tomograms (range approach) indicated that one of 24 (4%) had a positive image (specificity 96%%); in contrast, when visual criteria were used to interpret the tomographic or planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, eight of 24 (33%) had positive scintigrams (specificity 67%). In the 51 abnormal patients, the sensitivity of detecting CAD was 46 of 51 (90%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted quantitatively, 39 of 51 (76%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted visually and 41 of 51 (80%) for planar scintigrams assessed visually. The tomographic imaging procedure (quantitative interpretation) also demonstrated a high sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%) in 28 patients (10 normal and 18 CAD), with a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris. Overall, the predictive accuracy of an abnormal scintigram with quantitative tomographic imaging (98%) was significantly better (p<0.05) than either qualitative planar or pinhole imaging. (JMT)

  9. [Self-perception of oral health and impact on quality of life among the elderly: a quantitative-qualitative approach].

    PubMed

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2011-07-01

    A qualitative-quantitative approach was used in this study to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between self-perception, impact on quality of life and oral health among the elderly. Clinical examination and recorded interviews with objective and discursive questions were conducted with 45 institutionalized elderly people. Descriptive analyses of quantitative data were made. The interviews were transcribed and a systematic reading of the interviews was carried out selecting the components related to the categories under analysis. Photographic images of the oral clinical status were correlated with participants' speech. Quantitative analysis revealed: an average of 4.8 teeth; DMFT were 29.9; 57.7 % were toothless; 60% believed they did not need dental care; 75% suffered a great impact on quality of life due to oral health conditions, despite the fact that 67% evaluated their oral health positively. Underestimation of symptoms, lack of hope and resignation due to limitations regarding poor clinical status were detected. Most elderly people viewed such limitations as a consequence of aging and not as a problem that may be solved. This reality can be changed through information and guidance for elderly people. PMID:21808919

  10. "If You Weren't Researching Me and a Friend . . ." The Mobius of Friendship and Mentorship as Methodological Approaches to Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Kelly; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the affordances and risks of practicing friendship and mentorship as methodological approaches in two qualitative studies: (a) the mentor's study in a diverse 9th grade classroom and (b) the protege's subsequent study of teacher professional development in the same school. Friendship methodology, as theorized by Tillmann and…

  11. Self, Voices and Embodiment: A Phenomenological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C; Jones, N; Chase, KA; Grossman, LS; Gin, H; Sharma, RP

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine first-person phenomenological descriptions of the relationship between the self and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs). Complex AVHs are frequently described as entities with clear interpersonal characteristics. Strikingly, investigations of first-person (subjective) descriptions of the phenomenology of the relationship are virtually absent from the literature. Method Twenty participants with psychosis and actively experiencing AVHs were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago. A mixed-methods design involving qualitative and quantitative components was utilized. Following a priority-sequence model of complementarity, quantitative analyses were used to test elements of emergent qualitative themes. Results The qualitative analysis identified three foundational constructs in the relationship between self and voices: ‘understanding of origin,’ ‘distinct interpersonal identities,’ and ‘locus of control.’ Quantitative analyses further supported identified links of these constructs. Subjects experienced their AVHs as having identities distinct from self and actively engaged with their AVHs experienced a greater sense of autonomy and control over AVHs. Discussion Given the clinical importance of AVHs and emerging strategies targeting the relationship between the hearer and voices, our findings highlight the importance of these relational constructs in improvement and innovation of clinical interventions. Our analyses also underscore the value of detailed voice assessments such as those provided by the Maastricht Interview are needed in the evaluation process. Subjects narratives shows that the relational phenomena between hearer and AVH(s) is dynamic, and can be influenced and changed through the hearers’ engagement, conversation, and negotiation with their voices. PMID:27099869

  12. Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Wang, Ting T.; Lykken, Joseph D.

    2005-06-01

    We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking terms for these models are calculated in the u-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

  13. Developing patient-centered treatment protocols in brain stimulation: a rationale for combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rosedale, Mary; Malaspina, Dolores; Malamud, Daniel; Strauss, Shiela M; Horne, Jaclyn D; Abouzied, Salman; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Knotkova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and discusses how quantitative (physiological and behavioral) and qualitative methods are being combined in an open-label pilot feasibility study. The study evaluates safety, tolerability, and acceptability of a protocol to treat depression in HIV-infected individuals, using a 2-week block of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second most prevalent psychiatric disorder after substance abuse among HIV-positive adults, and novel antidepressant treatments are needed for this vulnerable population. The authors describe the challenges and contributions derived from different research perspectives and methodological approaches and provide a philosophical framework for combining quantitative and qualitative measurements for a fuller examination of the disorder. Four methodological points are presented: (1) the value of combining quantitative and qualitative approaches; (2) the need for context-specific measures when studying patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities; (3) the importance of research designs that integrate physiological, behavioral, and qualitative approaches when evaluating novel treatments; and (4) the need to explore the relationships between biomarkers, clinical symptom assessments, patient self-evaluations, and patient experiences when developing new, patient-centered protocols. The authors conclude that the complexity of studying novel treatments in complex and new patient populations requires complex research designs to capture the richness of data that inform translational research. PMID:22412085

  14. A Qualitative Study of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities under NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to find out if No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has affected the academic achievement rates of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative phenomenological study explored perceptions of both regular education and special education teachers on the achievement rate…

  15. Fitting the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C.; Quevedo, Fernando; Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike

    2010-05-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  16. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  17. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  18. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  19. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  20. A qualitative analysis of a dyad approach to health-related quality of life measurement in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Cara; Cousins, Martha; Boydell, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children often relies on parents as proxy respondents. Yet, several studies have shown poor to moderate correlations between parent and child responses, questioning the validity of the parent as proxy. This qualitative study examined a dyad approach, where parent and child were interviewed together. The objective was to observe and describe the interaction in a dyad interview, wherein both parent and child perspectives are used and where the parent may expand the child’s cognitive abilities to create a more meaningful description of the child’s HRQOL. Children aged 8–15 years with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and their primary caregivers were recruited from The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. The dyads were administered the Health Utilities Index Mark II/III, the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and the PedsQL™ Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Interviews were audio-taped and a second researcher recorded observations. Consistent with Grounded Theory methodology, observations were indexed according to categories and subcategories related to the response process. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding and constant comparison. Saturation was achieved at 16 dyad interviews. A cultural review and reflexive role taking were included to minimize interviewer bias and enhance rigour. Findings were grouped in the following 11 themes: recall difficulty, respondent bias, interviewer bias, frustration, coercion/parental influence, inter-relational conflict, psychic discomfort for health states, emotional sensitivity, parent as advocate, parent as enabler and comprehension. The specification of these categories facilitated the creation of an interview guide to accompany the administration of standardized HRQOL questionnaires to parent–child dyads. Such a guide would facilitate discussion between parent and child and enhance the consistency of the interview

  1. Qualitative Phenomenological Examination of IT Project Management in Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what caused IT projects to fail at a high rate in the pharmaceutical industry. IT projects failures delayed development of new drugs that can help save lives. It was imperative to evaluate what caused project failures because the collateral damage was delay in drug development. This qualitative…

  2. Phenomenology of 1032 dark sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele

    2009-09-01

    We postulate an exact permutation symmetry acting on 1032 standard model copies as the largest possible symmetry extension of the standard model. This setup automatically lowers the fundamental gravity cutoff down to TeV, and thus, accounts for the quantum stability of the weak scale. We study the phenomenology of this framework and show that below TeV energies the copies are well hidden, obeying all the existing observational bounds. Nevertheless, we identify a potential low energy window into the hidden world, the oscillation of the neutron into its dark copies. At the same time, proton decay can be suppressed by gauging the diagonal baryon number of the different copies. This framework offers an alternative approach to several particle physics questions. For example, we suggest a novel mechanism for generating naturally small neutrino masses that are suppressed by the number of neutrino species. The mirror copies of the standard model naturally house dark matter candidates. The general experimentally observable prediction of this scenario is an emergence of strong gravitational effects at the LHC. The low energy permutation symmetry powerfully constrains the form of this new gravitational physics and allows to make observational predictions, such as, production of micro black holes with very peculiar properties.

  3. Unparticle Phenomenology - A Mini Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Keung, W.-Y.; Yuan, T.-C.

    2008-11-23

    We review some collider phenomenology of unparticle physics, including real emissions and virtual exchanges of unparticle. Existing experimental constraints from collider physics as well as astrophysics are briefly discussed.

  4. Localized phenomenology: A recurrent debate.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Murray

    2010-09-01

    Abstract The neuroscience carried out by Lamme and colleagues is fascinating and important. But his case for localised phenomenology rests on a flawed understanding of rival theories and a misguided view of introspective report. PMID:24168343

  5. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  6. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

  7. [Phenomenology and psychosomatics].

    PubMed

    Rovaletti, María Lucrecia

    2002-12-01

    By dividing the field of the human, the psyche-soma dualism ended in sectorizing diseases into organic illnesses, and psychic illnesses. Eventually, however, the so-called 'psychosomatic disorders' that, apparently, had broken up such a pattern have been converted to a new corpus pineale just as Descartes would have done. The body is reduced to a mere instrument of psyche, and the subject is reduced to a mere onlooker of illness he or she tries to remove one way or the other. Conversely, phenomenology understands that, first of all, the body is 'the body I am' (Leib): the body is the place for communicating with other people, and the place for performing exchanges with things. It is through the body that the world affects us, and it is by means of the body that we display all our meaning onto the world. In everyday life people are just unaware of their bodies. Whenever anxiety busts out, however, the body makes a massive comeback, giving expression to the complex dialectics of the speaking subject through his or her body. Anxiety pertains to a pre-category order of the body, to the unfathomable depth reason is unable to pierce. At the bottom line of a great majority of psychosomatic disorders there lies an intersubjective anxiety conveying a conflict between the loss of an object and the obstacles thus hindering the personal growth. Reason, as a reflexive conscience is unable to solve the conflict -reason is not even aware of conflict, reason does not even perceive any likely relationship among disorders and such or such situations. The body, as an 'operating intentionality' (Merleau-Ponty), as a pre-reflexive access to the world, as a pathos life experience (Lang), will erupt and see to it that conflict is solved, and conflict-linked anxiety are transformed. Body and its great reason -- as Nietzsche would have said, 1883 -- solves everything its way. PMID:12478310

  8. Dancing Mindfulness: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Emerging Practice.

    PubMed

    Marich, Jamie; Howell, Terra

    2015-01-01

    An extensive review of both quantitative and qualitative literature reveals numerous connections between mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Dancing Mindfulness, as a holistic wellness practice, is a creative approach to mindfulness meditation that draws on dance as the vehicle for engaging in the ancient practice characterized by non-judgment, loving kindness, and present-centered awareness. Of the first participants who learned the Dancing Mindfulness practice in a community-based setting, 10 shared their lived experience with the practice, and these experiences were analyzed using A.P. Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological psychological method. As a collective sample, the women described positive experiences with the Dancing Mindfulness practice. Specific themes indicated improvements in emotional and spiritual well-being, increased acceptance, positive changes to the self, and increased application of mindfulness techniques and strategies to real-world living. Another thematic area suggested that dancing and music are the two major components of action within Dancing Mindfulness leading to these benefits. PMID:26260236

  9. A unified approach to hadron phenomenology at zero and finite temperatures in a hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    We propose a unified approach to study meson, nucleon and Δ -baryon properties at zero and finite temperatures in the context of hard-wall AdS/QCD model. We first combine some previous works dealing with mesons and baryons separately, and introduce a new parameter ξ so that the model could give a universal description of spectrum and couplings of both sectors in a self-consistent way. All observables calculated numerically show reasonable agreement with experimental data. We then study these observables at nonzero temperature by modifying the AdS space-time into AdS-Schwartzchild space-time. Numerically solving the model, we find an interesting temperature dependence of the spectrum and the couplings. We also make a prediction on the finite-temperature decay width of some nucleon and Δ excited states.

  10. "What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

  11. A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

    2010-01-01

    Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

  12. Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and…

  13. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  14. Employees' views on outsourcing and its impact on employee turnover: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybelinski, Steven A.

    Increasing use of outsourcing gives employees concern about personal job security. Using a modified van Kaam approach, this qualitative phenomenological study examined perceptions and experiences of 12 employees' on the influence outsourcing had on employee turnover. Five themes describing employee perceptions emerged: (a) preparation---education gives job security, (b) plausibility---all believed job loss plausible, (c) emotional influence---feelings of stress, threat, betrayal, and not being valued, (d) environment---value of communication and interaction with leaders, and (e) confidence---gained from increased education, skills, and knowledge protected from outsourcing. Significance of this study to leadership is the identification of employee perceptions of outsourcing and motivating factors influencing employee turnover during times of outsourcing. Findings might present new information and assist leaders with employee retention concerns for future outsourcing activities.

  15. Towards a nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Dienes, Keith R.; Mavroudi, Eirini

    2015-06-01

    Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to studying the rich and diverse phenomenologies of heterotic strings exhibiting spacetime supersymmetry. Unfortunately, during this same period, there has been relatively little work studying the phenomenologies associated with their nonsupersymmetric counterparts. The primary reason for this relative lack of attention is the fact that strings without spacetime supersymmetry are generally unstable, exhibiting large one-loop dilaton tadpoles. In this paper, we demonstrate that this hurdle can be overcome in a class of tachyon-free four-dimensional string models realized through coordinate-dependent compactifications. Moreover, as we shall see, it is possible to construct models in this class whose low-lying states resemble the Standard Model (or even potential unified extensions thereof)—all without any light superpartners, and indeed without supersymmetry at any energy scale. The existence of such models thus opens the door to general studies of nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology, and in this paper we proceed to discuss a variety of theoretical and phenomenological issues associated with such nonsupersymmetric strings. On the theoretical side, we discuss the finiteness properties of such strings, the general characteristics of their mass spectra, the magnitude and behavior of their one-loop cosmological constants, and their interpolation properties. By contrast, on the phenomenological side, the properties we discuss are more model-specific and include their construction techniques, their natural energy scales, their particle and charge assignments, and the magnitudes of their associated Yukawa couplings and scalar masses.

  16. Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    In a recent paper [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015)] a general mechanism for the emergence of cosmological spacetime geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and a departure from standard dispersion relations for an elementary particle was predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenario showing that spacetime will have to be classical to a very high degree by now in order to be consistent with current observations.

  17. Phenomenological studies of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro

    It is common knowledge that eighty percent of the matter in our Universe consists of a mysterious substance called "dark matter'' (DM) which has only been detected through its gravitational interactions. The "Standard Model'' (SM) of particle physics, despite its extremely impressive successes, does not have a good candidate particle to fit the DM requirements. If DM is made up of a particle which interacts weakly and it has a mass on the same scale as other SM particles, it should be detectable. In this work, two different phenomenological studies of DM are performed. The first possibility is a weakly-interacting particle being detected when a high density of particles and enough energy is present. These conditions are met by objects called "active galactic nuclei'' (AGN). AGN are the extremely violent central regions of very large galaxies, and in these regions highly-energetic "jets'' of particles are accelerated. It was thought that the possibility the jet particles interact with the surrounding DM producing photons with very distinctive characteristics. A comparison of predicted values with current data is made and it is shown that the prospects for detecting DM in this way are promising in the near future. In the second approach instead of working with complicated fully developed models, only the minimal content needed to account for DM is added to the SM. The strength of these "simplified'' models is that they encompass the interactions and parameter spaces of well-motivated models such as supersymmetry. A simplified model of fermionic DM candidate which couples exclusively to the right handed top quark via a color-charged scalar is considered (motivated by EW symmetry breaking). It is shown that this model can account for the totality of DM and the chances of detection in the near future are very good.

  18. The Family Challenge of Caring for the Chronically Mentally Ill: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Esmaeilli, Ravanbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Family caregiving for patients with chronic mental illness is influenced by various factors such as political, socioeconomic, and cultural contexts as well as related policies and health services. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges with which the family caregivers of patients with chronic mental illness have to contend. Materials and Methods: The research design was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The research population consisted of 16 long-term carers expressing interest in participating in the project. The carers were the family members of mentally ill relatives who collected their monthly medications at Farshchian Psychiatry Hospital in Hamadan in 2012. Purposive sampling was used to draw the sample. Data were collected by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were tape-recorded and analyzed via Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Rigor was assessed regarding credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability. Results: Our findings highlighted 4 main themes, namely stress and emotional distress, need for education and information, socioeconomic effects and support, and physical strain. Conclusions: Families experience frustrations when providing support and care to their mentally ill relatives. They, therefore, need appropriate support and intervention by mental health services. PMID:26576169

  19. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  20. Quantum Phenomenology of Conjunction Fallacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Taksu; Takahashi, Taiki

    2012-10-01

    A quantum-like description of human decision process is developed, and a heuristic argument supporting the theory as sound phenomenology is given. It is shown to be capable of quantitatively explaining the conjunction fallacy in the same footing as the violation of sure-thing principle.

  1. Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.

  2. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  3. Applications of Phenomenology in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The

    This article explains that the phenomenological approach in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through…

  4. Phenomenological approach to scatterometer data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alzofon, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    A graphic method of analyzing radar scatterometer sea clutter data leading to linear relations between scattering cross sections and tan angle of incidence of the radiation is proposed. This relation permits formulation of simple analytic relations without reference to the ocean surface spectrum. Parameters introduced depend on the wavelength of the incident radiation and its polarization, and on wind and sea states. The simplicity of the expressions derived suggests a corresponding simplicity in the physical mechanism of radar sea clutter return.

  5. What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Prüfer, Franziska; Miksch, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial. PMID:23986779

  6. Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences.

    PubMed

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported as being efficacious treatments for a variety of psychological and somatic conditions. However, concerns have arisen relating to how mindfulness is operationalized in mindfulness-based interventions and whether its 'spiritual essence' and full potential treatment efficacy have remained intact. This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine participant experiences regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of a newly designed secularized intervention called meditation awareness training (MAT) that follows a more traditional Buddhist approach to meditation. Participants (with issues of stress and low mood) reported experiencing improvements in psychological well-being due to receiving MAT. The wider implications are discussed. PMID:23377964

  7. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  8. How to develop a phenomenological model of disability.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Kristian Moltke

    2015-11-01

    During recent decades various researchers from health and social sciences have been debating what it means for a person to be disabled. A rather overlooked approach has developed alongside this debate, primarily inspired by the philosophical tradition called phenomenology. This paper develops a phenomenological model of disability by arguing for a different methodological and conceptual framework from that used by the existing phenomenological approach. The existing approach is developed from the phenomenology of illness, but the paper illustrates how the case of congenital disabilities, looking at the congenital disorder called cerebral palsy (CP), presents a fundamental problem for the approach. In order to understand such congenital cases as CP, the experience of disability is described as being gradually different from, rather than a disruption of, the experience of being abled, and it is argued that the experience of disability is complex and dynamically influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Different experiential aspects of disability- pre-reflective, attuned and reflective aspects-are described, demonstrating that the experience of disability comes in different degrees. Overall, this paper contributes to the debates about disability by further describing the personal aspects and experience of persons living with disabilities. PMID:25652147

  9. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

  10. The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic

  11. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  12. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508

  13. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.

  14. The importance of reciprocity for female caregivers in a super-aged society: a qualitative journalistic approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Strömberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As Japan is facing a super-aged society, Japanese women find themselves on the front line as traditional family caregivers. Our aim was to describe the observations and thoughts of one Japanese woman's experience of living with her elderly parents in the suburbs of Tokyo. One open-ended interview was performed and analyzed using content analysis with a methodological departure in qualitative journalistic interviewing. The case was a single woman in her late 40s living with her aged parents. Reciprocity was identified as the glue holding the joy and burdens of the role of caregiving for elderly parents. Moreover, gender was identified as a motivator for reciprocity from a macro to a micro level in a super-aged society. PMID:25365632

  15. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health. PMID:25808761

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors on Child Passenger Safety among Expectant Mothers and Parents of Newborns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregnant women were also interviewed to learn about their views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data collected. Results Of a total of 242 parents of newborns recruited in the quantitative survey, 202 (83.5%) parents had heard of child safety seats and 149 (61.6%) parents reported they would use child safety seats for their babies. Parents’ knowledge, car ownership, occupation, and income were significantly associated with their decision regarding use of child safety seats. Three themes were identified from the qualitative interview of 30 pregnant women: (1) the pregnant women perceived child passenger safety as important; (2) the car ownership and price and quality of child safety seats were major influencing factors of their decisions on use of child safety seats; and (3) lack of awareness and lack of laws requiring use were perceived to contribute to low use of child safety seats in China. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and awareness on child passenger safety were found to be two most important factors associated with low use of child safety seats. Effective interventions are urgently needed to improve parents’ knowledge before laws are enacted and implemented. PMID:26735974

  17. Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence. Methods Qualitative design using focus groups (N = 11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods. Results Five themes emerged that describe users’ perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence. PMID:23497603

  18. Teaching and Learning about Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Experiential Learning Approach Amongst Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.

    2004-01-01

    There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…

  19. Building phenomenological models of complex biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Bryan; Nemenman, Ilya

    2009-11-01

    A central goal of any modeling effort is to make predictions regarding experimental conditions that have not yet been observed. Overly simple models will not be able to fit the original data well, but overly complex models are likely to overfit the data and thus produce bad predictions. Modern quantitative biology modeling efforts often err on the complexity side of this balance, using myriads of microscopic biochemical reaction processes with a priori unknown kinetic parameters to model relatively simple biological phenomena. In this work, we show how Bayesian model selection (which is mathematically similar to low temperature expansion in statistical physics) can be used to build coarse-grained, phenomenological models of complex dynamical biological processes, which have better predictive powers than microscopically correct, but poorely constrained mechanistic molecular models. We illustrate this on the example of a multiply-modifiable protein molecule, which is a simplified description of multiple biological systems, such as an immune receptors and an RNA polymerase complex. Our approach is similar in spirit to the phenomenological Landau expansion for the free energy in the theory of critical phenomena.

  20. Phenomenological Modeling for Langmuir Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Dimitri; Kelly, David; Safford, Twymun; Prayaga, Chandra; Varney, Christopher N.; Wade, Aaron

    Experimentally, Langmuir monolayers have applications in molecular optical, electronic, and sensor devices. Traditionally, Langmuir monolayers are described by a rigid rod model where the rods interact via a Leonard-Jones potential. Here, we propose effective phenomenological models and utilize Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the phase behavior and compare with experimental isotherms. Research reported in this abstract was supported by UWF NIH MARC U-STAR 1T34GM110517-01.

  1. Use of intuition by critical care nurses: a phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Parkhide; Abdi, Alireza; Jalali, Rostam; Salari, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Intuition is defined as an irrational unconscious type of knowing. This concept was incorporated into nursing discipline for 3 decades, but nowadays its application is uncertain and ignored by educational institutions. Therefore, this study aimed to explore critical care nurses’ understanding of the use of intuition in clinical practice. Materials and methods In a descriptive phenomenological study, 12 nurses employed in critical care units of the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, were recruited to a study using purposive, semistructured interviews, which were then written down verbatim. The data were managed by MaxQDA 10 software and analyzed as qualitative, with Colaizzi’s seven-stage approach. Results Of the 12 nurses who participated in the study, seven (58.3%) were female and married, 88.3% (ten) had a Bachelor of Nursing (BSc) degree, and the means ± SD of age, job experience, and critical care experience were 36.66±7.01, 13.75±6.82, and 7.66±3.36 years, respectively. We extracted three main themes, namely “patient conditions”, “nurse readiness”, and “outcome”, and seven subthemes – including “clinical signs”, “patient behaviors”, “prognosis”, “being sensitive”, “desire to act”, “prediction”, and “satisfaction” – integral to understanding the use of intuition in clinical practice by critical care nurses. Conclusion The findings showed that some nurses were attracted by the patients’ conditions and were more intuitive about them, and following their intuition prepared the nurses to under-take more appropriate measures. The positive results that the majority of the nurses experienced convinced them to follow their intuitions more often. PMID:26929677

  2. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  3. Information Technology Certifier Perspectives on Areas Affecting Certification Assessments: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Steven Russell

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) certifiers evaluate risk and develop mitigations ensuring IT infrastructures remain protected within acceptable levels of operation, which if not properly maintained can potentially result in loss of life within Department of Defense (DoD) and federal environments. This qualitative phenomenological exploratory study…

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Urban School Counselors' Perceptions of Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.; Grothaus, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores urban school counselors' perceptions of low-income families in their schools. Ten school counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews and answered two emailed reflective questions. Six themes emerged from the data: (a) perceptions of family characteristics and environment,…

  5. A Phenomenological Study of Teacher/Mentors' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pientka, Valerie Jane

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study examines how second-stage teacher/mentors view, interpret, and construct pedagogical content knowledge and then utilize their constructions within a student work sample analysis experience in a mentoring relationship. Three theories undergird this study: Black and Ammon's (1992) teacher development…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Non-LGBT Students with LGBQ Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of qualitative research that has sought to uncover the lived experiences of students who identify as heterosexual/cisgender (i.e., non-LGBT) but have at least one parent who identifies as LGBQ. This phenomenological analysis aimed to uncover common themes for students who have gone through their educational journey with this…

  7. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  8. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  9. How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLurkin, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to…

  10. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Parents of a Child or Children Diagnosed with Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, David Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of 12 parents who have a child or children diagnosed with deafness, and the meaning these parents have made of their experiences. The researcher conducted individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed the data in accordance with the practices of phenomenological research. Thirty-seven…

  11. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Effects of an Ethics Course on Business Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Richard John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the essential meaning adult business school students attributed to the shared experience of an ethics course they took at California State University Sacramento. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with 10 volunteer…

  12. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from…

  13. The Lived Experiences of Faculty Who Use Instructional Technology: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Heath V.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of university faculty who adopt technology for teaching and learning purposes and to determine if adoption affected the way a person taught, worked, and lived. A review of the literature found a gap in the understanding of the lived…

  14. Phenomenological Study of Business Models Used to Scale Online Enrollment at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore factors for selecting a business model for scaling online enrollment by institutions of higher education. The goal was to explore the lived experiences of academic industry experts involved in the selection process. The research question for this study was: What were the lived…

  15. Identifying the Criteria for Planning the Selection and Succession of a CIO: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Many challenges face CIOs in their management of IT systems; yet, very little research is available regarding the issues and constraints associated with their role. CIO leadership is still a subject of inquiry for those with aspirations to pursue such a position. The specific problem of the current qualitative phenomenological study concerned the…

  16. A Phenomenological Examination of Perceived Skills and Concepts Necessary for Teaching Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapetanis, Ana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of high stakes testing to improve educational outcomes falls short in many settings. Proposals for improvement include providing more opportunities for students to extend their thinking, gaining experience in the social nature of science, and learning how to interpret, explain, and justify results. This phenomenological qualitative project…

  17. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

  18. Phenomenological Study: How Organizational Structures and Change Processes Influence Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte Clay

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions create organizational structures for younger students with limited work experience. New generations of adult students require different organizational structures to improve success. The current phenomenological qualitative study addressed the lack of consensus of what types of organizational structures in higher education…

  19. A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Eid

    2010-01-01

    In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

  20. Disengagement, Intervention, and Dropout: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Students, a Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the process of schooling from elementary through the end of high school; several points exist when students disengage from the process leading to dropout. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to identify the reasons for disengagement and dropout through the perceptions of the lived experiences of students. The…

  1. Bridging the Gap between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Learning Process: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the learning process for adult learners, resulting in a higher dropout rate than for students who have not experienced similar stress (Kerka, 2002; Smyth, Hockemeyer, Heron, Wonderlich, & Pennebaker, 2008). The purpose of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, explore, and…

  2. A Phenomenological Case Study: Teacher Bias Effects on Early Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological case study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 20 current and past early education teachers who have experience in assessing children through observational assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if bias affects the documentation of observational assessment and the implementation…

  3. Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

  4. Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Sheila C.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…

  5. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  6. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  7. The Experiences of Multiple Deployments on Military Families: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threatts, Shanida Ann

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current qualitative phenomenological research study was to gain a deeper understanding of military families with young children from preschool to elementary school-age during deployments of a family member. The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 military parents concerning multiple or…

  8. The Influence of the Social Network: A Phenomenological Study of Early Adopter Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrange Coston, Rita Louise

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 early adopter consumers, who used social networks in their decision-making process to purchase a component or complete high-technology home entertainment system. Four core themes of communication, convenience, cost, and technology emerged. Subthemes encompassed…

  9. A Phenomenological Study of Culturally Proficient School Leadership Resulting in the Narrowing of the Learning Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaller, Renee L.

    2010-01-01

    Culturally proficient school leadership and its impact on narrowing the learning gap is both timely, and needed and the focus of discussion for this study. This phenomenological qualitative research study examined culturally proficient school leadership actions that help promote a measurable narrowing of the achievement gap in five southeastern…

  10. Experiences of Vasectomy: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Habibollah; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irregular growth of population is considered as a serious threat to the international community. It is a major obstacle for socioeconomic development. One of the methods to control the population is by providing effective methods of contraception. Vasectomy, as a simple and effective contraceptive method, has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is very important to involve men in the control of population and the promotion of reproductive health. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of the men who underwent vasectomy. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. The sample consisted of 14 vasectomized men selected through purposive sampling method. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data. Results: The results were transcribed and recorded in comprehensive field notes. Colaizzi's method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the obtained results of the present study, which described the structure of the experiences of men as follows: Opinions about vasectomy, own perceptions about vasectomy, experiences with the procedure, and recommendation of vasectomy to others. Conclusion: Vasectomy can influence achievement of family planning goals and participation of men in this regard. The results of this study can help the planners and health-care providers for appropriate interventions, and training and counseling programmers to increase the acceptability and uptake of vasectomy in the society. PMID:23272302

  11. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  12. Nurses' experiences working with nursing students in a hospital: a phenomenological enquiry

    PubMed Central

    Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda Raquel; Cibanal-Juan, Luis; Orts-Cortés, Mª Isabel; Maciá-Soler, Mª Loreto; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this paper explores the experiences of registered nurses working with Spanish nursing students within the hospital. Methods: a qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. Purposeful sampling was employed. Twenty-one registered nurses, from a public hospital located in Spain, were included in the study. Data were collected by means of unstructured and semi-structured interviews and were analysed using Giorgi's proposal. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research were followed. Results: three main themes described the experience of registered nurses: "The nurse's relationship with nursing students"; most nurses emphasized the importance of the first contact with students and they considered students' attitude to be key. "Defining the role of the student in clinical practice"; it is necessary to unify the nurse's role and interventions to avoid misleading students and establish priorities in clinical practice. "Building bridges between clinical settings and the University"; the need to establish a common ground and connection between the university and hospital clinical settings was emphasized. Nurses felt that the training program should also be designed by the clinical settings themselves. Conclusions: understanding the meaning of nursing students with registered nurses might gain a deeper insight into their expectations. PMID:27463112

  13. A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

  14. Community-based maternity care from the view of Iranian midwives: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Sayyedi, Marziyeh; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery cares take place in diverse communities with different ethnics groups. Therefore, midwifery cares could be planned wisely and principally based on women's and their families’ changeable demands which focus on social and cultural issues. This qualitative study explored the midwives’ experiences of care in the community. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by descriptive phenomenological approach. The subjects, selected by purposive sampling, comprised 13 midwives employed in Isfahan, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and simultaneously analyzed through Colaizzi's method. Results: With descriptive analysis of participants’ experiences, three main themes were explored (personal characteristics of the community midwife, social determinants of women's health, and achieving community-based midwifery skills). Conclusions: Knowledge of women's social status, gender inequality in health, and existence of social health risk factors for women in their community helps midwives to provide reproductive health care based on clients’ needs and demands. Therefore, midwives should enhance the quality of their care through integrating professional skills with a full understanding of the social context. PMID:25709700

  15. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization. PMID:22506011

  16. The other side of the story – maternal perceptions of safety advice and information: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, D.; Watson, M.; Shaw, I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A qualitative study of maternal perceptions of home safety advice. The aim was to gain an understanding of maternal perceptions of and possible barriers to the implementation of home safety advice. Methods Semi‐structured interviews with 37 mothers with a child aged less than 5 years of age; 16 were mothers living in an area of socio‐economic disadvantage (with a high rate of childhood unintentional injury), 21 were mothers living in an area of relative affluence (with a low rate of childhood unintentional injury). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Although some mothers living in both areas found talking to a health professional about child home safety was helpful, mothers in both areas tended to find talking to other mothers as being more helpful and they preferred this to talking to a professional. Barriers to obtaining safety advice from professionals exist for mothers living in both areas. Mothers living in the advantaged area describe ‘feeling silly’ and that they should ‘know it already’ when talking to professionals. Mothers living in the disadvantaged area are less likely to access home safety advice due to fear of being perceived as an incompetent mother and the fear of social service involvement. Conclusions Mothers find home safety advice from other parents more useful and prefer this to advice from professionals. This suggests greater use could be made of appropriately trained parents to deliver safety advice and education. Fear and mistrust can limit access to child safety advice in parents living in disadvantaged areas and this may be a potential explanation for differential unintentional injury rates as those who need the advice and support most may be least likely to access it. Further research should explore how professionals can build trust, gain parents' confidence and provide child safety advice and education that is targeted appropriately to parents living circumstances and their child

  17. Contrasting approaches to ‘doing’ family meals: a qualitative study of how parents frame children’s food preferences

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children’s food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children’s food preferences in relation to family meal practices. A qualitative study was conducted with residents of Sandwell, UK. The results presented here are based on the responses of nine key participants and their families. Photo elicitation methods generated participant food photo diaries that were used to inform subsequent interviews. A thematic analysis revealed two contrasting ways of incorporating children’s tastes into family meal routines: (1) ‘what we fancy’ and (2) ‘regulated’. The former entails repeatedly consulting and negotiating with children over what to cook for each meal. It is supported by the practical strategies of multiple and individually modified meals. The latter relies upon parents developing a repertoire of meals that ‘work’ for the family. This repertoire is performed as a series of ‘set meals’ in which any requests for variation are strongly resisted. Our findings add to the small body of literature on household food provisioning and suggest that achieving the idealised ritual of the family meal is underpinned by a range of values and strategies, some of which may run counter to health messages about nutrition. PMID:27019551

  18. Qualitatively Different University Student Experiences of Inquiry: Associations among Approaches to Inquiry, Technologies and Perceptions of the Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    There is variation in the university student experience of learning. Prior research has shown that factors that shape this include student characteristics, the learning context, student perceptions of that context and approaches to learning and their learning outcomes. In blended contexts, there is a need to identify variables which can explain…

  19. The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyisi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…

  20. Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

    This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

  1. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  2. Phenomenological theory of uniaxial relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Shirokov, V B; Pavlenko, A V; Yuzyuk, Yu I

    2016-10-01

    A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of uniaxial relaxor strontium barium niobate [Formula: see text] is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach with two order parameters. The fourth-order thermodynamic potential allowed to explain the shape of the polarization hysteresis loops experimentally observed at different temperatures. We show that the broad maximum of the dielectric permittivity is not related to the phase transition and arise due to the coupling between polarization and true order parameter which has antiferroelectric nature. We found that the phase transition temperature is much higher than the maximum of the dielectric permittivity and very likely corresponds to so-called Burn's temperature. True order parameter has no simple relation with polar modes. PMID:27485244

  3. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective. PMID:25942432

  4. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union’s perspective. PMID:25942432

  5. Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James C., Ed.; James, Raymond A., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    "Qualitative evaluation" is the theme of this issue of the California Journal of Teacher Education. Ralph Tyler states that evaluation is essentially descriptive, and using numbers does not solve basic problems. Martha Elin Vernazza examines the issue of objectivity in history and its implications for evaluation. She posits that the decisive…

  6. Why we love or hate our cars: A qualitative approach to the development of a quantitative user experience survey.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Desmet, Pieter M A

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a more ecologically valid way of developing theory-based item questionnaires for measuring user experience. In this novel approach, items were generated using natural and domain-specific language of the research population, what seems to have made the survey much more sensitive to real experiences than theory-based ones. The approach was applied in a survey that measured car experience. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with drivers inside their cars. The resulting transcripts were analysed with the aim of capturing their natural utterances for expressing their car experience. This analysis resulted in 71 categories of answers. For each category, one sentence was selected to serve as a survey-item. In an online platform, 538 respondents answered the survey. Data reliability, tested with Cronbach alpha index, was 0.94, suggesting a survey with highly reliable results to measure drivers' appraisals of their cars. PMID:27184312

  7. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  8. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos de

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system's resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  9. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  10. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  11. Z' Phenomenology and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-10-17

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

  12. SLED phenomenology: curvature vs. volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We assess the question whether the SLED (Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions) model admits phenomenologically viable solutions with 4D maximal symmetry. We take into account a finite brane width and a scale invariance (SI) breaking dilaton-brane coupling, both of which should be included in a realistic setup. Provided that the brane tension and the microscopic size of the brane take generic values set by the fundamental bulk Planck scale, we find that either the 4D curvature or the size of the extra dimensions is unacceptably large. Since this result is independent of the dilaton-brane couplings, it provides the biggest challenge to the SLED program.

  13. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  14. FLIC Fermions and Hadron Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    D. Leinweber; J.N. Hedditch; W. Melnitchouk; A.W. Thomas; A.G. Williams; R.D. Young; J.M. Zanotti; J.B. Zhang

    2002-06-01

    A pedagogical overview of the formulation of the Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action and its associated phenomenology is described. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative order (a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing. Spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, even and odd parity baryon resonances are investigated in quenched QCD, where the nature of the Roper resonance and Lambda (1405) are of particular interest. FLIC fermions allow efficient access to the light quark-mass regime, where evidence of chiral nonanalytic behavior in the Delta mass is observed.

  15. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  16. A qualitative geographical information systems approach to explore how older people over 70 years interact with and define their neighbourhood environment

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Sarah; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Nanchahal, Kiran; Grundy, Chris; Amuzu, Antoinette; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being potentially more vulnerable to barriers in their surrounding social and physical environment. A qualitative geographical information systems (QGIS) approach was taken to facilitate the understanding of how older people over 70 in 5 UK towns interact with their local neighbourhood. The concept of neighbourhood changed seasonally and over the lifecourse, and was associated with social factors such as friends, family, or community activities, rather than places. Spaces stretched further than the local, which is problematic for older people who rely on variable public transport provision. QGIS techniques prompted rich discussions on interactions with and the meanings of ‘place’ in older people. PMID:26513597

  17. "I take up more responsibilities for my family's wellbeing" - A qualitative approach to the cultural aspects of resilience seen among young adults in Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Hebbani, Sudharshan; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2016-08-01

    Resilience refers to the pursuit of positive in the face of adversity. The present study using qualitative methods aimed to identify culture-specific factors linked to resilience. Participants, (N=31, aged 16-24 years) whose parents were being treated for chronic medical conditions or psychiatric disorders at St John's Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, were studied using Focused group discussion and In-depth interviews. Using the 'Grounded theory' approach, two major themes were identified as important factors influencing resilience: (1) Family and socially defined roles/responsibilities and in particular adherence to traditionally defined social responsibilities. (2) Participation in rituals and experiencing spirituality. Application and relevance of these themes in promoting resilience among young vulnerable adults are discussed. PMID:27520891

  18. A qualitative geographical information systems approach to explore how older people over 70 years interact with and define their neighbourhood environment.

    PubMed

    Milton, Sarah; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Nanchahal, Kiran; Grundy, Chris; Amuzu, Antoinette; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Lock, Karen

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being potentially more vulnerable to barriers in their surrounding social and physical environment. A qualitative geographical information systems (QGIS) approach was taken to facilitate the understanding of how older people over 70 in 5 UK towns interact with their local neighbourhood. The concept of neighbourhood changed seasonally and over the lifecourse, and was associated with social factors such as friends, family, or community activities, rather than places. Spaces stretched further than the local, which is problematic for older people who rely on variable public transport provision. QGIS techniques prompted rich discussions on interactions with and the meanings of 'place' in older people. PMID:26513597

  19. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  20. A phenomenological calculus of Wiener description space.

    PubMed

    Richardson, I W; Louie, A H

    2007-10-01

    The phenomenological calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the phenomenological calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the phenomenology are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium. PMID:17955459

  1. General Practitioners Views of Implementing a Stratified Treatment Approach for Low Back Pain in Germany: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Karstens, Sven; Joos, Stefanie; Hill, Jonathan C.; Krug, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Steinhäuser, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The STarT Back stratified primary care approach has demonstrated clinical and cost effectiveness in the UK, and is commonly used by General Practitioners (GPs). However, it remains unknown how this approach could be implemented into the German healthcare system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the views and perceptions of German GPs in respect to using a stratified primary care for low back pain (LBP). Methods A 90-minute think-tank workshop was conducted with 14 male and five female GPs, during which the STarT-Back-Screening-Tool (SBST) and related research evidence was presented. This was followed by two focus groups, based on a semi-structured interview guideline to identify potential implementation barriers and opportunities. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach. Results For the three deductively developed main themes, 15 subthemes emerged: (1) application of the SBST, with the following subthemes: which health profession should administer it, patients known to the GP practice, the reason for the GP consultation, scoring the tool, the tool format, and the anticipated impact on GP practice; (2) psychologically informed physiotherapy, with subthemes including: provision by a physiotherapist, anticipated impact, the skills of physiotherapists, management of patients with severe psychosocial problems, referral and remuneration; (3) the management of low-risk patients, with subthemes including: concern about the appropriate advising health professional, information and media, length of consultation, and local exercise venues. Conclusions The attitudes of GPs towards stratified primary care for LBP indicated positive support for pilot-testing in Germany. However, there were mixed reactions to the ability of German physiotherapists to manage high-risk patients and handle their complex clinical needs. GPs also mentioned practical difficulties in providing extended advice to low

  2. Routine Immunization Consultant Program in Nigeria: A Qualitative Review of a Country-Driven Management Approach for Health Systems Strengthening

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Meghan; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Since 2002, the Nigerian government has deployed consultants to states to provide technical assistance for routine immunization (RI). RI consultants are expected to play a role in supportive supervision of health facility staff, capacity building, advocacy, and monitoring and evaluation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the RI consultant program’s strengths and weaknesses in 7 states and at the national level from June to September 2014 using semi-structured interviews and online surveys. Participants included RI consultants, RI program leaders, and implementers purposively drawn from national, state, and local government levels. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data from the interviews, which were triangulated with results from the quantitative surveys. Findings: At the time of data collection, 23 of 36 states and the federal capital territory had an RI consultant. Of the 7 states visited during the study, only 3 states had present and visibly working consultants. We conducted 84 interviews with 101 participants across the 7 states and conducted data analysis on 70 interviews (with 82 individuals) that had complete data. Among the full sample of interview respondents (N = 101), most (66%) were men with an average age of 49 years (±5.6), and the majority were technical officers (63%) but a range of other roles were also represented, including consultants (22%), directors (13%), and health workers (2%). Fifteen consultants and 44 program leaders completed the online surveys. Interview data from the 3 states with active RI consultants indicated that the consultants’ main contribution was supportive supervision at the local level, particularly for collecting and using RI data for decision making. They also acted as effective advocates for RI funding. In states without an RI consultant, gaps were highlighted in data management capacity and in monitoring of RI funds. Program design strengths: the broad terms

  3. Cell phenomenology: The first phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Pattee, H H

    2015-12-01

    As a broad academic discipline phenomenology may be summarized as the study from a first person point of view of what appears to subjective human conscious experience. As a historical philosophical movement phenomenology was often motivated by the belief that subjective human experience is the proper foundation of all philosophy. I explore phenomena from a broader evolutionary and physical point of view. I consider a phenomenon as the subjective consequence of a physical interaction with an individual organism. In physical terms, a phenomenon requires some form of detection or measurement. What is detected is determined by the organism, and is potentially functional for the organism as a self or subject. The concept of function has meaning only for living organisms. The classical human mind-body problem is an ill-defined complicated case of the more general epistemic subject-object problem, which at the origin of life I reduce to the primitive symbol-matter problem. I argue that the first memory-based self-replicating unit, like a cell, is the most primitive case of a necessary symbol-matter distinction. The first phenomena, which include all forms or sensing, detection, and measurement, require a subject-object distinction, called the epistemic cut. It is only because of such a subject-object distinction that populations of individual subjects can selectively adapt to their environment by heritable variations. This basic evolutionary process requires distinguishing the individual's subjective phenomena from the objective events of inexorable physical laws. PMID:26140998

  4. C P -violating phenomenological MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Joshua; Cahill-Rowley, Matthew W.; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the next generation of flavor-based low-energy experiments to probe the supersymmetric parameter space in the context of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and examine the complementarity with direct searches for supersymmetry at the 13 TeV LHC in a quantitative manner. To this end, we enlarge the previously studied phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model parameter space to include all physical nonzero C P -violating phases, namely those associated with the gaugino mass parameters; Higgsino mass parameter and the trilinear couplings of the top quark, bottom quark, and tau lepton. We find that future electric dipole moment and flavor measurements can have a strong impact on the viability of these models even if the sparticle spectrum is out of reach of the 13 TeV LHC. In particular, the lack of positive signals in future low-energy probes would exclude values of the phases between O (1 0-2) and O (1 0-1). We also find regions of parameter space where large phases remain allowed due to cancellations. Most interestingly, in some rare processes, such as BR (Bs→μ+μ-) , we find that contributions arising from C P -violating phases can bring the potentially large supersymmetry contributions into better agreement with experiment and Standard Model predictions.

  5. Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  6. The phenomenology of the intersubjective impairment.

    PubMed

    Hipolito, Ines

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology. Taking the hypothesis that the second-person perspective is the congruence point between an objective process and the subjective experience, I will attempt to explain schizophrenia as a self-related deficit, first in the light of the first-person and the third-person perspective and afterward, in the light of the poorly less understood second-person perspective. On the one hand, the first-person experience is correlated both with space and time. In fact, psychiatric patients report subjective experiences that can be understood within research on the bodily self, such as (1) spatially incongruent proprioception and (2) impaired sense of time as the basic mechanism that allows conscious experience. On the other hand, the second-person approach has already begun to prove productive within social cognition research, pointing out the importance of experiencing and interacting with others as our primarily way well-being. I will phenomenological analyse subjective and intersubjective experience in the disorders of the self and derive practical consequences to evidence-based medicine. PMID:27237551

  7. A combined qualitative-quantitative approach for the identification of highly co-creative technology-driven firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyakov, Hristo; Tanev, Stoyan; Ruskov, Petko

    2010-10-01

    Value co-creation, is an emerging business and innovation paradigm, however, there is not enough clarity on the distinctive characteristics of value co-creation as compared to more traditional value creation approaches. The present paper summarizes the results from an empirically-derived research study focusing on the development of a systematic procedure for the identification of firms that are active in value co-creation. The study is based on a sample 273 firms that were selected for being representative of the breadth of their value co-creation activities. The results include: i) the identification of the key components of value co-creation based on a research methodology using web search and Principal Component Analysis techniques, and ii) the comparison of two different classification techniques identifying the firms with the highest degree of involvement in value co-creation practices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study using sophisticated data collection techniques to provide a classification of firms according to the degree of their involvement in value co-creation.

  8. A combined qualitative-quantitative approach for the identification of highly co-creative technology-driven firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyakov, Hristo; Tanev, Stoyan; Ruskov, Petko

    2011-03-01

    Value co-creation, is an emerging business and innovation paradigm, however, there is not enough clarity on the distinctive characteristics of value co-creation as compared to more traditional value creation approaches. The present paper summarizes the results from an empirically-derived research study focusing on the development of a systematic procedure for the identification of firms that are active in value co-creation. The study is based on a sample 273 firms that were selected for being representative of the breadth of their value co-creation activities. The results include: i) the identification of the key components of value co-creation based on a research methodology using web search and Principal Component Analysis techniques, and ii) the comparison of two different classification techniques identifying the firms with the highest degree of involvement in value co-creation practices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study using sophisticated data collection techniques to provide a classification of firms according to the degree of their involvement in value co-creation.

  9. The client-centred approach as experienced by male neurological rehabilitation clients in occupational therapy. A qualitative study based on a grounded theory tradition.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Dominique; Devisch, Ignaas; De Vriendt, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To explore the perspectives of male clients in a neurological rehabilitation setting with regard to the occupational therapy they have received and the client-centred approach. Method This study involved a qualitative research design based on the grounded theory tradition. Individual in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Seven male participants from an inpatient neurological setting were included using a theoretical sampling technique. Results Three themes emerged to describe the approach of the therapists to client-centred practice: (a) a shared biomedical focus as the start of the rehabilitation process, (b) the un-simultaneous shift from a biomedical towards a psycho-social focus and (c) formal versus informal nature of gathering client information. Conclusion A client-centred approach entails a shift from the therapist focussing on recovery from the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term consequences of the disease. According to the client, this shift in reasoning must occur at a specific and highly subjective moment during the rehabilitation process. Identifying this moment could strengthen the client-centred approach. Implications for Rehabilitation Client-centred practice entails a shift from recovering the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term psycho-social consequences of the disease. To be effective in client-centred practice, the clients expect from the professional to be an authority with regard to biomedical issues and to be partner with regard to psycho-social issues. Client-centred practice is most likely to be successful when client is susceptible to discuss his psycho-social issues and finding this moment is a challenge for the professional. Using formal methods for goal setting do not necessarily cover all the information needed for a client-centred therapy programme. Rather, using informal methods could lead to a more valid image of the client

  10. Mechanisms that Trigger a Good Health-Care Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Spain. Combining Realist Evaluation and Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Marchal, Bruno; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Otero-García, Laura; García-Quinto, Marta; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, especially those working in primary health-care services, can play a key role in preventing and responding to intimate partner violence. However, there are huge variations in the way health care professionals and primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence. In this study we tested a previously developed programme theory on 15 primary health care center teams located in four different Spanish regions: Murcia, C Valenciana, Castilla-León and Cantabria. The aim was to identify the key combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that trigger a good primary health care center team response to intimate partner violence. Methods A multiple case-study design was used. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from each of the 15 centers (cases). In order to handle the large amount of information without losing familiarity with each case, qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. Conditions (context and mechanisms) and outcomes, were identified and assessed for each of the 15 cases, and solution formulae were calculated using qualitative comparative analysis software. Results The emerging programme theory highlighted the importance of the combination of each team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and women-centredness in generating a good team response to intimate partner violence. The use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care were the most relevant contextual/intervention conditions to trigger a good response. However in order to achieve this, they must be combined with other conditions, such as an enabling team climate, having a champion social worker and having staff with training in intimate partner violence. Conclusions Interventions to improve primary health care teams’ response to intimate partner violence should focus on strengthening team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and the implementation of a woman-centred approach. The use of the

  11. Hamiltonian and phenomenological models of microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, B.; Dawson, K. A.; Lipkin, M. D.

    1986-12-01

    We review briefly a phenomenological microemulsion model, its phase diagram, and its interfacial tensions. We then describe a lattice model of a microemulsion, based on a prescribed Hamiltonian equivalent to that of an Ising model with competing nearest- and further-neighbor interactions. Its phase diagram and interfacial tensions are compared with those in the phenomenological model.

  12. Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…

  13. Drinking resumption: problematic alcohol use relapse after rehabilitation. A phenomenological hermeneutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kvamme, Brita Odland; Asplund, Kenneth; Bjerke, Trond Nergaard

    2015-12-01

    The majority of patients being treated for alcohol abuse disorders experience one or more relapses after treatment. The fact that people use this inebriant in a way leading to so much harm and suffering might seem a conundrum. Therapists, family and others might find the person's relapse to be dramatic and upsetting, and one might question whether the person has the sufficient will or motivation to change. However, few previous studies have explored relapse from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to illuminate the patient's lived experience of relapse and to develop a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. The study consisted of qualitative interviews using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Three main themes emerged from the analyses: 'craving', 'self-image' and 'time'. The findings were discussed in the context of phenomenological literature. Cravings could occur unpredictably; nevertheless, craving was a common experience for the patients and signified a risk of relapse. Bodily experiences of craving were frequently mentioned, and alcohol addiction could be understood as to be a disease or a learned habit. Self-image was, at times, adversely affected by relapse episodes. Therefore, feelings of shame, self-respect and recognition were significant concepts. This study found that the perception of time as past, present and future greatly influenced the participants' experiences of relapse and rehabilitation. Thus, relapse was an upsetting and dramatic experience that could cause great discomfort and sometimes life-threatening situations. However, relapse could also be viewed as a planned event. This study highlights important truth and reality about alcoholism and relapse grounded in people's lived experience. PMID:25851272

  14. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  15. Phenomenology of Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Feske, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about racial differences in borderline personality disorder (BPD) that may influence etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of women with BPD. A total of 83 women with BPD participated in this cross-sectional study: n = 41 white and n = 42 African-American women. Structured interviews were used to assess Axis I and II disorders, and a series of interviews and questionnaires captured internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The white women with BPD reported more severe internalizing symptoms, whereas the African-American women reported more severe externalizing symptoms. Except for the association between race and number of suicide attempts, the relationship between race and internalizing/externalizing symptoms was mediated by socioeconomic status. In conclusion, African-American women with BPD may present with more severe symptoms of lack of anger control and fewer suicidal behaviors than those of white women with BPD, raising the possibility that they are misdiagnosed and receive treatments that are not optimal for BPD. PMID:24284636

  16. Qualitative perspectives in translational research.

    PubMed

    Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Doebbeling, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    The rapid uptake of qualitative approaches in translational research can be best understood in the context of recent innovations in health services research, as well as an overarching concern with improving the quality of health care. Qualitative approaches highlight the human dimension in health care by foregrounding the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of both consumers and providers of care. As such, these methods are particularly useful for addressing the complex issues related to improving health care quality and implementing system change. This overview traces a brief history of the factors contributing to the recent and rapid growth of qualitative methods in health research in general and translational research in particular; describes the varieties of qualitative approaches employed in this research; and illustrates the utility of these approaches for variable identification, instrument development, description/explanation of patient/provider perceptions and behaviors, individual/organizational change, and theory refinement. PMID:17129338

  17. One Health and EcoHealth in Ontario: a qualitative study exploring how holistic and integrative approaches are shaping public health practice in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health

  18. The development of an instrument that can identify children with palliative care needs: the Paediatric Palliative Screening Scale (PaPaS Scale): a qualitative study approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The introduction of paediatric palliative care and referral to specialised teams still occurs late in the illness trajectory of children with life-limiting diseases. The aim of this ongoing multipart study was to develop a screening instrument for paediatricians that would improve the timely identification of children who could benefit from a palliative care approach. Methods We used a qualitative study approach with semi-structured interviews (Part 1) and a focus group discussion (Part 2) to define the domains and items of the screening instrument. Seven international paediatric palliative care experts from the UK, France, USA, and Canada took part in face-to-face interviews, and eleven paediatric health professionals from the University Children’s Hospital, Zurich, participated in a subsequent focus group discussion. Results This preliminary phase of development and validation of the instrument revealed five domains relevant to identifying children with life-limiting diseases, who could benefit from palliative care: 1) trajectory of disease and impact on daily activities of the child; 2) expected outcome of disease-directed treatment and burden of treatment; 3) symptom and problem burden; 4) preferences of patient, parents or healthcare professional; and 5) estimated life expectancy. Where palliative care seems to be necessary, it would be introduced in a stepwise or graduated manner. Conclusions This study is a preliminary report of the development of an instrument to facilitate timely introduction of palliative care in the illness trajectory of a severely ill child. The instrument demonstrated early validity and was evaluated as being a valuable approach towards effective paediatric palliative care. PMID:23657092

  19. Ab Initio and Phenomenological Modeling of the Phonon Spectrum of Superhard cp-BC2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basalaev, Yu. M.; Kopytov, A. V.; Pavlova, T. Yu.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The phonon spectrum of hypothetical superhard cp-BC2N is calculated based on ab initio method of density functional in the center of the Brillouin zone and interpolated over the entire Brillouin zone using the Keating phenomenological model. The interaction parameters are determined by optimization of the IR- and Ramanactive frequencies for a phenomenological model by their comparison with the results of ab initio calculations. Numerical values of short-range interaction constants and charges are in agreement with the characteristics of the chemical bond calculated ab initio. These parameters have transparent physical meaning and chemical nature and can further be used for both qualitative estimations of any physical and physico-chemical quantities and quantitative calculations of the phonon spectra of a number of isostructural compounds. The Keating phenomenological model is used to study the genesis of the phonon spectrum from the spectra of sublattices.

  20. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  1. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  2. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  3. A Qualitative Approach to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Hermann

    In the teaching of physics, the study of electricity and magnetism typically follows the introduction of the basic concepts of mechanics. However, there are some new concepts associated with electromagnetic fields that seem at first to the student to be unrelated to, or even incompatible with, Newton's third law as learned in mechanics.…

  4. A Qualitative Approach to Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Velázquez-Quesada, Fernando R.

    We focus on modelling dual epistemic attitudes (belief-disbelief, knowledge-ignorance, like-dislike) of an agent. This provides an interesting way to express different levels of uncertainties explicitly in the logical language. After introducing a dual modal framework, we discuss the different possibilities of an agent's attitude towards a proposition that can be expressed in this framework, and provide a preliminary look at the dynamics of the situation.

  5. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  6. Comprehensive Qualitative Ingredient Profiling of Chinese Herbal Formula Wu-Zhu-Yu Decoction via a Mass Defect and Fragment Filtering Approach Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Niu, Huibin; He, Bosai; Cui, Chang; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-01

    The Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of headache. To reveal its material basis, a rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method was established for comprehensive profiling of the chemical ingredients in the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction. The method was used on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer along with an advanced data processing procedure consisting of mass accuracy screening, mass defect filtering and fragment filtering. After eliminating interference with a filtering approach, the MS data profiling was made more distinct and accurate. With the optimized conditions of only 35 min LC separation and single sample injection of each positive or negative ion mode, a total of 168 compounds were characterized, including 23 evodiamine and its analogous alkaloids, 12 limonoids, 17 gingerols, 38 ginsenosides, 15 flavonoids, 16 organic acids, 14 alkaloids, 5 saponins, 3 2,2-dimethylchromenes and 25 other compounds. The fragmentation patterns of representative compounds were illustrated as well. Integrative qualitative analysis of the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by high resolution mass spectrometry was accomplished and reported for the first time. The study demonstrated that the established method was a powerful and reliable strategy for comprehensive detection and would be widely applicable for identification of complicated components from herbal prescriptions, and may provide a basis for chemical analysis of other complex mixtures. PMID:27213316

  7. Qualitative estimation of the single-electron transfer step energetics mediated by samarium(II) complexes: a "SOMO-LUMO gap" approach.

    PubMed

    Kefalidis, Christos E; Essafi, Stéphanie; Perrin, Lionel; Maron, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    Lanthanide II organometallic complexes usually initiate reactions via a single-electron transfer (SET) from the metal to a bonded substrate. Extensive mechanistic studies were carried out for lanthanide III complexes in which no change of oxidation state is involved. Some case-dependent strategies were reported by our group in order to account for a SET event in organometallic computed studies. In the present study, we show that analysis of DFT orbital spectra allows differentiating between exothermic and endothermic electron transfer. This methodology appears to be general; it allows differentiating between lanthanide centers and substituent effects on metallocenes. For that purpose, we considered mainly various samarocene adducts as well as a SmI2 complex explicitly solvated by THF. Comparison between DFT methods and ab initio (CAS-SCF and HF) computational level revealed that the SOMO-LUMO gap computed at the DFT B3PW91 level, in combination with small-core RECPs and standard basis sets, offers a qualitative estimation of the energetics of the SET that is in line with both CAS-SCF calculations and experimental results when available. This orbital-based approach, based on DFT calculation, affords a fast and efficient methodology for pioneer exploration of the reactivity of lanthanide(II) mediated by SET. PMID:24620762

  8. Applying qualitative data derived from a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) approach to develop a community-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watthayu, Nantiya; Wenzel, Jennifer; Panchareounworakul, Kobkul

    2015-01-01

    HIV education programs are needed to address risk-taking behavior for adolescents. The purpose of our study was to use the World Health Organization's Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) method to design a community-based, cultural- and age-appropriate HIV prevention program for adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent single-gender-specific focus groups (n = 3; 28 participants) were used to gather reactions/ideas about program topics/approaches. An adult, mixed-gender group was held to review information identified by adolescents. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Themes regarding HIV content and the process of implementation emerged from a qualitative content analysis of the data. Community representatives recommended incorporation of HIV information and risk-prevention skills. Information delivery suggestions included small group discussions, interactive games/role-playing, program materials/terminology, and HIV-infected program facilitators. Community members provided critical input toward an HIV prevention program tailored to meet adolescents' unique needs/interests. The RAR model provides opportunities to engage communities in developing health-related interventions. PMID:26279387

  9. The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pies, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

  10. Inferring phenomenological models of Markov processes from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Catalina; Nemenman, Ilya

    Microscopically accurate modeling of stochastic dynamics of biochemical networks is hard due to the extremely high dimensionality of the state space of such networks. Here we propose an algorithm for inference of phenomenological, coarse-grained models of Markov processes describing the network dynamics directly from data, without the intermediate step of microscopically accurate modeling. The approach relies on the linear nature of the Chemical Master Equation and uses Bayesian Model Selection for identification of parsimonious models that fit the data. When applied to synthetic data from the Kinetic Proofreading process (KPR), a common mechanism used by cells for increasing specificity of molecular assembly, the algorithm successfully uncovers the known coarse-grained description of the process. This phenomenological description has been notice previously, but this time it is derived in an automated manner by the algorithm. James S. McDonnell Foundation Grant No. 220020321.

  11. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV. PMID:22296733

  12. Comments on Mohammed Abouelleil Rashed's "A critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics".

    PubMed

    Schlimme, Jann E; Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mental life of persons with psychosis/schizophrenia has been the crucial challenge of psychiatry since its origins, both for scientific models as well as for every therapeutic encounter between persons with and without psychosis/schizophrenia. Nonetheless, a preliminary understanding is always the first step of phenomenological as well as other qualitative research methods addressing persons with psychotic experiences in their life-world. In contrast to Rashed's assertions, in order to achieve such understanding, phenomenological psychopathologists need not necessarily adopt the transcendental-phenomenological attitude, which, however, is often required if performing phenomenological philosophy. Additionally, in the course of these (non-philosophical) scientific endeavors, differences between persons with psychosis/schizophrenia and so-called normal people seem to have a methodological function and value driving the scientist in her enterprise. Yet, these differences do not extend to ethical dimensions, and therefore, do not by any means touch ethical equality. PMID:25820145

  13. Phenomenological modeling of geometric metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Guo, Qinghua; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Metasurfaces, with their superior capability in manipulating the optical wavefront at the subwavelength scale and low manufacturing complexity, have shown great potential for planar photonics and novel optical devices. However, vector field simulation of metasurfaces is so far limited to periodic-structured metasurfaces containing a small number of meta-atoms in the unit cell by using full-wave numerical methods. Here, focusing on achiral meta-atoms only with electric polarizability and thickness far less than the wavelength of light, and ignoring the coupling between meta-atoms, we propose a general phenomenological method to analytically model the metasurfaces based on the assumption that the meta-atoms possess localized resonances with Lorentz-Drude forms, whose exact form can be retrieved from the full wave simulation of a single element. Applied to phase modulated geometric metasurfaces constituted by identical meta-atoms with different orientations, our analytical results show good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. The proposed theory provides an efficient method to model and design optical devices based on metasurfaces. PMID:27137005

  14. A General Survey of Qualitative Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Rick

    Current definitions and philosophical foundations of qualitative research are presented; and designs, evaluation methods, and issues in application of qualitative research to education are discussed. The effects of positivism and the post-positivist era on qualitative research are outlined, and naturalist and positivist approaches are contrasted.…

  15. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-09-05

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  17. Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.

  18. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Emma P; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole - showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  19. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole – showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  20. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    PubMed

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. PMID:23138331

  1. Academic rigour in the lived experience of researchers using phenomenological methods in nursing.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Beeby, J; Parker, D

    1995-06-01

    In its quest for knowledge, nursing has relied heavily on the positivist approach to scientific enquiry. Phenomenological enquiry identifies the essence of a phenomenon and accurately describes it through the lived experience. Through consistency in the use of the methodology, and avoidance of method slurring, academic rigour can be maintained. It is advocated that the phenomenological method is congruent with nursing ideals where humanistic knowledge is valued. Nurses and phenomenologists share skills in observation, interviewing, interaction and interpersonal relationships in the appreciation of the individual's perception of an experience. Through the development of professional practice, nurses thus gain the tools to assist them in phenomenological research. It is suggested that, given appropriate attention to rigour, phenomenological methodology could become the basic instrument in the reform of nursing research as it moves from the positivist to the humanist paradigm. PMID:7665777

  2. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding

  3. A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants, nine teachers and three administrators, volunteered for this six-week study at a private, K3-12 school in Broward County, Florida. The…

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Teacher and Administrator Experiences in the Analysis and Interpretation of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Matthew William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative empirical phenomenological study was to examine the experience of analyzing and interpreting student assessment data from the perspective of both teachers and administrators in order to identify: (a) those aspects of the experiences which are similar or dissimilar among the two groups, (b) the priorities and…

  5. "I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this…

  6. A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Educational, Vocational and Social Experiences of College Educated Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Mary-Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Students who are visually impaired have significantly lower educational and vocational success rates than their nondisabled peers (Hasazi, Johnson, Hasazi, Gordon, & Hull, 1989; Nagle, 2001). A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to explore the educational, vocational and social experiences of college educated individuals who were…

  7. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  8. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  9. A Phenomenological Exploration of Mandatory Parental or Guardian Involvement with an At-Risk Student Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Julia Christina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perception of parent or guardian involvement from a constructivist viewpoint during intervention programs located in Hampton 2 and Pickens counties. The current study involved 15 interviews via three sets of participants, six parents, five teachers and four administrators.…

  10. Making the Change: From a Teacher-Centered to a Learner-Centered Environment--A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, Patty L.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education is calling for transformation in teaching practices which includes learner-centered environments. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore 15 nursing faculty life experiences as they relate to the choice of a learning environment. Participants expressed their life experiences through interview…

  11. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  12. A Phenomenological Exploration of Nurses' Perceptions of the Effect of Electronic Documentation on Healing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Sharon Lee

    2011-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study was an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the effect of information technology on healing relationships between nurses and patients. Extensive advancements in health care information technology have developed over the last decade, and have affected the health care environment. The increased time and…

  13. Implementation of Apple's iPad as an Instructional Tool in the Elementary Language Arts Classroom: A Phenomenological Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolarcik, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how elementary educators implement iPad devices as instructional tools to enhance their language arts instruction. The study used a phenomenological qualitative design with a single-subject case study design coupled with an embedded rubric component. The researcher conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews, classroom…

  14. A phenomenological finite element model of stereolithography processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.

    1996-03-01

    In the stereolithography process, three dimensional parts are built layer by layer using a laser to selectively cure slices of a photocurable resin, one on top of another. As the laser spot passes over the surface of the resin, the ensuing chemical reaction causes the resin to shrink and stiffen during solidification. When laser paths cross or when new layers are cured on top of existing layers, residual stresses are generated as the cure shrinkage of the freshly gelled resin is constrained by the adjoining previously-cured material. These internal stresses can cause curling in the compliant material. A capability for performing finite element analyses of the stereolithography process has been developed. Although no attempt has been made to incorporate all the physics of the process, a numerical platform suitable for such development has been established. A methodology and code architecture have been structured to allow finite elements to be birthed (activated) according to a prescribed order mimicking the procedure by which a laser is used to cure and build-up surface layers of resin to construct a three dimensional geometry. In its present form, the finite element code incorporates a simple phenomenological viscoelastic material model of solidification that is based on the shrinkage and relaxation observed following isolated, uncoupled laser exposures. The phenomenological material model has been used to analyze the curl in a simple cantilever beam and to make qualitative distinctions between two contrived build styles.

  15. Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Doerr-Zegers, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative. PMID:12728513

  16. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Background Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students’ and tutors’ experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. Methods The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Results Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor–student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. Conclusions It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students’ cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process. PMID:27396900

  17. Bitter experiences of elderly parents of children with intellectual disabilities: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Hamedanchi, Arya; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fadayevatan, Reza; Teymouri, Robab; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is predicted that over the next 30 years, there will be a significant increase in the number of elderly parents who care for their children with intellectual disability. This paper is part of a larger qualitative study which investigated the unpleasant experiences of these parents. Materials and Methods: A phenomenological approach was adopted and data were collected through unstructured in-depth interviews with elderly parents of children with intellectual disability. The data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven-step method. Results: “Bitterness” is one of the four emergent themes extracted in this study which has five theme clusters: inappropriate behavior toward the child in the society, the society's failure to support the child with intellectual disability, sorrows experienced by parents, the child's problems, and barriers in the care of the child with intellectual disability. One significant barrier in the last theme cluster is limitations due to aging. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the elderly parents of children with intellectual disability experience many sorrows and unpleasant feelings, but they mostly consider the social factors as the cause of problems and not the presence of the child. The results also indicate that older parents cannot look after the child as before in their old age; so, future well-designed studies are required for identification of the process of supporting them. PMID:27186205

  18. Narrative and psychotherapy--the phenomenology of healing.

    PubMed

    Mishara, A L

    1995-01-01

    In part I, I presented some results of empirical research on mind/body relationship: writing about traumatic experiences brings about improved psychological and physiological health. One important factor of healing in psychotherapy is thereby isolated empirically. In part II, it was shown that the cognitive science explanation of these findings, however, is based on categories deriving from common sense and is insufficient. Phenomenological method can serve as a form of criticism of the assumptions shared by most contemporary approaches to the human mind and brain in psychology, psychiatry, and medicine (e. g. cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioral, and biological). In part III, I presented research and concepts developed in the phenomenological tradition that have bearing on the problem of the healing factor in narrative acts (in writing and speech), including the "talking cure" of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. I described the problem of the unconscious in narrative acts from the phenomenological point of view and provide an alternative explanation for their healing effects. In short, the way we overcome painful and traumatic experiences is not seen in terms of the cognitive theory in which a painful feeling is "translated" into a cognitive or linguistic representation that organizes it. Such a theory objectifies the human subject. Healing through narration and "opening up," involves an existential act of self-transcendence of an embodied person who organizes his/her experience in time. PMID:7677199

  19. Building resilience in burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of building resilience as a strategy for responding to adversity experienced by burns nurses. Nurses who care for patients with severe burn injury are often exposed to patients' pain and disfigurement, encountering emotional exhaustion, distress, reduced self-esteem, and desensitization to pain. Resilience has been identified as an essential characteristic for nurses in their work environment. Resilience assists nurses to bounce back and to cope in the face of adversity, sustaining them through difficult and challenging working environments. Nonetheless, there remains limited information that addresses the concept of building resilience in burns nurses. In 2009, seven burns nurses were recruited from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The concept of building resilience as a strategy for coping with adversity was identified and organized into six categories: toughening up, natural selection, emotional toughness, coping with the challenges, regrouping and recharging, and emotional detachment. The findings clearly demonstrate that it is vital for burns nurses to build resilience to endure the emotional trauma of nursing patients with severe burn injury. Knowledge about building resilience could be incorporated into nursing education for both undergraduate and experienced nurses. Building resilience within the domain of burns nursing has the potential to retain nurses within the profession, having implications for staff development, orientation, and retention. PMID:21747335

  20. Embodied "Inter-Learning"--An Integral Phenomenology of Learning in and by Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupers, Wendelin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Based on showing the significance of embodied and relational learning, this paper aims for contributing to a more comprehensive and integral approach to learning in and of organizations and its underlying dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: Methodologically, advanced phenomenology and an integral framework are used for generating a…

  1. The scope for qualitative methods in research and clinical trials in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Grant; Timlin, Alison; Curran, Stephen; Wattis, John

    2004-07-01

    In the evaluation of drugs, the randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial is the 'gold standard'. This method, based on a positivist paradigm, answers questions about efficacy and side-effects of treatments that are accepted as valid, reliable and generalisable, provided the study is well designed and properly conducted. In contrast, qualitative research methodologies, originating from the social sciences, embrace a variety of approaches, including phenomenological and other paradigms. Within clinical and health services research, qualitative approaches view the world more subjectively, acknowledging that the researcher is part of what is researched, focusing on meanings and understanding of experience, rather than on what can be reduced to quantitative measures. They can develop new ideas through induction from data, rather than confirming or refuting hypotheses. Qualitative methods have improved our understanding of the experiences of people with dementia and, if used alongside clinical trials, could be used to improve the relevance of outcomes to patients, compliance and user involvement. They could also possibly generate new measures of efficacy and effectiveness in severe dementia. PMID:15226116

  2. On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Félix; Nicot, François

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this paper is to compare a phenomenological constitutive relation and a micro-mechanical model with respect to a basic issue regularly raised about granular assemblies: the incrementally non-linear character of their behaviour. It is shown that both phenomenological and micro-mechanical models exhibit an incremental non-linearity. In addition, the multi-scale approach reveals that the macroscopic incremental non-linearity could stem from the change in the regime of local contacts between particles (from plastic regime to elastic regime) in terms of the incremental macroscopic loading direction. Copyright

  3. The problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss.

    PubMed

    Moyle, W; Clinton, M

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses a methodological difficulty that arose when uncovering the conscious experience of being nurtured as an in-patient with depression on a psychiatric ward. It considers the problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss in a patient who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The paper begins by describing the prevalence of depression and its significance for nurses working in in-patient settings. Examples of empirical research into memory loss in depression are used to show what researchers must set aside if they are to arrive at a phenomenological description of memory loss. The choice of a phenomenological approach to the wider study from which the methodological problem discussed here arose is then justified. The phenomena of memory is introduced to show the methodological significance of attempting to arrive at a phenomenological description of the statement made by one of the participants, a woman being treated as an in-patient for major depression. A possible description of the phenomena of memory loss based on the existential phenomenology of Sartre is offered to call into question the ability of researchers to bracket their assumptions. The significance for nurses of the wider study from which our example is taken is then described. Finally it is argued that despite the methodological difficulty described, a phenomenological perspective based on the philosophy of Husserl can point nurses in the direction of meeting the human needs of their patients. PMID:9231285

  4. Theory and phenomenology of sparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drees, M.; Godbole, Rohini M.; Roy, Probir

    the MSSM -- ch. 9. Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM. 9.1. The content of [symbol]SOFT. 9.2. Electroweak gauginos and higgsinos. 9.3. Chargino and neutralino interactions with gauge bosons. 9.4. Masses and mixing patterns of sfermions. 9.5. The flavor problem in supersymmetry. 9.6. Interactions of sfermions with gauge bosons. 9.7. Fermion-sfermion-gaugino/higgsino interactions. 9.8. Quartic sfermion vertices -- ch. 10. Higgs bosons in the MSSM. 10.1. Higgs potential in the MSSM. 10.2. Spontaneous breakdown and VEVs. 10.3. Higgs masses at the tree level. 10.4. Higgs-particle vertices. 10.5. Higgs-sparticle vertices. 10.6. Radiative effects on MSSM Higgs particles -- ch. 11. Evolution from very high energies. 11.1. The need for a high scale. 11.2. The running of gauge couplings in the SM and the MSSM. 11.3. Derivation of the remaining RGE equations. 11.4. Application to the MSSM -- ch. 12. Gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. 12.1. General remarks. 12.2. N=l supergravity broken in the hidden sector. 12.3. mSUGRA and its parameters. 12.4. Phenomenology with mSUGRA. 12.5. Beyond mSUGRA. 12.6. Quantum effects and extra dimensions. 12.7. Annex to Ch.12: A brief discussion of N=1 supergravity theory -- ch. 13. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. 13.1. The basic ingredients. 13.2. The minimal model mGMSB. 13.3. Nonminimal messenger sector. 13.4. The [symbol] and B[symbol] problems. 13.5. Direct messenger-matter coupling. 13.6. Flavor symmetries for the GMSB scenario -- ch. 14. Beyond the MSSM. 14.1. Motivation and outline. 14.2. The next-to-the-minimal supersymmetric standard model. 14.3. Introduction to imparity violation. 14.4. Phenomenological limits on trilinear [symbol] couplings. 14.5. Bilinear [symbol] violation. 14.6. Neutrino masses in supersymmetric theories -- ch. 15. Supersymmetry at colliders. 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Signals of charginos and neutralinos. 15.3. Signals of sleptons. 15.4. Signals of gluinos and squarks. 15.5. The quest for

  5. The Experience of Antiretroviral Treatment for Black West African Women who are HIV Positive and Living in London: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A; Poliquin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Jane; Horne, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers a powerful intervention in HIV but effectiveness can be compromised by inadequate adherence. This paper is a detailed examination of the experience of medication in a purposively selected group of people living with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV positive, West African women of black heritage living in London, UK. This group was of interest since it is the second largest group affected by HIV in the UK. Interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis, an idiographic, experiential, qualitative approach. The paper details the women's negative experience of treatment. ART can be considered difficult and unrelenting and may be disconnected from the women's sense of health or illness. Participants' social context often exacerbated the difficulties. Some reported an improvement in their feelings about the medication over time. These findings point to some intrinsic and social motivators which could act as spurs to adherence. PMID:26767539

  6. Phenomenological modelling of eclipsing system light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk

    2015-12-01

    Context. The observed light curves of most eclipsing binaries and stars with transiting planets can be described well and interpreted by current advanced physical models that also allow for determining many of the physical parameters of eclipsing systems. However, for several common practical tasks, there is no need to know the detailed physics of a variable star, but only the shapes of their light curves or other phase curves. Aims: We present a set of phenomenological models for the light curves of eclipsing systems. Methods: We express the observed light curves of eclipsing binaries and stars, which are transited by their exoplanets orbiting in circular trajectories, by a sum of special, analytical, few-parameter functions that enable fitting their light curves with an accuracy of better than 1%. The proposed set of phenomenological models of eclipsing variable light curves were then tested on several real systems. For XY Bootis, we also give a detailed comparison of the results obtained using our phenomenological modelling with those found using available physical models. Results: We demonstrate that the proposed phenomenological models of transiting exoplanet and eclipsing binary light curves applied to ground-based photometric observations yield results compatible with those obtained by applying more complex physical models. Conclusions: The suggested phenomenological modelling appears useful for solving a number of common tasks in the field of eclipsing variable research.

  7. Publishing Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Lee

    1987-01-01

    Article defines qualitative research and describes the form that an article based on qualitative research might take. Encourages readers to submit articles based on qualitative research to the American Educational Research Journal. (RB)

  8. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  9. The Qualitative Method of Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Lawrence B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative methods of impact analysis and provides an introductory treatment of one such approach. Combines an awareness of an alternative causal epistemology with current knowledge of qualitative methods of data collection and measurement to produce an approach to the analysis of impacts. (SLD)

  10. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-07-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α2logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length ahπ-p=0.0870(5)mπ-1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4π)=14.04(17).

  11. The phenomenology of intense electromagnetic wave interactions with systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1986-03-12

    Recent advances in laboratory high power microwave (HPM) source capabilities have raised concerns regarding the survivability of US systems if HPM weapon systems using such sources are deployed in the battlefield. In this paper an overview of recent US achievements in HPM sources is given. Upper bounds to future HPM threats on targets from first principles are derived. Again using a simplified first principles approach, the phenomenology of HPM interaction with targets is examined and scaling laws for the target response with frequency, pulse width, and fluence are derived.

  12. [Phenomenological theory of the recuperative period of the living organism].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Sazonov, S V

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological nonlinear model, describing a reconstruction of the living organism after strong loading have been proposed. This model is describing a restitution dynamics of the organism functional state to the initial state, including a supercompensation stage. In a simplest (one-component) case this model is overdamping Duffing oscillator. It is shown that the mutation phenomena may be described as the phase transition within the framework of Landau-Khalatnikov approach. A generalized many-component nonlinear reconstruction model is proposed. PMID:9172700

  13. Phenomenology of current-induced skyrmion motion in antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velkov, H.; Gomonay, O.; Beens, M.; Schwiete, G.; Brataas, A.; Sinova, J.; Duine, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study current-driven skyrmion motion in uniaxial thin film antiferromagnets in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions and in an external magnetic field. We phenomenologically include relaxation and current-induced torques due to both spin–orbit coupling and spatially inhomogeneous magnetic textures in the equation for the Néel vector of the antiferromagnet. Using the collective coordinate approach we apply the theory to a two-dimensional antiferromagnetic skyrmion and estimate the skyrmion velocity under an applied DC electric current.

  14. Phenomenology of colloidal crystal electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medebach, Martin; Palberg, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    We studied the motion of polycrystalline solids comprising of charged sub-micron latex spheres suspended in deionized water. These were subjected to a low frequency alternating square wave electric field in an optical cell of rectangular cross section. Velocity profiles in X and Y direction were determined by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. The observed complex flow profiles are time dependent due to the combined effects of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, crystal elasticity, and friction of the crystals at the cell wall. On small time scales elastic deformation occurs. On long time scales channel formation is observed. At intermediate times steady state profiles are dominated by a solid plug of polycrystalline material moving in the cell center. At large field strengths the plug shear melts. Mobilities in the shear molten state are on the order of (6.5±0.5) 10-8 m2 V-1 s-1 and connect continuously with those of the equilibrium fluid. The apparent mobility of the plug is much larger than of the fluid and like the mobility of the fluid decreases with increasing particle number density. We qualitatively attribute the accelerated motion of the plug to an incomplete exposure to the electro-osmotic flow profile.

  15. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. PMID:20564757

  16. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  17. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  18. Qualitative research: comments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Schutz, R W

    1989-03-01

    Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822

  19. [Phenomenography--a way to do qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Simoila, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate theoretical principles, possibilities and limits of the qualitative research method called phenomenography. The article is based on a literature review. Phenomenography is a research methodology initiated by Ference Marton and his research group in Sweden in the 1970s. Unlike phenomenology, phenomenography is not a philosophical school. It is a pragmatic method for doing qualitative research. In phenomenography, the aim of research is to describe the qualitatively different ways in which people perceive the world around them (the second-order perspective). The most common method of data collection is thematic interviewing. The results are categories of description representing the different conceptions of a phenomenon found among a certain population. Phenomenography is a useful method for qualitative analyses. However, it has also been criticized for a static view of human thought--a criticism that points toward the risks of relying on a single method in qualitative research. PMID:8484953

  20. Bridging distance and culture with a cyberspace method of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Liu, Huaping; Nishimura, Chie; Summers, Linda C

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research method that weds the cyberspace technology of e-mail with a phenomenological research approach. Examples are provided from 2 separate data sets. One data set explored the meaning of health for Japanese elders; the second explored Chinese nurses' experience of taking care of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lessons learned while using the cyberspace method are discussed, including guidance for organizing a long-distance research team, the central place of trust, and the time when e-mail communication demands to be supplemented with face-to-face interaction. The potential for bridging distance and culture with this cyberspace method is introduced for consideration and critique. PMID:15455580

  1. Is the experience of meaningful activities understood in nursing homes? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Gómez-Calero, Cristina; Cachón-Pérez, José Miguel; Velarde-García, Juan Francisco; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa; Pérez-De-Heredia, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Lack of occupation can lead to boredom, apathy, social exclusion and solitude. Occupation should incorporate meaningful activities. The aim of this study is to describe how Spanish Nursing Home residents experienced and made sense of meaningful activities. A qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. Data were collected over an 18-month period between 2012 and 2014. Purposeful sampling was conducted with Spanish residents in nursing homes in Madrid. Data were collected using unstructured and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using the Giorgi proposal. Thirty-eight residents (20 female and 18 male) participated. Three main themes describing the significance of meaningful activity in nursing homes emerged from the data: Feeling the passage of time, Seeking an occupation, and Living with restrictions. Nursing homes should strive to develop diverse and meaningful activity programs for residents in order to occupy their time and provide them with a greater sense of purpose. PMID:26626463

  2. Insights into Pain: A Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Mike; Rodham, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research exposes and explores important aspects of the pain experience that are inaccessible to other approaches. Qualitative work adopts a different epistemological and ontological perspective to quantitative work. Qualitative research is not well established in the field of pain, but is growing. More interpretative engagement with qualitative data is required. PMID:26527327

  3. The perception of intuition in clinical practice by Iranian critical care nurses: a phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Parkhide; Abdi, Alireza; Jalali, Rostam; Salari, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Intuition as a way of learning in nursing is applied to decision making and judgment in complicated clinical situations. Several studies have been conducted on intuition in clinical settings, but comprehension of this concept is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about intuition in critical care nurses caring for more seriously ill patients. This study aimed to explore Iranian critical care nurses’ understanding of intuition in clinical practice. Methods In a descriptive–phenomenological study, 12 nurses employed in critical care units of the hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were purposively recruited to the study. A semistructured interview was administered, and then written verbatim. The data were managed by MAXQDA 10 software, and qualitative analysis was undertaken using the seven-stage approach of Colaizzi. Results Of the 12 nurses who participated in the study, 7 (58.3%) were female and married, and 10 (88.3%) held a bachelor’s degree in nursing. The mean and standard deviations of participants’ age, job experience, and critical care experience were 36.66±7.01, 13.75±6.82, and 7.66±3.36 years, respectively. Four main themes and eleven sub-themes were elicited from the qualitative analysis; the main themes including “Understanding intuition as a feeling”, “Understanding intuition as a thought”, “Understanding intuition as receiving signs”, and “Understanding intuition as an alarm”. Because they have trust in their own intuition, the nurses made further assessments and paid more attention to patients. They were also better prepared after receiving intuition alarms to perform the appropriate responses, and acting upon the alarms reduced the nurses’ physical and psychological signs. Conclusion The findings showed how intuition was understood by the critical care nurses; therefore, these results can be considered to form a theoretical basis for designing other studies. Because

  4. Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72 years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60 months (median=26 months, mean=24 months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae. PMID:24694625

  5. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  6. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  7. The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

  8. An Historical Phenomenology of Mean and Median

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arthur; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Using Freudenthal's method of historical phenomenology, the history of statistics was investigated as a source of inspiration for instructional design. Based on systematically selected historical examples, hypotheses were formulated about how students could be supported in learning to reason with particular statistical concepts and graphs. Such a…

  9. A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

  10. Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of…

  11. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-22

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  12. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.

  13. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  14. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  15. Using Risk Group Profiles as a Lightweight Qualitative Approach for Intervention Development: An Example of Prevention of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Velsen, Lex; van Gemert - Pijnen, Julia EWC; Maat, Angelique; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Crutzen, Rik

    2013-01-01

    groups were as follows: (1) outdoor people that check for tick bites, (2) outdoor people that do not check for tick bites, (3) parents that check their children for tick bites, and (4) parents that do not check their children for tick bites. Previous experience with ticks or LD was the main denominator between the groups. Checking for tick bites is a more easily adopted measure than preventing tick bites. Therefore, for all groups, public health efforts in the future should primarily emphasize on the importance of checking for tick bites. Conclusions The lightweight qualitative approach presented in this paper is highly relevant in tailoring public health efforts toward specific groups. The profiles of members in each risk group and the motivations underlying the behaviors of the members in each risk group can be used to determine the features and content of a targeted communication strategy about ticks and LD. PMID:24172875

  16. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  17. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  18. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  19. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  20. Phenomenological implications of string-motivated supersymmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yongyan

    2011-12-01

    TeV scale softly broken supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the best-motivated candidates for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The phenomenology of supersymmetric theories depends in detail on how supersymmetry is broken, since exact supersymmetry is known not to exist in nature. It is thus of crucial importance to build theoretical models of supersymmetry breaking and examine their implications for collider tests of SUSY theories. In this dissertation, we study a recently proposed supersymmetry breaking model known as deflected mirage mediation and compare it to two other benchmark scenarios: mirage mediation and minimal supergravity. In the first half of this dissertation, we compare the collider phenomenology of these two scenarios. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alter the low energy spectrum from that of pure mirage mediation models, resulting in some cases in a squeezed gaugino spectrum and a gluino that is much lighter than other colored superpartners. We provide several benchmark deflected mirage mediation models and construct model lines as a function of the gauge mediation contributions, and discuss their discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the second half, we switch to another method known as a "landscape" study, where we study the pattern of supersymmetric particle mass hierarchies for the lightest four new states in the MSSM for two models of the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters: (I) minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), and (II) deflected mirage mediation. In deflected mirage mediation, there is a wide variety of phenomenologically preferred models with light charginos, including novel patterns in which the heavy Higgs particles are lighter than the lightest superpartner. The approaches used in both of these studies set the stage for generalized studies of TeV-scale supersymmetry at the LHC.