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1

Empirical Phenomenology An Approach for Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. This approach builds upon the phenomenology of philosopher Edmund Husserl and sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their more theoretical insights can be used in an empirical approach. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and interested in safeguarding the subjective

Patrik Aspers

2

Qualitative Methods and a Phenomenological Perspective in Library Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenomenological approach to library research utilizing qualitative research methods is contrasted to a positivist-behaviorist approach utilizing quantitative methods. Psychological understanding of a situation attained by means of accurate description,...

J. P. Natoli

1976-01-01

3

Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice.

Davidsen, Annette Sofie

2013-01-01

4

Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

Christina Goulding

2005-01-01

5

Qualitative methodologies II: a brief guide to applying interpretative phenomenological analysis in musculoskeletal care.  

PubMed

In this paper, we conclude our two-part series discussing how readers of Musculoskeletal Care might employ qualitative methods. In the first paper of the series, we focused upon some issues surrounding the distinctions and similarities between qualitative and quantitative approaches, and outlined the origins, typology and limitations of qualitative methods. We introduced one particular qualitative research process which readers may find useful: interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In this paper, we provide a guide to applying IPA via the design of an interview, a methodology with which it is particularly suited. We discuss some specific interview and interviewing processes and also some necessary ethical issues, including personal protection and participant well-being. We also discuss how to proceed through analysis while considering questions about the generalizability, reliability, validity and application of results. Finally, we question the overall direction of qualitative research, which we hope will fuel debate among readers. PMID:17628038

Hale, Elizabeth D; Treharne, Gareth J; Kitas, George D

2008-06-01

6

Combining methodological approaches in research: ethnography and interpretive phenomenology.  

PubMed

This paper provides a detailed account of two methodological approaches commonly used in qualitative research: ethnography and interpretive phenomenology. It traces both methodologies through the various stages of a research study--data collection, analysis and validation, before considering the most appropriate methods of reconstructing the participant experience for the given audience. The author puts forward a case for the combination of methodological approaches through the triangulation of data, suggesting that this can enhance our understanding of nursing. In the case of ethnographic and phenomenological data, triangulation may enable the researcher to highlight their interpretation of the phenomenon under review, whilst at the same time considering that phenomenon in terms of the participant group, their cultural background and day-to-day experiences. PMID:10632812

Maggs-Rapport, F

2000-01-01

7

Some Similarities and Differences Among Phenomenological and Other Methods of Psychological Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the research method of phenomenological psychology to other qualitative research methods such as ethnography, participant observation, grounded theory, dramaturgical interviewing and content analysis. An attempt is made to identify similarities and differences. As a prelude, the major metatheories with which they are associated (phenomenology and symbolic interactionism) and the related differences between natural science and human science

JOHN W. OSBORNE

1994-01-01

8

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

9

Introducing an existential-phenomenological approach: Basic phenomenological theory and research–Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is often referred to as the existential approach to counselling and psychotherapy may be defined as the application of existential-phenomenological philosophy towards psychotherapeutic ends, in which individual practitioners choose how to apply their readings of the leading authors. The first of this two-part exposition introduces a form of ‘experiential’ philosophy called phenomenology, a regular experiential method that is in

Ian R. Owen

1994-01-01

10

Phenomenological approach to mechanical damage growth analysis.  

PubMed

The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed phenomenological universality (PUN) approach and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested. PMID:18999489

Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto

2008-10-01

11

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO NATURAL LANDSCAPE COGNITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The over-emphasis on positivist methodology in the study of landscape aesthetics has limited the benefits to be obtained from the study of individual's personal experiences. Phenomenology, on the other hand, is directly concerned with such subjective experiences. The present study examines how a person interprets landscapes, an examination carried out using phenomenological methodology. Sixteen participants were asked to view various

HIROHIKO OHTA

2001-01-01

12

An approach to the phenomenological analysis of data.  

PubMed

In this paper, Helena Priest describes and justifies a phenomenological research method that may be used to explore complex and nebulous concepts relevant to nursing and health care, for example, the concept of 'caring'. The history and development of Husserlian phenomenology are outlined, followed by an account of the use of phenomenology within nursing research. Tensions inherent in the use of Husserlian phenomenology in nursing research are noted. A phenomenological approach to data analysis, designed to address some of these tensions, is described and compared with several well-established phenomenological analysis strategies. Issues of reliability, validity and generalisability are discussed, as are limitations in the use of the approach, before conclusions relevant to healthcare researchers are drawn. PMID:12518666

Priest, Helena

2002-01-01

13

Researching embodiment in movement contexts: a phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied learning, and discussing these in light of a

Øyvind F. Standal; Gunn Engelsrud

2011-01-01

14

From Phenomenology to Existentialism – Philosophical Approaches Towards Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of methods (cf. Osterhoudt 1974) and the modes of thought that are used to analyse the world of sports are enormous. However, in international contexts, the range of philosophical reflections often seems to be reduced to a dichotomous structure, i.e. the analytical and the phenomenological approach. While the analytical position is linked to Anglo-Saxon countries, the phenomenological tradition

Arno Müller

2011-01-01

15

Making sense of denial in sexual offenders: a qualitative phenomenological and repertory grid analysis.  

PubMed

Denial in sexual offenders represents the first barrier to successful treatment a clinician is likely to face. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to overcoming denial, with most programs having a focus on disclosure and "accepting responsibility." This is the first study that has aimed to make sense of sexual offenders' denial through a rigorous qualitative analysis. The main objective was to explore the experiences and lived worlds of sexual offenders in denial. A qualitative phenomenological methodology combining interpretative phenomenological analysis and repertory grids was implemented. Ten incarcerated sexual offenders in categorical denial participated in the research. The analysis revealed the narrative, relational, and self-reconstructive properties of denial and discusses the role and function denial may be playing for sexual offenders. The results highlight that denial can be viewed as a form of "sense making" and that clinically relevant treatment targets can be elicited without disclosure. It is concluded that viewing denial as a barrier to treatment impedes constructive work with offenders, and implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:24442912

Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Gregson, Mick; Thorne, Karen

2014-06-01

16

A qualitative approach to teaching capacitive circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated students' qualitative understanding of dc circuits containing resistors and a capacitor. We found that a year after traditional lecture instruction as part of an introductory physics course, most students were unable to predict the behavior of a series circuit consisting of a battery, a bulb, and a capacitor. Among the difficulties identified we found that almost half of the students implicitly abandoned the idea that a complete circuit is necessary for a bulb to light when a capacitor is introduced into the circuit. We have developed curriculum that enables students to construct a phenomenological model in which they liken the behavior of a capacitor to that of a wire, a switch, and a battery; this allows them to qualitatively describe circuits with batteries, bulbs, and capacitors. We have also developed curriculum on the determination of RC times. Post-test results show a significant increase in understanding of capacitive circuits.

Smith, David P.; Kampen, Paul van

2013-05-01

17

From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as “new”

Maura Dowling

2007-01-01

18

Empirical and Hermeneutic Approaches to Phenomenological Research in Psychology: A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology, the 2 most common approaches to phenomenological research in psychology, are described, and their similarities and differences examined. A specific method associated with each form of phenomenological inquiry was used to analyze an interview transcript of a woman's experience of work–family role conflict. A considerable degree of similarity was found in the resulting descriptions. It

Serge F. Hein; Wendy J. Austin

2001-01-01

19

A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress.

Mullen, Paul E.

2007-01-01

20

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

21

Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.  

PubMed

Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

2014-07-01

22

Why Students Procrastinate: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we adopted an impartial view on academic procrastination in order to gain new insights for the development of intervention programs. Following a qualitative approach, we thereby explored antecedents of procrastination by attending to the actual voices and experiences of 29 students. Students' subjective theories were in line…

Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Grund, Axel; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

2013-01-01

23

A qualitative approach to enzyme inhibition.  

PubMed

Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K(m) and V(max) are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the kinetic aspects of an enzyme. The discussion here describes a qualitative approach to teaching enzyme inhibition that allows for a physical or mechanistic understanding. This qualitative approach to enzyme inhibition starts by recognizing that the two fundamental kinetic parameters of an enzyme catalyzed reaction are V(max) and V(max) /K(m) , which correspond to the apparent rates of reaction at very high and very low concentrations of substrate, respectively. It just so happens that the reciprocals of V(max) and V(max) /K(m) correspond to the y-intercept and slope of the Lineweaver-Burk plot, respectively. Thus, an inhibitor that affects the y-intercept binds to the enzyme at very high substrate concentrations, and thus binds to the enzyme-substrate complex, while an inhibitor that affects the slope binds to the enzyme at very low substrate concentrations, and thus binds only to free enzyme. These simple precepts can be used to interpret the basic inhibition patterns, competitive, uncompetitive and noncompetitive, and more importantly, derive mechanistic information, especially in multisubstrate reactions. The application of these principles is illustrated by using an example from cancer chemotherapy, the inhibition of thymidylate synthase by 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. PMID:21567682

Waldrop, Grover L

2009-01-01

24

Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

2010-01-01

25

The Hysterical Personality Disorder:A Phenomenological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background of the present study is a general uncertainty as to what comprises the essence of hysterical (histrionic) personality disorder. Using phenomenological methodology, phenomena observable in the ‘classic’ hysterical personality are analysed, described, named, and classified according to the basic functions of human experience and behaviour. The resulting psychopathological picture of the hysterical personality facilitates a differential diagnosis that

Christoph Mundt

1998-01-01

26

Understanding phenomenology.  

PubMed

Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research. PMID:20222274

Flood, Anne

2010-01-01

27

Qualitative Approaches to Semantic Scene Modelling and Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper investigates the use of qualitative and spatially expressive semantic descriptions for image classification. In\\u000a particular, it addresses the question of how a qualitative representation performs compared to a more quantitative one, using\\u000a a semantic based symbolic approach. The approach is based on using different qualitative spatial representations applied to\\u000a local semantic concepts such as grass, sky, water etc

Zia Ul Qayyum; A. G. Cohn

28

Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory  

SciTech Connect

A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

1985-11-01

29

Phenomenology: a resource pack for chiropractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiropractic is being challenged to produce research to back up its claims of therapeutic effect. This paper presents an argument for using a qualitative approach for some of this research, namely the research methodology of phenomenology.The aim of the paper is to provide the basis for the chiropractor to embark on a research project using a phenomenological methodology. It should

Peter J Miller

2004-01-01

30

An Individualized Approach to Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of ions is selected (by computer program available from author) for each student in this qualitative analysis course. Students work out a separation scheme based on results of their experimentation and using selected references. Course methodology, preparation of solutions/unknowns, grading, and student responses are discussed. (Author/SK)

Haendler, Blanca L.; And Others

1982-01-01

31

A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology: current state, promise, and future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose\\u000a phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on\\u000a the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment this literature, I explain\\u000a the phenomenological concept of

Sebnem Cilesiz

32

A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

Waldrop, Grover L.

2009-01-01

33

The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The University Student's Studies within the Lifeworld  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Approaches to Studying Inventory" (ASI) was based on qualitative research by Marton and Saljo, which established "surface" and "deep" approaches to study. This article attempts a new qualitative explication of the meanings of study. A heuristic due to Husserl is employed which distinguishes between the "noema", the "subjective object" of…

Greasley, Kay; Ashworth, Peter

2007-01-01

34

Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

Miner-Romanoff, Karen

2012-01-01

35

Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

2012-01-01

36

A Critical Assessment of a Reflexive, Phenomenological Approach to the Residential Treatment of Troubled Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes an unusual residential treatment program that uses a phenomenological and existential approach rooted in a critical humanism. This program bypasses the usual power struggles between staff and youth by recognizing youth autonomy and “intentionality,” and it uses the principles of authenticity, validation, reciprocity, and reflexivity to guide staff actions toward and in response to youth. This model

John J. Leveille

2001-01-01

37

Estimating losses in teleportation schemes using the phenomenological operator approach to dissipation in cavity quantum electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimate the losses during teleportation processes requiring either two high- Q cavities or a single bimodal cavity. The estimates were carried out using the phenomenological operator approach introduced by de Almeida [Phys. Rev. A 62, 033815 (2000)].

de Almeida, N. G.; Moussa, M. H. Y.; Napolitano, R. D. J.

2009-09-01

38

Transport Coefficients of High Temperature SF6 in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Using a Phenomenological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport coefficients of high temperature sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium are calculated using collision integrals derived in a phenomenological approach which could be a valuable tool in the calculation of complete data sets for complex mixtures, including interactions hardly handled in the accurate multipotential methods. A systematic comparison with transport coefficients obtained using an old data set and experimental test is performed to check the reliability of the proposed approach in evaluating transport cross sections.

Wang, Wei-Zong; Rong, Ming-Zhe; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yi

2014-03-01

39

A phenomenological approach to the superconducting transition in thin films and SN superlattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple phenomenological approach is described for the superconducting transition in thin films and S-N superlattice structures. The principal ingredients in an approach based on the Ginzburg-Landau free energy are (a) a pairbreaking energy at the surface (or interface) and (b) a proximity-induced free energy for the order parameter in the normal phase. The shift in Tc is found to

R. Guyer; P. Kumar; S. G. Mishra; S. Obukhov; Y. Sun

1992-01-01

40

Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches  

SciTech Connect

Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1987-01-01

41

Understanding the Coping Strategies of International Students: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international…

Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.

2011-01-01

42

Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation: A Regional Conference-Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a conference held at the Leyte Institute of Technology, Tacloban City, The Philippines. Entitled: Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation, it was a cooperative venture between the College of Arts and Sciences at the Leyte Institute of Technology and the School of Education at Flinders University. A central purpose of…

Banfield, Grant; Cayago-Gicain, Ma. Socorro

2006-01-01

43

Estimating losses in an entanglement concentration scheme using the phenomenological operator approach to dissipation in cavity quantum electrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, we developed a phenomenological-operator technique aiming to simplify the estimate of losses due to dissipation in cavity quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, we apply that technique to estimate losses during an entanglement concentration process in the context of dissipative cavities. In addition, some results, previously used without proof to justify our phenomenological-operator approach, are now formally

N. G. de Almeida; M. H. Y. Moussa; R. d. J. Napolitano

2011-01-01

44

A phenomenological approach to multisource data integration: Analysing infrared and visible data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is described for combining multisensory data for remote sensing applications. The approach uses phenomenological models which allow the specification of discriminatory features that are based on intrinsic physical properties of imaged surfaces. Thermal and visual images of scenes are analyzed to estimate surface heat fluxes. Such analysis makes available a discriminatory feature that is closely related to the thermal capacitance of the imaged objects. This feature provides a method for labelling image regions based on physical properties of imaged objects. This approach is different from existing approaches which use the signal intensities in each channel (or an arbitrary linear or nonlinear combination of signal intensities) as features - which are then classified by a statistical or evident approach.

Nandhakumar, N.

1991-01-01

45

Lived experience of Korean women suffering from rheumatoid arthritis: a phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sufferers number approximately 200 million people around the world. In Korea, there is no accurate statistical information, but 1–2% of the total population have been estimated to be suffering from RA. Current research studies related to RA have been limited to quantitative approaches. In qualitative studies, most research has been focused on one aspect of the experience

Eun Jeong Hwang; Young Hae Kim; Seong Sook Jun

2004-01-01

46

Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

Forde, Amanda

2011-01-01

47

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed. PMID:15910067

Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Vekilov, Peter G

2005-05-01

48

Investigating Reasons for CPAP Adherence in Adolescents: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represent an important but understudied subgroup of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors related to adherence from the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: Individual open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 21) and caregivers (n = 20). Objective adherence data from the adolescents' CPAP machines during the previous month was obtained. Adolescents with different adherence levels and their caregivers were asked their views on CPAP. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we identified themes and developed theories that explained the adolescents' adherence patterns. Results: Adolescent participants (n = 21) were aged 12-18 years, predominantly male (n = 15), African American (n = 16), users of CPAP for at least one month. Caregivers were mainly mothers (n = 17). Seven adolescents had high use (mean use 381 ± 80 min per night), 7 had low use (mean use 30 ± 24 min per night), and 7 had no use during the month prior to being interviewed. Degree of structure in the home, social reactions, mode of communication among family members, and perception of benefits were issues that played a role in CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Understanding the adolescent and family experience of using CPAP may be key to increasing adolescent CPAP adherence. As a result of our findings, we speculate that health education, peer support groups, and developmentally appropriate individualized support strategies may be important in promoting adherence. Future studies should examine these theories of CPAP adherence. Citation: Prashad PS; Marcus CL; Maggs J; Stettler N; Cornaglia MA; Costa P; Puzino K; Xanthopoulos M; Bradford R; Barg FK. Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1303-1313.

Prashad, Priya S.; Marcus, Carole L.; Maggs, Jill; Stettler, Nicolas; Cornaglia, Mary A.; Costa, Priscilla; Puzino, Kristina; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Bradford, Ruth; Barg, Frances K.

2013-01-01

49

[Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a phenomenological approach].  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. Phenomenology was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were approached. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning. PMID:23887790

Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla

2013-01-01

50

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates.

Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

2013-01-01

51

Qualitative Approaches to Classroom Research with English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of recent qualitative research in classrooms examining English language learners (ELLs).\\u000a I first present common features of qualitative research and review debates regarding research paradigms in the social sciences\\u000a and humanities. I also discuss the role of triangulation and capturing participants’ insider or emic perspectives in qualitative research and highlight various data collection methods and

Patricia A. Duff

52

An Exploratory Case Study of a Stable Rural Community: A Quasi-Phenomenological Approach with Practical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenological methods used to analyze the unique characteristics contributing to the stability of a small mid-western rural town may be useful tools for community researchers, providing an inexpensive, non-technical, humanistic-interpretive research approach. General concepts associated with community success were formulated through direct…

Coon, Richard H.; West, Gale E.

53

Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

Duobliene, Lilija

2013-01-01

54

Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

55

The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

2009-01-01

56

Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative research procedures in North America. The choice points and alternatives in phenomenological research in psychology are delineated.

Frederick J. Wertz

2005-01-01

57

Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach  

SciTech Connect

Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mathematic and Physics Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21

58

Gauge approach to the 'pseudogap' phenomenology of the spectral weight in high Tc cuprates.  

PubMed

We assume the t-t'-J model to describe the CuO(2) planes of hole-doped cuprates and we adapt the spin-charge gauge approach, previously developed for the t-J model, to describe the holes in terms of a spinless fermion carrying the charge (holon) and a neutral boson carrying spin 1/2 (spinon), coupled by a slave-particle gauge field. In this framework we consider the effects of a finite density of incoherent holon pairs in the normal state. Below a crossover temperature, identified as the experimental 'upper pseudogap', the scattering of the 'quanta' of the phase of the holon-pair field against holons reproduces the phenomenology of nodal Fermi arcs coexisting with a gap in the antinodal region. We thus obtain a microscopic derivation of the main features of the hole spectra due to the pseudogap. This result is obtained through a holon Green function which follows naturally from the formalism and analytically interpolates between a Fermi liquid-like and a d-wave superconductor behaviour as the coherence length of the holon-pair order parameter increases. By inserting the gauge coupling with the spinon we construct explicitly the hole Green function and calculate its spectral weight and the corresponding density of states. So we prove that the formation of holon pairs induces a depletion of states on the hole Fermi surface. We compare our results with ARPES and tunnelling experimental data. In our approach the hole preserves a finite Fermi surface until the superconducting transition, where it reduces to four nodes. Therefore we propose that the gap seen in the normal phase of cuprates is due to the thermal broadening of the SC-like peaks masking the Fermi-liquid peak in the spectral weight. The Fermi arcs then correspond to the region of the Fermi surface where the Fermi-liquid peak is unmasked. PMID:23103555

Marchetti, P A; Gambaccini, M

2012-11-28

59

A phenomenological-mathematical approach in simulating the loss in weight of chlorine during sodalite synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper we described the results of a sodalite synthesis, performed by the mixing of metakaolinite and NaCl within an alumina crucible, heated in an oven at a temperature of 850 °C and ambient pressure. During the synthesis process, a loss of weight of the open crucible, attributed to chlorine (Cl) diffusion through the granular material contained inside the crucible, was observed. A very simple model was proposed, aimed at reproducing mathematically the experimental data behavior. Nevertheless, experimental and numerical result comparisons suggested the need for some modeling improvements. Thus, in this paper the already proposed analytical solution, based on the usual "first principles" approach, was modified through a backfitting phenomenological-analytical approach. We explored the assumptions that at the beginning of the experiment, the inventory of chlorine was completely or partially bound in the matrix, and that it was transformed into a gas free to diffuse only gradually over the transient. In addition, we explored the effect of full or partial variability in time of the diffusion coefficient. The apparent delay in the release of chlorine gas through the matrix mixture could be justified by an incomplete heating of the crucible at 850 °C and/or by some structure change of the mixture during the synthesis processes, eventually resulting in changes of diffusion coefficient values. The influences of the actual measurement process on the mathematical modeling setting, in particular the removal of some quantity of substance for diffractometer analysis, are also discussed. The final numerical results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. Finally, it is worth noting that, notwithstanding the proposed methodology is addressed to the specific problem, it could have application in different fields.

Pasculli, Antonio; Novembre, Daniela

2012-05-01

60

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern.

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

61

Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

2011-01-01

62

Hazard identification: from a quantitative to a qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard identification is a common step in the hazard analysis and risk-assessment processes. The fact that this step is shared between the two processes is creating some confusion about how they can be used in our food safety programs. Hazard analysis and risk assessment are fundamentally different and independent processes.Hazard analysis is a qualitative, local process conducted by a food

William H. Sperber

2001-01-01

63

A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

2009-01-01

64

Teaching electric circuits with multiple batteries: A qualitative approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated preservice science teachersâ qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use reasoning based on current and resistance where reasoning based on voltage is a necessity. We also found that problems such as thinking of the battery as a source of constant current resurfaced in this new context, and that answers given were inconsistent with current conservation. We describe the curriculum we developed that enables students to model circuits with multiple batteries qualitatively. Post-test results show that the majority of students were able to apply their newly developed model to make accurate predictions for complex circuits.

Smith, David P.; Van Kampen, Paul

2012-05-21

65

Qualitative Analysis of Surface Energy Using Atomic Force Microscopy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper performs a qualitative analysis of the surface energy of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), carbon steel (S45C) and alloy steel (SKD11) by analyzing the variation in the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam (Si3N4 ) of an atomic force microscope following repeated contacts with the specimen surface. In a pure material (Cu, Al and S45C), it is found that

Yen-Liang Yehl; Ming-Jyi Jang; Cheng Chi Wang; Kuang Sheng Chen; Yen-Pin Lin

2007-01-01

66

Qualitative Research on College Students: Philosophical and Methodological Comparisons with the Quantitative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and contrasts philosophical and methodological assumptions, goals, and data collection methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research on college student behavior. Provides brief illustrations of two qualitative studies of college students using interview methods, ethnomethodology, and conversation analysis. (Author/NB)

Patton, Michael J.

1991-01-01

67

Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

Midgley, Nicholas

2004-01-01

68

A Qualitative Approach to Upward Evaluation of Leadership Performance: Pros and Cons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a qualitative upward evaluation of the leadership performance of library managers. Follow-up studies were conducted, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative approach to upward appraisal. The authors discuss pros and cons to guide others who might use this methodology for upward appraisals in the…

Turrentine, Cathryn G.; Lener, Edward F.; Young, Michelle L.; Kok, Victoria T.

2004-01-01

69

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative

Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

2012-01-01

70

Qualitative approach to the research into the parameters of human security in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative methodological model applied in the human security research in local communities as a part of a wider community-based participatory research (CBPR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper synthesizes methodological experience from four empirical researches where a qualitative model of studying the security indicators in the local communities of Serbia has

Sladjana Djuric

2009-01-01

71

The Lived Experience of Gay Identity Development: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study is devoted to understanding the meaning of gay identity development as it is experienced in a majority heterosexist culture. Using a phenomenological approach, five interviews were conducted with gay men who discussed embracing key experiences that differ from the majority and the way these experiences facilitated movement toward self-acceptance and adaptation. Emergent themes are identified and the

Parrish L. Paul; Gina Frieden

2008-01-01

72

Qualitative Approaches to Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Issues and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…

McLeod, John

1996-01-01

73

Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching first year university science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing lecturers' teaching strategies to improve learning in higher education may mean first having to address the intentions associated with those strategies. The study reported in this paper used a phenomenographic approach to explore the intentions associated with the teaching strategies of first year physical science lecturers. Approaches found ranged from those involving information transmission to those where the intention

Keith Trigwell; Michael Prosser; Philip Taylor

1994-01-01

74

Promoting Connectedness through Whole-School Approaches: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: School connectedness, or a sense of belonging to the school environment, is an established protective factor for child and adolescent health, education, and social well-being. While a comprehensive, whole-school approach that addresses the school organisational environment is increasingly endorsed as an effective approach to promote…

Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald

2009-01-01

75

Understanding factors influencing Latina women's screening behavior: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand influential factors associated with decisions to obtain breast or cervical cancer screening by diverse Latinas after attending a community-based educational program. Forty-five interviews were conducted in Arkansas, New York City and Buffalo, New York. Thematic data analyses were conducted to understand influential factors following from the intervention. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: Social Capital, Screening Utilization, Health Care Provider (HCP) Communication and Social Networks. Social Capital included resources, access or screening knowledge women had prior to participation in the program and new resources and contacts gained through the program that influenced care seeking. Screening Utilization factors included past health experiences and participation in the program. HCP Communication included perceptions of quality of care and communication issues with HCPs that positively and negatively impacted screening. Social Networks included women's networks regarding emotional support, encouragement to discuss health issues, overall family network and how these may influence health-seeking behaviors. These findings suggest that participating in group-based health outreach programs empowered women by increasing their knowledge and awareness about the health care system and enabled them, with the tools provided, to become proactive in their health care-seeking behaviors. PMID:23131588

Torres, Essie; Erwin, Deborah O; Treviño, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina

2013-10-01

76

Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

2011-01-01

77

A team-based approach to qualitative inquiry: the collaborative retreat.  

PubMed

A team of researchers undertook a collaborative qualitative study to explore beginning dietitians' life experiences and the meaning ascribed to those experiences in the context of dietetic practice. Data were collected using Seidman's three-step in-depth phenomenological interviewing method with 12 beginning dietitians who were graduates of the three participating dietetic programs. We outline the collaborative research process and highlight a writing and data analysis technique described as the collaborative retreat, a face-to-face, two-day gathering that facilitated the researchers' collective decision-making and organization, discussion, and analysis of this complex qualitative data set. Use of a listening guide aided researchers' understanding and interpretation of participant voices. Researchers concluded that the overall collaborative qualitative research process was positive and self-fulfilling, and that it resulted in multiple benefits for them individually and the research project collectively. Researchers were able to work through methodological and theoretical issues as these arose, with the assistance of technology, writing, listening, and dialogue. Relationship building and relationship maintenance emerged as factors critical to the success of the research process. Collaborative research teams that are committed to listening, writing, and dialogue will find that the collaborative retreat can be a productive site of knowledge generation and mentorship. PMID:22668845

Lordly, Daphne; Maclellan, Debbie; Gingras, Jacqui; Brady, Jennifer

2012-01-01

78

The Interaction of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Research: A View of the Second Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers both qualitative and quantitative research approaches on second language learning, with focus on second language classroom research. Concludes that both approaches are relevant to determining the important variables to investigate and the relationships those variables have to second language learning outcomes. (Author/CB)

Chaudron, Craig

1986-01-01

79

Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

2011-01-01

80

Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative

Wertz, Frederick J.

2005-01-01

81

Doping use among young elite cyclists: a qualitative psychosociological approach.  

PubMed

Using a psychosociological approach, the purpose of this study was to identify and understand the use of doping substances by young elite cyclists. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young cyclists who were hoping to find a professional team and cyclists who had recently become professional. All of the young cyclists interviewed took nutritional supplements and believed that they improved their performance, which has been shown by other scholars to be a risk factor for doping. These cyclists believed that doping at the professional level in cycling was acceptable but did not approve of it at the amateur level. They were attracted to doping; they were open to using doping substances themselves if it was the key to continuing their cycling career, but only after they became professional. Team staff, doctors, parents and friends helped to create a "clean" environment that prevented the young cyclists from doping before becoming professional. The more experienced cyclists, who doped or used to dope, transmitted the culture of doping to the young cyclists, teaching them doping methods and which substances to use. This study could help to improve prevention and help to detect doping, as it is clear that doping behaviors begin at the amateur level. PMID:19486486

Lentillon-Kaestner, V; Carstairs, C

2010-04-01

82

Phenomenology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phenomenology Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison pursues "a broad range of research in particle physics theory and phenomenology." At this website, users can view concise summaries of its many focuses including in neutrino physics, string theory and extra dimensions, and electroweak physics. Visitors can find links to the homepages of many of the researchers involved with the Institute. The website features the upcoming and past events held by the Institute such as the Pheno Symposiums. Individuals can examine abstracts and compressed postscripts of the phenomenology preprints since 1994 as well as articles about the newest issues in phenomenology written for the popular press.

83

Discovering African American Parents' Perceptions of Play Therapy: A Phenomenological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative investigation illuminating the perceptions of eight African American caregivers of elementary school-age children. In particular, this study explored questions that pertained to African American parents' (a) thoughts about counseling, (b) beliefs about the purpose of play, and (c) perceptions about play as a therapeutic agent in counseling. Analysis of African American caregivers' responses to interview questions revealed information

Kristy A. Brumfield; Teresa M. Christensen

2011-01-01

84

A method of phenomenological interviewing.  

PubMed

In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews. PMID:24413767

Bevan, Mark T

2014-01-01

85

On the phenomenology of empathy in nursing: empathy or sympathy?  

PubMed

In her recent phenomenological study Baillie attempted to describe the essential structure of empathy in surgical nursing. The study is important in that it utilizes a qualitative research method to investigate the phenomena of empathy, in contrast to previous quantitative studies. Although the phenomenological approach is clearly identified and ascribed to Husserl as the founder of the phenomenological movement, as well as utilizing the peculiarly Husserlian notion of bracketing, or epoché, in an attempt to describe the essence (another Husserlian objective) of the phenomenon under investigation (empathy), the research method does not reflect Husserl's philosophy. The results reflect nurses' subjective views on empathy, an exercise consistent with the nurse-phenomenologists quoted, who without exception, all believe Husserlian phenomenology concerns itself with subjective experience. However, in seeking the essence of phenomena unclouded by subjective opinion, Husserl stands in contrast to nursing interpretations of phenomenology's famous catch phrase, 'back to the things themselves' (zu den Sachen selbst). Nurse-phenomenologists have misunderstood the intention of Husserlian phenomenology, and despite their opposition to traditional scientific methods, are still mired in the Kantian notion of science as a reality independent of mind. A theme consistent with the 'things-in-themselves', not the things themselves. As such, nursing's use of the phenomenological method is questionable, and therefore the research findings on the phenomenon of empathy need to be reformulated. Interestingly, the phenomenon of empathy challenges us to question such underlying assumptions on how we view the world. PMID:10403984

Yegdich, T

1999-07-01

86

The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.  

PubMed

Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning. PMID:23054668

Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

2012-09-01

87

Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast.

Gabriela Montaño-Moctezuma; Hiram W. Li; Philippe A. Rossignol

2007-01-01

88

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

89

Multiple pathways to knowledge generation: qualitative and quantitative research approaches in sport and exercise psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative research approaches incorporate different research methodologies but also are structured, evaluated and justified using different philosophical bases. Thus, they may truly involve different ‘ways to know’. The purpose of this article is to present one quantitative scholar’s perceptions as to how the work produced by both sets of researchers can be used to enhance the teaching, advising

Thelma S. Horn

2011-01-01

90

An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

1988-01-01

91

Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia.

Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

2013-01-01

92

Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.  

PubMed

There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. PMID:23932101

Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

2014-02-01

93

Qualitative Approach to Attempted Suicide by Adolescents and Young Adults: The (Neglected) Role of Revenge  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide by adolescents and young adults is a major public health concern, and repetition of self-harm is an important risk factor for future suicide attempts. Objective Our purpose is to explore the perspective of adolescents directly involved in suicidal acts. Methods Qualitative study involving 16 purposively selected adolescents (sex ratio1?1) from 3 different centers. Half had been involved in repeated suicidal acts, and the other half only one. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results We found five main themes, organized in two superordinate themes. The first theme (individual dimensions of the suicide attempt) describes the issues and explanations that the adolescents saw as related to themselves; it includes the subthemes: (1) negative emotions toward the self and individual impasse, and (2) the need for some control over their lives. The second main theme (relational dimensions of attempted suicide) describes issues that adolescents mentioned that were related to others and includes three subthemes: (3) perceived impasse in interpersonal relationships, (4) communication, and (5) revenge. Conclusions Adolescents involved in suicidal behavior are stuck in both an individual and a relational impasse from which there is no exit and no apparent way to reach the other. Revenge can bridge this gap and thus transforms personal distress into a relational matter. This powerful emotion has been neglected by both clinicians and researchers.

Orri, Massimiliano; Paduanello, Matteo; Lachal, Jonathan; Falissard, Bruno; Sibeoni, Jordan; Revah-Levy, Anne

2014-01-01

94

The Technological Mediation of Morality - A Post-Phenomenological Approach to Moral Subjectivity and Moral Objectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the moral relevance of technological artifacts and its possible role in ethical theory, by taking the postphenomenological approach that has developed around the work of Don Ihde into the domain of ethics. By elaborating a postphenomenological analysis of the mediating role of ultrasound in moral decisions about abortion, the article argues that technologies embody morality, and help

Peter-Paul Verbeek

2007-01-01

95

Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

2013-01-01

96

A phenomenological framework for psychiatric nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a framework developed to support phenomenological research within the context of psychiatric nursing. Phenomenology involves the construction of social reality from the perspectives of those living within a situation. This research approach is of value to psychiatric nurses because of the essence of their practice and the unique nature of their clients' realities. Developing a phenomenological approach

Carol Stubblefield; Ruth L. Murray

2002-01-01

97

Othering Research, Researching the Other: De\\/Colonizing Approaches to Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

De\\/colonizing epistemologies challenge the imperialistic understanding and practice of research. In this chapter, the author\\u000a demonstrates the influence of de\\/colonizing epistemologies on qualitative inquiry grounded in transnational feminism. The\\u000a author focuses on the approaches taken in designing, implementing, and analyzing an ethnographic case study which explores\\u000a the experiences of two female Indian graduate students in higher education within their first

Kakali Bhattacharya

98

Phenomenological nursing research: methodological insights derived from Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers’ adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the

Sandra Mackey

2005-01-01

99

Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions.

Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

2011-01-01

100

Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

2014-01-01

101

Phenomenological study of the Bc?BP, BV decays with perturbative QCD approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the recent LHCb measurements and forthcoming great potential on Bc meson, we study the exclusive Bc?BqP, BqV decays with the perturbative QCD approach, where q =u, d, s and P and V denote the lightest pseudoscalar and vector SU(3) nonet meson, respectively. By retaining the quark transverse momentum, employing the Sudakov factors, and choosing the typical scale as the maximum virtualities of the internal particles, we calculate the Bc?B transition from factors, and our results show that about 90% of the contribution to form factors comes from the ?s/? <0.3 region. The contributions of penguin and annihilation to branching ratios are very small due to the serious suppression by the CKM factors. There are some hierarchy relations among the Bc?BP, BV decays. The branching ratios for Bc?Bd ,s?, Bd ,s?, BsK are large and could be measured by the running LHCb.

Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Chang, Qin; Lu, Gongru

2014-06-01

102

Combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies in logistics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of logistics research is primarily populated by quantitative research viewed through a positivist lens. Increasingly, there are calls for logistics research to more frequently employ qualitative methodologies. The trend in management research generally is increasingly to use methods and approaches which provide a middle ground between the contrasting positivist and phenomenological paradigms and perspectives. Methodological triangulation, using quantitative

John Mangan; Chandra Lalwani; Bernard Gardner

2004-01-01

103

A Qualitative Study of Educator Experiences in a Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach to examine educators' experiences in the virtual world of Second Life[TM]. The rationale for this study's focus on educators using a virtual world stems from an interest in the factors that influence educational practices in virtual worlds. The researcher conducted focus groups…

Dutton, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

104

A Pathway for Interpretive Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a qualitative method for research is offered that clearly incorporates Heideggerian philosophy into an interpretive phenomenological research design. Several unique contributions to interpretive research are provided. Tested Hermeneutical Principles for Research (HPR) are outlined. These frame the design and method, and practically integrate the underlying philosophy.

Sherrill A. Conroy

2003-01-01

105

A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

2009-01-01

106

Action Research as a Qualitative Research Approach in Inter-Professional Education: The QUIPPED Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education…

Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori

2007-01-01

107

Two approaches to improving mental health care: positivist/quantitative versus skill-based/qualitative.  

PubMed

The quality improvement model currently used in medicine and mental health was adopted from industry, where it developed out of early 20th-century efforts to apply a positivist/quantitative agenda to improving manufacturing. This article questions the application of this model to mental health care. It argues that (1) developing "operational definitions" for something as value-laden as "quality" risks conflating two realms, what we measure with what we value; (2) when measurements that are tied to individuals are aggregated to establish benchmarks and goals, unwarranted mathematical assumptions are made; (3) choosing clinical outcomes is problematic; (4) there is little relationship between process measures and clinical outcomes; and (5) since changes in quality indices do not relate to improved clinical care, management's reliance on such indices provides an illusory sense of control. An alternative model is the older, skill-based/qualitative approach to knowing, which relies on "implicit/ expert" knowledge. These two approaches offer a series of contrasts: quality versus excellence, competence versus expertise, management versus leadership, extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards. The article concludes that we need not totally dispense with the current quality improvement model, but rather should balance quantitative efforts with the older qualitative approach in a mixed methods model. PMID:23179033

Luchins, Daniel

2012-01-01

108

A qualitative risk assessment approach for Swiss dairy products: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed

Switzerland implemented a risk-based monitoring of Swiss dairy products in 2002 based on a risk assessment (RA) that considered the probability of exceeding a microbiological limit value set by law. A new RA was launched in 2007 to review and further develop the previous assessment, and to make recommendations for future risk-based monitoring according to current risks. The resulting qualitative RA was designed to ascertain the risk to human health from the consumption of Swiss dairy products. The products and microbial hazards to be considered in the RA were determined based on a risk profile. The hazards included Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The release assessment considered the prevalence of the hazards in bulk milk samples, the influence of the process parameters on the microorganisms, and the influence of the type of dairy. The exposure assessment was linked to the production volume. An overall probability was estimated combining the probabilities of release and exposure for each combination of hazard, dairy product and type of dairy. This overall probability represents the likelihood of a product from a certain type of dairy exceeding the microbiological limit value and being passed on to the consumer. The consequences could not be fully assessed due to lack of detailed information on the number of disease cases caused by the consumption of dairy products. The results were expressed as a ranking of overall probabilities. Finally, recommendations for the design of the risk-based monitoring programme and for filling the identified data gaps were given. The aims of this work were (i) to present the qualitative RA approach for Swiss dairy products, which could be adapted to other settings and (ii) to discuss the opportunities and limitations of the qualitative method. PMID:20626716

Menéndez González, S; Hartnack, S; Berger, T; Doherr, M; Breidenbach, E

2011-05-01

109

A Phenomenological, Evaluative Approach to Developing Ecology Virtual Field Trips for Undergraduate, Non-Major College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are an important source of support for the ecology curriculum. Virtual field trips (VFTs) may provide a similar experience, but limited research existed on the specific format of a VFT that would support its use to replace the actual ecology field trip (PFT). In attempting to delineate potential design considerations for the VFT, this study employed a phenomenological approach to elicit participant input on design considerations for the ecology VFT. The study focused on narration, text, still and video images, and instructor participation in the VFT. Undergraduate, non-major biology students comprised the study population. Two surveys instruments were used to gather information on VFT design from participants: an initial attitudinal survey and an expanded survey. The initial participant group of 30 individuals viewed ecology VFTs designed for the study and completed the initial survey, after which a focus group was formed to complete the expanded survey. Using information contained in the surveys, 18 unique themes were then developed from the perspectives and narratives provided by participants. Initial themes that emerged during analysis suggested that the VFT be instructor designed and that the instructor should actively participate in the VFT media. It was found that having the instructor participate in the VFT, both in the design and in the media presentation itself, was considered essential by the students. Participant developed themes suggested emphasizing the perceived strengths of the individual media components by combining media components to increases the effectiveness of the VFT and remediate individual component weaknesses. Each individual component was seen to provide a specific cognitive function within the VFT and all were seen as necessary to include in the VFT. However, the studied components increased the effectiveness of the VFT only if used with reference to those specific design considerations suggested by participant input. The results of this study found that incorporating these themes into ecology VFTs would increase the effectiveness of this teaching modality. Future inquiry should be directed toward defining those instructor attributes that are essential to their successful participation in the VFT and researching potential expansion of this model to other subject areas.

Wallis, James A., II

110

Qualitative Investigations into Schools and Schooling. Volume 11, Readings on Equal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative approaches in educational research are challenging traditional postivistic, psychometric paradigms by emphasizing: (1) close contact over detachment; (2) multiple techniques in obtaining data; (3) bottom-up inductive frameworks; and (4) phenomenological approaches. Section 1, "Ethnographic Investigations into High Schools," includes…

Foster, Michele, Ed.

111

Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required.

Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

2014-01-01

112

[Nutritional care and weight gain in pregnant adolescents: a quantitative and qualitative approach].  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the impact of nutritional assistance (intervention) on total gestational weight gain in adolescents and to understand the perceptions of adolescents regarding the intervention. It is a quantitative and qualitative survey using triangulation methods conducted in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro with 204 adolescents, divided into pre-intervention and intervention groups. The hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions was tested by bivariate and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression with robust variance. The qualitative approach was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 12 adolescents, whose data were submitted to content analysis. The results indicate that the intervention did not have a positive effect on the adequacy of total gestational weight gain. The adolescents perceived the dietary plan as a set of rules incompatible with their conditions as pregnant women. The category "almost every consultation was the same" emerged as a synthesis of the perceptions on the intervention. It was concluded that there is a need to reassess the technical and scientific marker tools of nutritional assistance and turn it into care focused around making shared decisions. PMID:23546206

Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Saunders, Claudia

2013-03-01

113

Participation and influence of migrant workers on working conditions: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

Workers participation in the management of employment and working conditions is an important determinant of both positive and negative effects of work on human health. Through a qualitative approach, this study analyzes the degree of control and influence that migrant workers in different Spanish cities have over their own working conditions (Immigration, Work, and Health [ITSAL] Project). Results showed that migrant workers had little influence on employment and working conditions. Immigrant workers are mostly interested in issues such as salaries, hiring, and hours of work. Fear of dismissal makes immigrant workers reluctant to demand improved working conditions. We received limited information about immigrant workers' understanding of their rights and their perceptions of the possibilities to influence working conditions through trade union activity. Informal social networks play an essential role in disseminating information on workers' rights, although the effect is not always positive. Unions need to increase attention to and adapt measures for this particularly vulnerable group of workers. PMID:20621886

López-Jacob, María J; Safont, Eva Canaleta; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

2010-01-01

114

The power of visual approaches in qualitative inquiry: The use of collage making and concept mapping in experiential research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning interest in arts-informed research and the increasing variety of visual possibilities as a result of new technologies have paved the way for researchers to explore and use visual forms of inquiry. This paper investigates how collage making and concept mapping are useful visual approaches that can inform qualitative research. It outlines specific ways that each approach can be

Lynn Butler-Kisber

2009-01-01

115

Relatives' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence on staffs’ competence,” “Responsibility for user involvement,” and “The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers.” The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

2014-01-01

116

Varieties of Phenomenological Research at the University of Dallas: An Emerging Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to describe what characterizes phenomenological research as ‘phenomenological,’ especially in relation to the more general term, ‘qualitative research.’ Following research techniques being developed at the University of Dallas as a legacy of the ‘Duquesne school’ of phenomenological research, this article presents Giorgi's description of what he takes to be central features of a phenomenological method: description, use

Gilbert Garza

2007-01-01

117

Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks  

PubMed Central

A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to logical and eventually to logic-based ODE models. Importantly, systems and network properties determined in the rougher representation are conserved during these transformations.

2013-01-01

118

DSE hadron phenomenology.  

SciTech Connect

A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy {pi}{pi} scattering, B {r_arrow} D{sup *} decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB.

Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.

2000-05-22

119

Critical care physicians' approaches to negotiating with surrogate decision makers: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe how critical care physicians manage conflicts with surrogates about withdrawing or withholding patients’ life support. Design Qualitative analysis of key informant interviews with critical care physicians during 2010. We transcribed interviews verbatim and used grounded theory to code and revise a taxonomy of themes and to identify illustrative quotes. Setting 3 academic medical centers, 1 academic-affiliated medical center and 4 private practice groups or private hospitals in a large Midwestern city Subjects 14 critical care physicians Measurements and main results Physicians reported tailoring their approach to address specific reasons for disagreement with surrogates. Five common approaches were identified: (1) building trust, (2) educating and informing, (3) providing surrogates more time, (4) adjusting surrogate and physician roles, and (5) highlighting specific values. When mistrust was an issue, physicians endeavored to build a more trusting relationship with the surrogate before re-addressing decision making. Physicians also reported correcting misunderstandings by providing targeted education, and some reported highlighting specific patient, surrogate, or physician values that they hoped would guide surrogates to agree with them. When surrogates struggled with decision making roles, physicians attempted to reinforce the concept of substituted judgment. Physicians noted that some surrogates needed time to “come to terms” with the patent’s illness before agreeing with physicians. Many physicians had witnessed colleagues negotiate in ways they found objectionable, such as providing misleading information, injecting their own values into the negotiation, or behaving unprofessionally towards surrogates. While some physicians viewed their efforts to encourage surrogates’ agreement as persuasive, others strongly denied persuading surrogates and described their actions as “guiding” or “negotiating.” Conclusions Physicians reported using a tailored approach to resolve decisional conflicts about life support; and attempted to change surrogates’ decisions in accordance with what the physician thought was in the patients’ best interests. While physicians acknowledged their efforts to change surrogate’s decisions, many physicians did not perceive these as persuasive.

Brush, David R.; Brown, Crystal E.; Alexander, G. Caleb

2013-01-01

120

Decoding the integrated approach to yoga therapy: Qualitative evidence based conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to define, decode, and append to the conceptual frame-work of the integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT). Materials and Methods: Four stakeholders who followed two in-patients with depression over a period of 2 weeks in the residential center Arogyadhama (of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samsthana, Bangalore, India) were interviewed before the start of the IAYT treatment and prior to discharge of the patient. The patients were also interviewed pre and post and were observed once during their session. The data from the audio recordings from eight in-depth interviews were transcribed manually and qualitative analysis was conducted. Results: The conceptual frame-work of IAYT depicts that patient related factors (“co-operation of patient”, “patients awareness of his/her condition”), therapist related factors (“ability to guide”, “the assistance to the patients”, “explanation of the exercises”) and treatment related factors (“combination of psychiatric or Ayurvedic medication with yoga”, “counseling during the IAYT treatment”, duration of treatment), play an integrated role in reaching the “aim of IAYT” and experiencing “improvements and changes”. Conclusion: The IAYT is a holistic program and the ability of the patient to cooperate with and integrate the available factors (therapist related and treatment related) could enable best results.

Villacres, Maria Del Carmen; Jagannathan, Aarti; Nagarathna, R; Ramakrsihna, Jayashree

2014-01-01

121

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Knowledge: Proposing a Method of Functional Integration for the Relationship between Empirical Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative and quantitative social science research methods rather than representing opposing research methods instead are reinforcing research traditions. The ability of either research methodology to make lasting and important contributions requires the ability to synthesize and integrate with the other approach. While the assumptions of each…

Allen, Mike; Silver, Charles

122

A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

2014-01-01

123

Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru.

2012-01-01

124

A simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are highly susceptible to landslides. Following recent landslide incidents, Jarðfeingi (Faroese Earth and Energy Directorate) has pointed out, that the risk of human lives or of property being lost or affected by landslides may be increasing. This paper aims at presenting and testing a simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands, using few key parameters. The susceptibility model holds information about both landslide initiation areas and runout zones. Landslide initiation areas are determined from slope angle thresholds (25°-40°) and soil cover data, while runout zones are delineated using the angle of reach approach taking into account the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path, which has not been considered in earlier studies. Data input is obtained from a landslide database containing 67 debris flows throughout the Faroe Islands. Angle of reach values differ significantly with the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path. Two values of angle of reach, 21.5° and 27.6°, are used for calculating runout zones. The landslide susceptibility model is tested in a study area at the town of Klaksvík in the northern part of the Faroe Islands. A map validation comparing predicted susceptibility zones with a validation-dataset of 87 actual landslides in the study area reveal that 69% and 92%, respectively, of actual landslide initiation areas and runout zones are correctly predicted. Moreover 87% of the actual landslides are included in the overall predicted landslide susceptibility areas.

Dahl, M.-P. J.; Mortensen, L. E.; Veihe, A.; Jensen, N. H.

2010-02-01

125

Nurses' perception concerning the care for patients with physical disabilities that interfere with self-image: a phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the perception and the meaning of caring for patients with self-image problems resulting from physical alterations to nurses working at a university hospital. Phenomenology was the methodology used, and the subjects of study were eight nurses. In order to analyze the statements given, transcription and readings were performed, seeking for the essence of the units, the expression of meanings by thematizing and interpreting the discourse and looking for convergence, divergence, idiosyncrasies and synthesis of the phenomenon. The unveiled themes were: (non) Acceptance of the disease; Team work; Limitations resulting from the disease; The nurse's and team's feelings and behavior; Ties between the team, patient and family; The family; Patient's self-image; Patients' age; Prejudice; Acknowledgement or knowledge of the disease; Care level and more intense care; Religion and Capacitation. Due to the amplitude of the phenomenon, other angles can be unveiled and other perspectives can be inhabited. PMID:18695814

Pinto, Karin Kalita de Oliveira; Spiri, Wilza Carla

2008-01-01

126

A Qualitative Study of Oncologists' Approaches to End-of-Life Care  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To understand how oncologists provide care at the end of life, the emotions they experience in the provision of this care, and how caring for dying patients may impact job satisfaction and burnout. Participants and methods A face-to-face survey and in-depth semistructured interview of 18 academic oncologists who were asked to describe the most recent inpatient death on the medical oncology service. Physicians were asked to describe the details of the patient death, their involvement with the care of the patient, the types and sequence of their emotional reactions, and their methods of coping. Grounded theory qualitative methods were utilized in the analysis of the transcripts. Results Physicians, who viewed their physician role as encompassing both biomedical and psychosocial aspects of care, reported a clear method of communication about end-of-life (EOL) care, and an ability to positively influence patient and family coping with and acceptance of the dying process. These physicians described communication as a process, made recommendations to the patient using an individualized approach, and viewed the provision of effective EOL care as very satisfying. In contrast, participants who described primarily a biomedical role reported a more distant relationship with the patient, a sense of failure at not being able to alter the course of the disease, and an absence of collegial support. In their descriptions of communication encounters with patients and families, these physicians did not seem to feel they could impact patients' coping with and acceptance of death and made few recommendations about EOL treatment options. Conclusion Physicians' who viewed EOL care as an important role described communicating with dying patients as a process and reported increased job satisfaction. Further research is necessary to determine if educational interventions to improve physician EOL communication skills could improve physician job satisfaction and decrease burnout.

Mack, Jennifer; Matsuyama, Robin; Lakoma, Mathew D.; Sullivan, Amy M.; Arnold, Robert M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Block, Susan D.

2008-01-01

127

Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.  

PubMed

Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. PMID:23388187

La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

2013-09-01

128

Comparison of optical model results from a microscopic Schroedinger approach to nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering with those from a global Dirac phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons are made among results of calculations for intermediate-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering for {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 208}Pb, by use of optical potentials obtained from global Dirac phenomenology and from a microscopic Schroedinger model. Differential cross sections and spin observables for scattering from the set of five nuclei at 65 and 200 MeV have been studied to assess the relative merits of each approach. Total reaction cross sections from proton-nucleus and total cross sections from neutron-nucleus scattering have been evaluated and compared with data for those five targets in the energy range 20-800 MeV. The methods of analyses give results that compare well with experimental data in those energy regimes for which the procedures are suited.

Deb, P.K.; Clark, B.C. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Hama, S. [Hiroshima University of Economics, Hiroshima 731-0192 (Japan); Amos, K.; Karataglidis, S. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Cooper, E.D. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, British Columbia 72S 7M8 (Canada)

2005-07-01

129

The meanings of suicidal behaviour to psychology students in Ghana: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed. PMID:22021107

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-11-01

130

Qualitative representation of trends: an alternative approach to process diagnosis and control.  

PubMed

The potential for qualitative representation of trends in the context of process diagnosis and control is evaluated in this paper. The technique for qualitative description of the data series is relatively new to the field of process monitoring and diagnosis and is based on the cubic spline wavelet decomposition of the data. It is shown that the assessed qualitative description of trends can be coupled easily with existing process knowledge and does not demand the user to understand the underlying technique in detail, in contrast to, for instance, multivariate techniques in Statistical Process Control. The assessed links can be integrated straightforwardly into the framework of supervisory control systems by means of look-up tables, expert systems or case-based reasoning frameworks. This in turn allows the design of a supervisory control system leading to fully automated control actions. The technique is illustrated by an application to a pilot-scale SBR. PMID:18520008

Villez, K; Vanrolleghem, P A; Rosén, C; Anctil, F; Vanrolleghem, P A; Duchesne, C

2008-01-01

131

Wandering behavior and attempted exits among residents diagnosed with dementia-related illnesses: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

Exiting attempts and wandering behavior among residents diagnosed with dementia-related illnesses were investigated. Residents were exposed to three test conditions: a mini-blind that concealed the view from the door, a cloth panel that concealed the panic bar of the door, and both the mini-blind and the cloth panel. During these test conditions, qualitative observations were conducted in addition to recording the attempted exits. The purpose of this paper is to present the qualitative findings in relationship to a model developed. The findings suggests that residents seemed to exit due to goal-orientation, exit-seeking behaviors, and attraction to the panic bar. PMID:9870039

Dickinson, J I; McLain-Kark, J

1998-01-01

132

X-ray-absorption near-edge structure spectra for bulk materials: Multiple-scattering analysis versus a phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray-absorption near-edge structure data evaluations, based on a simple approach to determine bond lengths directly from features of the spectra, have frequently been reported in the literature. This approach is discussed critically taking into account multiple-scattering calculations as well as previously published experimental and theoretical data. All results together demonstrate that this approach can be used for simple molecules, but becomes questionable for condensed-matter analysis.

Kizler, Peter

1992-11-01

133

Phenomenology of Unsteady Separated Flow Phenomenologie du Decollement Instationnaire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenomenological description of the generation of a wake, starting at rest, and a qualitative interpretation are presented. Numerical simulation models which make use of free vortices are then discussed in terms of applications. Experimental observation...

M. Sagner N. Baudu

1980-01-01

134

Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

Irwin, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

135

The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

2004-01-01

136

A fuzzy logic approach for the classification of product qualitative characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many chemical engineering systems, the classification of product quality characteristics is performed by human experts, due to the absence of measuring devices. The development of mathematical models for such systems is a rather difficult task, since no equations based on first principles can be written. It remains to use black-box modeling techniques, where the qualitative and subjective classifications given

George Tsekouras; Haralambos Sarimveis; Costas Raptis; George Bafas

2002-01-01

137

Listener Perceptions of Stuttering across Two Presentation Modes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare participants' quantitative and qualitative judgments of various forms and frequencies of stuttering, during either audiovisual or audio-only presentation modes. A total of 64 participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned and exposed to only one of the…

Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles; Brouwer, Kyle; Susca, Michael

2005-01-01

138

Synthesized Approaches: Expanding the Perspectives and Impact of Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation are discussed, examining how the perspective of each can and should create a critical debate that encourages inquiry instead of hostility. To achieve the major goal of linking evaluation information to the organization's culture, the evaluator needs to use multiple methods in a responsive,…

Piontek, Mary E.

139

An Approach to the Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct research methods coexist in SE: quantitative methods, which seek to measure and analyze causal relationships between variables in a framework with free values, and qualitative methods, which examine the proc- ess of creating meanings from which new or improved theorems are generated. Applying these two methods separately to SE research, it becomes clear that the results obtained are

María Lázaro; Esperanza Marcos

2006-01-01

140

A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological

Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

2013-01-01

141

A Way of Seeing People and Place: Phenomenology in Environment-Behavior Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the phenomenological approach as it might be used to explore environmental and architectural issues. After discussing the nature of phenomenology in broad terms, the review presents two major assumptions of the phenomenological approach: (1) that people and environment compose an indivisible whole; (2) that phenomenological method can be described in terms of a \\

David Seamon

142

Researching psychotherapy integration: A heuristic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moustakas argues that questions and methodology in heuristic research flow out of inner awareness, meaning and inspiration. The approach might arguably embrace a combination of qualitative research methods, and constitute a kind of bricolage. This paper describes a heuristic enquiry into psychotherapy integration that used such a combination of methods – an interpretative phenomenological approach, case studies, reflexive action, and

John Nuttall

2006-01-01

143

A qualitative study of the risk and protective factors of substance abuse among the young adults of Nagaland, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a qualitative inquiry with a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of nine young Naga substance abusers and uncover the fundamental nature and structure of the phenomenon of the risk and protective factors. The study addressed the following questions: (a) what are personal, interpersonal, intra-personal, cultural and environmental risk factors that influenced their substance abuse and addiction;

Philip Thomas Kizhakumpurath

2012-01-01

144

Qualitative Research Literature: A Bibliographic Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents selected literature that exemplifies (in theory and in practice) four methodological frameworks that have found wide application in qualitative studies: symbolic interactionism, phenomenological description, constructivist hermeneutics, and critical studies. (Author/LRW)

Horn, Jim

1998-01-01

145

Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking.

Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

2012-01-01

146

Bracketing--practical considerations in Husserlian phenomenological research.  

PubMed

Nursing research leans heavily towards naturalism, with phenomenology commonly adopted. The three main schools of phenomenology used are Husserl's descriptive approach, Heidegger's interpretive hermeneutic approach and the Dutch Utrecht School of phenomenology which combines characteristics of both. Husserl's approach--the description of ordinary human experiences as perceived by each individual--involves four main steps: bracketing, intuiting, analysing and describing. Many phenomenological nurse researchers consciously decide to adopt a Heideggerian approach because of the perceived difficulties in achieving bracketing. This paper examines the concept of bracketing (epoché) and outlines some of the practical considerations when attempting to achieve it. PMID:20222275

Hamill, Conal

2010-01-01

147

Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…

Alexandersson, Claes

148

Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…

Aanstoos, Christopher M.

149

Quantum-Spacetime Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. My main focus is on phenomenological programs that affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

2013-06-01

150

Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant.  

PubMed

The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects. PMID:24130732

Beatty, William S; Kesler, Dylan C; Webb, Elisabeth B; Raedeke, Andrew H; Naylor, Luke W; Humburg, Dale D

2013-01-01

151

Factors underlying diagnostic delay in tuberculosis patients in a rural area in Tanzania: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays.

Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.

2010-01-01

152

[Alternative and complementary medicine in the basic health system network in Brazil: a qualitative approach].  

PubMed

This article focuses on the social representations of health professionals about the introduction of complementary and alternative medical practices in the public health service network in Campinas city (SP, Brazil). Based in an essentially qualitative methodological perspective, the article analyses the general conditions, the problems and the obstacles related to the implementation of such practices. The success of this inclusion was found in four main reasons: the clientele disposition which gives support and demands this kind of service; the health vision of the sanitarian doctors, which is open to such project; the wide support given by the non-medical health professions, which intend to add value and amplify their practice and, finally, the own perspective of the alternative and complementary medicines, which agree with the Unified Health System (SUS) proposals. Despite the success in the implementation of such practices in the health basic system, two negative aspects were detected: the insufficient planning and the simplified vision which converts such rationalities in mere techniques, which follow the same mechanistic principles of the allophatic medicine and the same reified understanding of disease. PMID:21519669

Nagai, Silvana Cappelleti; Queiroz, Marcos de Souza

2011-03-01

153

When nightclub security agents assault clients more insight through a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

Between 2007 and 2009, aggressions by security agents of nightclubs on clients increased from 6% to 10% among community violence situations encountered at the Violence Medical Unit (VMU) at the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. Most victims were young men who had been drinking alcohol before the assault. About one quarter (25.7%) presented with one or several fractures, all of them in the head area. (For more details, refer to the previous article "When nightclub security agents assault clients" published in 2012(1).) Following this first study, we performed a second qualitative study in order to bring more information about the context and highlight victims' behaviors and experiences. Four themes emerged: how the assault began; the assault itself; third-party involvement; and the psychological state of victims when they consulted the VMU. The findings of this second study complemented the statistical results of the first study by showing under what circumstances security agents of nightclubs respond with physical violence to situations they consider a threat to security. Furthermore, the study described consequences for the victims that could be quite serious. Our findings support the need for nightclubs to improve selection and training of security staff. PMID:25066172

Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; De Puy, Jacqueline; Mangin, Patrice

2014-08-01

154

Understanding Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation in Rural Communities: A Combined Qualitative/Quantitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine factors associated with breastfeeding in rural communities. Methods We combined qualitative and quantitative data from the Family Life Project, consisting of: (1) a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1292) of infants born September 2003–2004 and (2) a parallel ethnographic study (N = 30 families). Demographic characteristics, maternal and infant health factors, and health services were used to predict breastfeeding initiation and discontinuation using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. Ethnographic interviews identified additional reasons for not initiating or continuing breastfeeding. Results Fifty-five percent of women initiated breastfeeding and 18% continued for at least 6 months. Maternal employment at 2 months and receiving WIC were associated with decreased breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Ethnographic data suggested that many women had never even considered breastfeeding and often discontinued breastfeeding due to discomfort, embarrassment, and lack of assistance. Conclusions Breastfeeding rates in these rural communities lag behind national averages. Opportunities for increasing breastfeeding in rural communities include enhancing workplace support, maximizing the role of WIC, increasing hospital breastfeeding assistance, and creating a social environment in which breastfeeding is normative.

Flower, Kori B.; Willoughby, Michael; Cadigan, R. Jean; Perrin, Eliana M.; Randolph, Greg

2009-01-01

155

Understanding Trends : A Qualitative Approach to Trend Identification and their Statistical Significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying trends in time series is necessary to increase the confidence level of the analysis of climate data. This entails finding trends that are statistically significant and categorizing them as linear, quadratic or cubic. Current methods identifying trends use various techniques such as polynomial regression, variate differencing and others. We propose methods such as boot strapping and frequency domain analysis that additionally address other key issues such as identifying the presence of trends within a segment of the time series and computing their individual statistical significances, and further perform a qualitative analysis in finally understanding how trend removal affects global statistics. The methods proposed play an important role in data driven discovery of climate dipoles that represent pairs of regions for which climate anomaly time series are in opposite polarities to each other. In such cases, the methods proposed can be used to identify spurious negative correlations that are caused primarily due to trends but not due to climate teleconnections. Given the general applicability of these methods, it may also prove useful to many time series data other than climate. This research is funded by NSF grant 1029711.

Kumar, A.; Liess, S.; Kawale, J.; Kumar, V.; Chatterjee, S.

2011-12-01

156

'Horses for Courses': the differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches to research.  

PubMed

Some clinicians may feel dissociated from, and intimidated by the ever-increasing emphasis on research. However, with an understanding of some of the basic principles and key terms, research can feel less daunting. It is the aim of this article, the second in a series of three focusing on understanding research, to introduce clinicians to the different approaches to research, to improve understanding of what the approaches mean, and to highlight when a particular approach may be appropriate. Furthermore, the article will provide an explanation of some of the common terms used within clinical research. This should aid the clinician in applying good, simple, scientific principles to evaluating clinical research evidence. PMID:11904331

Redmond, Anthony C; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Landorf, Karl

2002-03-01

157

Perceptions of bullying-like phenomena in South Korea: a qualitative approach from a lifespan perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate perceptions of bullying-like behaviours in South Korea, from young children to adults; why they happen and how people judge them. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focus groups were conducted across different age ranges, from preschool to workplace employees, in Seoul. A total of 113 participants were shown cartoons or descriptions of negative behaviours and asked “why

Seungha Lee; Peter K. Smith; Claire P. Monks

2011-01-01

158

An investigation of the British organizational commitment scale : A qualitative approach to evaluating construct validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – At a general level, this article is concerned with the mechanisms through which constructs important to organizational analysis are identified, operationalized and validated. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to consider the construct of organizational commitment, investigating the validity of a popular tool for its measurement – the British Organizational Commitment Scale (BOCS).Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Problems in defining

Ian Ashman

2007-01-01

159

The General Practitioner's Consultation Approaches to Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms (MUSs) in primary care is about 10–15%. The definition of MUS is descriptive and there are no specific diagnostic criteria for MUS in primary care. Furthermore, a general practitioner's (GP's) categorisation of patients with MUS shows large variation. The aim of the present study is to investigate how GPs employ the definition of MUS and how they manage patients with MUS in daily practice. Methods. With a grounded theory approach five focus group interviews with GPs were performed. The interviews addressed how GPs managed MUS and their reflections on the course and prognosis for MUS patients. Results. Consultations about MUS develop around the individual patient and usually include several appointments. We identified three different types of consultations: (1) “searching for a disease,” (2) “going by the routine,” and (3) “following various paths.” These types of consultations spanned from a biomedical approach to an approach where multiple explanations were offered to explain the patient's problem. The choice of consultation types was influenced by the GP, the patient and contextual factors which, in turn, affected the diagnostic process. Conclusions. A diagnosis of MUS is contextually embedded and the diagnostic process is shaped by the consultation.

Hansen, Henriette Schou; Rosendal, Marianne; Fink, Per; Ris?r, Mette Bech

2013-01-01

160

Approach for Qualitative Validation Using Aggregated Data for a Stochastic Simulation Model of the Spread of the Bovine Viral-Diarrhoea Virus in a Dairy Cattle Herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative validation consists in showing that a model is able to mimic available observed data. In population level biological\\u000a models, the available data frequently represent a group status, such as pool testing, rather than the individual statuses.\\u000a They are aggregated. Our objective was to explore an approach for qualitative validation of a model with aggregated data and\\u000a to apply it

Anne-France Viet; Christine Fourichon; Christine Jacob; Chantal Guihenneuc-Jouyaux; Henri Seegers

2006-01-01

161

Genotoxicity testing: moving beyond qualitative "screen and bin" approach towards characterization of dose-response and thresholds.  

PubMed

For more than 40+ years, genotoxicity data have been interpreted in a qualitative, binary mode; a chemical is considered either positive or negative for a response in the test system. Although dose-response information is sometimes used in this decision, it is not routine to obtain the amount of information needed to inform risk assessment, for example to determine no-observed-genotoxic-effect-levels, primarily due to the historical view of genotoxic responses as "linear, no-threshold." Only recently have researchers begun to address this issue through robust experimental designs and application of statistical models. A growing body-of-evidence supports the existence of response thresholds for a number of mutagenic agents, in vitro and in vivo. Clearly, simple observation of a "hockey-stick" dose-response curve is not sufficient to establish a threshold. Collection of robust empirical data must be supported with an analysis of biological plausibility for the observed threshold. In this context, a chemical-specific mode-of-action (MOA) approach, which identifies key events responsible for the observed mutagenic effect, is extremely valuable. Biomarkers of key events, providing qualitative and quantitative information, can be integrated in a weight-of-evidence-based assessment of genotoxicity data from multiple test systems and used to identify data gaps to resolve/reduce uncertainties during the risk assessment process. To this end, specific recommendations on study design and data analysis are proposed. As the Environmental Mutagen Society celebrates its 40th anniversary, the field of genetic toxicology is marking a milestone on the path to a new paradigm, using a MOA, data-driven approach to answer questions about thresholds for genotoxic agents. PMID:20806283

Pottenger, Lynn H; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-01-01

162

Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

Gardner, Robin P.; Ai, Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

2011-10-01

163

How qualitative research can contribute to research in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

A qualitative research design can provide unique contributions to research in the intensive care unit. Qualitative research includes the entire process of research: the methodology (conceptualization of the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, designing the protocol), methods (conducting the research using qualitative methods within the chosen qualitative strategy, analysis of the data, verification of the findings), and writing the narrative. The researcher is the instrument and the data are the participants' words and experiences that are collected and coded to present experiences, discover themes, or build theories. A number of strategies are available to conduct qualitative research and include grounded theory, phenomenology, case study, and ethnography. Qualitative methods can be used to understand complex phenomena that do not lend themselves to quantitative methods of formal hypothesis testing. Qualitative research may be used to gain insights about organizational and cultural issues within the intensive care unit and to improve our understanding of social interaction and processes of health care delivery. In this article, we outline the rationale for, and approaches to, using qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of qualitative methods available and how they can be used alone or in concert with quantitative methods. To illustrate how our understanding of social phenomena such as patient safety and behavior change has been enhanced we use recent qualitative studies in acute care medicine. PMID:17548020

Sinuff, Tasnim; Cook, Deborah J; Giacomini, Mita

2007-06-01

164

Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenology of large, warped, and universal extra dimensions are reviewed. Characteristic signals are emphasized over an extensive survey. This is the writeup of lectures given at the Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in 2004.

Kribs, Graham D.

2006-07-01

165

Validity in hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry: towards an ethics of evaluation.  

PubMed

This article explores the relationship of ethics to validity in hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry. First, the authors present a brief overview of the various discourses on validity in qualitative research that have been variously applied to hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry. Next, they examine how relational ethics is a presence to bear within this form of inquiry. Finally, they offer a set of ethical reflections to help the researcher engage in a process of ethical questioning during each step of the research process. PMID:18277790

Rashotte, Judy; Jensen, Louise

2007-12-01

166

Phenomenological theory of ontogenesis.  

PubMed

In accordance to Prigogine-Wiame and phenomenological theories of ontogenesis, a continuous decreasing of specific entropy production measured by the intensity of heat production or respiration takes place during development, growth and aging. There are periods in the life of organisms when reverse processes occur: (initial stages of oogenesis, regeneration and malignant growth). The phenomenological theory of ontogenesis demonstrates that physical bases of individual development are characterized by two thermodynamic principles: minimum energy dissipation and fastest descent. PMID:9449468

Zotin, A A; Zotin, A I

1997-12-01

167

Approaches to Recording Drug Allergies in Electronic Health Records: Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Drug allergy represent an important subset of adverse drug reactions that is worthy of attention because many of these reactions are potentially preventable with use of computerised decision support systems. This is however dependent on the accurate and comprehensive recording of these reactions in the electronic health record. The objectives of this study were to understand approaches to the recording of drug allergies in electronic health record systems. Materials and Methods We undertook a case study comprising of 21 in-depth interviews with a purposefully selected group of primary and secondary care clinicians, academics, and members of the informatics and drug regulatory communities, observations in four General Practices and an expert group discussion with 15 participants from the Allergy and Respiratory Expert Resource Group of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Results There was widespread acceptance among healthcare professionals of the need for accurate recording of drug allergies and adverse drug reactions. Most drug reactions were however likely to go unreported to and/or unrecognised by healthcare professionals and, even when recognised and reported, not all reactions were accurately recorded. The process of recording these reactions was not standardised. Conclusions There is considerable variation in the way drug allergies are recorded in electronic health records. This limits the potential of computerised decision support systems to help alert clinicians to the risk of further reactions. Inaccurate recording of information may in some instances introduce new problems as patients are denied treatments that they are erroneously believed to be allergic to.

Fernando, Bernard; Morrison, Zoe; Kalra, Dipak; Cresswell, Kathrin; Sheikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

168

Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment.

2014-01-01

169

Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.  

PubMed

The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

2011-05-01

170

Natural enamel caries in polarized light microscopy: differences in histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative approach to interpret enamel birefringence.  

PubMed

Lesion area measurement of enamel caries using polarized light microscopy (PLM) is currently performed in a large number of studies, but measurements are based mainly on a mislead qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence in a single immersion medium. Here, five natural enamel caries lesions are analysed by microradiography and in PLM, and the differences in their histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are described. Enamel birefringence in different immersion media (air, water and quinoline) is interpreted by both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the former leading to an underestimation of the depth of enamel caries mainly when the criterion of validating sound enamel as a negatively birefringent area in immersion in water is used (a current common practice in dental research). Procedures to avoid the shortcomings of a qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are presented and discussed. PMID:22414271

De Medeiros, R C G; Soares, J D; De Sousa, F B

2012-05-01

171

Phenomenological description of particle and entropy creation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic quantities and those describing the source of gravitational fields need not be identified. The standard approach is to identify them. If one does not follow this way, one opens the possibility of describing, on the level of phenomenology, the “average” of the quantum physical process behind the creation of particles and entropy in a comoving volume. Different approaches are briefly discussed. A variational principle with constraints modeling particle and entropy creation is formulated and leads to higher-order gravity field equations. They suggest on the level of phenomenology that the Minkowski space-time could be unstable against vacuum fluctuations.

Kasper, U.

1992-06-01

172

Mechanistic revisions of phenomenological modeling strategies in molecular evolution.  

PubMed

The physical sciences have long recognized the distinction between formal descriptions of observations versus explanations for observations, with the canonical example embodied in the axiom statistical mechanics explains thermodynamics. Descriptive models are often said to be phenomenologically motivated whereas explanatory models are said to be mechanistically motivated. In molecular evolutionary modeling the two approaches can typically be classified as dealing with either the inference of phylogenies - the phenomenological approach, lacking particular interest in evolutionary mechanisms per se, or focused on explaining the evolutionary process itself - the mechanistic approach. Here we emphasize that both phenomenological and mechanistic approaches are inherently present in any model. Focusing on the field of codon substitution modeling we point out that this area, traditionally viewed as being mechanistically motivated, has itself been imbued with phenomenological underpinnings. Using practical examples we stress that clarifying phenomenological and mechanistic motivations can help guide model developments, and suggest future work directions. PMID:20452086

Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé

2010-06-01

173

A phenomenological approach to the anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effect in tetragonal La2\\/3Ca1\\/3MnO3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A La2\\/3Ca1\\/3MnO3 Hall bar with its long dimension roughly along the hard axis [110] was fabricated on a single-crystal-like tensilely strained film on SrTiO3(001). The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and planar Hall effect (PHE) have been studied at various external magnetic fields and temperatures. A phenomenological model in the high field limit is developed, and the galvanomagnetic tensor based on a

J. Li; S. L. Li; Z. W. Wu; H. F. Chu; J. Wang; Y. Zhang; H. Y Tian; D. N. Zheng

2010-01-01

174

From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

Dartevelle, Sebastian

2007-10-01

175

Experience of fibromyalgia. Qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analysis. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. The analysis strategy used a phenomenologic approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. MAIN FINDINGS: Themes that emerged from the interpretive analysis depict patients' journeys along a continuum from experiencing symptoms, through seeking a diagnosis, to coping with the illness. Experiencing symptoms was composed of four subcategories: pain, a precipitating event, associated symptoms, and modulating factors. Seeking a diagnosis entailed frustration and social isolation. Confirmation of diagnosis brought relief as well as anxiety about the future. After diagnosis, several steps led to creation of adaptive coping strategies, which were influenced by several factors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the conventional medical model fails to address the complex experience of fibromyalgia. Adopting a patient-centred approach is important for helping patients cope with this disease.

Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.

2000-01-01

176

Internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle of middle-aged women: A qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background: A healthy lifestyle is one of the basic health-promotion strategies. Several factors are involved in shaping health-promotion behaviors. The internal barriers are the opinion and feelings that surround the individual and are the reasons that complicate the change of behavior. The aim of this study was to identify internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle in middle-aged Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 middle-aged women in the city of Yazd, who were selected using purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached; and the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed exactly. The transcripts were analyzed. Results: Five main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Women’s knowledge of health-promoting behaviors, importance of health and healthy behavior of women, affliction or fear of affliction to chronic disease and its consequences, responsibilities of women in the family and society, and skills of life management in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that empowering individual participants in health promotion is the most important factor determining their health. Thus, designing appropriate programs for education and empowerment of people is essential to promoting health. Health policy makers, with knowledge of these factors, can design comprehensive, socialization programs to promote women’s health.

Enjezab, Behnaz; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Taleghani, Fariba; Aflatoonian, Abbas

2012-01-01

177

[Self-perception of oral health and impact on quality of life among the elderly: a quantitative-qualitative approach].  

PubMed

A qualitative-quantitative approach was used in this study to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between self-perception, impact on quality of life and oral health among the elderly. Clinical examination and recorded interviews with objective and discursive questions were conducted with 45 institutionalized elderly people. Descriptive analyses of quantitative data were made. The interviews were transcribed and a systematic reading of the interviews was carried out selecting the components related to the categories under analysis. Photographic images of the oral clinical status were correlated with participants' speech. Quantitative analysis revealed: an average of 4.8 teeth; DMFT were 29.9; 57.7 % were toothless; 60% believed they did not need dental care; 75% suffered a great impact on quality of life due to oral health conditions, despite the fact that 67% evaluated their oral health positively. Underestimation of symptoms, lack of hope and resignation due to limitations regarding poor clinical status were detected. Most elderly people viewed such limitations as a consequence of aging and not as a problem that may be solved. This reality can be changed through information and guidance for elderly people. PMID:21808919

Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

2011-07-01

178

Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

179

Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigrams after maximal coronary artery vasodilation with intravenous dipyridamole: comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches  

SciTech Connect

Eighty-six patients had thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigrams after intense coronary artery dilation with i.v. dipyridamole. Tomographic and planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were obtained in each patient. Tomographic scintigrams were interpreted using quantitative or visual criteria; planar scintigrams were assessed using visual criteria only. When visual criteria were used, interobserver variability was 40% for tomographic scintigrams and 44% for planar scintigrams. In the 24 patients with normal or nonsignificant CAD, quantitative analysis of the tomograms (range approach) indicated that one of 24 (4%) had a positive image (specificity 96%%); in contrast, when visual criteria were used to interpret the tomographic or planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, eight of 24 (33%) had positive scintigrams (specificity 67%). In the 51 abnormal patients, the sensitivity of detecting CAD was 46 of 51 (90%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted quantitatively, 39 of 51 (76%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted visually and 41 of 51 (80%) for planar scintigrams assessed visually. The tomographic imaging procedure (quantitative interpretation) also demonstrated a high sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%) in 28 patients (10 normal and 18 CAD), with a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris. Overall, the predictive accuracy of an abnormal scintigram with quantitative tomographic imaging (98%) was significantly better (p<0.05) than either qualitative planar or pinhole imaging. (JMT)

Francisco, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City); Collins, S.M.; Go, R.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Van Kirk, O.C.; Marcus, M.L.

1982-08-01

180

Use of Both Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Study Job Stress in Different Gender and Occupational Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in job stress were investigated, collecting both qualitative (stressful incidents at work) and quantitative (rating scales of commonly experienced job stressors and strains) data from a sample of university employees. Content analyses of the qualitative data revealed 5 major job stressors, 5 major psychological strains, and 4 major physical strains experienced by both genders. When comparisons are made

Cong Liu; Paul E. Spector; Lin Shi

2008-01-01

181

Transversity: Theory and phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of transversely polarized quarks inside a transversely polarized nucleon, known as transversity, encodes a basic piece of information on the nucleon structure, sharing the same status with the more familiar unpolarized and helicity distributions. I will review its properties and discuss different ways to access it, with highlights and limitations. Recent phenomenological extractions and perspectives are also presented.

D'Alesio, Umberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C. P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2013-04-15

182

Being Bullied in Adolescence: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying is a destructive behaviour that peaks in early adolescence and causes or contributes to myriad negative outcomes. There is little understanding of what the experience of being bullied means to those who endure it. This study attempts to elucidate that meaning. A phenomenological approach is used to gather information from three adolescent…

Bowles, Cheryl L.; Lesperance, Linda

2004-01-01

183

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHRONIC NONMALIGNANT PAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic nonmalignant pain is a poorly understood subjective phenomenon that affects millions ofpeople. Numerous physiological and psychological hypotheses have been proposed to explain themechanisms by which it occurs and persists, yet treatment is not always successful in alleviating pain.Phenomenology is a research approach that attempts to provide an understanding of the meaning of livedexperience. Such an understanding enhances personal and

ANGELINE M. GLINIECKI

1995-01-01

184

Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights  

EPA Science Inventory

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

185

A qualitative and quantitative study of psychotherapists’ congruence in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the phenomenological world of 11 Satir-based Singaporean Chinese therapists with regard to their experience of congruence. A mixed qualitative-cum-quantitative research method was used in this study. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore (a) the phenomenological world of therapists with regard to their lived experience of congruence in their personal or inner lives, (b) how this congruence

Shyh Shin Wong; Vivienne Ng

2008-01-01

186

A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays

Thomas Groenewald

187

The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)

Van Manen, Max

1979-01-01

188

Anatomy of life and well-being: A framework for the contributions of phenomenology and complexity theory  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an anatomy of the phenomena of life and of correlate qualitative modes of empirical research, theory, and professional practice concerned with health and well-being. I explicate the qualitative dynamic operative at every level of order, from the biological realm of cells and organisms, through distinctively human lifeworld experiences and practices, to communities of organisms in ecosystems and bio-cultural regions. This paper clarifies the unity of the dimensions of life and aligns these with demonstrated and emerging contributions of hermeneutical phenomenology and current complexity–autopoietic theory (including disciplinary and professional interpretations of empirical findings). The intent is begin to delineate a common framework upon which we could build—facilitating better understanding of the distinctive contributions of each specialization as well as the integration of diverse qualitative approaches with each other (and with quantitative complements).

Mugerauer, Robert

2010-01-01

189

Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…

Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred

2012-01-01

190

Women's experience of brain injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) can leave the survivor with a complex range of psychological sequalae. This study aims to investigate the experience from the perspective of women with acquired TBI. Using a qualitative research method, six women with a TBI were interviewed about their experience, and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).

Hannah Howes; David Benton; Stephen Edwards

2005-01-01

191

Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…

Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry

2012-01-01

192

The Role and Influence of Interpretation in Hermeneutic phenomenological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the significance of interpretation and its role within qualitative hermeneutic-phenomenological inquiry. The discussion begins with a critical historical overview highlighting how the subject of interpretation emerged and was debated among the work of Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. Taken from historical as well as present day writings concerning interpretation, four interlocking elements; lived experience, meaning, understanding and language

Jo-Ann Vis

193

Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

2013-01-01

194

Philosophical Phenomenology: A Methodology for Holistic Educational Research. Multicultural Research Guides Series, Number Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…

Stone, Frank Andrews

195

Paraphilias: phenomenology and classification.  

PubMed

DSM-III incorrectly designates the majority of paraphilias as atypical. Only eight are named, and those because of their forensic history, rather than their pathology and therapeutic need. In this paper, thirty-odd paraphilias are subdivided into six categories on the basis of their phenomenological dynamics. The new concept of the developmental lovemap is introduced for the first time. A new treatment originated by the author in 1966 combines an androgen agonist with counseling therapy. PMID:6234812

Money, J

1984-04-01

196

Development of a combined SEM and ICP-MS approach for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metal microparticles and sub-microparticles in food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach based on the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy\\u000a (SEM) for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metal particles in foods was devised and validated. Different raw materials\\u000a and food products, like wheat, durum wheat, wheat flour, semolina, cookies, and pasta were considered. Attention was paid\\u000a to the development of sample

D. Beltrami; D. Calestani; M. Maffini; M. Suman; B. Melegari; A. Zappettini; L. Zanotti; U. Casellato; M. Careri; A. Mangia

197

Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications.  

PubMed

The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population. PMID:24464464

Finnegan, Alan

2014-06-01

198

Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

Bell, Jo

2009-01-01

199

A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

2010-01-01

200

"What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

2014-01-01

201

Dilemmas in qualitative health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a

Lucy Yardley

2000-01-01

202

Qualitative research in finance - pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

Bruce Burton

203

Finite Unification: phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phenomenological implications of Finite Unified Theories (FUTs). In particular we look at the predictions for the lightest Higgs mass and the s-spectra of two all-loop finte models with SU(5) as gauge group. We also consider a two-loop finite model with gauge group SU(3)3, which is finite if and only if there are exactly three generations. In this latter model we concetrate here only on the predictions for the third generation of quark masses.

Heinemeyer, S.; Ma, E.; Mondragón, M.; Zoupanos, G.

2010-11-01

204

Personality disorders and mood disorders: phenomenological resemblances vs. pathogenetic pathways.  

PubMed

Diagnosis in psychiatry is currently based on phenomenology, because etiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown, and because biological markers for disease have not been identified. The unitary model of depression and the model of a bipolar spectrum are based on resemblances in phenomenology between symptoms whose pathogenetic pathways are likely to differ. Both models have sometimes considered the diagnosis of personality disorder as an affective variant, even when patients present with qualitatively distinct mood features. Biological reductionism lies behind a concept of mood as the primary driver of psychopathology, a view that may be detrimental to treatment. PMID:20205495

Paris, Joel

2010-02-01

205

Philosophy of qualitative inquiry: Hermeneutic phenomenology and communication research  

Microsoft Academic Search

HERMENEUTICS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. By Zygmunt Bauman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978; pp. 263. $16.00.HERMENEUTICS: INTERPRETATION THEORY IN SCHLEIERMACHER, DILTHEY, HEIDEGGER, AND GADAMER. By Richard E. Palmer. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1969; pp. xvi+283. $14.95.UNDERSTANDING AND SOCIAL INQUIRY. Edited by Fred R. Dallmayr and Thomas A. McCarthy. Notre Dame, Ind.: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1977; pp. 365.

John Stewart

1981-01-01

206

The Experimental Use of Introspection in the Scientific Study of Pain and its Integration with Third-Person Methodologies: The Experiential-Phenomenological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the nature of pain depends, at least partly, on recognizing its subjectivity. This in turn requires using a first-person experiential approach in addition to third-person experimental approaches to study it. This paper is an attempt to spell out what the former approach is and how it can be integrated with the latter. We start our discussion by examining some

DONALD D. PRICE; MURAT AYDEDE

2002-01-01

207

Cyclotide Structure-Activity Relationships: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Linking Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity to the Clustering of Physicochemical Forces  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity.

Park, Sungkyu; Stromstedt, Adam A.; Goransson, Ulf

2014-01-01

208

Cyclotide structure-activity relationships: qualitative and quantitative approaches linking cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity to the clustering of physicochemical forces.  

PubMed

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity. PMID:24682019

Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A; Göransson, Ulf

2014-01-01

209

Qualitative research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– To discuss and,analyse,three themes,in qualitative research in marketing,which,are objects of both frustration and confusion: analysis and interpretation; theory generation; and a quest for scientific pluralism and individual researcher lifestyles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Underpinning the discussion is that complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, chaos, change, uncertainty and unpredictability are characteristics of a market economy; that qualitative and subjective interpretation is necessary,to add

E. Gummesson

2005-01-01

210

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

211

CURVED SURFACE DIFFRACTION PHENOMENOLOGY, MODELING & CHARACTERIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Curved surface diffraction is a phenomenon that is relevant in many areas of communications such as cellular telephony, Wi-Fi access, and ground and vehicle (e.g., aircraft and naval ships) EMI. We have been characterizing electronic warfare (EW) and information, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platform electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) phenomenology. Some of the approaches to mitigate platform

R. Pirich; P. Anumolu; D. Schefer

2006-01-01

212

Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

Reber, Rolf

2006-01-01

213

What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial.

Prufer, Franziska; Miksch, Antje

2013-01-01

214

Effect of administration route on the biodistribution and shedding of replication-deficient AAV2: a qualitative modelling approach.  

PubMed

Gene therapy is a rapidly developing field in which recombinant nucleic acid sequences are introduced to individuals to regulate, repair, replace, add or delete a genetic sequence. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially AAV2, are frequently used in gene therapy. Knowledge on the biodistribution and potential shedding of AAV2 is crucial to evaluate the risks of infection with the viral vector for the patient and the environment. Literature was analysed for biodistribution and shedding data for AAV2. Preclinical and clinical studies were included with a focus on the influence of the administration route on spreading. Based on biodistribution and shedding data, a qualitative model for the biodistribution and shedding of AAV2 related to the administration route is presented. It is concluded that biodistribution and shedding of AAV2 depends on the route of administration. Some routes lead to local biodistribution and thus to no shedding or shedding via one route only. Other routes lead to systemic biodistribution and to shedding via several excretion routes. The qualitative model presented can help to determine the possible biodistribution in the body and the risk of shedding via the different excretion routes. In addition, it can help to predict the different shedding routes after a certain administration route of AAV2 and thus in deciding which studies are warranted or which safety precautions are needed after administration to patients. PMID:20222862

Brandon, Esther F A; Hermsen, Harm P H; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Tiesjema, Birgitte

2010-04-01

215

Illness representations among people with non-epileptic seizures attending a neuropsychiatry clinic: a qualitative study based on the self-regulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study was carried out in order to investigate illness representations of people with non-epileptic seizures (NES) in relation to Leventhal’s self-regulation or common sense model. Nine participants with NES took part in semi-structured interviews and transcripts were analysed using an approach from interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data were coded according to the five elements of the self-regulation model (identity,

Andrew Green; Sheila Payne; Rosemary Barnitt

2004-01-01

216

The Contributions of Dialogal Psychology to Phenomenological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the emergence, application, and advantages of a dialogal approach to phenomenological research and show how it is rooted in a particular community of psychological theory and practice. This approach assumes that dialogue itself, interpersonal conversation, is critical not only in teaching and in therapy but also in research. Further, this approach overcomes the dichotomy between the personal

Steen Halling; Georg Kunz; Jan O. Rowe

1994-01-01

217

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: A translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve

Kathleen T. Galvin; Les Todres

2011-01-01

218

Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach  

PubMed Central

Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible.

Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

2007-01-01

219

Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a researcher may conduct a basic qualitative research. This paper deals specifically with research of learning, older adults, and in a rural area. This paper became the foundation for the research of my dissertation. I discuss the sample and the criteria for the sample. I also describe the sources of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

220

Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

2009-01-01

221

Qualitative research articles: guidelines, suggestions and needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article giving some methodological suggestions to make

Alberto Crescentini; Giuditta Mainardi

2009-01-01

222

Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-based interventions are reported as being efficacious treatments for a variety of psychological and somatic conditions. However, concerns have arisen relating to how mindfulness is operationalized in mindfulness-based interventions and whether its 'spiritual essence' and full potential treatment efficacy have remained intact. This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine participant experiences regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of a newly designed secularized intervention called meditation awareness training (MAT) that follows a more traditional Buddhist approach to meditation. Participants (with issues of stress and low mood) reported experiencing improvements in psychological well-being due to receiving MAT. The wider implications are discussed. PMID:23377964

Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

2014-06-01

223

Interviewing objects: including educational technologies as qualitative research participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues the importance of including significant technologies?in?use as key qualitative research participants when studying today’s digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in ‘interviewing’ technologies?in?use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete examples from our own qualitative research projects. Our discussion is informed by Actor?Network Theory and hermeneutic phenomenology, as

Catherine A. Adams; Terrie Lynn Thompson

2011-01-01

224

Fitting the phenomenological MSSM  

SciTech Connect

We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C. [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Quevedo, Fernando [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CERN, PH-TH, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2010-05-01

225

[Between anxiety and hope: the experiences of women with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia during their illness trajectory - a qualitative approach].  

PubMed

The vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a rare chronic skin condition that may progress to an invasive carcinoma of the vulva. Major issues affecting women's health were occurring symptoms, negative influences on sexuality, uncertainty concerning the illness progression and changes in the body image. Despite this, there is little known about the lived experiences of the illness trajectory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the experiences of women with VIN during the illness trajectory. In a secondary data analysis of the foregoing qualitative study we analysed eight narrative interviews with women with VIN by using thematic analysis in combination with critical hermeneutics. Central for these women during their course of illness was a sense of "Hope and Fear". This constitutive pattern reflects the fear of recurrence but also the trust in healing. The eight narratives showed women's experiences during their course of illness occurred in five phases: "there is something unknown"; "one knows, what IT is"; "IT is treated and should heal"; "IT has effects on daily life"; "meanwhile it works". Women's experiences were particularly influenced by the feeling of "embarrassment" and by "dealing with professionals". Current care seems to lack adequate support for women with VIN to manage these phases. We suggest, based on our study and the international literature, that new models of counselling and providing information need to be developed and evaluated. PMID:23535473

Gafner, Dinah; Eicher, Manuela; Spirig, Rebecca; Senn, Beate

2013-04-01

226

Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

Lambert, Frank L.

2002-01-01

227

Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.  

PubMed

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis. PMID:22823104

Rennie, David L

2012-09-01

228

FLIC Fermions and Hadron Phenomenology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pedagogical overview of the formulation of the Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action and its associated phenomenology is described. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative order (a) improvement where...

D. B. Leinweber J. N. Hedditch W. Melnichouk A. W. Thomas A. G. Williams R. D. Young

2002-01-01

229

Phenomenology beyond the standard model  

SciTech Connect

An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

2005-03-01

230

Neutrino oscillations: theory and phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of selected topics in the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is given. These include: oscillations in vacuum and in matter; phenomenology of 3-flavour neutrino oscillations; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; matter effects on ????? oscillations; parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations inside the earth; oscillations below and above the MSW resonance; unsettled issues in the theory of neutrino oscillations.

Akhmedov, E. K.

2011-12-01

231

Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

2012-01-01

232

Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families  

PubMed Central

Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families.

Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Veronique; Labbe, Andre; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

2012-01-01

233

Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

234

Aspects of grand unified and string phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary to input some preferred region of parameter space in which to search. This need may be well filled by a parallel study of Grand Unification, which is by contrast in immediate proximity to a wealth of experimental data. The favored GUT so isolated may then reasonably transfer this phenomenological correlation to a string embedding, receiving back by way of trade a greater sense of primary motivation, and potentially enhanced predictability for parameters taken as input in a particle physics context. The Flipped SU(5) GUT will be our preferred framework in which to operate and first receives an extended study in a non-string derived setting. Of particularly timely interest are predictions for super-particle mass ranges and the interrelated question of proton decay lifetime. Corrections to such a picture under the lift to a string embedding are also considered. Two principal approaches to string model building are next treated in turn: the Heterotic Free Fermionic construction and Intersecting D-branes in Orientifold compactifications. In both contexts, a summary of existing constructions, extensions to known procedures, and original phenomenological contributions are described.

Walker, Joel W.

235

Phenomenology of supersolids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the phenomenological properties of supersolids---materials that simultaneously display both crystalline order and superfluidity. To explain the recent observation in the torsional oscillator experiments on 4He solid by Kim and Chan we adopt a viscoelastic solid model which is characterized by a frequency-dependent complex shear modulus. In this model, we found that a characteristic time scale which accounts for dissipation in solids grows rapidly as the temperature is reduced, and results in a decrease in the resonant period and a peak in the inverse of Q-factor. We also briefly discuss the possible relation between the torsional oscillator results and the anomalous increase of shear modulus obtained by Day and Beamish. In a related study, we employ a variational principle together with Galilean covariance and thermodynamic relations to obtain the non-dissipative hydrodynamics and an effective Lagrangian density for supersolids. We study the mode structure of supersolids by calculating the second and fourth sound speeds due to defect propagation. We also calculate the density-density correlation function of a model supersolid using the hydrodynamics of Andreev and Lifshitz, and propose a light scattering experiment to measure the density-density correlation function (which is related to the intensity of scattered light). We find that the central Rayleigh peak of the defect diffusion mode of a normal solid in the density-density correlation function splits into an additional Brillouin doublet due to the longitudinal second sound modes in supersolid phase. Finally, we study the dynamics of vortices and dislocations in supersolids by using the derived Lagrangian for supersolids. We obtain the effective actions for vortices and dislocations in two-dimensional isotropic supersolids emphasizing the differences from the dynamics in superfluids and solids. As a result we obtain the frequency-dependent inertial masses for slowly moving vortices and dislocations.

Yoo, Chi-Deuk

236

Toward a Phenomenological-Longitudinal Model of Media Gratification Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While not dismissing the "uses and gratifications" approach to research, this paper attempts to increase the theoretical and practical utility of gratifications measures by approaching them through a more phenomenological and longitudinal tack. The paper suggests that any "gratification unit" is given a unique meaning by the situated-gratified…

Kielwasser, Alfred P.; And Others

237

Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers’ and beneficiaries’ perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC. Methods We conducted 27 key informant interviews with health officials and partners at national, district and health centre levels; 32 focus group discussions with community members and in-depth interviews with 32 community members and 32 community leaders. Additionally, official PHC related documents were reviewed. Results The findings show that there is a functional PHC system in place in the two study districts, though its implementation is faced with various challenges related to accessibility of services and shortage of resources. Health service providers and consumers shared perceptions on the importance of intensifying community participation to strengthen PHC, particularly within the areas of provision of insecticide treated bed nets, home case management for malaria, management of diarrhoeal diseases, treatment of schistosomiasis and provision of food supplements against malnutrition. Conclusion Our study indicates that intensified community participation based on the CDI approach can be considered as a realistic means to increase accessibility of certain vital interventions at community level.

2012-01-01

238

Feminist Epistemology and Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and evaluates an approach to teaching practicing social workers in Hong Kong qualitative research from a feminist perspective. Using a problem-based format, graduate social workers in Hong Kong were taught critical appraisal skills while learning to do qualitative interview research in their practices. While the problem-based design supports models of adult learning and is a successful method

Judith Globerman; Cecilia Chan

2000-01-01

239

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation  

PubMed Central

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-01-01

240

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.  

PubMed

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-10-01

241

Unspoken phenomena: using the photovoice method to enrich phenomenological inquiry.  

PubMed

Photovoice is a powerful method that is gaining momentum in nursing research. As a relatively new method in nursing science, the situatedness of photovoice within or alongside various research methodologies in a single study remains in a stage of early development. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the photovoice method as a means to elicit phenomenological data when researching the lived experience. While the foundational bases of phenomenology and photovoice differ substantially, the argument presented in this paper suggests that the photovoice method can be successfully used in phenomenological inquiry provided that significant rigour checks are pursued. This includes reflecting upon the origins and understandings of both methodology and method to promote methodological congruency. Data collection and analysis approaches that contribute to phenomenological inquiry using the photovoice method in addition to rigour and ethical considerations are discussed. The use of data generated from photovoice in phenomenological inquiry may fill a void of understanding furnished by limitations of traditional phenomenological inquiry and of spoken language and can enhance understanding of the lived experience, which may not always be best understood by words alone. PMID:22381071

Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D; Ray, Susan L

2013-06-01

242

Triggering change in diabetes care delivery in general practice: a qualitative evaluation approach using the clinical microsystem framework  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, the Sunshine Coast Division of General Practice (SCDGP) in Queensland, Australia initiated a highly successful Improved Diabetes Management (IDM) program with general practices in a regional area. The IDM program was evaluated against the 10 elements of a high functioning clinical microsystem framework as identified by Nelson et al. (2007) in order to determine key factors contributing to the successful adoption and uptake of the program in participating general practices. Methods The evaluation focussed on in-depth key informant interviews with 10 SCDGP staff and general practitioners (GPs) involved in the IDM program. A thematic analysis was undertaken and common emergent themes were reviewed against the 10 elements of high performing clinical microsystem. Results While all aspects of the clinical microsystem approach appeared effective in the design, implementation and adoption of the IDM program, several characteristics were crucial. The identification of champions of change in both the division and participating practices, the celebration of positive achievements and the use ‘real data’ from practices to demonstrate improved health outcomes for patients from the practice were instrumental in motivating participating GPs to both implement and sustain changes in their diabetes care delivery. Conclusion In designing and redesigning health care, the clinical microsystems approach offers a pathway for the effective uptake of innovation in Australian primary health care; a means of integrating structure, process and outcomes of a care framework for reviewing improvements in the health care delivery process and could lead to improvements in patient health outcomes.

2014-01-01

243

Exploring the provision of hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Identifying factors affecting the provision of trauma care is essential for improving the quality of care for road traffic injury (RTI) victims. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of trauma care among injured patients and health professionals to identify factors influencing an effective trauma care delivery at emergency departments (EDs) in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted with a grounded theory approach. The study participants consisted of 15 health professionals and 20 injured patients. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using constant comparative analysis method. Results: Lack of a systematic approach to providing trauma care at EDs emerged as the core category. The leading factors in the development of the core category were unclear national policies and poor organization of care at the ED. Other major factors were contextual factors in the environment of the hospitals such as inappropriate structure and unsupportive environment and also factors specific to the context of Iran such as a rapid increase in the number of traumas. Professionals reacted to the prevailing conditions in ways that contributed to an ineffective trauma care, even though strategies employed by Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMPs) improved the quality of trauma care locally. Conclusions: Building a national trauma system, using available professional resources especially EMPs, and implementing low cost and evidence-based improvements such as establishing trauma teams and trauma training for staff working at the EDs on a regular basis is necessary in order to improve delivery of trauma care at the hospitals.

Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Johansson, Eva; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasselberg, Marie

2013-01-01

244

Interaction with potential donors' families: The professionals' community of concern--a phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to explore the health professionals' experiences and gain a deeper understanding of interaction with families of critically ill or traumatized patients with severe brain injuries. The methodological approach was qualitative and phenomenological. Data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with nurses, physicians, and chaplains working in two ICUs in a Norwegian university hospital. A thematic analysis was used for analyzing data. Two main themes emerged from analysis: Patient oriented even when present and Family oriented even when absent. Each main theme is divided into two sub-themes. The themes appeared as phases in an interaction process. In the two first phases the interaction may be characterized as Alternating between being absent and present and Following up and withholding information and in the two last phases as Turning point and changing focus and Partly present when waiting for death. The findings are in the discussion illuminated by the phenomenological concept of concern. Concern is visible as care, and the distinction in care between “leaps in” and “leaps ahead” and “ready-to-hand” and “unready-to-hand” are topics in the discussion. Because of the complexity of caring for both patient and family, the situation demands efforts to relieve nurses in particular, during the most demanding phases of the process.

Or?y, Aud; Str?mskag, Kjell Erik; Gjengedal, Eva

2011-01-01

245

Some Surprises and Paradoxes Revealed by Inverse Problem Approach and Notion about Qualitative Solutions of SCHRÖDINGER Equations “IN MIND”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was an important examination to give a review talk at the previous Conference on Inverse Quantum Scattering (1996, Lake Balaton) about computer visualization of this science in front of its fathers — creators, B. M. Levitan and V. A. Marchenko. We have achieved a new understanding that the discovered main rules of transformations of a single wave function bump, e.g., for the ground bound states of one dimensional quantum systems are applicable to any state of any potential with arbitrary number of bumps from finite to unlimited ones as scattering states and bound states embedded into continuum. It appeared that we need only to repeat the rule mentally the necessary number of times. That uttermost simplification and unification of physical notion of spectral, scattering and decay control for any potential have got an obligatory praise from B. M. Levitan at the conference and was a mighty stimulus for our further research After that we have written both Russian (2002) and improved English editions of “Submissive Quantum Mechanics. New Status of the Theory in Inverse Problem Approach”1 (appeared at the very end of 2007). This book was written for correction of the present defect in quantum education throughout the world. Recently the quantum IP intuition helped us to discover a new concept of permanent wave resonance with potential spatial oscillations.2 This means the constant wave swinging frequency on the whole energy intervals of spectral forbidden zones destroying physical solutions and deepening the theory of waves in periodic potentials. It also shows the other side of strengthening the fundamentally important magic structures. A ‘new language’ of wave bending will be presented to enrich our quantum intuition, e.g., the paradoxical effective attraction of barriers and repulsion of wells in multichannel systems, etc.

Zakhariev, B. N.; Chabanov, V. M.

246

Phenomenological applications ofk Tfactorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss applications of the perturbative QCD approach in the exclusive\\u000anon-leptonic two body B-meson decays. We briefly review its ingredients and\\u000asome important theoretical issues on the factorization approaches. PQCD results\\u000aare compatible with present experimantal data for the charmless B-meson decays.\\u000aWe predict the possibility of large direct CP asymmetry in $B^0 \\\\to\\u000a\\\\pi^{+}\\\\pi^{-}$ $(23\\\\pm7 %)$ and $B^0\\\\to

Yong-Yeon Keum

2004-01-01

247

Physiotherapists' experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as an authoritative expert who determine goals, intervention planning and evaluation. Conclusions Different paradigms of health and disability lead to different approaches to physiotherapy which influence the whole intervention process regarding strategies for the assessment and treatment, all of which influence Family-Centred Service and the child’s motor learning strategies. The results may deepen physiotherapists’ understanding of how different paradigms of health influence the way in which various physiotherapy approaches in research seek to solve the challenge of CP.

2012-01-01

248

Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72?years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60?months (median=26?months, mean=24?months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae.

Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

2014-01-01

249

Marketing theory and critical phenomenology : Exploring the human side of management practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper uses phenomenology as a critical theoretical lens through which to view marketing management theory. The aim is to demonstrate that it can uncover the extent to which established theory neglects the human side of marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To facilitate a phenomenological discussion, the critical framework of Mingers is utilised. This identifies a critique of rhetoric, of

Barry Ardley

2011-01-01

250

Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

Haymes, Stephen Nathan

2012-01-01

251

One Health and EcoHealth in Ontario: a qualitative study exploring how holistic and integrative approaches are shaping public health practice in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health actors interviewed in this study. This study also highlights the critical role of governance and partnerships in facilitating a holistic approach to health. Further research on governance and partnership models, as well as systems-based organizational working practices, is needed to close the gap between One Health and EcoHealth theory and public health practice.

2012-01-01

252

The development of an instrument that can identify children with palliative care needs: the Paediatric Palliative Screening Scale (PaPaS Scale): a qualitative study approach  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of paediatric palliative care and referral to specialised teams still occurs late in the illness trajectory of children with life-limiting diseases. The aim of this ongoing multipart study was to develop a screening instrument for paediatricians that would improve the timely identification of children who could benefit from a palliative care approach. Methods We used a qualitative study approach with semi-structured interviews (Part 1) and a focus group discussion (Part 2) to define the domains and items of the screening instrument. Seven international paediatric palliative care experts from the UK, France, USA, and Canada took part in face-to-face interviews, and eleven paediatric health professionals from the University Children’s Hospital, Zurich, participated in a subsequent focus group discussion. Results This preliminary phase of development and validation of the instrument revealed five domains relevant to identifying children with life-limiting diseases, who could benefit from palliative care: 1) trajectory of disease and impact on daily activities of the child; 2) expected outcome of disease-directed treatment and burden of treatment; 3) symptom and problem burden; 4) preferences of patient, parents or healthcare professional; and 5) estimated life expectancy. Where palliative care seems to be necessary, it would be introduced in a stepwise or graduated manner. Conclusions This study is a preliminary report of the development of an instrument to facilitate timely introduction of palliative care in the illness trajectory of a severely ill child. The instrument demonstrated early validity and was evaluated as being a valuable approach towards effective paediatric palliative care.

2013-01-01

253

Phenomenological Classification of Depressive Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical cluster analysis methods have been the basis for development of a phenomenological classification of depressive disorders. Verbal descriptions of the distinguishing features of anxious, hostile, agitated, and retarded subtypes of depression are provided to facilitate development of clinical classification concepts. A review of validity…

Overall, John E.; Hollister, Leo E.

1980-01-01

254

Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to gain phenomenological information about Selective Mutism (SM) in the following areas: (a) mute and variant talking patterns that occur prior to the identification of SM and\\/or which occur as conditions within the SM syndrome, (b) events that precipitate SM, (c) biological vulnerabilities for SM in terms of anxiety and temperament variables, (d) characteristics

Mary Ann Ford; Ingrid E. Sladeczek; John Carlson; Thomas R. Kratochwill

1998-01-01

255

Why phenomenology in communication research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenology is, at the very least, a choice to study an environment from a situated location in actual experience and oriented toward particular aspects of the spectrum of human activity. Communication is, at the very least, a process of informing someone about something, and so forming and perhaps transforming both the environment and those who communicate within it in particular

Lenore Langsdorf

1994-01-01

256

Hermeneutic Phenomenology as a Research Method in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermeneutic phenomenology has not been widely used as a research method in social work.The purpose of this article is to give a brief overview of this approach to research, and to discuss how the method was applied to a particular research project. First, the article discusses how the researcher oriented herself to the topic and gives a brief overview of

Margaretha M. Wilcke

2006-01-01

257

Caring Teacher-Pupil Relationship: Feminist or Phenomenological?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nel Noddings'"Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education" (1984) represents a feminist view of the caring teacher-pupil relationship, focusing on the personal and social setting and speaking directly about the relationship. The works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty contribute a phenomenological perspective which is universal and culturally…

Morrison, Harriet B.

258

Phenomenological modelling of first order phase transitions in magnetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First order phase transitions may occur in several magnetic systems, with two structural phases having different magnetic properties each and a structural transition between them. Here, a novel physics based phenomenological model of such systems is proposed, in which magnetization is represented by the volumetric amounts of ferromagnetism (described by extended Jiles-Atherton theory) and paramagnetism (described by the Curie-Weiss law) in respective phases. An identification procedure to extract material parameters from experimental data is proposed. The proposed phenomenological approach was successfully applied to magnetocaloric Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 system and also has the potential to describe the behavior of Griffiths phase magnetic systems.

Melikhov, Yevgen; Hadimani, R. L.; Raghunathan, Arun

2014-05-01

259

Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the nature of clinical knowledge in medicine, exposed some of the shortcomings of quantitative research methods, and briefly introduced qualitative methods as an approach for improved understanding. Here, I shall discuss how scientific quality can be maintained when qualitative research methods are applied. I present some overall standards, describe specific challenges met when the medical researcher uses qualitative

Kirsti Malterud

2001-01-01

260

Qualitative research in finance – pedigree and renaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

Bruce Burton

2007-01-01

261

A Qualitative Approach to Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on modelling dual epistemic attitudes (belief-disbelief, knowledge-ignorance, like-dislike) of an agent. This provides an interesting way to express different levels of uncertainties explicitly in the logical language. After introducing a dual modal framework, we discuss the different possibilities of an agent's attitude towards a proposition that can be expressed in this framework, and provide a preliminary look at the dynamics of the situation.

Ghosh, Sujata; Velázquez-Quesada, Fernando R.

262

Microemulsions: A qualitative thermodynamic approach  

SciTech Connect

Microemulsions, that is, stable colloidal dispersions of water and nonpolar solvents stabilized by amphiphiles, are of growing interest in research and industry. The phase behavior of the multicomponent mixture is essentially determined by the features of corresponding binary mixtures. The efficiency of an amphiphile in solubilizing the solvents reaches its maximum in the temperature interval in which the mixture separates into three coexisting liquid phases. The domain size of the dispersion is determined by the interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase in the presence of a saturated monolayer. Because the interfacial tension reaches its minimum in the three-phase interval and, furthermore, decreases with increasing amphiphilicity, the transition from weakly structured solutions to microemulsions is gradual. It is, therefore, suggested that microemulsions be defined as stable colloidal dispersions of domains sufficiently large for the dispersed solvent to exhibit the properties as, e.g., the dielectric number of a bulk phase.

Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.; Busse, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (West Germany))

1990-05-17

263

A Qualitative Approach to Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the teaching of physics, the study of electricity and magnetism typically follows the introduction of the basic concepts of mechanics. However, there are some new concepts associated with electromagnetic fields that seem at first to the student to be unrelated to, or even incompatible with, Newton's third law as learned in mechanics.…

Haertel, Hermann

264

Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Phenomenology: A Comparison of Historical and Methodological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology have become increasingly popular as research methodologies, yet confusion still exists about the unique aspects of these two methodologies. This article provides a discussion of the essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives. Consideration is given to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research and research outcomes that differentiate

Susann M. Laverty

2003-01-01

265

Phenomenology and the Study of Animal Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Has the research on animal behavior anything to gain from phenomenology? And vice versa: has phenomenology something to learn from the different disciplines operating in this field, or is it a self-sufficing doctrine without any serious aspiration to look outside its immediate scope? After all, one might argue that it follows from the phenomenological reduction that the claims made by

Erika Ruonakoski

266

Qualitative Estimation of the Single-Electron Transfer Step Energetics Mediated by Samarium(II) Complexes: A "SOMO-LUMO Gap" Approach.  

PubMed

Lanthanide II organometallic complexes usually initiate reactions via a single-electron transfer (SET) from the metal to a bonded substrate. Extensive mechanistic studies were carried out for lanthanide III complexes in which no change of oxidation state is involved. Some case-dependent strategies were reported by our group in order to account for a SET event in organometallic computed studies. In the present study, we show that analysis of DFT orbital spectra allows differentiating between exothermic and endothermic electron transfer. This methodology appears to be general; it allows differentiating between lanthanide centers and substituent effects on metallocenes. For that purpose, we considered mainly various samarocene adducts as well as a SmI2 complex explicitly solvated by THF. Comparison between DFT methods and ab initio (CAS-SCF and HF) computational level revealed that the SOMO-LUMO gap computed at the DFT B3PW91 level, in combination with small-core RECPs and standard basis sets, offers a qualitative estimation of the energetics of the SET that is in line with both CAS-SCF calculations and experimental results when available. This orbital-based approach, based on DFT calculation, affords a fast and efficient methodology for pioneer exploration of the reactivity of lanthanide(II) mediated by SET. PMID:24620762

Kefalidis, Christos E; Essafi, Stéphanie; Perrin, Lionel; Maron, Laurent

2014-04-01

267

A Phenomenological Study of Culturally Proficient School Leadership Resulting in the Narrowing of the Learning Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culturally proficient school leadership and its impact on narrowing the learning gap is both timely, and needed and the focus of discussion for this study. This phenomenological qualitative research study examined culturally proficient school leadership actions that help promote a measurable narrowing of the achievement gap in five southeastern…

Pfaller, Renee L.

2010-01-01

268

A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

Mills-Byrd, Love

2011-01-01

269

History and Social Science Teachers' Perceptions of Their Profession: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chile, teaching is in a period of transition between occupation and profession. To examine teachers' perceptions of their profession, the author conducted a qualitative, phenomenological investigation. He interviewed twenty-seven history and social science teachers employed at urban secondary schools in Chile. He found that teachers believe…

Labrana, Carlos Munoz

2007-01-01

270

Outsourcing within aerospace manufacturing enterprises: A phenomenological study and outsourcing leadership model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aerospace workers believe transferring work projects abroad has an erosive effect on the U.S. aerospace industry (Pritchard, 2002). This qualitative phenomenological study examines factors for outsourcing decisions and the perceived effects of outsourcing on U.S. aerospace workers. The research sample consists of aerospace industry leaders and nonleaders from the East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast of the United States.

Enrique Sampson Jr.

2008-01-01

271

Listener perceptions along a fluency–disfluency continuum: A phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological analysis (a qualitative research method) of unbiased listeners’ perceptions to six speech samples across a fluency–disfluency continuum. A sample of 60 individuals heard only one sample chosen from three levels of fluent or three levels of disfluent speech. Listeners were interviewed following the presentation of the speech sample and their

Michael Susca; E. Charles Healey

2002-01-01

272

A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

Khatib, Eid

2010-01-01

273

A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

Dickelman, Eric

2009-01-01

274

Unravelling complexities involved in parenting a child with cystic fibrosis: An interpretative phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a qualitative study with caregivers for a contemporary understanding of the challenge of caring for a child with cystic fibrosis (CF). A single case is presented that details one woman’s experience from her unique perspective of both, ‘mother to a child with CF’ and ‘CF healthcare provider’ using an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Emergent themes include: ‘trying to keep

Claire Glasscoe; Jonathan A. Smith

2011-01-01

275

Bridging the Gap between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Learning Process: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the learning process for adult learners, resulting in a higher dropout rate than for students who have not experienced similar stress (Kerka, 2002; Smyth, Hockemeyer, Heron, Wonderlich, & Pennebaker, 2008). The purpose of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, explore, and…

Phillips, Charlotte A.

2011-01-01

276

Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

Bektas, Fatih

2012-01-01

277

A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Analysis of Aging with a Childhood Onset Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this qualitative study, we combined multiple interviews, field notes, life history review charts, and demographic questions to explore the life course experiences of 25 women, ages 55 to 65 years, who developed impairments due to paralytic polio during childhood. Based on a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology using thematic analysis, multiple themes emerged that traced their lives from childhood to later

Tracie C. Harrison; Alexa Stuifbergen

2005-01-01

278

A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Effects of an Ethics Course on Business Degree Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the essential meaning adult business school students attributed to the shared experience of an ethics course they took at California State University Sacramento. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with 10 volunteer…

Zmuda, Richard John

2009-01-01

279

A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.  

PubMed

This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

2012-04-01

280

Qualitative research: a brief description.  

PubMed

Qualitative research refers to, a range of methodological approaches which aim to generate an in-depth and interpreted understanding of the social world, by learning about people's social and material circumstances, their experiences, perspectives, and histories. Requires researchers to become intensely involved, often remaining in field for lengthy periods of time. The greatest value of qualitative research is its ability to address questions of relevance to public health knowledge and practice which are difficult to answer satisfactorily using quantitative methods. PMID:24231397

Kemparaj, Umesh; Chavan, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

281

Spiritual Dynamics Involved with Overseas Student Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…

Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.

2009-01-01

282

Moral Responsiveness and Discontinuity in Therapy: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenological qualitative methods were used to identify and describe moral elements in therapeutic relationships. Using the relational philosophy of E. Levinas (1961/1969, 1979/1987) as a base, data in which therapists and clients identified and described morally responsive experiences in therapy sessions were analyzed. These moments were often…

Whiting, Jason B.; Nebeker, R. Scott; Fife, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

283

Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. Occasional Paper No. 81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research…

Erickson, Frederick

284

Phenomenological theory of unconventional superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of recent developments in the phenomenological description of unconventional superconductivity. Starting with the BCS theory of superconductivity with anisotropic Cooper pairing, the authors explain the group-theoretical derivation of the generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory for unconventional superconductivity. This is used to classify the possible superconducting states in a system with given crystal symmetry, including strong-coupling effects and

Manfred Sigrist; Kazuo Ueda

1991-01-01

285

Phenomenological dimensions of sensory gating.  

PubMed

Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating-like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating-like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating-like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described. PMID:20525773

Hetrick, William P; Erickson, Molly A; Smith, David A

2012-01-01

286

Phenomenological Dimensions of Sensory Gating  

PubMed Central

Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating–like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating–like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating–like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described.

Hetrick, William P.; Smith, David A.

2012-01-01

287

Experiences of Vasectomy: A Phenomenological Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Irregular growth of population is considered as a serious threat to the international community. It is a major obstacle for socioeconomic development. One of the methods to control the population is by providing effective methods of contraception. Vasectomy, as a simple and effective contraceptive method, has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is very important to involve men in the control of population and the promotion of reproductive health. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of the men who underwent vasectomy. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. The sample consisted of 14 vasectomized men selected through purposive sampling method. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data. Results: The results were transcribed and recorded in comprehensive field notes. Colaizzi's method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the obtained results of the present study, which described the structure of the experiences of men as follows: Opinions about vasectomy, own perceptions about vasectomy, experiences with the procedure, and recommendation of vasectomy to others. Conclusion: Vasectomy can influence achievement of family planning goals and participation of men in this regard. The results of this study can help the planners and health-care providers for appropriate interventions, and training and counseling programmers to increase the acceptability and uptake of vasectomy in the society.

Hosseini, Habibollah; Abdi, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

288

Motion Imagery's Effect on Air Force Commanders' Decision-Marketing Process: A Phenomenological Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This inquiry focuses on Air Force commanders' personal experiences with motion imagery when used as a tool in the decision-making process. It adopts a grounded theory approach to analyze emergent themes from the commanders' phenomenological perspectives. ...

S. L. Higgins

2002-01-01

289

Phenomenological Theory of Phase Transitions of the Nonlinear Dissipative Systems in Quantum Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a phenomenological approach to the critical phenomena in dissipative systems, including the optical bistable system, the laser, and so on, which satisfies the principle of detailed balance. The discussion is started from the standpoint that the...

F. Ou T. Wu C. Luan

1994-01-01

290

A model for multiphase flow and transport in porous media including a phenomenological approach to account for deformation—a model concept and its validation within a code intercomparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiphase flow processes in unsaturated cohesive soils are often affected by deformation due to swelling and shrinking as\\u000a a result of varying water contents. This paper presents a model concept which is denoted ‘phenomenological’ in terms of the\\u000a processes responsible for soil deformation, since the effects of deformation on flow and transport are only considered by\\u000a constitutive relations that allow

Sandra Freiboth; Rainer Helmig; Tobias Graf; Wolfgang Ehlers; Viktoria Schwarz; Christos Vrettos

2009-01-01

291

Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

1989-01-01

292

On the phenomenology of tilted domains in lamellar eutectic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, due to the coupling between tilt (amplitude of the antisymmetric part of the font profile) and phase dynamics, the phenomenology of tilt domains of finite width proposed by Coullet et al. within the assumption of a subcritical homogeneous tilt bifurcation retains the same qualitative features when this bifurcation is direct, as is the case for lamellar eutectics. Nous montrons que, du fait du couplage entre les dynamiques d'inclinaison (amplitude de la partie impaire du profil de front) et de phase, la phénoménologie des domaines d'inclinaison de largeur finie proposée par Coullet et al. pour le cas d'une bifurcation d'inclinaison homogène sous critique garde les mêmes caractéristiques qualitatives quand cette bifurcation est directe, comme c'est le cas pour la croissance eutectique lamellaire.

Caroli, B.; Caroli, C.; Fauve, S.

1992-03-01

293

“Can't Really Trust That, So What Can I Trust?”: A Polyvocal, Qualitative Analysis of the Psychology of Mistrust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment in carrying out, as a group, a phenomenological analysis of a qualitative interview on the topic of mistrust. One in-depth interview was analyzed phenomenologically by each of the six members of our group. We then shared and discussed our individual analyses to generate a consensual analysis. Finally, additional or divergent perspectives were offered by individual

Nigel King; Linda Finlay; Peter Ashworth; Jonathan A. Smith; Darren Langdridge; Trevor Butt

2008-01-01

294

a Phenomenological Model for Orificed Hollow Cathodes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation is described which used a special quartz tube hollow cathode to provide detailed information about the operating conditions within a mercury orificed hollow cathode. A summary of the results of this investigation including insert temperature profiles, cathode current distributions, plasma property profiles, and internal pressure-mass flow rate data are presented. A phenomenological model is developed based on these results. This model is shown to provide a useful qualitative description of the electron emission and plasma production processes taking place within the cathode. By defining an idealized ion production region within which most of the plasma processes are concentrated, this phenomenological model is expressed analytically as a simple set of equations which relate cathode dimensions and specifiable operating conditions, such as mass flow rate and discharge current, to such important parameters as emission surface temperature and internal plasma properties. The following summary indicates the key aspects of the analytical model. (1) The model accounts for electrons produced in the ion production region both by surface emission and by volume ionization. (2) Field -enhanced thermionic emission is determined to be the dominant surface emission process producing (TURN)70% of the total discharge current. (3) Insert surface and plasma volume energy balances are used to predict plasma density and plasma potential in the ion production region. (4) The energy exchange mean free path for primary electrons is used as a criterion for determining the length (L(,e)) of this region. (5) An ion production region aspect ratio (D/L(,e)) of two is suggested as a design criterion for minimizing keeper voltage. (6) An empirical relation is used to estimate cathode internal pressure (a necessary input to the model) from the discharge current and cathode orifice diameter. The agreement between predictions of the model and the experimental results indicates that our understanding of the important physical processes for these devices is essentially correct and that the model is capable of providing first order, self-consistent predictions of important cathode operating parameters.

Siegfried, Daniel Edward

295

FLIC fermions and hadron phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pedagogical overview of the formulation of the Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action and its associated phenomenology is described. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing. Spin-1/2 and spin-3/2, even and odd parity baryon resonances are investigated in quenched QCD, where the nature of the Roper resonance and Lambda(1405) are of particular interest. FLIC fermions allow efficient access to the light quark-mass regime, where evidence of chiral nonanalytic behavior in the Delta-baryon mass is observed.

Leinweber, D. B.; Hedditch, J. N.; Melnitchouk, W.; Thomas, A. W.; Williams, A. G.; Young, R. D.; Zanotti, J. M.; Zhang, J. B.

296

Solar p-mode phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

New observations of solar p-mode amplitudes and line widths are presented, along with a phenomenological discussion of the excitation and damping of the modes. A surprising amount of structure is seen in the measured mode line widths as a function of frequency, which at present is unexplained. It is shown that the energy flux required to keep the p-modes excited to their observed amplitudes is of the same order of magnitude as the nonthermal energy flux required to heat the chromosphere. Thus it is not inconceivable that acoustic modes play some role in heating the solar atmosphere. 10 references.

Libbrecht, K.G.

1988-11-01

297

Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

2004-01-01

298

Z' Phenomenology and the LHC  

SciTech Connect

A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

Rizzo, Thomas G.

2006-10-17

299

Qualitative Rigid Body Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theory of qualitative rigid body me- chanics and describe a program that uses this the- ory to compute qualitative dynamic simulations.1 The program works directly from a qualitative representation of geometry (qc-space). It em- ploys a new qualitative representation for forces that reduces ambiguity in force sums and hence reduces branching.

Thomas F. Stahovich; Randall Davis; Howard E. Shrobe

1997-01-01

300

Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

2006-01-01

301

Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.

Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

2007-01-01

302

Handheld polarimeter for phenomenology studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable imaging polarimeters and the models that predict their performance is dependent on the ability to assess their accuracy. Field tests frequently result in contradictory data and laboratory measurements are often not representative of materials in the field. To address these concerns, we have built a device with which the calibration of imaging polarimeters (both stationary and moving) can be verified and the polarimetric properties of materials in the field can be measured with accuracy. The device is a handheld, non-imaging polarimeter that is capable of highly calibrated phenomenology measurements in both the lab and field. Multiple optical heads enable monitoring of samples from a variety of angles in order to characterize polarimetric signatures as a function of source, sample, and sensor geometry. The device may also be used in unattended diurnal monitoring of polarimetric signatures of the sky, backgrounds, and targets of interest, providing a correlation between observed polarization phenomenology and weather conditions. The handheld device and the associated data acquisition system is small and portable enough that it can be taken to the field readily and is simple enough that calibration and system performance is predictable and verifiable. In this paper, we describe the design and performance of the non-imaging handheld polarimeter, performance specifications, and measurement results to date.

Chenault, David B.; Lompado, Arthur; Cabot, Elizabeth R.; Fetrow, Matthew P.

2004-07-01

303

Qualitative Methods in Occupational Therapy Research: An Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of qualitative methods, an analysis of the relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches in social and cultural research, and a brief discussion of the issues of reliability, validity, and researcher objectivity in qualitative research. Discusses the application of qualitative methods to occupational therapy,…

Merrill, Susan Cook

1985-01-01

304

Variations of phenomenological coefficient of an electrochemical redox system in the course of cycling and aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomenological coefficient was used as a quantitative factor to examine cyclability of an electrochemical redox system. The insertion/extraction of potassium ions into/from solid film of Prussian blue (PB) was chosen as a typical example with a known electron-ion hopping mechanism. The phenomenological coefficient for the flux of counter ion (or equivalently electron) at various cycles were estimated based on an approach using different techniques, viz. cyclic voltammetry and simple conductivity measurement. The advantage of phenomenological coefficient in comparison with peak current for the investigation of cyclability of an electrochemical system was described.

Eftekhari, Ali

2003-08-01

305

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

306

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

307

Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

1976-01-01

308

Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for gay and lesbian affirmative psychotherapy in a society in which gay men and lesbians endure prejudice and discrimination. Using a phenomenological model informed by feminist methodology, this study investigated the gay male client's experience of gay affirmative therapy. The participants shared their experiences in in-depth interviews. Phenomenological analysis revealed certain therapist qualities which were experienced

Jonathan Lebolt

1999-01-01

309

The Contribution of Phenomenology to HRD Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenology is an interpretive research methodology that has direct application to human resource development (HRD) because it helps explicate the essence of human experience. The authors argue that recognizing phenomenology as an integral methodology for HRD research is essential for the field to have a more complete understanding of the holistic nature and complexity of experiences that are relevant to

Sharon K. Gibson; Lisa A. Hanes

2003-01-01

310

Phenomenological methodology in the human sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author suggests that phenomenological methodology differs from traditional methodologies both in purpose and procedure. The task of a phenomenological researcher is to “see” the logic or meaning of an experience, for any subject, rather than to discover causal connections or patterns of correlation. The nature of the task demands extensive study of a small sample, allowing the subjects to

Sheree Dukes

1984-01-01

311

Observation and phenomenology of glueballs  

SciTech Connect

The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

Lindenbaum, S.J.

1985-01-01

312

Oblique hyperspectral radiometric phenomenology study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines several factors and attempts to understand the phenomenology and driving factors associated with exploitation of oblique hyperspectral imagery. The study takes advantage of established physical models such as the radiative transfer code MODTRAN, and simulation codes such as DIRSIG and FASSP (i.e., Forecasting and Analysis of Spectroradiometric System Performance). This paper studies the impact of a variety of parameters related to the oblique imaging problem. Topics include impact of path scatter and variation in upwelled radiance with azimuth view angle (i.e., amount of backscatter) in additional trade studies and material identification. Target detection is performed on DIRSIG 3D scenes where results are in the form of ROC curves. Lastly, required pixel fill factor is analyzed as it relates to sensor elevation angle, slant range, calibration error and object shade.

Ientilucci, Emmett J.

2009-09-01

313

Conformality Emergent In String Phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to arrive at phenomenological gauge field theories is discussed, focusing on the orbifolded case without supersymmetry. An abelian orbifold with the finite group Zp can give rise to a G = U(N)p gauge group with chiral fermions and complex scalars in different bi-fundamental representations of G. The naturalness issue is discussed, particularly the absence of quadratic divergences in the scalar propagator at one loop. This requires that the scalars all be in bi-fundamentals with no adjoints, coincident with the necessary and sufficient condition for presence of chiral fermions. Speculations are made concerning new gauge and matter particles expected soon to be pursued experimentally at the LHC.

Frampton, Paul H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)

2005-12-02

314

Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

1983-01-01

315

Using Risk Group Profiles as a Lightweight Qualitative Approach for Intervention Development: An Example of Prevention of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Many public health campaigns use a one-size-fits-all strategy to achieve their desired effect. Public health campaigns for tick bites and Lyme disease (LD) in many countries convey all relevant preventive measures to all members of the public. Although preventing tick bites (eg, by wearing protective clothing or using repellants) and checking for tick bites after visiting a risk area are effective and cost-efficient methods to prevent an individual from contracting a tick-borne disease, public compliance to these methods is low. Objective We aimed to identify the group of individuals within the general Dutch population that are at high risk of being bitten by a tick or developing LD and to describe their characteristics, knowledge, and perceptions. The incidence of patients visiting their general practitioner for tick bites and erythema migrans (the first sign of LD) has increased tremendously in the last decades in the Netherlands and other European countries; therefore, our efforts can be used to counter this troubling trend. Methods We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews to identify individuals belonging to the average risk group. Participants were recruited in two ways. Patients who visited two municipal health services travel health clinics (one in a high-endemic area and one in a low-endemic area) were asked to participate. This resulted in 18 interviews. Further, parents were recruited using the convenience sampling method, which resulted in 7 interviews. We discontinued interviewing when the point of data saturation was reached. We analyzed the results immediately after each interview to identify the point of data saturation. Data saturation is when the new interviews provided no new information compared to the previous interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results We identified four groups at risk of being bitten by ticks and developing LD among the general Dutch population. The groups were as follows: (1) outdoor people that check for tick bites, (2) outdoor people that do not check for tick bites, (3) parents that check their children for tick bites, and (4) parents that do not check their children for tick bites. Previous experience with ticks or LD was the main denominator between the groups. Checking for tick bites is a more easily adopted measure than preventing tick bites. Therefore, for all groups, public health efforts in the future should primarily emphasize on the importance of checking for tick bites. Conclusions The lightweight qualitative approach presented in this paper is highly relevant in tailoring public health efforts toward specific groups. The profiles of members in each risk group and the motivations underlying the behaviors of the members in each risk group can be used to determine the features and content of a targeted communication strategy about ticks and LD.

van Velsen, Lex; van Gemert - Pijnen, Julia EWC; Maat, Angelique; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Crutzen, Rik

2013-01-01

316

A Process Analytical Technology approach to near-infrared process control of pharmaceutical powder blending: Part II: Qualitative near-infrared models for prediction of blend homogeneity.  

PubMed

The successful implementation of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in process control of powder blending requires constructing an inclusive spectral database that reflects the anticipated voluntary or involuntary changes in processing conditions, thereby minimizing bias in prediction of blending behavior. In this study, experimental design was utilized as an efficient way of generating blend experiments conducted under varying processing conditions such as humidity, blender speed and component concentration. NIR spectral data, collected from different blending experiments, was used to build qualitative models for prediction of blend homogeneity. Two pattern recognition algorithms: Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) and Principal Component Modified Bootstrap Error-adjusted Single-sample Technique (PC-MBEST) were evaluated for qualitative analysis of NIR blending data. Optimization of NIR models, for the two algorithms, was achieved by proper selection of spectral processing, and training set samples. The models developed were successful in predicting blend homogeneity of independent blend samples under different processing conditions. PMID:16380974

El-Hagrasy, Arwa S; Delgado-Lopez, Miriam; Drennen, James K

2006-02-01

317

Collaborative Spatial Decision Making with Qualitative Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually spatial planning problems involve a large number of decision makers with difierent backgrounds and interests. The process of Collaborative Spatial Decision Making (CSDM) has to reconcile the individual approaches and lead to solutions that satisfy all participants. In this pa- per we deal with a particular instance of CSDM that involves qualitative constraints. Qualitative CSDM is very impor- tant

Nikos I. Karacapilidis; Dimitris Papadias; Max J. Egenhofer

1995-01-01

318

Teaching Qualitative Research: Lessons from Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research has become increasingly perceived as well suited to the advancement of counseling psychology, yet opportunities for formal training in qualitative inquiry remain inconsistently available within and across graduate programs. For the potential contribution of this approach to counseling psychology to be realized, graduate…

Poulin, Karen L.

2007-01-01

319

Phenomenology of heavy quark systems  

SciTech Connect

The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

Gilman, F.J.

1987-03-01

320

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

321

Clinical phenomenology and phenotype variability in Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a rich phenomenology that includes simple and complex motor and vocal tics as well as multiple comorbidities. From a nosological perspective, it is evident that a continuum of tic severity exists, of which TS is the most severe and rare form, while transient tics and chronic tics represent milder forms. From a psychopathology perspective, TS is often concurrent with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); these disorders appear to define TS "types" TS only, TS+OCD, and TS+OCD+ADHD. Additional clinical aspects of TS include more frequent than expected occurrence of anger episodes, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, learning disorders, and pervasive developmental disorders. Data reduction techniques have been used more recently to define a "simple" and "complex" tic symptom clusters or factors. Phenomenologic approaches can be used in TS to guide future pathophysiologic research. PMID:19913653

Grados, Marco A; Mathews, Carol A

2009-12-01

322

The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective  

PubMed Central

There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions.

Pies, Ronald

2008-01-01

323

A Phenomenological Exploration of Mandatory Parental or Guardian Involvement with an At-Risk Student Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perception of parent or guardian involvement from a constructivist viewpoint during intervention programs located in Hampton 2 and Pickens counties. The current study involved 15 interviews via three sets of participants, six parents, five teachers and four administrators.…

Mason, Julia Christina

2010-01-01

324

A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

2010-01-01

325

A Display of Candy in an Open Jar: Portraying Sexualised Labour in the Hospitality Industry Using Expressive Phenomenology as Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars argue that there is a need for more qualitative research geared towards theory building to be employed in the study of tourism and hospitality phenomena in order for the knowledge within this field to progress further. The aim of this paper is to discuss the usefulness of this phenomenological study to advance knowledge in the field of tourism and

Gayathri Wijesinghe

2009-01-01

326

Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking  

SciTech Connect

We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2008-09-05

327

The Consistency of Phenomenological Models of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in a Curing Thermoset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the use of phenomenological models of viscoelasticity to simulate ultrasonic compression wave propagation in a curing thermoset. Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models do not give physical results whilst the anelastic solid (Debye) formulation and its Cole-Davidson (CD) extension provide a qualitative match to experiment, although with some inconsistencies. The CD model when fitted to experimental phase velocity data gave parameters that could be used to track molecular polydispersity in the curing thermoset.

Challis, Richard E.; Unwin, Marion E.

2003-03-01

328

[Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].  

PubMed

This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. PMID:23138331

Thoma, Samuel

2012-11-01

329

Phenomenology of self-restraint.  

PubMed

Self-restraint is often reported in individuals with mental retardation who show self-injurious behavior (SIB). In this study, the phenomenology and prevalence of self-restraint in individuals showing self-injury and wearing protective devices and those showing self-injury but not wearing protective devices were compared. A high prevalence of self-restraint in the whole sample of individuals showing self-injury was identified (67/88, 76.1%), and self-restraint was more prevalent in a group showing self-injury but not wearing protective devices (43/47, 91.5%) than in a group showing self-injury and wearing protective devices (24/41, 58.5%). Individuals not wearing protective devices showed a greater number of topographies of self-restraint than those who did wear them. Results are discussed with reference to the purely topographical definition of self-restraint employed and the potential equivalence of protective devices and self-restraint. PMID:12564940

Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis; Hall, Scott; Arron, Kate; Leggett, Janice

2003-03-01

330

Superconformal technicolor: Models and phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In supersymmetric theories with a strong conformal sector, soft supersymmetry breaking naturally gives rise to confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in the strong sector at the TeV scale. We construct and analyze models where such a sector dynamically breaks electroweak symmetry, and take the first steps in studying their phenomenology. We consider two scenarios, one where the strong dynamics induces vacuum expectation values for elementary Higgs fields, and another where the strong dynamics is solely responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. In both cases there is no fine-tuning required to explain the absence of a Higgs boson below the LEP bound, solving the supersymmetry naturalness problem. Quark and lepton masses arise from conventional Yukawa couplings to elementary Higgs bosons, so there are no additional flavor-changing effects associated with the strong dynamics. A good precision electroweak fit can be obtained because the strong sector is an SU(2) gauge theory with one weak doublet, and has adjustable parameters that control the violation of custodial symmetry. In addition to the standard supersymmetry signals, these models predict production of multiple heavy standard model particles (t, W, Z, and b) from decays of resonances in the strong sector. The strong sector has no approximate parity symmetry, so WW scattering is unitarized by states that can decay to WWW as well as WW.

Azatov, Aleksandr; Galloway, Jamison; Luty, Markus A.

2012-01-01

331

Phenomenology of neutrinophilic Higgs GUT  

SciTech Connect

Among three typical energy scales, a neutrino mass scale (m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.1eV), a GUT scale (M{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16}GeV), and a TeV-scale (M{sub NP}{approx}1TeV), there is a fascinating relation of M{sub NP} Asymptotically-Equal-To {radical}(m{sub {nu}} Dot-Operator M{sub GUT}) The TeV-scale, M{sub NP}, is a new physics scale beyond the standard model which is regarded as 'supersymmetry' (SUSY) in this letter. We investigate phenomenology of SUSY SU(5) GUT with neutrinophilic Higgs, which realizes the above relation dynamically as well as the suitable magnitude of Dirac mass, m{sub {nu}}, through a tiny vacuum expectation value of neutrinophilic Higgs. As a remarkable feature of this model, accurate gauge coupling unification can be achieved as keeping with a proton stability. We also evaluate flavor changing processes in quark/lepton sectors.

Haba, Naoyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Shimizu, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

2012-07-27

332

Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.

Sotiriou, Thomas P.

2007-10-01

333

Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience.  

PubMed

Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole - showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

Cusumano, Emma P; Raz, Amir

2014-01-01

334

Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole – showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience.

Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir

2014-01-01

335

"Caring for insiderness": Phenomenologically informed insights that can guide practice  

PubMed Central

Understanding the “insider” perspective has been a pivotal strength of qualitative research. Further than this, within the more applied fields in which the human activity of “caring” takes place, such understanding of “what it is like” for people from within their lifeworlds has also been acknowledged as the foundational starting point in order for “care” to be caring. But we believe that more attention needs to be paid to this foundational generic phenomenon: what it means to understand the “insiderness” of another, but more importantly, how to act on this in caring ways. We call this human phenomenon “caring for insiderness.” Drawing on existing phenomenological studies of marginal caring situations at the limits of caring capability, and through a process of phenomenologically oriented reflection, we interrogated some existential themes implicit in these publications that could lead to deeper insights for both theoretical and applied purposes. The paper provides direction for practices of caring by highlighting some dangers as well as some remedies along this path.

Todres, Les; Galvin, Kathleen T.; Dahlberg, Karin

2014-01-01

336

Pediatric bipolar disorder: validity, phenomenology, and recommendations for diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To find, review, and critically evaluate evidence pertaining to the phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder and its validity as a diagnosis. Methods The present qualitative review summarizes and synthesizes available evidence about the phenomenology of bipolar disorder (BD) in youths, including description of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of symptoms, clarification about rates of cycling and mixed states, and discussion about chronic versus episodic presentations of mood dysregulation. The validity of the diagnosis of BD in youths is also evaluated based on traditional criteria including associated demographic characteristics, family environmental features, genetic bases, longitudinal studies of youths at risk of developing BD as well as youths already manifesting symptoms on the bipolar spectrum, treatment studies and pharmacologic dissection, neurobiological findings (including morphological and functional data), and other related laboratory findings. Additional sections review impairment and quality of life, personality and temperamental correlates, the clinical utility of a bipolar diagnosis in youths, and the dimensional versus categorical distinction as it applies to mood disorder in youths. Results A schema for diagnosis of BD in youths is developed, including a review of different operational definitions of `bipolar not otherwise specified.' Principal areas of disagreement appear to include the relative role of elated versus irritable mood in assessment, and also the limits of the extent of the bipolar spectrum – when do definitions become so broad that they are no longer describing `bipolar' cases? Conclusions In spite of these areas of disagreement, considerable evidence has amassed supporting the validity of the bipolar diagnosis in children and adolescents.

Youngstrom, Eric A; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert L

2013-01-01

337

Effect of administration route on the biodistribution and shedding of replication-deficient HAdV-5: a qualitative modelling approach.  

PubMed

Gene therapy is a rapidly developing field in which recombinant nucleic acid sequences are introduced to individuals. Its therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic effect relates directly to the sequence it contains or to the product of genetic expression of this sequence. Recombinant adenoviral vectors (in particular HAdV-5 vectors) are frequently used in gene therapy. Knowledge on biodistribution and shedding is crucial in the risk assessment for the patient and the patient's environment. This review presents a critical overview on biodistribution and shedding data of non-replicating viral vector HAdV-5, related to the used administration route. Based on these data, a qualitative model for the biodistribution and shedding of HAdV-5 based viral vectors is presented. Biodistribution and shedding depend on the route of administration. Some routes lead to local biodistribution and no shedding or one shedding route only. Other routes lead to systemic biodistribution and to shedding via several excreta. Shedding via semen and transport across the blood-brain barrier is not expected for HAdV-5. The presented qualitative model can help researchers and risk assessors to determine the possible distribution in the body and the risk of shedding via the different excretion routes. Furthermore, it can help regulators to predict the different shedding routes after a certain administration route and thus in deciding which studies are warranted or which safety precautions are needed after administration to patients. PMID:20222861

Tiesjema, Birgitte; Hermsen, Harm P H; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Brandon, Esther F A

2010-04-01

338

Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.  

PubMed

At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding of philosophical and theoretical works - a condition of quality scholarship - depends on our reading of both originary texts and contemporary literature from the humanities and the social sciences. This understanding, far from obliging researchers to always trace (often erroneously) their work to its philosophical roots, opens other, often more sound, methodological possibilities. PMID:24320982

Petrovskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

339

Droplet actuation induced by coalescence: Experimental evidences and phenomenological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the interaction between two droplets placed on a substrate in immediate vicinity. We show here that when the two droplets are of different fluids and especially when one of the droplet is highly volatile, a wealth of fascinating phenomena can be observed. In particular, the interaction may result in the actuation of the droplet system, i.e. its displacement over a finite length. In order to control this displacement, we consider droplets confined on a hydrophilic stripe created by plasma-treating a PDMS substrate. This controlled actuation opens up unexplored opportunities in the field of microfluidics. In order to explain the observed actuation phenomenon, we propose a simple phenomenological model based on Newton's second law and a simple balance between the driving force arising from surface energy gradients and the viscous resistive force. This simple model is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively the observed droplet dynamics.

Sellier, Mathieu; Nock, Volker; Gaubert, Cécile; Verdier, Claude

2013-03-01

340

Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine.

Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

1998-01-01

341

JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments th...

C. W. Smith

1995-01-01

342

Qualitative accounts of urban commuter cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the live experiences of urban commuter cycling (UCC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In semi-structured interviews, participants described day-to-day experiences of UCC in a single English city. Verbatim transcripts were coded using the themes of time, space, body and human relations, and interpreted through the principles of hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings – The nine

J. McKenna; M. Whatling

2007-01-01

343

A Perspective on Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I give a brief overview of some Quantum-Gravity-Phenomenology research lines, focusing on studies of cosmic rays and gamma-ray bursts that concern the fate of Lorentz symmetry in quantum spacetime. I also stress that the most valuable phenomenological analyses should not mix too many conjectured new features of quantum spacetime, and from this perspective it appears that it should be difficult

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2005-01-01

344

Qualitative Studies in HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

1999

345

Some issues in tourism research phenomenology: a commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenology has increasingly proved to be a valuable methodology for tourism research. This trend is evidenced by the increase in publications of phenomenological research studies in the tourism literature. The purpose of this article is to review (1) some philosophical and methodological issues of phenomenology and (2) the use of phenomenology in tourism research. The present paper makes the case,

Gregory S. Szarycz

2009-01-01

346

Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.  

PubMed

The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative. PMID:12728513

Doerr-Zegers, Otto

2003-01-01

347

Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration  

PubMed Central

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: , where µ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and µ = ?1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral Calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration.

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

348

Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration.  

PubMed

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: , where  for the right-handed microhelix and  for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference ( ) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

349

Collider phenomenology of extra dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the "Higgsless" model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n ˜ 20). We show that, if this scenario holds, the number of dimensions can be constrained to be larger than the number predicted by critical string theory. Searching for signals of many dimensions is then an important test of string theory.

Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

350

Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra dimensions, and represents a scenario that is difficult to obtain in string theory. We show that, if this scenario holds, the number of dimensions can be constrained to be larger than the number predicted by critical string theory. Searching for signals of many dimensions is then an important test of whether string theory is a good description of quantum gravity.

Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2006-03-10

351

Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

2012-01-01

352

A transpersonal approach to care: a qualitative study of performers' experiences with DooR to DooR, a hospital-based arts program.  

PubMed

The arts have a history of relaxing and calming patients in the hospital setting, yet research is limited on how arts may aid in the healing process. DooR to DooR was established to bring comfort, respite, and healing to hospitalized patients, family members, and health care staff. DooR to DooR is located in the University of North Carolina Hospitals at Chapel Hill, North Carolina; professional performing artists visit there, spending 5 to 10 minutes with each patient, family member, and health care staff. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand performers' experiences and of how arts-based programs can facilitate improved patient outcomes in the hospitalized setting to help nurses better use the arts in their care of patients and families. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) the arts are therapeutic for all involved, (b) the arts transform the hospital environment, and (c) nurses and the other medical staff play an important role. The significance of this study for nursing practice is that the arts are a plausible intervention for the hospital because they may help improve patient outcomes by reducing pain and depression and by relieving stress among staff and family members. More research is needed to determine the level of arts-as-an-intervention knowledge among nurses. PMID:24176898

Hurdle, Caitlin E; Quinlan, Margaret M

2014-06-01

353

Nuance, Complexity, and Context: Qualitative Methods in Genetic Counseling Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its potential for capturing complexity and process and its focus on communicating the meaning in human action, qualitative research is rapidly gaining acceptance in a wide variety of disciplines. Various qualitative approaches to research support its potential usefulness in genetic counseling research. Formulation of research questions and selection of appropriate qualitative methods are the first step. Interviewing, narrative

Diane Beeson

1997-01-01

354

Integrating qualitative and quantitative techniques in network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article introduces a method for assessing network dynamics over time. It integrates a qualitative approach to data collection with a bifocal approach to data analysis, i.e. where data are interpreted with two lenses: qualitative and quantitative. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The dynamics of an entrepreneurial firm's network are analyzed by combining: content and event analysis of case data and

Nicole E. Coviello

2005-01-01

355

Theory and phenomenology of sparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ch. 1. Supersymmetry: why and how. 1.1. History and motivation. 1.2. Quadratic divergence and unnaturalness. 1.3. Naturalness, nonrenormalization, supersymmetry -- ch. 2. Preliminaries. 2.1. Grassmann elements and variables. 2.2. Supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. 2.3. Glimpse of superspace. 2.4. Supersymmetry and spacetime transformations -- ch. 3. Algebraic aspects. 3.1. Supersymmetry algebra. 3.2. Two component notation. 3.3. Particle supermultiplets -- ch. 4. Free superfields in superspace. 4.1. General superfield in superspace. 4.2. Chiral covariant derivatives. 4.3. Left and right chiral superfields. 4.4. Vector superfields. 4.5. Matter parity and R-parity -- ch. 5. Interacting superfields. 5.1. System of interacting chiral superfields. 5.2. Abelian gauge interactions. 5.3. Supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED). 5.4. Nonabelian gauge interactions. 5.5. Supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SQCD). 5.6. Supersymmetric chiral gauge theory (S[symbol]GT) -- ch. 6. Superspace perturbation theory and supergraphs. 6.1. Nonrenormalization of superpotential terms. 6.2. Functional methods in superspace. 6.3. Functional formulation of superfield theory. 6.4. GRS Feynman rules for the Wess-Zumino model. 6.5. Feynman rules for nonabelian supergauge theories. 6.6. Sample one loop supergraph calculations. 6.7. The nonrenormalization theorem. 6.8. One loop infinities and [symbol]-functions. 6.9. Renormalization group evolution -- ch. 7. General aspects of supersymmetry breaking. 7.1. Initial remarks. 7.2. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking: some generalities. 7.3. The goldstino. 7.4. Model of F-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.5. Model of D-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.6. Dynamical model of supersymmetry breaking. 7.7. Soft explicit supersymmetry breaking. 7.8. The general mass sum rule -- ch. 8. Basic structure of the MSSM. 8.1. Brief review of the Standard Model. 8.2. Superfields of the MSSM. 8.3. Supersymmetric part of the MSSM. 8.4. Some non-Higgs vertices of the MSSM -- ch. 9. Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM. 9.1. The content of [symbol]SOFT. 9.2. Electroweak gauginos and higgsinos. 9.3. Chargino and neutralino interactions with gauge bosons. 9.4. Masses and mixing patterns of sfermions. 9.5. The flavor problem in supersymmetry. 9.6. Interactions of sfermions with gauge bosons. 9.7. Fermion-sfermion-gaugino/higgsino interactions. 9.8. Quartic sfermion vertices -- ch. 10. Higgs bosons in the MSSM. 10.1. Higgs potential in the MSSM. 10.2. Spontaneous breakdown and VEVs. 10.3. Higgs masses at the tree level. 10.4. Higgs-particle vertices. 10.5. Higgs-sparticle vertices. 10.6. Radiative effects on MSSM Higgs particles -- ch. 11. Evolution from very high energies. 11.1. The need for a high scale. 11.2. The running of gauge couplings in the SM and the MSSM. 11.3. Derivation of the remaining RGE equations. 11.4. Application to the MSSM -- ch. 12. Gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. 12.1. General remarks. 12.2. N=l supergravity broken in the hidden sector. 12.3. mSUGRA and its parameters. 12.4. Phenomenology with mSUGRA. 12.5. Beyond mSUGRA. 12.6. Quantum effects and extra dimensions. 12.7. Annex to Ch.12: A brief discussion of N=1 supergravity theory -- ch. 13. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. 13.1. The basic ingredients. 13.2. The minimal model mGMSB. 13.3. Nonminimal messenger sector. 13.4. The [symbol] and B[symbol] problems. 13.5. Direct messenger-matter coupling. 13.6. Flavor symmetries for the GMSB scenario -- ch. 14. Beyond the MSSM. 14.1. Motivation and outline. 14.2. The next-to-the-minimal supersymmetric standard model. 14.3. Introduction to imparity violation. 14.4. Phenomenological limits on trilinear [symbol] couplings. 14.5. Bilinear [symbol] violation. 14.6. Neutrino masses in supersymmetric theories -- ch. 15. Supersymmetry at colliders. 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Signals of charginos and neutralinos. 15.3. Signals of sleptons. 15.4. Signals of gluinos and squarks. 15.5. The quest for supersymmetric Higgs bosons. 15.6. Collider signals in the presence of [symbol] violation -- ch. 16. Supers

Drees, M.; Godbole, Rohini M.; Roy, Probir

356

[Phenomenological theory of the recuperative period of the living organism].  

PubMed

A phenomenological nonlinear model, describing a reconstruction of the living organism after strong loading have been proposed. This model is describing a restitution dynamics of the organism functional state to the initial state, including a supercompensation stage. In a simplest (one-component) case this model is overdamping Duffing oscillator. It is shown that the mutation phenomena may be described as the phase transition within the framework of Landau-Khalatnikov approach. A generalized many-component nonlinear reconstruction model is proposed. PMID:9172700

Za?tsev, A A; Sazonov, S V

1997-01-01

357

A phenomenological ?-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order ?2log ? using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic ?N scattering length ah?-p=0.0870(5) m?-1 is deduced leading to a ?NN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4 ?)=14.04(17).

Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

2004-07-01

358

The Experience of Pregnancy: A Hermeneutical/Phenomenological Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe women's experience of pregnancy. The setting was the Alternative Birth Center at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden, from 1996 to 1997. Anonymous diaries were written by 12 women and analyzed using a hermeneutical/phenomenological approach. The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown,” which includes three themes: (1) meeting one's life situation, (2) meeting something inevitable, and (3) preparing for the unknown.The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown” …

Lundgren, Ingela; Wahlberg, Vivian

1999-01-01

359

Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

Mills, Rilla Dean

360

Quality in Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

Clive Seale

1999-01-01

361

Teaching Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

Delyser, Dydia

2008-01-01

362

Qualitative methods in environmental health research.  

PubMed Central

Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices.

Brown, Phil

2003-01-01

363

Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.  

PubMed

Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis. PMID:19642962

Liamputtong, Pranee

2009-08-01

364

Enhancing pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's health in the infertility clinic and beyond: a phenomenological investigation of caring behaviour  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's perceptions of the essence of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers who they encountered in the clinic environment. Background Despite the ever increasing use of donor oocytes to treat infertility worldwide, little is known about the caring behaviour of nurses and other health-care providers that support and enhance the health of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Design Qualitative, descriptive interviews. Method A Husserlian phenomenological approach. Results Eight women participated in a larger phenomenological study that examined the lived experience of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Five components of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers emerged from the in-depth interviews with the women and were: being available, providing communication, exhibiting compassion, demonstrating competency and promoting empowerment. Being available was described when the participants had ongoing access to or were humanly present with nurses. The ability of nurses to provide communication and education about complex information was perceived as supportive. Nurses exhibited compassion through words and behaviours that expressed empathy and a deep understanding of the women's experience. Competency was demonstrated when a healthy pregnancy was achieved and maintained and through behaviours where a high level of technical and ethical knowledge and skill was observed. Empowerment occurred when nurses encouraged the women to engage in aspects of decision making and when a sense of control over infertility treatment and obstetrical care was promoted. Conclusions For donor oocyte recipient women, caring behaviour in the clinic environment consists of five essential components. The findings support a link between empowerment and the concept of caring. Relevance to clinical practice The dense empirical description of the women's perceptions of caring behaviour are directly applicable to clinical practice, delineating areas for improvement and providing specific data driven interventions including the development of a ‘hope box’.

Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

2010-01-01

365

Phenomenology of compressional Alfvén eigenmodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3<=?/?ci<=1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfvén eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.

Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Menard, J.

2004-07-01

366

Postmaterialism, new environmental paradigm and ecocentric approach: A qualitative and quantitative study of environmental attitudes of Turkish senior high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to elucidate the determinant factors that affect environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey and the origins of these EAs. Over nine hundred students from different school types, neighborhoods, geographical regions, social-economic backgrounds participated in the questionnaire based surveys which are called the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) and the General Attitudes and Perceptions (GAP), and twenty of those students were interviewed as well. Survey results show that EAs of students vary depending on school type, gender, parents' education levels and professions, and household income. Normal public high school students, females, lower-middle class students, students with well educated parents in white collar professions, and student with liberal parents have more pro-environmental attitudes than the others. With regard to school type, students from public technical high school (vocational school), almost all of which are based on single-sex education, have scored the lowest on both surveys which are the NEP and the GAP. The results from the qualitative portion are as follows: Students' perceptions about the environment and related issues are limited to their local habitat. Although the mean scores of students on both surveys do not differ to a statistically significant extent depending on geographical regions, interviews show that participants from different regions have distinct priorities, which range from poverty to sea pollution. Even though students' first priority in their lives is education, education is perceived as a mechanism to achieve a more prosperous life rather than an end in itself. Almost all interview participants agree on the importance of education in shaping EAs. Interestingly, some interviewees (four out of ten males) also comment that a man's sense of his own masculinity can be threatened when confronted by another man to change his attitude towards the environment.

Taskin, Ozgur

367

From Ritual to RelationshipA person-centred approach to consent in qualitative research with older people who have a dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasingly relevant debate around consent, particularly around persons with a dementia, across research and practice. This article will begin by critically reviewing the traditional competency-based approach to informed consent in research with older people who have dementia. Currently, most researchers are not describing how persons with dementia are included in the consent process other than through an

Jan Dewing

2002-01-01

368

Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification  

SciTech Connect

A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

Arnowitt, R. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Nath, P. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-12-31

369

Development of a novel approach for the production of dried genomic DNA for use as standards for qualitative PCR testing of food-borne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a multi-centre European project, FOOD-PCR, the feasibility of a novel approach for production of dried bacterial DNA that could be used as certified reference materials (CRM) was assessed. Selected strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica were used to produce genomic DNA (gDNA). These preparations gave support to method development

Stefanie Trapmann; Paolo Catalani; Jeffrey Hoorfar; Jozsef Prokisch; Pierre van Iwaarden; Heinz Schimmel

2004-01-01

370

What factors determine Belgian general practitioners' approaches to detecting and managing substance abuse? A qualitative study based on the I-Change Model  

PubMed Central

Background General practitioners (GPs) are considered to play a major role in detecting and managing substance abuse. However, little is known about how or why they decide to manage it. This study investigated the factors that influence GP behaviours with regard to the abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilisers among working Belgians. Methods Twenty Belgian GPs were interviewed. De Vries’ Integrated Change Model was used to guide the interviews and qualitative data analyses. Results GPs perceived higher levels of substance abuse in urban locations and among lower socioeconomic groups. Guidelines, if they existed, were primarily used in Flanders. Specific training was unevenly applied but considered useful. GPs who accepted abuse management cited strong interpersonal skills and available multidisciplinary networks as facilitators. GPs relied on their clinical common sense to detect abuse or initiate management. Specific patients’ situations and their social, psychological, or professional dysfunctions were cited as cues to action. GPs were strongly influenced by their personal representations of abuse, which included the balance between their professional responsibilities toward their patients and the patients’ responsibilities in managing their own health as well the GPs’ abilities to cope with unsatisfying patient outcomes without reaching professional exhaustion. GPs perceived substance abuse along a continuum ranging from a chronic disease (whose management was part of their responsibility) to a moral failing of untrustworthy people. Alcohol and cannabis were more socially acceptable than other drugs. Personal experiences of emotional burdens (including those regarding substance abuse) increased feelings of empathy or rejection toward patients. Multidisciplinary practices and professional experiences were cited as important factors with regard to engaging GPs in substance abuse management. Time constraints and personal investments were cited as important barriers. Satisfaction with treatment was rare. Conclusions Motivational factors, including subjective beliefs not supported by the literature, were central in deciding whether to manage cases of substance abuse. A lack of theoretical knowledge and training were secondary to personal attitudes and motivation. Personal development, emotional health, self-awareness, and self-care should be taught to and fostered among GPs to help them maintain a patient-centred focus. Health authorities should support collaborative care.

2014-01-01

371

Qualitative models for planning: A gentle introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative modeling is the study of how the physical world behaves. These physical models accept partial descriptions of the world and output the possible changes. Current systems assume that the model is static and that physical entities do not effect change into the world. An approach to planning in physical domains and a working implementation which integrates qualitative models with a temporal interval-based planner are described. The planner constructs plans involving physical qualities and their behavioral descriptions.

Johannes, James D.; Carnes, James R.

1987-01-01

372

Qualitative methods in research on teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research studies the meaning of actions that occur, both in face-to-face interactions and in the wider society surrounding the immediate scene of action. To conduct interpretive research on teaching, intense and long-term participant observation in an educational setting is required, followed by deliberate and long-term reflection on what was observed. Questions regarding the observer's point of view, previously learned formal theories, cultural conditioning, and personal values must be considered. Attitudes toward teaching and learning as well as measures of effectiveness are also worth examining. This paper argues that such detailed scrutiny of everyday teaching routines is a route to improving educational practice, as performed by university researchers as well as practicing teachers.

Erickson, Frederick

2006-05-19

373

Qualitative risk analysis: some problems and remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The article sets out to discuss and present a solution to the fact that various qualitative risk analyses of the same problem can reach significantly different conclusions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By reviewing a common risk analysis approach and identifying where the possible problems arise, the authors propose ways to overcome the problems based on what they have found in

Jan Emblemsvåg; Lars Endre Kjølstad

2006-01-01

374

On Being Jewish: A Qualitative Study of Identity among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants' developmental history…

Sinclair, Jennifer; Milner, David

2005-01-01

375

Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

Mashhadi, Azam

376

Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

2011-01-01

377

A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

2008-01-01

378

LGB Allies and Christian Identity: A Qualitative Exploration of Resolving Conflicts and Integrating Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phenomenological method of qualitative inquiry was used to understand the process by which individuals who hold identities of being both a Christian and an ally of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals make meaning of and integrate these 2 identities. Interviews were conducted with 11 doctoral-level psychologists who self-identified as…

Borgman, Amy L.

2009-01-01

379

Qualitative mathematical discussion of different evolutionary states in water transport systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We shall present several qualitative mathematical models to describe the early evolution of water transport systems in plants. To perform this in a systematic way we apply methods which have been developed in phenomenological synergetics. These methods rest on the fact that it becomes possible to describe the macroscopic behavior of a complex system by a set of control and

Nils Empacher; Volker Mosbrugger; Anita Roth; Matthias Wolf; Arne Wunderlin

1995-01-01

380

Rivers' Confluence: A Qualitative Investigation into Gifted Educators' Experiences with Collaboration with School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the lack of information in either the school counseling or the gifted education fields on how school counselors and educators of the gifted work together, research into how individuals from both professions collaborate to serve gifted students and their families becomes important. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to…

Wood, Susannah M.

2012-01-01

381

Nurturing a Garden: A Qualitative Investigation into School Counselors' Experiences with Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a noticeable lack of research concerning how gifted adolescents work with school counselors. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to investigate K-12 school counselors' knowledge of and experience with gifted students. An emergent, inductive data analysis of interviews and written artifacts of school counselors…

Wood, Susannah M.

2010-01-01

382

A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

2013-01-01

383

Exploring the Use of Poetry in Counselor Training and Supervision: A Qualitative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the use poetry in counselor training and supervision. Over the course of a semester, counseling students enrolled in either a practicum or internship class were taken through a series of poetry-based activities. Ten students volunteered to participate in the study. Using a qualitative research design rooted in phenomenology and…

McNichols, Christine D.

2010-01-01

384

Qualitative Analysis of Heterosexual Women's Experience of Sexual Pain and Discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this qualitative analysis, the author explored heterosexual women's accounts of the lived experience of sexual pain and discomfort. The author's aim was to expand theoretical and empirical knowledge in the area of female sexual dysfunction by providing a detailed description of the subjective experience of female sexual concerns. Empirical phenomenological methodology was used to analyze the data generated during

Olga Sutherland

2012-01-01

385

PhD Students' Perceptions of the Relationship between Philosophy and Research: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored, described, and discovered meaning in the lived experiences of PhD students regarding two courses: Philosophy of Science and Qualitative Methods. The philosophical underpinning was constructivism. The phenomenological methodology employed a structured questionnaire to collect data. It involved mailed computer disks with…

Efinger, Joan; Maldonado, Nancy; McArdle, Geri

2004-01-01

386

Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

2006-01-01

387

Qualitative Case Study Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents guidelines for conducting qualitative case studies. Yin's case study process is elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated and explained. It is expected that following the guidelines presented in ...

S. Baskarada

2013-01-01

388

Analysis of spectral phenomenology in the detection of landmines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Georgia Tech is leading a spectral phenomenology research effort as a component of a Multi-University Research Initiative; these efforts are focused on studying the impact of environmental processes on electro-optical signatures. In particular, this program is conducting phenomenological studies on hyperspectral and polarimetric signatures of landmines and backgrounds in the visible and infrared wavebands. Research studies have focused on the impact of various environmental factors and processes (e.g., subsurface processes) on the resultant spectral infrared signatures. A variety of approaches have been employed in this research to gain a better understanding of the impact of the environment on the spectral and polarimetric characteristics of soil and landmine signatures. These approaches include theoretical analyses, physics-based signature modeling, field measurements, and laboratory studies. Results from these continuing studies will be presented that underscore the importance of incorporating the environmental processes into the signature analyses and analyze the impact of these processes on detection algorithm development. The results of these analyses have been propagated to algorithm developers to permit the creation of more robust processing techniques.

Cathcart, J. Michael; Bock, Robert D.

2005-06-01

389

The Influence of Practice Standards on Massage Therapists' Work Experience: A Phenomenological Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This original research is framed in phenomenological methodology, based on interviews conducted and interpreted using qualitative research methods. The findings suggest that, because of both direct and indirect factors (such as the nebulous nature of the work, general isolation in work conditions, and physical concerns), massage therapists perform their work with multiple sources of ambiguity that are potentially anxiety-causing. Licensing offers potential relief for this anxiety, but also generates a new set of frustrations and work concerns. The new concerns include the potential that practice will change to adapt to non-relevant standards and the difficulty of defining a body of work that frequently defies a “one size fits all” categorization. This pilot study suggests several areas for further exploration and also demonstrates the generativity of phenomenological methodology for research related to massage therapy.

Fortune, Luann D.; Gillespie, Elena

2010-01-01

390

[Phenomenological study about the nurse's home care for families of terminally ill patients].  

PubMed

The present study is a qualitative and phenomenological research aimed to understand the phenomenon Nurses working in the FHP (Family Health Program) and home care provided to the family living in a home where terminality of one of its members is being experienced. The study was carried out with healthcare providers who work in the Southeastern Region of the city of Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil. Existential phenomenology was used as the theoretical background. This study made possible the comprehension of what this experience meant to healthcare providers in a moment of being with the family in an existential situation of loss and death, creating a home protection network in order to make this process of terminality of one of the family members as smooth as possible. Even though permeated by care giving filled with humane feelings, thus representing a unique and remarkable experience, it was also a weary and difficult event that triggered labor health problems. PMID:19842599

Valente, Silvia Helena; Teixeira, Marina Borges

2009-09-01

391

Phenomenology of light quark jet quenching in AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore phenomenological signatures of light quark jet quenching within the AdS/CFT correspondence. Firstly, we note that the numerical studies indicate a linear path dependence of the instantaneous energy loss of light quarks modeled as falling strings. Secondly, we propose a phenomenological model for generic description of their energy loss and use it to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA for light quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions. Comparing with the light hadron RAA data at the LHC, a qualitative agreement is shown. Thirdly, we show how the observed quantitative disagreement can be partially alleviated by including the effects from higher derivative corrections to AdS5.

Ficnar, Andrej; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

2013-09-01

392

Space charge phenomenology in polymeric insulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics related to space charge phenomenology, particularly the origin of space charge and its interaction with the host insulating polymer, have been widely discussed in recent years. Due to the development of reliable techniques for direct observation of space charge it is now possible to obtain, besides obvious indications on space charge and electric field magnitude and location, quantities that

G. C. Montanari; P. H. F. Morshuis

2005-01-01

393

Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

2010-01-01

394

Phenomenological Evidence for Two Types of Paranoia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Two types of paranoia have been identified, namely persecution (or ‘Poor Me’) paranoia, and punishment (or ‘Bad Me’) paranoia. This research tests predicted differences in phenomenology – specifically, in person evaluative beliefs, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and anger. Method: Fifty-three people with current paranoid beliefs were classified as Poor Me, Bad Me, or neither (classification was reliable). Key dependent variables

P. D. J. Chadwick; P. Trower; T.-M. Juusti-Butler; N. Maguire

2005-01-01

395

Phenomenological gravitational waveforms from spinning coalescing binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate knowledge of the coalescing binary gravitational waveform is crucial for experimental searches as the ones performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. Following an earlier paper by the same authors we refine the construction of analytical phenomenological waveforms describing the signal sourced by generically spinning binary systems. The gap between the initial inspiral part of the waveform, described by spin-Taylor

R. Sturani; S. Fischetti; L. Cadonati; G. M. Guidi; J. Healy; D. Shoemaker; A. Vicere

2010-01-01

396

A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

2012-01-01

397

Review of the Phenomenology of Noncommutative Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pedagogical review of particle physics models that are based on the noncommutativity of space-time, [ˆ {x}mu ,ˆ {x}_nu ]=i theta mu nu , with specific attention to the phenomenology these models predict in particle experiments either in existence or under development. We summarize results obtained for high energy scattering such as would occur, for example, in a

I. Hinchliffe; N. Kersting; Y. L. Ma

2004-01-01

398

Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective  

SciTech Connect

The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.

Faraggi, A.E.

1997-07-01

399

Low-energy phenomenology of broken supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a class of theories with spontaneously broken supersymmetry the lightest supersymmetric particles are expected to be neutral fermions with masses < O (mW) which are mainly supersymmetric partners of Higgses. while gauginos, squarks and sleptons are expected to be somewhat heavier. We discuss the low-energy phenomenology of such theories, as contrasted to models with light gauginos. LEP and other

Jonathan Richard Ellis; Graham G. Ross

1982-01-01

400

The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

Pacherie, Elisabeth

2008-01-01

401

Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of…

Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra

2012-01-01

402

Bourdieu and phenomenologyA critical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to examine and critically evaluate Bourdieu's critique of phenomenology as presented in his Outline of a Theory of Practice (1977) and The Logic of Practice (1990). Since it is not possible to properly understand Bourdieu's critique without situating it within the context of his broader theoretical orientation, the article begins with an exploration of some of

C. Jason Throop; Keith M. Murphy

2002-01-01

403

The body's disclosure in phenomenological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenologists would agree that the body discloses the world just as the world discloses itself through the body. Yet, in much phenomenological research, the focus is on words from transcripts and protocols – the body is strangely absent. In this article, I argue for the importance of researchers attending reflexively to the bodies of both participant and researcher. I advocate

Linda Finlay

2006-01-01

404

Differential and integrated form consistency in 1-D phenomenological models for shape memory alloy constitutive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape memory alloys are being explored increasingly for developing smart structures and devices in aerospace, automotive and other application areas. The material behavior is highly nonlinear with coupled thermomechanical response involving temperature and\\/or stress induced phase transformations. Modeling the constitutive behavior of these materials poses several challenges and a few phenomenological models exist that provide a quick and reasonable approach

Vidyashankar R. Buravalla; Ashish Khandelwal

2007-01-01

405

Investigating Cognitive Processes within a Practical Art Context: A Phenomenological Case Study Focusing on Three Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phenomenological approach was employed in order to record and present the lived experiences of three students during a five-hour art-making activity. Theoretical definitions of cognitive processes pertinent to art and design were compared with the descriptions gathered from the students. The research was intended to portray as accurately as…

Hickman, Richard; Kiss, Lauren

2013-01-01

406

Transition from Higher Education to National Health Service for Visually Impaired Physiotherapists: An Interpretative Phenomenological Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This idiographic study aims to hear the voices of a small group of visually impaired physiotherapists to explore their lived experience of transition from higher education (HE) into employment. The findings are based on six semi-structured interviews analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Participants were visually impaired…

Atkinson, Karen; Hutchinson, Jane Owen

2013-01-01

407

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

Wells, James D.

2000-12-14

408

"Don’t wait for them to come to you, you go to them". A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Methods Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group) or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Results Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent’s awareness of ‘what works’ and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the ‘social’ rather than the ‘health’ benefits of walking. Conclusions Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and motivation within disengaged sedentary communities. Walking promotion professionals require better training and resources to deliver appropriate recruitment strategies to reach priority groups.

2012-01-01

409

The experience of watching dance: phenomenological–neuroscience duets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses possible correspondences between neuroscientific findings and phenomenologically informed methodologies\\u000a in the investigation of kinesthetic empathy in watching dance. Interest in phenomenology has recently increased in cognitive\\u000a science (Gallagher and Zahavi 2008) and dance scholars have recently contributed important new insights into the use of phenomenology in dance studies (e.g.\\u000a Legrand and Ravn (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

Corinne Jola; Shantel Ehrenberg; Dee Reynolds

410

A phenomenological perspective on preceptorship in the intergenerational context.  

PubMed

Pairing a student with an experienced nurse through preceptorship is an approach to teaching/learning that promotes critical thinking, cultivates practical wisdom, and facilitates competence. Frequently, nursing students are of a different generation than their assigned preceptors and differences in worldviews and expectations can impact upon the success of preceptorship. A phenomenological study, guided by van Manen's approach to human science research, was conducted to explore preceptorship within this intergenerational context. Data were generated using unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of seven preceptors and seven students recruited from an undergraduate nursing program. The findings reveal three main themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. The findings of this study have the potential to enhance generational understanding in the pedagogical context and foster a teaching/learning culture in the clinical practice setting inclusive of divergent generational expectations. PMID:22673959

Foley, Vicki C; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

2012-01-01

411

TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Background The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and auditing of standards for IPC provision and practice, adequate TB training for both staff and patients, and the establishment of a cross-cultural communication strategy, including rapid access to interpreters.

2011-01-01

412

An interpretative phenomenological analysis of African Caribbean women's experiences and management of emotional distress.  

PubMed

African Caribbean women are under-represented within mental health services in the United Kingdom, despite sociocontextual vulnerabilities which may increase emotional distress. This qualitative study aimed to explore individual explanatory models of experiences of distress, coping and help-seeking choices, with a view to improving cultural relevance of services. Participants were recruited following their self-referral to self-help community wellbeing workshops. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was carried out following semi-structured interviews with seven African Caribbean women in central London, who reported previously experiencing emotional distress. The study was conducted during 2009. Five super-ordinate themes emerged from the data: explanations of distress, experiences of distress, managing distress, social and cultural influences and seeking help. Each super-ordinate theme consisted of several subthemes which described participants' experiences. Gender roles and a cultural legacy of being strong and hiding distress emerged as influential in participants' beliefs about managing personal difficulties. However, this was balanced with an acknowledgement that intergenerational differences highlighted an increasing acceptance amongst the community of talking about issues and seeking professional support. The findings offered support for the notion that understandings and responses to personal distress are subject to broad-ranging and interwoven influences. This complexity may be conceptualised as an 'exploratory map' where individuals make links between their current and newly encountered knowledge and experience to guide their personal route to coping and help-seeking. The study provides support for tailoring services to individual needs using a flexible approach which empowers individuals from black and minority ethnic groups by valuing explanatory models of distress alternative to the westernised medical model. Furthermore, findings emphasise the importance of readily available and accessible information about statutory and non-statutory community resources which use language relevant to the communities they are aimed at engaging. PMID:21314849

Sisley, Emma J; Hutton, Jane M; Louise Goodbody, C; Brown, June S L

2011-07-01

413

‘There's always this sense of failure’: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of primary care counsellors' experiences of working with the borderline client  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explores the experiences of five primary care counsellors working in the NHS with clients identified as diagnosable with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants completed a semi-structured interview about their experiences of clinical work with BPD clients. Interview transcripts were analysed via Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and three master-themes were identified: recognition and implications; managing feelings of inadequacy;

Rosemary Rizq

2011-01-01

414

The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person: A phenomenological-hermeneutic study  

PubMed Central

This qualitative focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner's injury. The study revealed how the injury was experienced from the partners’ perspective through the aftermath. In the acute phase after the injury, partners also felt harmed, and support was needed in relation to their own daily activities, eating, resting, and managing distress. During the institutionalized rehabilitation, partners felt torn between supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own.

Buus, Niels

2011-01-01

415

A phenomenological exploration of the constructs of ‘home’ in Jewish emerging adults in gap-year programmes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This phenomenological, qualitative study examines the construct of ‘home’ for Jewish emerging adults participating in a Jewish, semi-autonomous gap-year programme in Israel. Fifteen participants aged 18–22 were sampled from different gap-year programmes. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews including queries regarding participants' meaning of ‘home’ prior to embarking on the programme. Shared dimensions of home constructs included home in

Assael Romanelli

2012-01-01

416

Complex scalar singlet dark matter: Vacuum stability and phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze one-loop vacuum stability, perturbativity, and phenomenological constraints on a complex singlet extension of the standard model scalar sector containing a scalar dark matter candidate. We study vacuum stability considerations using a gauge-invariant approach and compare with the conventional gauge-dependent procedure. We show that, if new physics exists at the TeV scale, the vacuum stability analysis and experimental constraints from the dark matter sector, electroweak precision data, and LEP allow both a Higgs-like scalar in the mass range allowed by the latest results from CMS and ATLAS and a lighter singlet-like scalar with weak couplings to standard model particles. If instead no new physics appears until higher energy scales, there may be significant tension between the vacuum stability analysis and phenomenological constraints (in particular electroweak precision data) to the extent that the complex singlet extension with light Higgs and singlet masses would be ruled out. We comment on the possible implications of a scalar with ˜125GeV mass and future ATLAS invisible decay searches.

Gonderinger, Matthew; Lim, Hyungjun; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

2012-08-01

417

"What is Found There"1: Qualitative Analysis of Physician-Nurse Collaboration Stories  

PubMed Central

Background Effective physician–nurse collaboration is an important, but incompletely understood determinant of patient and nurse satisfaction, and patient safety. Its impact on physicians has not been described. This study was undertaken to develop a fuller understanding of the collaboration experience and its outcomes. Methods Twenty-five medical residents, 32 staff nurses, 5 physician and 5 nurse faculty wrote narratives about successful collaboration; the narratives were then qualitatively analyzed. Narrative analysis was the initial qualitative method iteratively employed to identfy themes. A phenomenological approach was subsequently used to develop a framework for collaborative competence. Results Collaboration triggers, facilitative behaviors, outcomes and collaborative competence were the themes identified. Affect was identified in the triggers leading to collaboration and in its outcomes. Practioners typically entered a care episode feeling worrried, uncertain or inadequate and finished the interaction feeling satisfied, understood and grateful to their colleagues. The frequency of affective experience was not altered by gender, profession, or ethnicity. These experiences were particularly powerful for novice practioners of both disciplines and appear to have both formative and transformative potential. Collaborative competence was characterized by a series of graduated skills in clinical and relational domains. Many stories took place in the ICU and afterhours settings. Conclusions Despite the prevailing wisdom that nursing and medicine are qualitatively different, the stories from this study illuminate surprising commonalities in the collaboration experience, regardless of gender, age, experience, or profession. Collaborative competence can be defined and its component skills identified. Contexts of care can be identified that offer particularly rich opportunities to foster interprofessional collaboration.

Morse, Diane S.; Glessner, Theresa; Gardner, Kathryn

2008-01-01

418

Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

2011-01-01

419

How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The education system needs strategies to attract future scientists and practitioners. There is an alarming decline in the number of students choosing science subjects. Reasons for this include the perceived complexity and the lack of effective cognitive tools that enable learners to acquire the expertise in a way that fits its qualitative nature. The DynaLearn project utilises a "Learning by modelling" approach to deliver an individualised and engaging cognitive tool for acquiring conceptual knowledge. The modelling approach is based on qualitative reasoning, a research area within artificial intelligence, and allows for capturing and simulating qualitative systems knowledge. Educational activities within the DynaLearn software address topics at different levels of complexity, depending on the educational goals and settings. DynaLearn uses virtual characters in the learning environment as agents for engaging and motivating the students during their modelling exercise. The DynaLearn software represents an interactive learning environment in which learners are in control of their learning activities. The software is able to coach them individually based on their current progress, their knowledge needs and learning goals. Within the project 70 expert models on different environmental issues covering seven core topics (Earth Systems and Resources, The Living World, Human population, Land and Water Use, Energy Resources and Consumption, Pollution, and Global Changes) will be delivered. In the context of the core topic "Land and Water Use" the Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management has developed a model on Sustainable River Catchment Management. River systems with their catchments have been tremendously altered due to human pressures with serious consequences for the ecological integrity of riverine landscapes. The operation of hydropower plants, the implementation of flood protection measures, the regulation of flow and sediment regime and intensive land use in the catchments have created ecological problems. A sustainable, catchment-wide management of riverine landscapes is needed and stated by water right acts, e.g. the European Water Framework and Floods Directive. This interdisciplinary approach needs the integration of natural riverine processes, flood protection, resource management, landscape planning, and social and political aspects to achieve a sustainable development. Therefore the model shows the effects of different management strategies concerning flood protection, restoration measures and land use. The model illustrates the wide range of ecosystem services of riverine landscapes that contribute to human well-being such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The effects of different land use strategies in the catchment are highlighted by means of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The model is used to support activities of students at the University as well as at High School within the DynaLearn Software to promote scientific culture in the secondary education system. Model fragments allow learners to re-use parts of the existing model at different levels of complexity. But learners can also construct their own conceptual system knowledge, either individually or in a collaborative setting, and using the model as a reference for comparisons of their own understanding. Of special interest for the DynaLearn project is the intended development of interdisciplinary and social skills like cooperative working, cross-linked thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and the identification of the conflicts between environment, economy, legislation, science, technology, and society. A comprehensive evaluation of the DynaLearn software is part of the project. To be effective, science education should focus on understanding scientific concepts and on application of scientific knowledge to everyday life. Conceptual knowledge of systems behaviour is crucial for society to understand and successfully interact w

Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

2010-05-01

420

A Perspective on Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I give a brief overview of some Quantum-Gravity-Phenomenology research lines, focusing on studies of cosmic rays and gamma-ray bursts that concern the fate of Lorentz symmetry in quantum spacetime. I also stress that the most valuable phenomenological analyses should not mix too many conjectured new features of quantum spacetime, and from this perspective it appears that it should be difficult to obtain reliable guidance on the quantum-gravity problem from the analysis of synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula and from the analysis of phase coherence of light from extragalactic sources. Forthcoming observatories of ultra-high-energy neutrinos should provide several opportunities for clean tests of some simple hypothesis for the short-distance structure of spacetime. In particular, these neutrino studies, and some related cosmic-ray studies, should provide access to the regime E > ? {mEp}.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

2006-02-01

421

Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his ``cognitive immunology''. The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of ``Process Being'' self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

Kazansky, Alexander B.

2004-08-01

422

Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.

Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)

1993-01-01

423

Recovery From Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the\\u000a possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who\\u000a all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, “What was the lived experience of having\\u000a a psychosis episode and now being

Gary Nixon; Brad Hagen; Tracey Peters

2010-01-01

424

A perspective on Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I give a brief overview of some Quantum-Gravity-Phenomenology research lines,\\u000afocusing on studies of cosmic rays and gamma-ray bursts that concern the fate\\u000aof Lorentz symmetry in quantum spacetime. I also stress that the most valuable\\u000aphenomenological analyses should not mix too many conjectured new features of\\u000aquantum spacetime, and from this perspective it appears that it should be\\u000adifficult

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2004-01-01

425

On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this

Félix Darve; François Nicot

2005-01-01

426

The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

2010-01-01

427

Bookstart: A Qualitative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of Bookstart, which gave free children's books and support to British inner-city families, collected data from librarians, health visitors, and nursery school staff. Bookstart increased positive attitudes toward and interest in books. Health visitors' support was crucial in helping parents use the books to support children's…

Moore, Maggie; Wade, Barrie

2003-01-01

428

Disciplining Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

2006-01-01

429

Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-02-01

430

Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

2001-01-01

431

Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While\\u000a there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain\\u000a of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research conclusions that might be considered\\u000a prescriptive by the reader, the nature of qualitative research

Amanda Nolen; Tony Talbert

2011-01-01

432

Understanding Qualitative Metasynthesis: Issues and Opportunities in Early Childhood Intervention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative

Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann

2011-01-01

433

Depression and embodiment: phenomenological reflections on motility, affectivity, and transcendence.  

PubMed

This paper integrates personal narratives with the methods of phenomenology in order to draw some general conclusions about 'what it means' and 'what it feels like' to be depressed. The analysis has three parts. First, it explores the ways in which depression disrupts everyday experiences of spatial orientation and motility. This disruption makes it difficult for the person to move and perform basic functional tasks, resulting in a collapse or contraction of the life-world. Second, it illustrates how depression creates a situational atmosphere of emotional indifference that reduces the person's ability to qualitatively distinguish what matters in his or her life because nothing stands out as significant or important anymore. In this regard, depression is distinct from other feelings because it is not directed towards particular objects or situations but to the world as a whole. Finally, the paper examines how depression diminishes the possibility for 'self-creation' or 'self-making'. Restricted by the illness, depression becomes something of a destiny, preventing the person from being open and free to access a range of alternative self-interpretations, identities, and possible ways of being-in-the-world. PMID:23378190

Aho, Kevin A

2013-11-01

434

Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.

Curry, Kathy S.

435

The NUDIST qualitative data analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer approaches to qualitative data analysis have concentrated on coding and retrieval of text. This paper describes a research project which set out to support a range of methods for the analysis of unstructured data, with emphasis on the building and testing of grounded theory. It resulted in software whose innovations include: a) No limit to the number of

Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

1991-01-01

436

A Qualitative Exploration of entrepreneurial Knowledge Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research seeks to explore the transfer and sharing of knowledge in entrepreneurial product development (EPD). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The effects of organizational complexity and of the temporal locus of learning on knowledge sharing are closely examined through a qualitative case study of four projects in a mid-size manufacturing firm. Findings – Distinguishing between the prior and resulting shared

Alan T. Burns; William Acar; Pratim Datta

2011-01-01

437

Quantitative and Qualitative Integration of Lurian Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews contemporary Russian research aimed at integrating and combining qualitative and quantitative evaluation approaches using Luria's procedures of neuropsychological assessment. A scoring system for rating and evaluating cognitive disturbances in different functional areas is described. The advantages of application of this system are discussed, using as examples the neuropsychological follow-up of neurosurgical patients, as well as neuropsychological research

Janna M. Glozman

1999-01-01

438

Cancer hazard identification and qualitative risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the ethical aspects of the process of identifying environmental carcinogens. Qualitative risk assessment is particularly relevant to carcinogens acting through a mutation, a circumstance in which no-effect doses cannot be postulated. Further, different ethical and\\/or regulatory approaches to agents producing cancer in humans versus those producing cancer in laboratory animals would be unfair given the low

Benedetto Terracini

1996-01-01

439

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

440

Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

LaRossa, Ralph

2005-01-01

441

Qualitative Hybrid Control of Dynamic Bipedal Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a qualitative approach to the dynamical control of bipedal walking that allows us to combine the benefits of passive dynamic walkers with the ability to walk on uneven terrain. We demonstrate an online control strategy, synthesizing a stable walking gait along a sequence of irregularly spaced stepping stones. The passive dynamic walking paradigm has begun to establish itself

Subramanian Ramamoorthy; Benjamin Kuipers

2006-01-01

442

Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced that…

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

2010-01-01

443

Qualitative research design and approaches in radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Radiography, as with other health care professions, aims towards establishing full professional recognition. A recognized research back- ground is considered an essential component of this. Usually, emphasis is placed on quantitative research which focuses on the deductive component of the scientific 'confirmatory' method. However, this situation changed after the emergence of a post-positivist philosophy of medical research, which suggests

Curtise K. C. Ng; Peter Whitea

2005-01-01

444

Qualitative Approach to Rigid Body Mechanics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order for a program to interact with the world as well as people do, we must provide it with a great deal of commonsense about the way things work. Reasoning about the geometric interactions and motions of objects is an important part of that commonsen...

P. E. Nielson

1988-01-01

445

On a phenomenological model for active smooth muscle contraction.  

PubMed

This paper presents a three-dimensional phenomenological model for the description of smooth muscle activation. A strain energy function is proposed as sum of the strain energy stored in the passive tissue, consisting of elastin and collagen, and an active calcium-driven energy related to the chemical contraction of the smooth muscle cells. Further, the proposed model includes the dispersions of the orientations of smooth muscle cells and collagen. These dispersions, measured in experiments, can be directly inserted into the model. The approach is implemented into the framework of the finite element method. Consequently, beside a validation with experiments the modelling concept is used for a three-dimensional numerical study. PMID:21632055

Schmitz, André; Böl, Markus

2011-07-28

446

Phenomenological relations for quark and neutrino mixing angles  

SciTech Connect

The most recent experimental data on quark and neutrino mixing angles are discussed. It is indicated that the results of the latest kaon-decay experiments are consistent with the unitarity condition for the first row of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix if the currently available world-average value of the neutron lifetime is used to determine the element V{sub ud} of this matrix. The quark mixing angles are calculated within the Fritzsch-Scadron-Delbourgo-Rupp phenomenological approach on the basis of values of the masses of light and heavy constituent quarks. The neutrino mixing angles are calculated to a high precision with the aid of the hypothesis that the quark and neutrino mixing angles are complementary. The results are compatible with experimental data.

Gaponov, Yu. V.; Khruschov, V. V.; Semenov, S. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

447

Examination of pain experiences of cancer patients in western Turkey: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the individual experience of living with cancer pain. This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data and a qualitative Colaizzi method of analysis was performed. Following the analysis of the data, the expressions made by the cancer patients during the interviews were grouped under 5 themes. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 5 themes and 19 subthemes of responses were determined describing the pain of the cancer patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that cancer patients go through negative physical, psychological, and social experiences due to the pain they suffered. PMID:24121701

Akin Korhan, Esra; Yildirim, Yasemin; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Uslu, Ruçhan

2013-01-01

448

Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.  

PubMed

Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry. PMID:23718744

Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

2013-07-01

449

The genesis of empathy in human development: a phenomenological reconstruction.  

PubMed

In phenomenology, theories of empathy are intimately connected with the question of how it is possible to have insight into the mind of the other person. In this article, the author wants to show why it is self-evident for us that the other person is having experiences. In order to do so, it is not enough to discuss the phenomenon of empathy with a starting point in the already constituted adult person; instead the article presents a genetic approach to human development. The author thus contrasts Edith Stein's discussion of Einfühlung (empathy), which takes its starting point in the experience of the grown-up, with Max Scheler's discussion of Einsfühlung (feeling of oneness), where the relation between mother and infant is taken as one example. Maurice Merleau-Ponty's discussion of the world of the infant is read as one way of developing Scheler's theory of intersubjectivity and of Einsfühlung. This genetic approach is developed further into a phenomenological analysis of the experience of the fetus and of birth. The author argues that the analysis of the fetus highlights the distinction between knowing that another person is having experiences, and knowing the specific content of the other person's experiences. The fetus does not experience different persons, but has a pre-subjective experience of life that includes what is later experienced as belonging to "another." Later in life, the experience of empathy, as an experience of a specific content, can be developed from this experience. In this way empathy and Einsfühlung can be understood as complementary rather than as competing phenomena. PMID:24043575

Bornemark, Jonna

2014-05-01

450

Psychotherapy expertise in Singapore: A qualitative investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal characteristics, developmental influences, and therapy practices of nine peer-nominated expert psychotherapists practicing in the diverse country of Singapore were identified using qualitative methods. Sixteen themes were organized within four categories: (a) personal characteristics (empathic, nonjudgmental, respectful); (b) developmental influences (experience, self-awareness, humility, self-doubt); (c) approach to practice (balance between support and challenge, flexible therapeutic stance, empowerment\\/strength-based approach, primacy of

Len Jennings; Vilma DRozario; Michael Goh; Ashley Sovereign; Megan Brogger; Thomas Skovholt

2008-01-01

451

Totally symmetric order parameter in the framework of the phenomenological theory of phase transitions: Ferroelastics  

SciTech Connect

A new approach is proposed for constructing the phenomenological theory of phase transitions. The approach is based on the classical Landau theory with allowance made for the order parameter that corresponds to changes in the charge distribution probability density of a crystal and does not affect the symmetry of the high-symmetry phase. It is demonstrated that this approach makes it possible to describe phase transitions in terms of a nonequilibrium polynomial Landau potential of degree four in the components of the order parameters. The capabilities of the proposed approach are illustrated with three systems that undergo ferroelastic phase transitions.

Gufan, A. Yu. [Rostov State University, Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ag_ag@mail.ru

2007-07-15

452

Phenomenology of the standard model and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the workshop was to have intensive discussions and work-sessions covering those phenomenological issues of elementary particle interactions which lie at the interface of the Standard Model and possible new physics. These are precisely the issues which are expected to come in the limelight in the next few years with the commissioning of a new generation of colliders. At the beginning of the workshop four distinct areas of focus were identified: production of heavy flavor and supersymmetric particles, Higgs search, higher order processes and indirect search for new physics and neutrinos.

Roy, D.P. (TIFR, Bombay (IN))

1989-01-01

453

Phenomenology of MOND and gravitational polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenology of MOND (flat rotation curves of galaxies, baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, etc.) is a basic set of phenomena relevant to galaxy dynamics and dark matter distribution at galaxy scales. Still unexplained today, it enjoys a remarkable property, known as the dielectric analogy, which could have far-reaching implications. In the present paper we discuss this analogy in the framework of simple non-relativistic models. We show how a specific form of dark matter, made of two different species of particles coupled to different Newtonian gravitational potentials, could permit to interpret in the most natural way the dielectric analogy of MOND by a mechanism of gravitational polarization.

Blanchet, Luc; Bernard, Laura

2014-05-01

454

Phenomenology of SU(5) finite unified theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which can be made finite to all-loop orders, leading to a large reduction in the number of free parameters. We confront the predictions of SU(5) FUTs with the top and bottom quark masses, which allows us to discriminate among different models. We include further low-energy phenomenology constraints, such as B physics observables, the bound on the SM Higgs mass and the cold dark matter density, and then are able to make predictions for the lightest Higgs boson mass and the sparticle spectrum.

Heinemeyer, S.; Mondragón, M.; Zoupanos, G.

2009-06-01

455

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

456

The Consequences of Spasmodic Dysphonia on Communication-Related Quality of Life: A Qualitative Study of the Insider's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model…

Baylor, C.R.; Yorkston, K.M.; Eadie, T.L.

2005-01-01

457

Qualitative rigid-body mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theory of qualitative rigid-body mechanics and describe a program that uses this theory to compute qualitative rigid-body dynamic simulations. The program works directly from a qualitative representation of geometry—qualitative configuration space—without need of any metric information. The program can handle devices that are composed of an arbitrary number of fixed-axis components and springs, with driving inputs coming

Thomas F. Stahovich; Randall Davis; Howard E. Shrobe

2000-01-01

458

Rethinking Agency: A Phenomenological Approach to Embodiment and Agentic Capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agency has been central to modern conceptions of politics but it is a complicated and contested idea that seems to have fallen into both theoretical and historical crisis. I explore the underlying ideas that have grounded it, as well as some recent historical and theoretical challenges. I respond by advocating an ontological agnosticism regarding who or what exercises agency and

Diana Coole

2005-01-01

459

Inclusive High Schools and Dropout Rates: A Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine the positive impact of inclusive high schools on high school students. Educators have expressed concern about the increasing number of high school dropouts and the alarming number of students between the ages of 16 and 24 who graduate without the skills or the knowledge to secure or maintain employment. An…

Holloway, Connie F.

2010-01-01

460

Pattern-Forming Instabilities: A Phenomenological Approach through Simple Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the streets of clouds to the submarine sand ripples or the striations on the coats of some animals, nature offers many examples of spontaneous patterned structures originating from various instabilities. These patterns can in turn destabilize and show a rich, complex dynamics and possibly end up in disordered behaviours. For over 20 years,…

Brunet, Philippe

2007-01-01

461

A Phenomenological Approach for the Half-Metallic Ferromagnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Half-metallic ferromagnet (HMF) is a material in which one spin species is metallic while the other is semiconductor. That is, the Fermi level lies in a gap for one of the spin projections. CrO2 is one of the most important examples of HMFs. Band Theory has been extensively applied for studying these materials. Band structures were calculated and from

Raul Chura; Kevin Bedell

2003-01-01

462

Dosimetry of Auger Emitters: Physical and Phenomenological Approaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectru...

K. S. R. Sastry R. W. Howell D. V. Rao V. B. Mylavarapu A. I. Kassis

1987-01-01

463

Qualitative Research as Methodical Hermeneutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many

David L. Rennie

2012-01-01

464

Medicalizing mental health: a phenomenological alternative.  

PubMed

With the increasingly close relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) there has been a growing tendency in the mental health professions to interpret everyday emotional suffering and behavior as a medical condition that can be treated with a particular drug. In this paper, I suggest that hermeneutic phenomenology is uniquely suited to challenge the core assumptions of medicalization by expanding psychiatry's narrow conception of the self as an enclosed, biological individual and recognizing the ways in which our experience of things--including mental illness--is shaped by the socio-historical situation in which we grow. Informed by hermeneutic phenomenology, psychiatry's first priority is to suspend the prejudices that come with being a medical doctor in order to hear what the patient is saying. To this end, psychiatry can begin to understand the patient not as a static, material body with a clearly defined brain dysfunction but as an unfolding, situated existence already involved in an irreducibly complex social world, an involvement that allows the patient to experience, feel, and make sense of their emotional suffering. PMID:18633696

Aho, Kevin

2008-12-01

465

Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

1998-01-01

466

Exploring Inner Landscapes: NLP and Psycho-phenomenology as innovations in researching first person experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper reviews recent developments in methods for researching first person accounts of experience, especially through guided introspection into a person’s `inner landscape’. We review the emergence and interrelationship of two fields of especial interest relevance to those using phenomenological methods in management research. These are Neuro-LinguisticProgramming (Bandler & Grinder 1975b), a practical approach found in Human Resource Development

Jane Mathison; Paul Tosey

467

Volunteering in dementia care - a Norwegian phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strength