Note: This page contains sample records for the topic qualitative phenomenological approach from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies.  

PubMed

Interviews form an essential part of data collection for many qualitative nursing studies. Information about how to individualize interview formats to meet the purpose and style of specific qualitative research approaches, however, is not readily accessible to the researcher. This paper offers an overview of use of the interviewer as an instrument in qualitative research, as well as ways in which the differing purposes and styles of ethnographic and phenomenological research approaches affect the format for the interview. PMID:7665776

Sorrell, J M; Redmond, G M

1995-06-01

2

Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

Christina Goulding

2005-01-01

3

Phenomenological Approach to Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current approaches to training attempt to break complex tasks into simple, discrete steps. This attempt while valuable for teaching procedural tasks, may not be optimal for teaching complex perceptual and motor tasks; it is valuable for initial stages of ...

G. A. Klein

1977-01-01

4

Schizophrenic delusions: a phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

The issue of specificity of delusions in schizophrenia is still a matter of debate. The authors analyze the delusion formation in schizophrenia from a prototypical, phenomenological point of view, focusing on the subject's experience. This perspective links delusion formation to the autistic predisposition, which is considered here as the elementary phenotypic expression of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. Autism is viewed as a defective preconceptual (i.e., before language) attunement to the world. It impedes the individual's sharing of "common sense" with others and impairs the ability to project into the future. The development of delusions is illustrated, in part, by Klaus Conrad's work on the onset of paranoid schizophrenia. Delusions are viewed as transformations of the structure of experiencing. When threatened in future ability to be, the autistic, vulnerable person looks for the clues to becoming by attributing significance to disparate elements of the environment, which become self-referential. The link established between these disparate elements is based on universal characteristics that give the schizophrenic delusion a metaphysical quality. The transitivistic experience in delusions of control and omnipotence points to a specific way of crossing the border between "mine" and "yours" (disturbances of the experiencing "I"). What strikes a clinician in these delusions is that the normally tacit link between the sense of being and the sense of acting becomes quite apparent. The authors also propose a specificity in the themes of schizophrenic delusions. Delusions acquire a schizophrenic quality when ontological (i.e., universal) elements of the discourse between the locutor and the Other dominate at the expense of the worldly elements. It is emphasized that delusional content and form are dialectically related and hardly distinguishable. The authors consider the delusion formation as a phenomenon of emergence, a situation in which a new qualitative order arises from the reorganization of essentially unchanged elements. To consider schizophrenia as an emergent, particular way of experiencing, related to the autistic defect, has important consequences for research and for treatment. A dialectic exchange is needed between prototypical models generated by phenomenological inquiry and empirical, operational validation of testable aspects of such models. PMID:8235460

Bovet, P; Parnas, J

1993-01-01

5

Hearing voices: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The word “phenomenology” has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief outline of Merleau-Ponty's theory of embodiment,

Philip Thomas; Patrick Bracken; Ivan Leudar

2004-01-01

6

A phenomenological approach to psychoprosthetics.  

PubMed

The phenomenology of human embodiment can advance the practitioner's understanding of the lived human body and in particular, what it means to incorporate a prosthetic device into one's body. In order for a prosthesis to be incorporated into the lived body of the patient, the prosthesis must arguably be integrated into the body schema. This article uses the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others to identify three of the necessary conditions of embodiment that determine the body schema: corporeal understanding, transparency and sensorimotor feedback. It then examines the structure of each of these conditions of embodiment and how they impact the lived body's incorporation of prostheses and other artifacts. [Box: see text]. PMID:22992026

Mills, Frederick B

2012-09-20

7

Approaches of Qualitative Process Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes new approaches for qualitative reasoning of steady state processes. The qualitative model can be developed by abstracting quantitative equations or by using e.g. a flowsheeting program to evaluate derivatives, from which the qualitativ...

M. Hurme

1997-01-01

8

Phenomenological approach to eukaryotic chemotactic efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eukaryotic cells are capable of detecting small chemical gradients for a wide range of background concentrations. Ultimately, fluctuations place a limit on gradient sensing and recent work has focused on the role of stochastic receptor occupancy as one possible limiting factor. Here, we use a phenomenological approach to add spontaneous motility fluctuations to receptor noise and predict the directional statistics of eukaryotic chemotaxis. Specifically, an Itô diffusion equation with direction-dependent multiplicative noise is developed and analytically studied. We show that our approach can naturally accommodate recent experimental data for the chemotaxis of the social amoeba Dictyostelium.

Hu, Bo; Fuller, Danny; Loomis, William F.; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

2010-03-01

9

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

10

CSR As Imperialism: Towards a Phenomenological Approach to CSR In the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voices of local manufacturers have largely been overlooked in academic and policy debates on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the developing world. This article makes a contribution towards filling this gap in the literature by explicitly taking a phenomenological approach that maps the interpretations given to Western-based CSR initiatives by local manufacturers. Data from two qualitative research projects on

Farzad Rafi Khan; Peter Lund-Thomsen

2011-01-01

11

PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO PROFILE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: CITATION MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex systemcolon; scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these

J. A. DEL RIO; R. N. KOSTOFF; E. O. GARCIA; A. M. RAMIREZ; J. A. HUMENIK

2002-01-01

12

Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): A Qualitative Methodology of Choice in Healthcare Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the teaching of the qualitative method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), to healthcare professionals (HCPs). It introduces briefly the philosophical background of IPA and how it has been used within healthcare research, and then discusses the teaching of IPA to HCPs within received educational theory. Lastly, the paper describes how IPA has been taught to students\\/trainees in

Deborah Biggerstaff; Andrew R. Thompson

2008-01-01

13

The phenomenological approach to social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that the social psychologist can profit by noting recent developments in the psychology of perception, since in some respects social psychology today resembles the psychology of perception 35 years ago. At that time the systematic application of the phenomenological method released the psychology of perception from its traditional bonds and started it on a new and fertile

Robert B. MacLeod

1947-01-01

14

Collective Findings, Individual Interpretations: An Illustration of a Pluralistic Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of qualitative approaches in the mainstream of psychology research facilitates innovation in their use, both singly and in combination. In this article, we describe a pluralistic qualitative analysis of the transcript of a semi-structured interview on the topic of second-time motherhood using Grounded Theory, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Narrative Analysis, and Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Each approach encapsulates different epistemological

Nollaig A. Frost; Amanda Holt; Pnina Shinebourne; Cigdem Esin; Sevasti-Melissa Nolas; Leila Mehdizadeh; Belinda Brooks-Gordon

2011-01-01

15

What Is Wrong with the Phenomenological Approach to Religious Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the origins and nature of the phenomenological approach to the study of religion. Examines the way in which this approach has become accepted as a suitable methodology for religious education. Argues that certain features of this approach are untenable in the light of recent work in the philosophy of language and mind. (CAJ)|

Barnes, L. Philip

2001-01-01

16

A phenomenological approach to assessing a DUI/DWI program.  

PubMed

In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a phenomenological approach, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs. PMID:22297773

Narag, Raymund E; Maxwell, Sheila Royo; Lee, Byung

2012-02-01

17

Toward Methodological Diversity: Qualitative Research Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research approaches using qualitative methods that are needed as alternatives to traditional, quantitative methods. Describes the three qualitative methods of participant-observation, in-depth interviewing, and life histories and case studies. Discusses exemplars of qualitative techniques for research in counselor education and…

Mathews, Bernadette; Paradise, Louis V.

1988-01-01

18

A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress.

Mullen, Paul E.

2007-01-01

19

Phenomenological Lagrangian approach to the electromagnetic deuteron form factors  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological Lagrangian approach is employed to study the electromagnetic properties of the deuteron. The deuteron is regarded as a weakly bound state of the proton and neutron. We construct a general form for the electromagnetic one- and two-body transition operators formulated in terms of the nucleon fields, which are then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic deuteron form factors. One of the two-body operators is responsible for explaining the quadrupole moment form factor. We show that in our approach the data on the deuteron form factors as well as on the differential cross section of elastic electron-deuteron scattering are well explained.

Dong Yubing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), CAS (China); Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2008-09-15

20

Addiction and self-determination: a phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

In this article, I focus on possibly impaired self-determination in addiction. After some methodological reflections, I introduce a phenomenological description of the experience of being self-determined. I argue that being self-determined implies effectivity of agency regarding three different behavioural domains. Such self-referential agency shall be called 'self-effectivity' in this article. In a second step, I will use this phenomenological description to understand the impairments of self-determination in addiction. While addiction does not necessarily imply a basic lack of control over one's life, this can well be the case during certain periods of time or in special situations. Addiction is herein described as an embodied custom-highly effective with respect to changing one's lived experience-which is learned and developed while becoming addicted. Such a repeatedly performed custom, called a 'psychotropic technique', implies deep changes in one's personal identity and alters an agent's 'self-effectivity'. In the closing section, I discuss the possible implications of a phenomenological approach to personal responsibility. PMID:20232253

Schlimme, Jann E

2010-02-01

21

A qualitative approach to teaching capacitive circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated students' qualitative understanding of dc circuits containing resistors and a capacitor. We found that a year after traditional lecture instruction as part of an introductory physics course, most students were unable to predict the behavior of a series circuit consisting of a battery, a bulb, and a capacitor. Among the difficulties identified we found that almost half of the students implicitly abandoned the idea that a complete circuit is necessary for a bulb to light when a capacitor is introduced into the circuit. We have developed curriculum that enables students to construct a phenomenological model in which they liken the behavior of a capacitor to that of a wire, a switch, and a battery; this allows them to qualitatively describe circuits with batteries, bulbs, and capacitors. We have also developed curriculum on the determination of RC times. Post-test results show a significant increase in understanding of capacitive circuits.

Smith, David P.; Kampen, Paul van

2013-05-01

22

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

23

Phenomenology and neurophysiological correlations: Two approaches to perception research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that phenomenological description and neurophysiological correlation complement each other in perception research. Whilst phenomena constitute the material, neuronal mechanisms are indispensable for their explanation. Numerous examples of neurophysiological correlates show that the correlation of phenomenology and neurophysiology is fruitful. Phenomena for which neuronal mechanism have been found include: (in area V1) filling-in of real and artificial scotomata,

Lothar Spillmann

2009-01-01

24

Understanding phenomenology.  

PubMed

Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research. PMID:20222274

Flood, Anne

2010-01-01

25

INNOVATION IN ARTWORKS AND ITS RECEPTION: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explain the reception of a novel idea in artworks from a phenomenological perspective, with special reference to creativity in oil painting. It argues that whether a new idea in artwork is accepted or not by the community is a matter of subjective interpretation. Based on human agency theories put forwarded by Max Weber and Alfred Schutz,

FU-LAI TONY YU

2010-01-01

26

Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

2010-01-01

27

A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked to tape…

Woodruff, Saundra Kay

28

Phenomenological explanation of an experiential curriculum in medical education: A feministic approach  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study addresses the design and validation of the experiential curriculum model for medical education using a Feministic approach. Method: The present study was conducted on two non separable planes. On the first plan, the model was designed based on the Feministic approach using the theoretical study method and emphasizing the perspectives ascribed to Nell Noddings, Madeline Grumet and Janette Miller. Results: The levels of this model include Expected Curriculum, Imaginal Curriculum, Concealed curriculum, Interactive curriculum (Manifest Curriculum, Latent Curriculum, Look the parenting), Transferential Curriculum and Self Determination. On the second plane, to validate the combined model, a phenomenologically qualitative study was conducted. In this study, using goal-oriented sampling, undergraduate and graduate (Master's degree) students majoring in Dentistry, Nursing at Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan as well as those at at Esfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected. Deep interview was used to collect data. The findings were analyzed using Van Manen's six-stage model. To determine the reliability of the findings, reliability of reality reconstruction were used. Conclusion: The results obtained suggested that: Education is in need of some conceptual reconstruction. On this way, women's perceptions and experience of education and of the interior epistemological and curricular system which shape the discourse and performance of education must be addressed. Serving as a research model offering the various planes of the experiential curriculum and focusing more sharply on the dimensions of curriculum than the formal plane, the present study is recommended to the decision-makers of higher education curricular system.

Keshtiaray, Narges; Vajargah, Kourosh Fathi; Zimitat, Craig; Foroughi, Ahmad Ali

2012-01-01

29

Phenomenology: a resource pack for chiropractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiropractic is being challenged to produce research to back up its claims of therapeutic effect. This paper presents an argument for using a qualitative approach for some of this research, namely the research methodology of phenomenology.The aim of the paper is to provide the basis for the chiropractor to embark on a research project using a phenomenological methodology. It should

Peter J Miller

2004-01-01

30

A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology: current state, promise, and future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose\\u000a phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on\\u000a the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment this literature, I explain\\u000a the phenomenological concept of

Sebnem Cilesiz

31

Study on forming limit diagrams prediction using a phenomenological and a physical approach of plasticity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work a study on the prediction of the Forming Limit Diagrams is developed, by using a phenomenological and a physical approach of the plasticity theory. Two advanced constitutive models of the plastic anisotropy are considered, namely the Yld'96 Barlat phenomenological yield function and a combined model of texture and strain-path-induced anisotropy. The studied material is a bake-hardened

M. C. Butuc; A. Barata da Rocha; J. J. Gracier; J. Ferreira Duarte

2003-01-01

32

Constructive integration of learning theory and phenomenological approaches to biofeedback training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major sources of theoretical development for biofeedback as an intervention paradigm are considered. An integration of cognitive learning theory approaches to the potential regulation of autonomic processes in an information-processing framework and the phenomenological information-processing approach of Kelly's personal construct theory suggest a new methodological paradigm for biofeedback as a tool of psychotherapeutic intervention, especially for the discipline of

Avram J. Zolten

1989-01-01

33

Grounded theory ethnography and phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– The paper aims,to look at some,of the problems,commonly,associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach,– The paper examines,three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection and interpretation and highlights some,of the

Christina Goulding

34

Views on the combination of quantitative and qualitative research approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the possibility of combining quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The paradigms underlying quantitative and qualitative research (for example, positivism and postmodernism) are identified. The limitations and strengths of both approaches are highlighted, and the conclusion is reached that a combination of the two methods builds on the strengths of both. This is followed by a discussion of

Salomé Schulze

35

Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

2012-01-01

36

The meaning of home for Karen and Chin refugees from Burma: An interpretative phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of home is common to all people from a refugee background yet we have little understanding of the diversity of meaning associated with this important concept. A phenomenological approach was used to explore experiences of home amongst Karen and Chin refugees residing in Brisbane. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine participants from Karen and Chin backgrounds. The participants

Bernadette Rosbrook; Robert D. Schweitzer

2010-01-01

37

Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

Miner-Romanoff, Karen

2012-01-01

38

Hadron phenomenology in the Dyson-Schwinger approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a brief overview of the Dyson-Schwinger approach and its application to hadron properties. Recent results for baryon and tetraquark masses as well as nucleon and ? elastic and transition form factors are discussed.

Eichmann, Gernot

2013-03-01

39

A qualitative exploration of the health promotion effects of varying body size in photographs analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.  

PubMed

As levels of obesity continue to rise worldwide so do the number of public health campaigns designed to help address this problem with advice and information on how to stabilize or decrease weight. However, few studies have explored the influence of visual images, and specifically photographs, in weight-related health materials despite their widespread use in publications and online. We carried out qualitative individual telephone interviews with eight women who were actively engaged in managing their weight. They viewed a series of photographs of slim and overweight women demonstrating healthy behaviors such as engaging in physical activity or reading a food label. Responses were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The two core themes that emerged were the motivating/de-motivating effect of body size representation on health behavior intentions, and the social implications of being overweight. Participants liked and appeared motivated by the images of larger women, actively seeking out social comparisons. Implications of these findings in the development of health promotion messages are discussed. PMID:22989507

Lawson, Victoria; Wardle, Jane

2012-09-16

40

College Student Success: A Qualitative Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study highlighted student perspectives on barriers to success at a community college located in a south Texas city. The study examined barriers to student success, the knowledge that successful students possess to overcome the barriers, and the actions that successful students undertake to overcome the barriers. Padilla's (2004) theoretical framework and methods for modeling student success provided the

Ralph Mario Wirth; Raymond V. Padilla

2008-01-01

41

College Student Success: A Qualitative Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study highlighted student perspectives on barriers to success at a community college located in a south Texas city. The study examined barriers to student success, the knowledge that successful students possess to overcome the barriers, and the actions that successful students undertake to overcome the barriers. Padilla's (2004)…

Wirth, Ralph Mario; Padilla, Raymond V.

2008-01-01

42

The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The Idiographic Turn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Approach to studying" research focuses on the "manner" (deep, surface, etc.) in which studying is grasped. This is the Husserlian "noesis", the mental orientation, to studying. In this article, it is argued that attention must also be given to the subjective meaning of studying and of what is studied--the Husserlian "noema". However, the…

Ashworth, Peter; Greasley, Kay

2009-01-01

43

Evaluating the olympic education program: A qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to provide further information regarding factors associated with educational evaluation, using a qualitative approach. Fifty-five interviews were carried out with school principals. The results of the present study supported the notion that the qualitative methods could provide information that quantitative procedures could not. Additionally, the findings also provided useful information for solving problems in OEP implementation

Vasilios Grammatikopoulos; Maria Hassandra; Athanasios Koustelios; Yannis Theodorakis

2005-01-01

44

Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches  

SciTech Connect

Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1987-01-01

45

Pattern-forming instabilities: a phenomenological approach through simple examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the streets of clouds to the submarine sand ripples or the striations on the coats of some animals, nature offers many examples of spontaneous patterned structures originating from various instabilities. These patterns can in turn destabilize and show a rich, complex dynamics and possibly end up in disordered behaviours. For over 20 years, these patterns have generated much interest in the physics community, in order to approach fundamental problems such as transition to turbulence or morphogenesis in a more tractable framework. Because the study of such systems needs certain conceptual tools of nonlinear physics and stability analysis, they are generally introduced to students only in post-graduate lectures. We propose here a simplified approach of such phenomena through experimental and numerical examples that can be reproduced with a rather simple set of apparatus: a convection experiment and two gutter-like experiments where a liquid overflows from an overhang, as well as a numerical model consisting of a generic, nonlinear partial differential equation.

Brunet, Philippe

2007-03-01

46

Generic qualitative research: a design for qualitative research in emergency care?  

PubMed Central

The frequency of qualitative studies in the Emergency Medicine Journal, while still low, has increased over the last few years. All take a generic approach and rarely conform to established qualitative approaches such as phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory. This generic approach is no doubt selected for pragmatic reasons but can be weakened by a lack of rigor and understanding of qualitative research. This paper explores qualitative approaches and then focuses on “best practice” for generic qualitative research.

Cooper, S; Endacott, R

2007-01-01

47

Detecting qualitative interaction: a Bayesian approach.  

PubMed

Differences in treatment effects between centers in a multi-center trial may be important. These differences represent treatment by subgroup interaction. Peto defines qualitative interaction (QI) to occur when the simple treatment effect in one subgroup has a different sign than in another subgroup: this interaction is important. Interaction where the treatment effects are of the same sign in all subgroups is called quantitative and is often not important because the treatment recommendation is identical in all cases. A hierarchical model is used here with exchangeable mean responses to each treatment between subgroups. The posterior probability of QI and the corresponding Bayes factor are proposed as a diagnostic and as a test statistic. The model is motivated by two multi-center trials with binary responses. The frequentist power and size of the test using the Bayes factor are examined and compared with two other commonly used tests. The impact of imbalance between the sample sizes in each subgroup on power is examined, and the test based on the Bayes factor typically has better power for unbalanced designs, especially for small sample sizes. An exact test based on the Bayes factor is also suggested assuming the hierarchical model. The Bayes factor provides a concise summary of the evidence for or against QI. It is shown by example that it is easily adapted to summarize the evidence for 'clinically meaningful QI,' defined as the simple effects being of opposite signs and larger in absolute value than a minimal clinically meaningful effect. PMID:19950107

Bayman, Emine Ozgür; Chaloner, Kathryn; Cowles, Mary Kathryn

2010-02-20

48

Self-Disturbance in Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Approach to Better Understand Our Patients  

PubMed Central

A phenomenological approach explains the apparently unintelligible experiences of patients with schizophrenia as a disruption of the normal self-perception. Patients with schizophrenia suffer from a decline of “me,” the background core of their experiences. Normally tacit experiences intrude into the forefront of their attention, and the sense that inner-world experiences are private diminishes. These patients lose the sense that they are the origin of their thoughts and actions; their self-evident network of meanings and a solid foundation of life disintegrate. Subsequently, their experiential world is transformed, alienated, intruded, and fragmented. In this article, a phenomenological investigation of the self-experiences and actions of 4 patients with schizophrenia is presented.

de Vries, Rob; Postmes, Lot; Goedhart, Saskia; Sno, Herman N.; de Haan, Lieuwe

2013-01-01

49

A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

Waldrop, Grover L.

2009-01-01

50

Qualitative Approaches to Semantic Scene Modelling and Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the use of qualitative and spatially expressive semantic descriptions for image classification. In particular, it addresses the question of how a qualitative representation performs compared to a more quantitative one, using a semantic based symbolic approach. The approach is based on using different qualitative spatial representations applied to local semantic concepts such as grass, sky, water etc in a corpus of natural scenes images, to learn qualitative class descriptions and categorise them into one of six semantically meaningful classes such as coasts, forest etc. Three kinds of qualitative spatial relations, namely Allen's relations [1] applied on the vertical axis of images, chord representation [9] applied on segmented semantically labelled image regions, and relative size of semantic concepts in each image have been investigated. A number of well-known supervised learning techniques have been applied to determine their usefulness. It is shown that a purely qualitative representation can result into better image description and perform at the similar level or even slightly better, compared to an existing largely quantitative representation [20]. Such qualitative and spatially expressive descriptions may therefore have utility in semantic querying and image retrieval systems.

Qayyum, Zia Ul; Cohn, A. G.

51

A general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline of a general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis is described and details provided about the assumptions and procedures used. The purposes for using an inductive approach are to (1) to condense extensive and varied raw text data into a brief, summary format; (2) to establish clear links between the research objectives and the summary findings derived from

David R. Thomas

52

A phenomenological approach to simulating the evolution of radioactive-waste container damage due to pitting corrosion  

SciTech Connect

The damage to high-level radioactive-waste containers by pitting corrosion is an important design and performance assessment consideration. It is desirable to calculate the evolution of the pit depth distribution, not just the time required for initial penetration of the containers, so that the area available for advective of diffusive release of radionuclides through the container can be estimated. A phenomenological approach for computing the time evolution of these distributions is presented which combines elements of the deterministic and stochastic aspects of pit growth. The consistency of this approach with the mechanisms believed to control the evolution of the pit depth distribution is discussed. Qualitative comparisons of preliminary model predictions with a variety of experimental data from the literature are shown to be generally favorable. The sensitivity of the simulated distributions to changes in the input parameters is discussed. Finally, the results of the current model are compared to those of existing approaches based on extreme-value statistics, particularly regarding the extrapolation of laboratory data to large exposed surface areas.

Henshall, G.A.

1995-10-25

53

Care needs of pregnant women with a private health insurance: a comprehensive social phenomenology approach.  

PubMed

This study aimed to understand the meanings women who possess health plans hold regarding pregnancy and get to know their care needs in this phase of the vital cycle. It was based on the qualitative research of phenomenological inspiration. The discourses analysis was based on the sociologist and fenomenologist Alfred Schutz's thought. Having health plans and being attended in private institutions were defined as inclusion criteria. The following categories emerged from the discourses: having new responsibilities; experiencing a special situation; experiencing insecurity, anxiety and expectations; feeling limited; trusting the health professional. It was found, through the analysis of categories, that the experience of the pregnant women who participated in the study is similar to those who do not possess health plans. However, in the category "trusting the health professional" it was possible to perceive the importance of possessing health plan, which allows the intersubjectivity between the woman and the health professional. PMID:18157442

Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Rodrigues, Renata Tavares Franco; Domingos, Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca

54

Understanding the Coping Strategies of International Students: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international…

Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.

2011-01-01

55

Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was

Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö; Jukka Häkkinen; Göte Nyman

2007-01-01

56

A qualitative approach to investigating online strategic decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Companies operating on the internet need appropriate metrics to make strategic marketing decisions. This paper applies established qualitative research methods to the online environment to evaluate how web managers generate and incorporate web metrics to inform strategic marketing decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initial theories were developed using a comprehensive literature review as well as exploratory interviews with New Zealand

Birgit Weischedel; Sheelagh Matear; Kenneth R. Deans

2005-01-01

57

Children's understanding of television advertising: a qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper children's understanding of television advertising was explored using focus groups in a qualitative approach. None of the 6 year olds, a minority of the 8 year olds and by no means all of the 10 year olds were able to articulate an understanding of the persuasive nature of advertising. It was concluded that children's understanding of the

Caroline Oates; Mark Blades; Barrie Gunter; Jacquie Don

2003-01-01

58

Quantitative vs. qualitative approaches to the electronic structure of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of qualitative and quantitative theoretical approaches in solid state chemistry is discussed by considering three different types of problems: (a) the distribution of boron and carbon atoms in MB2C2 (M=Ca, La, etc.) phases, (b) the band structure and Fermi surface of low-dimensional transition metal oxides and bronzes, and (c) the correlation between the crystal and electronic structure of

Josep M. Oliva; Miquel Llunell; Pere Alemany; Enric Canadell

2003-01-01

59

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: Phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed.

Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Vekilov, Peter G.

2005-05-01

60

A semi-phenomenological approach to the transport and diffusion of small spherical macromolecules in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently derived expression [A. Uvarov, S. Fritzsche, Macromol. Theor. Simul. 13 (2004) 241] for the friction coefficient of macromolecules, which are immersed into a solution, is utilized in order to calculate their diffusion and boundary condition coefficients as function of the mass ratio of the molecules, relative to the mass of the solvent particles. The results from this semi-phenomenological theory are found to compare very well with molecular-dynamical simulations over a wide range of mass ratios and at quite different temperatures and viscosities of the solvent. Therefore, the use of this novel approach may help reduce considerably the costs in studying the dynamical behaviour and the transport properties of macromolecules in solution.

Uvarov, Alexander; Fritzsche, Stephan

2005-01-01

61

Investigating outpatient departments: implementable policies and qualitative approaches.  

PubMed

Modelling the operation of outpatient departments, with the aim of devising an appointment system that would reduce patient waiting time, was an early application area for O.R. Yet outpatients still spend an excessive amount of time waiting. This paper reports an investigation into the operation of outpatient departments. The attempt to arrive at a sensible policy is considered at length. It is concluded that the determination of an implementable policy, the education of participants into acceptance of that policy, and monitoring any policy once implemented are of paramount importance. The approach taken is briefly compared with qualitative and soft approaches. PMID:10272814

O'Keefe, R M

1985-08-01

62

a Phenomenological Approach to Normal Form Modeling: a Case Study in Laser Induced Nematodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setting for the polarimetric study of optically induced dynamical behavior in nematic liquid crystal films has allowed to identify most notably some behavior which was recognized as gluing bifurcations leading to chaos. This analysis of the data used a comparison with a model for the transition to chaos via gluing bifurcations in optically excited nematic liquid crystals previously proposed by G. Demeter and L. Kramer. The model of these last authors, proposed about twenty years before, does not have the central symmetry which one would expect for minimal dimensional models for chaos in nematics in view of the time series. What we show here is that the simplest truncated normal forms for gluing, with the appropriate symmetry and minimal dimension, do exhibit time signals that are embarrassingly similar to the ones found using the above mentioned experimental settings. The gluing bifurcation scenario itself is only visible in limited parameter ranges and substantial aspect of the chaos that can be observed is due to other factors. First, out of the immediate neighborhood of the homoclinic curve, nonlinearity can produce expansion leading to chaos when combined with the recurrence induced by the homoclinic behavior. Also, pairs of symmetric homoclinic orbits create extreme sensitivity to noise, so that when the noiseless approach contains a rich behavior, minute noise can transform the complex damping into sustained chaos. Leonid Shil'nikov taught us that combining global considerations and local spectral analysis near critical points is crucial to understand the phenomenology associated to homoclinic bifurcations. Here this helps us construct a phenomenological approach to modeling experiments in nonlinear dissipative contexts.

Toniolo, C.; Russo, G.; Residori, S.; Tresser, C.

2005-11-01

63

Excessive exercise: from quantitative categorisation to a qualitative continuum approach.  

PubMed

Researchers have yet to reach a consensus on the definition of excessive exercise, and many questions remain about the relationship between excessive exercise and eating disorders. Understanding of excessive exercise may be furthered by adoption of a broader, dimensional perspective. The current qualitative (grounded theory) study explored the continuum of women's exercise experiences, ranging from casual to more extreme regimens. Thirty-two women were interviewed, aged 16-77. Participants described stages in a continuum of exercise experiences. Overlaps were described between participant perceptions of 'normal' exercise, excessive exercise and exercise addiction. Excessive exercise and disturbed eating were described as arising from common concerns about the need to control the body, with exercise viewed as a more acceptable alternative to disturbed eating. The results provide support for a continuum approach to the understanding of excessive exercise, and highlight the utility of qualitative methods in this area. PMID:21584916

Johnston, Olwyn; Reilly, Jackie; Kremer, John

64

A phenomenological approach to modeling chemical dynamics in nonlinear and two-dimensional spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present an approach for calculating nonlinear spectroscopic observables, which overcomes the approximations inherent to current phenomenological models without requiring the computational cost of performing molecular dynamics simulations. The trajectory mapping method uses the semi-classical approximation to linear and nonlinear response functions, and calculates spectra from trajectories of the system's transition frequencies and transition dipole moments. It rests on identifying dynamical variables important to the problem, treating the dynamics of these variables stochastically, and then generating correlated trajectories of spectroscopic quantities by mapping from the dynamical variables. This approach allows one to describe non-Gaussian dynamics, correlated dynamics between variables of the system, and nonlinear relationships between spectroscopic variables of the system and the bath such as non-Condon effects. We illustrate the approach by applying it to three examples that are often not adequately treated by existing analytical models--the non-Condon effect in the nonlinear infrared spectra of water, non-Gaussian dynamics inherent to strongly hydrogen bonded systems, and chemical exchange processes in barrier crossing reactions. The methods described are generally applicable to nonlinear spectroscopy throughout the optical, infrared and terahertz regions. PMID:22482572

Ramasesha, Krupa; De Marco, Luigi; Horning, Andrew D; Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei

2012-04-01

65

A phenomenological approach to modeling chemical dynamics in nonlinear and two-dimensional spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for calculating nonlinear spectroscopic observables, which overcomes the approximations inherent to current phenomenological models without requiring the computational cost of performing molecular dynamics simulations. The trajectory mapping method uses the semi-classical approximation to linear and nonlinear response functions, and calculates spectra from trajectories of the system's transition frequencies and transition dipole moments. It rests on identifying dynamical variables important to the problem, treating the dynamics of these variables stochastically, and then generating correlated trajectories of spectroscopic quantities by mapping from the dynamical variables. This approach allows one to describe non-Gaussian dynamics, correlated dynamics between variables of the system, and nonlinear relationships between spectroscopic variables of the system and the bath such as non-Condon effects. We illustrate the approach by applying it to three examples that are often not adequately treated by existing analytical models - the non-Condon effect in the nonlinear infrared spectra of water, non-Gaussian dynamics inherent to strongly hydrogen bonded systems, and chemical exchange processes in barrier crossing reactions. The methods described are generally applicable to nonlinear spectroscopy throughout the optical, infrared and terahertz regions.

Ramasesha, Krupa; De Marco, Luigi; Horning, Andrew D.; Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei

2012-04-01

66

Analyzing large free-response qualitative data sets — a novel quantitative-qualitative hybrid approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative analysis tends to be unwieldy for large data sets yet is an indispensable tool for understanding how and why phenomena occur. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a method that is credible yet economical for large, specific, qualitative data sets. The strength of our hybrid, qualitative-quantitative method comes from using automated text analysis techniques to focus

Jennifer Light; Ken Yasuhara

2008-01-01

67

Phenomenology and Serial MurderAsking Different Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the study of motives of serial murderers using the method of empirical phenomenology. Departing from a traditional clinical approach in terms of diagnostic categorizations of serial killers and from a conventional descriptive study in which generic aspects of serial murder such as modus operandi are described and interpreted, a qualitative approach is presented as essential to a

CANDICE A. SKRAPEC

2001-01-01

68

Passive millimeter-wave imaging technology and phenomenology: a common denominator approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive imaging technology has been recognized and reduced to practice for sensing targets in the battlefield environment for several decades. Most imaging is done at optical and infrared wavelengths which require favorable weather conditions. This paper describes what is on the horizon for a new imaging technology 'passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging' that can operate in all weather conditions. It will introduce the reader to the unique world of PMMW imaging by describing the technical approach underway at the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Advanced Guidance Division, Eglin AFB, Florida. A PMMW analytical model has been developed and a data collection/phenomenology testbed is being built to validate this model. This will be a mobile test facility that will provide the needed ground truth for an Airborne PMMW Captive Flight Test program in the FY97/98 timeframe. The thrust of this analytical model is the treatment of theoretical equations that allow low altitude imaging in and out of the millimeter wave spectral 'window' frequencies. PMMW sensors at 35, 60 (non- window), and 95 GHz are being fabricated and will be collocated on the same platform to validate this model. This testbed will be the hardware used to begin a radiometric imaging program that will serve not only military needs for advanced munition sensor development, but commercial and academic endeavors as well.

Smith, Roger M.; Trott, Keith D.; Ewen, Doc

1995-10-01

69

Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan

2010-01-01

70

Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative research procedures in North America. The choice points and alternatives in phenomenological research in psychology are delineated.

Frederick J. Wertz

2005-01-01

71

The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

2009-01-01

72

Collaborative Approaches to Complementing Qualitative Preferences of Agents for Effective Service Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete preferences of agents may render service selection ineffective. We address this problem by proposing a set of collaborative approaches to complementing agents' incomplete preferences in a qualitative way. For an agent, the approaches first find its similar agents, and then base the similar agents' qualitative preferences to complement this agent's missing preferences. We analyze and compare these approaches and

Hongbing Wang; Jie Zhang; Yangyu Tang; Shizhi Shao

2011-01-01

73

Attitudes toward Infection Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background The risks and benefits of infection prophylaxis are uncertain in children with cancer and thus, preferences should be considered in decision making. The purpose of this report was to describe the attitudes of parents, children and healthcare professionals to infection prophylaxis in pediatric oncology. Methods The study was completed in three phases: 1) An initial qualitative pilot to identify the main attributes influencing the decision to use infection prophylaxis, which were then incorporated into a discrete choice experiment; 2) A think aloud during the discrete choice experiment in which preferences for infection prophylaxis were elicited quantitatively; and 3) In-depth follow up interviews. Interviews were recorded verbatim and analyzed using an iterative, thematic analysis. Final themes were selected using a consensus approach. Results A total of 35 parents, 22 children and 28 healthcare professionals participated. All three groups suggested that the most important factor influencing their decision making was the effect of prophylaxis on reducing the chance of death. Themes of importance to the three groups included antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medications, the financial impact of outpatient prophylaxis and the route and schedule of administration. Conclusion Effect of prophylaxis on risk of death was a key factor in decision making. Other identified factors were antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medication, financial impact and administration details. Better understanding of factors driving decision making for infection prophylaxis will help facilitate future implementation of prophylactic regiments.

Diorio, Caroline; Tomlinson, Deborah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Regier, Dean A.; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

2012-01-01

74

Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

75

Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics is commonly associated with the use of quantitative methods, and because of this, supposedly, the discipline is more “rigorous” than other social sciences, which are in turn associated with the application of qualitative methods, presumed to be less rigorous. This paper challenges these assumptions and argues that the more serious distinction, which applies both to quantitative and to qualitative

Howard White

2002-01-01

76

Qualitative approach to performance evaluation of passive solar residences  

SciTech Connect

Passive and hybrid systems performance evaluation is being undertaken nationally to support both system development and market development data and information needs through a coordinated program of both quantitative and qualitative research. This paper will focus on the more qualitative effort: the collection of non-instrumented data from passive solar residences. This qualitative performance evaluation will provide data on the overall energy use of passive/hybrid buildings. It will also provide non-instrumented data relevant to thermal performance, reliability, durability, safety, cost, and user acceptance.

Sachs, B. (Memphremagog Group, Newport, VT); Towle, S.

1980-01-01

77

Phenomenological approach on wave propagation in dielectric media with two relaxation times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper dielectric phenomena with two relaxation times are discussed. By assuming a sinusoidal form for induction vector D a sinusoidal electric field is generated and it depends on unknown phenomenological coefficients whose expressions together to their numerical values as functions of frequency are obtained. Moreover, electromagnetic wave propagation is analysed obtaining wave vector as function of the aforementioned coefficients. The results are applied to a Vinylidene Chloride-Vinyl Chloride (VDC-VC) to test the applicability of the model.

Ciancio, V.; Farsaci, F.; Rogolino, P.

2009-02-01

78

Interpretive qualitative synthesis in the sport & exercise sciences: The meta-interpretation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the interpretive synthesis of qualitative research in the sport and exercise sciences. The paper discusses the “meta-interpretation” approach which attempts to maintain an interpretive epistemology congruent with the majority of primary qualitative research. The paper reviews and evaluates eight research methods or approaches that include some form of synthesis and that are

Mike Weed

2006-01-01

79

Lesbians with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Study of Their Experiences with Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors interviewed 25 lesbians with physical disabilities about their counseling experiences. Using a phenomenological qualitative approach, the authors identified 9 themes. Five themes addressed participants' perceptions of their counselors: general satisfaction or dissatisfaction, counselors' general effectiveness, counselors' awareness and…

Hunt, Brandon; Matthews, Connie; Milsom, Amy; Lammel, Julie A.

2006-01-01

80

Sense of self-determination and the suicidal experience. A phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

In this paper phenomenological descriptions of the experiential structures of suicidality and of self-determined behaviour are given; an understanding of the possible scopes and forms of lived self-determination in suicidal mental life is offered. Two possible limits of lived self-determination are described: suicide is always experienced as minimally self-determined, because it is the last active and effective behaviour, even in blackest despair; suicide can never be experienced as fully self-determined, even if valued as the authentic thing to do, because no retrospective re-evaluation from some future vantage is possible. The phenomenological descriptions of the possible scope of lived self-determination in suicidality, presented in this paper, should prove to be extremely helpful in three different fields of interest: (a) ethical debates regarding the pros and cons of autonomous or heteronomous suicide; (b) clinical day-to-day practice with respect to treating suicidal people; (c) people who suffered a suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or lost loved ones through suicides. (155 words). PMID:22042597

Schlimme, Jann E

2013-05-01

81

Constrained interpolation and qualitative information-the soft kriging approach  

SciTech Connect

Traditional interpolation algorithms, including krigings, do not account for inequality-type data less subjective qualitative information. Soft kriging formalism allows a coding of both hard data and constraint intervals as prior Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFS) which are interpolated into posterior CDFS. Non-Gaussian confidence intervals and various ''optimal'' estimates then are derived. A synthetic case study is presented.

Journel, A.G.

1986-04-01

82

Constrained interpolation and qualitative information—The soft kriging approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional interpolation algorithms, including krigings, do not account for inequality-type data less subjective qualitative information. Soft kriging formalism allows a coding of both hard data and constraint intervals as prior cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) which are interpolated into posterior cdfs. Non-Gaussian confidence intervals and various optimal estimates then are derived. A synthetic case study is presented.

A. G. Journel

1986-01-01

83

A Qualitative Comparative Approach to Latin American Revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much qualitative analysis does not employ careful causal inference, and the quantitative alternative cannot be applied successfully where there are few cases, as in the study of social revolution. I apply Boolean algebra to 28 Latin American national cases since 1956, to explain the revolutionary successes in Cuba and Nicaragua and the failures or absence of revolution elsewhere. I reject

Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley

1991-01-01

84

District Partnership Approach to Inclusion: A Qualitative Evaluation of Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph reports on a qualitative evaluation of the Together We're Better (TWB) program, an effort in Minnesota to develop an inclusive, positive, supportive educational system. The TWB project focused on: (1) general education/special education collaboration within the state department of education; (2) district partnerships; (3) personnel…

Thurlow, Martha; Vandercook, Terri; Kraljic, Mary McDevitt; Medwetz, Laura; Nelson, Marilyn; Sauer, John; Walz, Lynn

85

Phenomenology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phenomenology Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison pursues "a broad range of research in particle physics theory and phenomenology." At this website, users can view concise summaries of its many focuses including in neutrino physics, string theory and extra dimensions, and electroweak physics. Visitors can find links to the homepages of many of the researchers involved with the Institute. The website features the upcoming and past events held by the Institute such as the Pheno Symposiums. Individuals can examine abstracts and compressed postscripts of the phenomenology preprints since 1994 as well as articles about the newest issues in phenomenology written for the popular press.

86

Teaching electric circuits with multiple batteries: A qualitative approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated preservice science teachersâ qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use reasoning based on current and resistance where reasoning based on voltage is a necessity. We also found that problems such as thinking of the battery as a source of constant current resurfaced in this new context, and that answers given were inconsistent with current conservation. We describe the curriculum we developed that enables students to model circuits with multiple batteries qualitatively. Post-test results show that the majority of students were able to apply their newly developed model to make accurate predictions for complex circuits.

Smith, David P.; Van Kampen, Paul

2012-05-21

87

Some semi-phenomenological approaches to description of microcrack formation in solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some semi-phenomenological models of crack formation in solids under homogenous stress field are considered. It is shown that microcracks (MCRs) of typical lengths L

Ignatyuk, V.

2009-12-01

88

Qualitative and quantitative approaches to the diagnosis of plant faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecturally relevant issues which arise in the development of both qualitative and quantitative fault-diagnostic systems are discussed, and the technical issues of acquiring the knowledge and using it effectively are addressed. A direct comparison is drawn between the performances of both fault-detection systems while detecting the same fault on a laboratory test rig. It is concluded that fault-diagnostic systems

A. H. Jones; B. Porter; R. N. Fripp

1988-01-01

89

Qualitative Research Applications in Athletic Training  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. Background: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. Description: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. Applications: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used.

Pitney, William A.; Parker, Jenny

2002-01-01

90

Phenomenological approach to the non-spin-wave behavior of cuprate magnetic susceptibility in the superconducting state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on the non-spin-wave behavior of the cuprate magnetic susceptibility ?( q, ?) in the superconducting state are reconstructed on the basis of a spherically symmetric self-consistent approach within the framework of the frustrated Heisenberg model. For the Green’s function of the spin-wave excitations, a polarization operator resonant with the superconducting state is introduced phenomenologically. This gives rise to an additional (compared to the normal state) branch of the incommensurate peaks and to a pronounced non-spin-wave behavior of the susceptibility ?( q, ?) in the frequency range near 80 meV (the so-called “dark region”). The renormalization of the real part of the polarization operator plays a crucial role in the theory.

Barabanov, A. F.; Maksimov, L. A.

2008-06-01

91

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approaches to Quality Special Education Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One in a series of issue papers commissioned by the Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE), this document presents a comparison of contemporary evaluation approaches for special education programs. The first section describes the two approaches to be compared: (1) traditional scientific inquiry which emphasizes quantitative…

Council of Administrators of Special Education, Inc.

92

Greek intensive and emergency care nurses' perception of their public image: a phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

The public image of the nurse constitutes an important factor for recruitment into the profession, retention, and also for work satisfaction. The aim of this qualitative study was to disclose the way nurses internalize their professional public image and professional worth, as well as nurses' feelings about that image. Findings showed that although nurses have made a tremendous effort to improve the public image of their profession, negative nursing stereotypes still persist. Therefore, nurses have to actively participate in policy making and enhance their educational and cultural profile through the media. PMID:21307691

Karanikola, Maria N K; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E; Nicolaou, Christiana; Koutroubas, Anna; Lemonidou, Chrysoula

93

Exploring why girls smoke in Malaysia--a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media. PMID:19533855

Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Binns, Colin W

2008-10-01

94

Understanding factors influencing Latina women's screening behavior: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand influential factors associated with decisions to obtain breast or cervical cancer screening by diverse Latinas after attending a community-based educational program. Forty-five interviews were conducted in Arkansas, New York City and Buffalo, New York. Thematic data analyses were conducted to understand influential factors following from the intervention. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: Social Capital, Screening Utilization, Health Care Provider (HCP) Communication and Social Networks. Social Capital included resources, access or screening knowledge women had prior to participation in the program and new resources and contacts gained through the program that influenced care seeking. Screening Utilization factors included past health experiences and participation in the program. HCP Communication included perceptions of quality of care and communication issues with HCPs that positively and negatively impacted screening. Social Networks included women's networks regarding emotional support, encouragement to discuss health issues, overall family network and how these may influence health-seeking behaviors. These findings suggest that participating in group-based health outreach programs empowered women by increasing their knowledge and awareness about the health care system and enabled them, with the tools provided, to become proactive in their health care-seeking behaviors. PMID:23131588

Torres, Essie; Erwin, Deborah O; Treviño, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina

2012-11-05

95

Physicians' Approaches to Recommending Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Little is known about strategies that physicians use to encourage receipt of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). This study conducted focus groups with physicians. Twenty-seven physicians participated in four focus groups. Physicians described four categories of approaches: (1) why screening is important, (2) providing test information, (3) motivational strategies, and (4) tailoring strategies. Participants reported tailoring based on their relationship with a patient, as well as to patient gender, education, and language. Tailoring to cultural background or ethnicity was not prominent. Most physicians reported a typical approach to CRCS and reported some tailoring based on gender, education, and language, but not on ethnicity.

Karliner, Leah; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pham, Linda A.; Pasick, Rena

2010-01-01

96

Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

2011-01-01

97

Exploring the benefits of a subjective approach in qualitative nursing research.  

PubMed

The increasing credibility of qualitative approaches for research in nursing has opened up new debates about methodology and rigour. Traditionally, qualitative methods have been scrutinized using some criteria that are more pertinent for quantitative research. The transition to a more subjective, reflexive approach to nursing research may be painful, but brings benefits. With the loss of scientific rigour comes the gain of eliciting true meaning, by recreating the experiences of others through co-operative enquiry. An openly subjective approach allows the researcher to be a real partner with informants, and to openly use her own experiences and reflections in order to uncover valuable meaning and to find a different type of objectivity. This paper explores some of the issues that are of concern and some of the benefits that may result from an openly subjective approach in qualitative nursing research. PMID:7963043

Schutz, S E

1994-09-01

98

Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

2011-01-01

99

An integrated approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis in the study of identity in speeches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity is usually analysed by focusing on a single case and scrutinizing relevant text fragments. This approach rules out the possibility of doing research on larger corpora, such as my corpus of 40 speeches. To this end, an integrated approach of both quantitative and qualitative analysis is proposed here. For the quantitative method, pronouns were selected as markers of the

Dorien Van De Mieroop

2005-01-01

100

Conditional Doxastic Models: A Qualitative Approach to Dynamic Belief Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a semantical approach to multi-agent belief revision and belief update. For this, we introduce relational structures called conditional doxastic models (CDM's, for short). We show this setting to be equivalent to an epistemic version of the classical AGM Belief Revision theory. We present a logic of conditional beliefs that is complete w.r.t. CDM's. Moving then

Alexandru Baltag; Sonja Smets

2006-01-01

101

A phenomenological framework for psychiatric nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a framework developed to support phenomenological research within the context of psychiatric nursing. Phenomenology involves the construction of social reality from the perspectives of those living within a situation. This research approach is of value to psychiatric nurses because of the essence of their practice and the unique nature of their clients' realities. Developing a phenomenological approach

Carol Stubblefield; Ruth L. Murray

2002-01-01

102

Phenomenological nursing research: methodological insights derived from Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilised as the method structure for nursing research studies. However, the nursing literature is beginning to reflect a concern with nurse researchers’ adoption of phenomenological methods without, at the same time, laying the philosophical and methodological foundations on which the method is built. It is important for nursing knowledge development through research that the

Sandra Mackey

2005-01-01

103

Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

2013-01-01

104

A phenomenological study of women's experiences of complicated childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to describe women's experiences of a complicated childbirth.Design: a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected by tape-recorded interviews.Setting: Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden in 1995.Participants: 10 women, eight primiparous and two multiparous, who were interviewed two to five days post delivery.Key findings: the essential meaning of women's experiences of complicated childbirth is the desire to be

Marie Berg; Karin Dahlberg

1998-01-01

105

A phenomenological approach to modelling collective cell movement in 2D.  

PubMed

There are two main approaches to unraveling the mechanisms involved in the regulation of collective cell movement. On the one hand, "in vitro" tests try to represent "in vivo" conditions. On the other hand, "in silico" tests aim to model this movement through the use of complex numerically implemented mathematical methods. This paper presents a simple cell-based mathematical model to represent the collective movement phenomena. This approach is used to better understand the different interactive forces which guide cell movement, focusing mainly on the role of the cell propulsion force with the substrate. Different applications are simulated for 2D cell cultures, wound healing, and collective cell movement in substrates with different degrees of stiffness. The model provides a plausible explanation of how cells work together in order to regulate their movement, showing the significant influence of the propulsive force exerted by the cell to the substrate on guiding the collective cell movement and its interplay with other cell forces. PMID:23277411

Rey, R; García-Aznar, J M

2013-01-01

106

Daughter's Perceptions of Being Mothered by an Incest Survivor: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of the experience of being the daughter of an incest survivor using a phenomenological approach to the narratives of six women. The majority of the daughters identified a number of effects of their mother's abuse that they perceived as harmful as a child and that lasted into adulthood. Most perceived their

Peggy Funk Voth; Leslie M. Tutty

1999-01-01

107

Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: a qualitative approach1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To provide further information regarding factors associated with students' intrinsic motivation in physical education using a qualitative approach. Design and Methods. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with secondary physical education students who were selected from a pool of 254 students on the basis of their score on relevant question- naires. Results. Analyses of interview transcripts revealed that factors associated

Maria Hassandra; Marios Goudas; Stiliani Chroni

108

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

109

Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this introductory text addresses media and communication research methods. Written for beginning research students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples. Attention-grabbing dialogue begins each chapter and gives…

Berger, Arthur Asa

110

Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this introductory text addresses media and communication research methods. Written for beginning research students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples. Attention-grabbing dialogue begins each chapter and gives…

Berger, Arthur Asa

111

A fuzzy-logic-based approach to qualitative safety modelling for marine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment based on conventional tools (e.g. probability risk assessment (PRA)) may not be well suited for dealing with systems having a high level of uncertainty, particularly in the feasibility and concept design stages of a maritime or offshore system. By contrast, a safety model using fuzzy logic approach employing fuzzy IF–THEN rules can model the qualitative aspects of human

How Sing Sii; Tom Ruxton; Jin Wang

2001-01-01

112

Arts and Humanities General Education Assessment: A Qualitative Approach to Developing Program Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A critical stage of the assessment process is the development of learning objectives. In this study, learning outcomes for general education in the arts and humanities were identified through content analysis with thematic networks. The findings provide additional support for qualitative approaches in developing program-level learning objectives.…

Joe, Jilliam N.; Harmes, J. Christine; Barry, Carol L.

2008-01-01

113

A phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing.  

PubMed

Phenomenology and perceptual psychology opens up the essential meanings of hypnosis by presenting a qualitative method as an alternative to the current predominant quantitative method in the study of hypnosis. Scales that measure susceptibility from behavioral and cognitive aspects abound in the hypnosis literature, but understanding the structure of hypnotic experiencing is yet to come. A new qualitative approach to researching hypnotic experiencing by combining aspects of phenomenological research as in work of Giorgi, Moustakas, and Wertz, familiarity with Husserl's philosophy, and a perceptual psychological research method (cf. work by Combs, Richards, & Richards and by Wasicsko). The author utilized this combined methodology to formulate the theory of Perceptually Oriented Hypnosis. This methodology enables the therapist or professional and patient or client to share benefits from the effects of their hypnotic experiencing in its intersubjective sense. This method can be applied in numerous life situations such as teaching and therapy in addition to the experimental situation. PMID:15666925

Woodard, Fredrick James

2004-12-01

114

A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

2009-01-01

115

Gifted Dropouts: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative phenomenological study of the life experiences of seven rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school investigated whether they shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that no one had asked them to share their stories prior to this study. By searching for meaning in their…

Zabloski, James

2010-01-01

116

Reversible Relationship between Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Self-Consciousness Research: A Normative Semiotic Model for the Phenomenological Dialogue between Data and Capta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore modes of integration of quantitative and qualitative data to verify existence of psychological constructs. Data obtained with a Likert-type rating scale and with narrative accounts of significant life-events were compared and integrated via logical analysis to examine the psychological construct of self-consciousness. Undergraduates between 17 and 32 years of age (78 females and

Mariane L. De Souza; William B. Gomes; Sherri McCarthy

2005-01-01

117

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.

2011-01-01

118

A Qualitative Study of Educator Experiences in a Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative research study used a phenomenological approach to examine educators' experiences in the virtual world of Second Life[TM]. The rationale for this study's focus on educators using a virtual world stems from an interest in the factors that influence educational practices in virtual worlds. The researcher conducted focus groups…

Dutton, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

119

Combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies in logistics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of logistics research is primarily populated by quantitative research viewed through a positivist lens. Increasingly, there are calls for logistics research to more frequently employ qualitative methodologies. The trend in management research generally is increasingly to use methods and approaches which provide a middle ground between the contrasting positivist and phenomenological paradigms and perspectives. Methodological triangulation, using quantitative

John Mangan; Chandra Lalwani; Bernard Gardner

2004-01-01

120

A Phenomenological, Evaluative Approach to Developing Ecology Virtual Field Trips for Undergraduate, Non-Major College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips are an important source of support for the ecology curriculum. Virtual field trips (VFTs) may provide a similar experience, but limited research existed on the specific format of a VFT that would support its use to replace the actual ecology field trip (PFT). In attempting to delineate potential design considerations for the VFT, this study employed a phenomenological approach to elicit participant input on design considerations for the ecology VFT. The study focused on narration, text, still and video images, and instructor participation in the VFT. Undergraduate, non-major biology students comprised the study population. Two surveys instruments were used to gather information on VFT design from participants: an initial attitudinal survey and an expanded survey. The initial participant group of 30 individuals viewed ecology VFTs designed for the study and completed the initial survey, after which a focus group was formed to complete the expanded survey. Using information contained in the surveys, 18 unique themes were then developed from the perspectives and narratives provided by participants. Initial themes that emerged during analysis suggested that the VFT be instructor designed and that the instructor should actively participate in the VFT media. It was found that having the instructor participate in the VFT, both in the design and in the media presentation itself, was considered essential by the students. Participant developed themes suggested emphasizing the perceived strengths of the individual media components by combining media components to increases the effectiveness of the VFT and remediate individual component weaknesses. Each individual component was seen to provide a specific cognitive function within the VFT and all were seen as necessary to include in the VFT. However, the studied components increased the effectiveness of the VFT only if used with reference to those specific design considerations suggested by participant input. The results of this study found that incorporating these themes into ecology VFTs would increase the effectiveness of this teaching modality. Future inquiry should be directed toward defining those instructor attributes that are essential to their successful participation in the VFT and researching potential expansion of this model to other subject areas.

Wallis, James A., II

121

Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions.

Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

2011-01-01

122

Qualitative Research Applications in Athletic Training.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. BACKGROUND: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. DESCRIPTION: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. APPLICATIONS: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540

Pitney, William A; Parker, Jenny

2002-12-01

123

Qualitative Investigations into Schools and Schooling. Volume 11, Readings on Equal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qualitative approaches in educational research are challenging traditional postivistic, psychometric paradigms by emphasizing: (1) close contact over detachment; (2) multiple techniques in obtaining data; (3) bottom-up inductive frameworks; and (4) phenomenological approaches. Section 1, "Ethnographic Investigations into High Schools," includes…

Foster, Michele, Ed.

124

Accounting for sustainability : Implementing a residential emissions reduction strategy using an approach that combines qualitative and quantitative “indicators” of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain and demonstrate the importance and usefulness of mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches in participatory residential sustainability policy and practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach uses a theoretical model, developed through engagements with cultural and political sociology, to inform participatory engagement in selecting “indicators” of urban residential sustainability. Findings – If they

Andy Scerri

2010-01-01

125

Foot orthoses for the management of low back pain: a qualitative approach capturing the patient's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The onset of non specific low back pain is associated with heavy lifting, age, female gender, and poor general health, with psychological factors being predictors of it becoming chronic. Additionally, it is thought that altered lower limb biomechanics are a contributory factor, with foot orthoses increasingly being considered as an appropriate intervention by physiotherapists and podiatrists. However, research into the effect of foot orthoses is inconclusive, primarily focusing on the biomechanical effect and not the symptomatic relief from the patient’s perspective. The aim of this study was to explore the breadth of patients’ experiences of being provided with foot orthoses and to evaluate any changes in their back pain following this experience. Method Following ethical approval, participants (n?=?25) with non-specific low back pain associated with altered lower limb biomechanics were provided with customised foot orthoses. At 16 weeks after being provided with the foot orthoses, conversational style interviews were carried out with each patient. An interpretivistic phenomenological approach was adopted for the data collection and analysis. Results For these participants, foot orthoses appeared to be effective. However, the main influence on this outcome was the consultation process and a patient focussed approach. The consultation was an opportunity for fostering mutual understanding, with verbal and visual explanation reassuring the patient and this influenced the patient’s beliefs, their engagement with the foot orthoses (physical) and their experience of low back pain (psychological). Conclusion Clinicians need to adopt ‘psychologically informed practice’ in relation to the provision of foot orthoses. Likewise, researchers should consider all the influencing factors found in this study, both in relation to their study protocol and the outcomes they plan to measure.

2013-01-01

126

Approaches, Techniques, and Information Technology Systems in the Restaurants and Foodservice Industry: A Qualitative Study in Sales Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study about the approaches, techniques, and information technology systems utilized for restaurant sales forecasting in the full-service restaurant segment. Companies were examined using a qualitative research methods design and long interviews to gather information on approaches, techniques, and technology systems utilized in the sales-forecasting process. The results of the interviews were presented along with ensuing discussion. Major

Yvette N. J. Green; Pamela A. Weaver

2008-01-01

127

Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned. PMID:23925405

Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim

2013-08-07

128

Participation and influence of migrant workers on working conditions: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

Workers participation in the management of employment and working conditions is an important determinant of both positive and negative effects of work on human health. Through a qualitative approach, this study analyzes the degree of control and influence that migrant workers in different Spanish cities have over their own working conditions (Immigration, Work, and Health [ITSAL] Project). Results showed that migrant workers had little influence on employment and working conditions. Immigrant workers are mostly interested in issues such as salaries, hiring, and hours of work. Fear of dismissal makes immigrant workers reluctant to demand improved working conditions. We received limited information about immigrant workers' understanding of their rights and their perceptions of the possibilities to influence working conditions through trade union activity. Informal social networks play an essential role in disseminating information on workers' rights, although the effect is not always positive. Unions need to increase attention to and adapt measures for this particularly vulnerable group of workers. PMID:20621886

López-Jacob, María J; Safont, Eva Canaleta; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

2010-01-01

129

'Stories' or 'snapshots'? A study directed at comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches to curriculum evaluation.  

PubMed

The focus of this paper is a study designed to explore the validity of quantitative approaches of student evaluation in a pre-registration degree programme. As managers of the students' education we were concerned that the quantitative method, which used lecturer criteria, may not fully represent students' views. The approach taken is that of a process-type strategy for curriculum evaluation as described by Parlett and Hamilton (1972). The aim of the study is to produce illuminative data, or students' 'stories' of their educational experiences through use of semi-structured interviews. The results are then compared to the current quantitative measurement tools designed to obtain 'snapshots' of the educational effectiveness of the curriculum. The quantitative measurement tools use Likert scale measurements of teacher-devised criterion statements. The results of the study give a rich source of qualitative data which can be used to inform future curriculum development. However, complete validation of the current quantitative instruments used was not achieved in this study. Student and teacher agendas in respect of important issues pertaining to the course programme were found to differ. Limitations of the study are given. There is discussion of the options open to the management team with regard to future development of curriculum evaluation systems. PMID:10222972

Pateman, B; Jinks, A M

1999-01-01

130

What is a “good outcome” in psychotherapy? A qualitative exploration of former patients' point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore how former psychotherapy patients characterize “good outcome” after having completed treatment that they described as successful, in the sense that therapy had changed their lives in ways that made a difference. Semistructured qualitative depth interviews were conducted with 10 former psychotherapy patients. A hermeneutical-phenomenological approach was used to analyse interview transcripts. The

Per-Einar Binder; Helge Holgersen; Geir Høstmark Nielsen

2010-01-01

131

Generalized Coupled-Mode Approach of Metamaterial Coupled-Line Couplers: Coupling Theory, Phenomenological Explanation, and Experimental Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized coupled-mode approach of metamaterial coupled-line couplers is presented. This approach is an extension of the traditional coupled-mode theory (CMT) to the cases of arbitrary types of conventional or metamaterial couplers with lines represented by the most general composite right\\/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line models. The proposed approach is completely rigorous and applicable to any type of coupler, symmetric or

Hoang Van Nguyen; Christophe Caloz

2007-01-01

132

Phenomenology and Sports Psychology: Back To The Things Themselves!  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the increasing interest in the use of phenomenological methods in sport psychology could help rescue research in this area from its current obsession with measurement and prediction. Phenomenology proceeds from a very different set of philosophical assumptions from the natural science approach that underlies most research and practice in sport psychology. Phenomenology insists that psychology should

Mark Nesti

2011-01-01

133

A qualitative assessment of a community pharmacy cognitive pharmaceutical services program, using a work system approach  

PubMed Central

Background Although lack of time, trained personnel, and reimbursement have been identified as barriers to pharmacists providing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) in community pharmacies, the underlying contributing factors of these barriers have not been explored. One approach to better understand barriers and facilitators to providing CPS is to use a work system approach to examine different components of a work system and how the components may impact care processes. Objectives The goals of this study were to identify and describe pharmacy work system characteristics that pharmacists identified and changed to provide CPS in a demonstration program. Methods A qualitative approach was used for data collection. A purposive sample of 8 pharmacists at 6 community pharmacies participating in a demonstration program was selected to be interviewed. Each semistructured interview was audio recorded and transcribed, and the text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner by 3 analysts. Themes were identified in the text and aligned with 1 of 5 components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system model (organization, tasks, tools/technology, people, and environment). Results A total of 21 themes were identified from the interviews, and 7 themes were identified across all 6 interviews. The organization component of the SEIPS model contained the most (n = 10) themes. Numerous factors within a pharmacy work system appear important to enable pharmacists to provide CPS. Leadership and foresight by the organization to implement processes (communication, coordination, planning, etc.) to facilitate providing CPS was a key finding across the interviews. Expanding technician responsibilities was reported to be essential for successfully implementing CPS. Conclusions To be successful in providing CPS, pharmacists must be cognizant of the different components of the pharmacy work system and how these components influence providing CPS.

Chui, Michelle A.; Mott, David A.; Maxwell, Leigh

2012-01-01

134

Critical care physicians' approaches to negotiating with surrogate decision makers: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe how critical care physicians manage conflicts with surrogates about withdrawing or withholding patients’ life support. Design Qualitative analysis of key informant interviews with critical care physicians during 2010. We transcribed interviews verbatim and used grounded theory to code and revise a taxonomy of themes and to identify illustrative quotes. Setting 3 academic medical centers, 1 academic-affiliated medical center and 4 private practice groups or private hospitals in a large Midwestern city Subjects 14 critical care physicians Measurements and main results Physicians reported tailoring their approach to address specific reasons for disagreement with surrogates. Five common approaches were identified: (1) building trust, (2) educating and informing, (3) providing surrogates more time, (4) adjusting surrogate and physician roles, and (5) highlighting specific values. When mistrust was an issue, physicians endeavored to build a more trusting relationship with the surrogate before re-addressing decision making. Physicians also reported correcting misunderstandings by providing targeted education, and some reported highlighting specific patient, surrogate, or physician values that they hoped would guide surrogates to agree with them. When surrogates struggled with decision making roles, physicians attempted to reinforce the concept of substituted judgment. Physicians noted that some surrogates needed time to “come to terms” with the patent’s illness before agreeing with physicians. Many physicians had witnessed colleagues negotiate in ways they found objectionable, such as providing misleading information, injecting their own values into the negotiation, or behaving unprofessionally towards surrogates. While some physicians viewed their efforts to encourage surrogates’ agreement as persuasive, others strongly denied persuading surrogates and described their actions as “guiding” or “negotiating.” Conclusions Physicians reported using a tailored approach to resolve decisional conflicts about life support; and attempted to change surrogates’ decisions in accordance with what the physician thought was in the patients’ best interests. While physicians acknowledged their efforts to change surrogate’s decisions, many physicians did not perceive these as persuasive.

Brush, David R.; Brown, Crystal E.; Alexander, G. Caleb

2013-01-01

135

A Phenomenological Investigation of "Good" Supervision Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the experience of "good" supervision events from the perspective of supervisees using a qualitative phenomenological research methodology. Eight intermediate-level to advanced-level trainees participated in a tape-recorded interview in which they described a recent good supervision experience, yielding transcripts that were subjected to a…

Worthen, Vaughn; McNeill, Brian W.

1996-01-01

136

When expressions make impressions--Nurses' narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding  

PubMed Central

Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses’ lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs’ lived experience of patients’ expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: “Sensing vulnerability” and “Empathizing with.” The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, “Feeling exceptional” and “Being trusted.” The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, “Being disappointed” and “Being angry.” The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: “Being generous or reserved.” Patients’ expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role.

Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

2013-01-01

137

When expressions make impressions-Nurses' narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding.  

PubMed

Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses' lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs' lived experience of patients' expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: "Sensing vulnerability" and "Empathizing with." The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, "Feeling exceptional" and "Being trusted." The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, "Being disappointed" and "Being angry." The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: "Being generous or reserved." Patients' expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role. PMID:24138930

Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

2013-10-17

138

A qualitative approach to signal mining in pharmacovigilance using formal concept analysis.  

PubMed

"Pharmacovigilance is the process and science of monitoring the safety of medicines, consisting in (i) collecting and managing data on the safety of medicines (ii) looking at the data to detect 'signals' (any new or changing safety issue)" [1]. Pharmacovigilance is mainly based on spontaneous reports: when suspecting an adverse drug reaction, health care practitioners send a report to a spontaneous reporting system (SRS). This produces huge databases containing numerous reports and their manual exploration is both cost and time prohibitive. Existing techniques that automatically extract relevant signals rely on statistics or Bayesian models but do not provide information to the experts about possible biases lying in the data, nor about the specificity of a signal to a particular patient profile. Our extraction method combines numerical methods from the state of the art with a qualitative approach that helps interpretation. We build a synthetic representation of the database that is used to (i) identify unexpected patterns and biases (ii) extract potentially relevant signals w.r.t. patient profiles (iii) provide traceability facilities between extracted signals and raw data. PMID:20841828

Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Toussaint, Yannick; Villerd, Jean

2010-01-01

139

Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru.

2012-01-01

140

A simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are highly susceptible to landslides. Following recent landslide incidents, Jarðfeingi (Faroese Earth and Energy Directorate) has pointed out, that the risk of human lives or of property being lost or affected by landslides may be increasing. This paper aims at presenting and testing a simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands, using few key parameters. The susceptibility model holds information about both landslide initiation areas and runout zones. Landslide initiation areas are determined from slope angle thresholds (25°-40°) and soil cover data, while runout zones are delineated using the angle of reach approach taking into account the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path, which has not been considered in earlier studies. Data input is obtained from a landslide database containing 67 debris flows throughout the Faroe Islands. Angle of reach values differ significantly with the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path. Two values of angle of reach, 21.5° and 27.6°, are used for calculating runout zones. The landslide susceptibility model is tested in a study area at the town of Klaksvík in the northern part of the Faroe Islands. A map validation comparing predicted susceptibility zones with a validation-dataset of 87 actual landslides in the study area reveal that 69% and 92%, respectively, of actual landslide initiation areas and runout zones are correctly predicted. Moreover 87% of the actual landslides are included in the overall predicted landslide susceptibility areas.

Dahl, M.-P. J.; Mortensen, L. E.; Veihe, A.; Jensen, N. H.

2010-02-01

141

Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

Van Duzer, Eric

2012-01-01

142

Documents of learning: graduate students’ experiences of tensions when studying qualitative data analysis approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reflective article discusses the learning processes and experiences associated with qualitative data analysis as presented in students’ reflection journals. Fourteen doctoral students in a qualitative data analysis course shared their reflective journals with the research team. Data analysis included: (1) analysis of tension type and contexts; and (2) critical discourse analysis of students’ texts. The data illustrated various types

Mirka Koro-Ljungberg; David Cavalleri; Hannah Covert; Tinelle Bustam

2012-01-01

143

Documents of learning: graduate students’ experiences of tensions when studying qualitative data analysis approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reflective article discusses the learning processes and experiences associated with qualitative data analysis as presented in students’ reflection journals. Fourteen doctoral students in a qualitative data analysis course shared their reflective journals with the research team. Data analysis included: (1) analysis of tension type and contexts; and (2) critical discourse analysis of students’ texts. The data illustrated various types

Mirka Koro-Ljungberg; David Cavalleri; Hannah Covert; Tinelle Bustam

2011-01-01

144

A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

145

[Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].  

PubMed

The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity. PMID:23035337

Laflamme, Simon

2012-05-01

146

Phenomenology and Metaphysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What is the relation between phenomenology and metaphysics? Is phenomenology metaphysically neutral, is it without metaphysical\\u000a bearings, is it a kind of propaedeutics to metaphysics, or is phenomenology, on the contrary, a form of metaphysics, perhaps\\u000a even the culmination of a particular kind of metaphysics (of presence)? What should be made clear from the outset is that\\u000a there is no

Dan Zahavi

147

Qualitative mathematical modelling of coupled coast and estuary morphodynamics: a modified Boolean network approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in coastal geomorphology is the prediction of morphological change at a meso-scale (10 to 100 km; 10 to 100 yr). This scale sits awkwardly between understanding of geomorphological processes at the micro-scale, and broader aspects of coastal evolution informed by the Holocene stratigraphic record. In this paper, we explore the potential of a new kind of qualitative mathematical model implemented at a system level. Qualitative models derive predictions from the structure of the system rather from the detailed physics of the underlying processes. Although systems thinking is well established in geomorphology methodologies for converting system diagrams into simulation tools have not been widely investigated. In a recent Defra-funded project in the UK, a Boolean network approach was piloted and applied to the simulation of generic aspects of estuary response to environmental and anthropogenic forcing. We build on this to present a generic approach to the construction of system diagrams for estuaries and adjacent open coasts and their conversion into a network graph. In a Boolean model, each node of this graph is assigned a binary value, the state of which is determined by a logical function that specifies the combined influence of other nodes to which it is connected. System evolution is simulated by specifying a set of initial conditions and repeatedly evaluating the logical functions until an equilibrium condition is reached (either a steady state or a cyclical sequence between two end states). In our enhanced Boolean scheme, changes in morphology are allowed to feed back into intrinsic process variables (e.g. estuary waves or tidal prism), although some processes are externally imposed (e.g. sea-level rise). Arbitrary time lags condition the response of morphology to a change in process, such that some landforms adjust more rapidly than others. We also present a simulator architecture based around a solver and externally specified model components. Model logic (i.e. the formalisation of the geomorphological knowledge) is encapsulated in a set of external functions that are defined by the user. The system components and the interactions between them can thus be altered without any modification to the solver. Evaluation of the model against selected real estuaries reveals broadly plausible behaviour. However, customisation of the generic functions is required to resolve detailed aspects of imposed geology, physical process regime and management history. Formalisation of geomorphological knowledge into consistent systems diagrams and Boolean logical functions can be extremely difficult. The functions chosen must be complex enough to accommodate a useful range of system behaviour, but must also be consistent such that the predicted behaviour constitutes an emergent property of the system rather than a consequence of logical inconsistency in its definition. A trade-off exists between the number of components used to define the system and the tractability of obtaining a logically consistent set of model functions. Further experimentation is needed to find this optimum.

French, J.; Burningham, H.

2011-12-01

148

Measures of Safeguard and Rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: A qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.  

PubMed

Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. PMID:23388187

La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

2013-02-04

149

Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005 in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify barriers of reduce the cesarean section rate in Iran, as perceived by obstetricians and midwives as the main behavioral change target groups. Methods A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis. Results After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable. Conclusion Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package.

2011-01-01

150

Bracketing--practical considerations in Husserlian phenomenological research.  

PubMed

Nursing research leans heavily towards naturalism, with phenomenology commonly adopted. The three main schools of phenomenology used are Husserl's descriptive approach, Heidegger's interpretive hermeneutic approach and the Dutch Utrecht School of phenomenology which combines characteristics of both. Husserl's approach--the description of ordinary human experiences as perceived by each individual--involves four main steps: bracketing, intuiting, analysing and describing. Many phenomenological nurse researchers consciously decide to adopt a Heideggerian approach because of the perceived difficulties in achieving bracketing. This paper examines the concept of bracketing (epoché) and outlines some of the practical considerations when attempting to achieve it. PMID:20222275

Hamill, Conal

2010-01-01

151

The meanings of suicidal behaviour to psychology students in Ghana: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed. PMID:22021107

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-10-22

152

MEANING-MAKING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: ISSUES OF RIGOUR IN A TEAM-BASED APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores processes of meaning-making and modes of knowing in a largely qualitative, industry-based study of competency-based training, conducted by research teams throughout Australia. Implications of differing epistemological perspectives of researchers are examined and suggestions for enhancing the rigour of team-based qualitative research studies are made. This paper describes the methodology and some of the research practices of a

Pauline James; Dianne Mulcahy

1999-01-01

153

Causal Set Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.

Philpott, Lydia

2010-09-01

154

Preterm children quality of life evaluation: a qualitative study to approach physicians' perception  

PubMed Central

Background While data for preterm children health-related quality of life are available, there are little data on the perception of health-related quality of life evaluation by physicians who manage preterm children, or its use in real life and decision making. The aim of this qualitative study is to highlight among physicians, themes of reflection about health-related quality of life in extremely preterm children (less than 28 weeks’ gestation). Methods Focus groups at a French University Hospital with physicians who manage extremely preterm children: obstetricians, intensive care physicians, neonatal physicians and paediatric neurologists. The focus groups allowed the participants to discuss (drawing on their personal experience), three principal topics regarding the health-related quality of life of preterm children: representation, expectations in daily practice and evaluation method. Results We included fourteen participants in the three focus groups. Many themes emerged from the focus groups: approaches for defining health-related quality of life and difficulties of utilization, the role that health-related quality of life should have in the system of care, the problem of standards and evidence-based decision making. Physicians had difficulties with taking positions regarding this concept. There were no differences by gender, age or seniority, but points of view varied by specialty and type of practice. Physicians who had longer specialized care for extremely preterm children were more sensitive to the impact of preterm complications on health-related quality of life. Conclusions This study provides preliminary results about physicians’ perspective on the health-related quality of life of extremely preterm children. The themes emerged from the focus groups are classically described in other domains but not all in so clear a way (definition, interests and limits, ethical reflection). This approach was never developed in the field of prematurity with well-knowed consequences on quality of life. These results require to be confirmed on a larger representative sample. The themes and questions of this broad opinion survey will rest on the information issued from our preliminary interviews.

2012-01-01

155

Qualitative methods add quality to cardiovascular science.  

PubMed

Qualitative research methods are systematic approaches to knowledge development that do not involve quantification. Such methods are used widely in nursing to understand the lived experience and the socioeconomic contexts of cardiovascular health and illness. The evolution of qualitative methods through three phases - traditional, modern and postmodern - frames the discussion. Three common qualitative methods - ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory - are presented. Applications of qualitative methods have contributed to an understanding of such phenoma as adjustment after myocardial infarction, the experience of an acute cardiac event, the experience of chronic heart disease, the family and the cardiac illness experience, family adjustment to heart transplantation, physical activity practices of working women and family influence on individual health-related decisions in response to heart health intiatives. Postmodern approaches are briefly discussed. Participatory research is presented as an example of a postmodern approach to knowledge development. It is posited that interdisciplinary and multimethod cardiovascular research programs that incorporate qualitative methods will strengthen knowledge development in the cardiovascular field by contributing to an understanding of complex issues related to cardiovascular health and illness for individual persons, families, communities and populations, and to program and policy development. PMID:10863170

Young, L E; Jillings, C R

2000-06-01

156

A qualitative study of the risk and protective factors of substance abuse among the young adults of Nagaland, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a qualitative inquiry with a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of nine young Naga substance abusers and uncover the fundamental nature and structure of the phenomenon of the risk and protective factors. The study addressed the following questions: (a) what are personal, interpersonal, intra-personal, cultural and environmental risk factors that influenced their substance abuse and addiction;

Philip Thomas Kizhakumpurath

2012-01-01

157

Phenomenology and psychophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent philosophy of mind has tended to treat “inner” states, including both qualia and intentional states, as “theoretical posits” of either folk or scientific psychology. This article argues that phenomenology in fact plays a very different role in the most mature part of psychology, psychophysics. Methodologically, phenomenology plays a crucial role in obtaining psychophysical results. And more importantly, many psychophysical

Steven Horst

2005-01-01

158

The use of pure and impure placebo interventions in primary care - a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Placebos play an important role in clinical trials and several surveys have shown that they are also common in daily practice. Previous research focused primarily on the frequency of placebo use in outpatient care. Our aim was to explore physicians' views on the use of placebos in daily practice, whereby distinction was made between pure placebos (substances with no pharmacological effect, e.g. sugar pills) and impure placebos (substances with pharmacological effect but not on the condition being treated, e.g. antibiotics in viral infections or vitamins). Methods We performed semi-structured interviews with a sample of twelve primary care physicians (PCPs). The interview addressed individual definitions of a placebo, attitudes towards placebos and the participants' reasons for prescribing them. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The definition of a placebo given by the majority of the PCPs in our study was one which actually only describes pure placebos. This definition, combined with the fact that most impure placebos were not regarded as placebos at all, means that most of the participating PCPs were not aware of the extent to which placebos are used in daily practice. The PCPs stated that they use placebos (both pure and impure) mainly in the case of non-severe diseases for which there was often no satisfactory somatic explanation. According to the PCPs, cases like this are often treated by complementary and alternative therapies and these, too, are associated with placebo effects. However, all PCPs felt that the ethical aspects of such treatment were unclear and they were unsure as to how to communicate the use of placebos to their patients. Most of them would appreciate ethical guidelines on how to deal with this issue. Conclusions Many PCPs seem to be unaware that some of the drugs they prescribe are classified as impure placebos. Perceptions of effectiveness and doubts about the legal and ethical aspects of the use of placebos by PCPs may discourage their application. Dissemination of guidelines and consensus papers may be one approach, but it has to be acknowledged that the topic itself is in conflict with the PCPs' perception of themselves as professional and reliable physicians.

2011-01-01

159

What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

2010-01-01

160

Quantitative and qualitative approaches to GOD: the first 10 years of the clonal selection theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the contentious issues surrounding the clonal selection theory, one of the most influential was that of the mechanism for the generation of diversity of antibody specificity. While Burnet's qualitative theory assumed a very large antibody repertoire, Talmage provided a detailed quantitative argument supporting only 5000 individual globulin patterns that provided an antiserum its specificity through combinatorial action. This methodological

Margaret A Jordan; Alan G Baxter

2008-01-01

161

Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…

Shank, Gary

162

How do ethics assessments frame results of comparative qualitative research? A theory of technique approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the unique influences of ethics assessment procedures on comparative qualitative research. These influences are particularly pronounced when researchers are from different disciplines and in different countries. Focusing on our experience conducting a study on the perceptions of young people regarding HIV\\/AIDS in two countries (Italy and Canada), we describe the impact of the ethics assessment

G. Graffigna; A. C. Bosio; K. Olson

2010-01-01

163

A Qualitative Approach to the Evaluation of Psychosocial Interventions for Persons with Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development and assessment of a qualitative interview for comprehensively assessing both the process and the outcome of interventions for persons with severe mental illness (SMI). A open-ended 16-question Narrative Evaluation of Intervention Interview (NEII) was developed. The NEII contains questions that ask the participants to evaluate and describe both process and outcome of interventions for persons

Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon; David Roe; Shlomo Kravetz

2006-01-01

164

Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment: application of “mixed” research approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built environment research consists of cognitive and affective, as well as behavioural, components. Existing built environment research utilises either strong qualitative or, more often, strong quantitative methodologies. Aims to discuss some of the philosophical issues that would be considered when undertaking academic research into the built environment. Considers the available research options or paradigms and suggests ways in which a

Dilanthi Amaratunga; David Baldry; Marjan Sarshar; Rita Newton

2002-01-01

165

The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

2005-01-01

166

Evaluating the Use of Art Therapy with Couples in Counseling; A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few research studies have been conducted specifically focused on change process in marital art therapy. A need for more quantitative research in art therapy has been established. This research study focused on the results of a quasi-experiential study evaluating the use of art therapy with couples in counseling. Both qualitative and quantitative measures were employed to support the use of

Dina Leah Ricco

2007-01-01

167

A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Audience's Perceptions of Creativity in Online Advertising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I seek to inquire upon audience's perceptions of creativity in online advertising--a heretofore poorly understood area. This paper initially outlines current academic understanding of creativity in online advertising, mainly derived from quantitative assessments. It then advances a qualitative methodology including diary-interviews…

McStay, Andrew

2010-01-01

168

Comparison and Evaluation of Code Clone Detection Techniques and Tools: A Qualitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade many techniques and tools for software clone detection have been proposed. In this paper, we provide a qualitative comparison and evaluation of the current state-of-the-art in clone detection techniques and tools, and organize the large amount of information into a coherent conceptual framework. We begin with background concepts, a generic clone detection process and an overall

Chanchal K. Roy; James R. Cordy; Rainer Koschke

169

AN INTEGRATED QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO AUTOM ATED MODELING OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated modeling plays a key role in the realization of intelligent computational tools capable to emulate the human expert's reasoning in pro blem-solving activity aimed at performing tasks in engineering domains. This paper illust rates, through a case study in the domain of visco-elastic materials, how a suitable integrat ion of qualitative, mathematical, sta- tistical, numerical techniques may result in

L. Ironi; S. Tentoni

170

Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

2011-01-01

171

Towards Phenomenological Theorizing About Old Women Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological conceptualization of violence against old battered women. This\\u000a was done by using the concept of intentionality of body, time and space, heuristically. Data for the paper were drawn from\\u000a a series of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of old battered women performed by the authors during the last 5 years.

Tova Band-Winterstein; Zvi Eisikovits

2010-01-01

172

Lectures on superstring phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenological aspects of string theory are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is given to the status of 4D string model building, effective Lagrangians, model independent results, supersymmetry breaking and duality symmetries.

Quevedo, Fernando [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

1996-02-20

173

Lectures on superstring phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenological aspects of string theory are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is given to the status of 4D string model building, effective Lagrangians, model independent results, supersymmetry breaking and duality symmetries. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Quevedo, F. [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

1996-02-01

174

Sub-phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that cognitive psychology's practice of explaining mental processes in terms which avoid invoking phenomenology, and the person-level self-conception with which it is associated in common sense psychology, leads to a hybrid Cartesian dualism. Because phenomenology is considered to be fundamentally irrelevant in any scientific explanation of the mind, the person-level is regarded as “scientifically invisible”: it is

David A. Jopling

1996-01-01

175

Using a multi-method qualitative approach to examine collaborative relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-method approach for examining collaborative relationships. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Collaborative relationship performance is examined by combining narratives, structured questionnaires, and perceptual mapping within a case-based approach. Findings – Details associated with case selection and subsequent analysis are discussed. Themes emerging from the study are used to illustrate the depth of

Nitha Palakshappa; Mary Ellen Gordon

2006-01-01

176

Understanding Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation in Rural Communities: A Combined Qualitative\\/Quantitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine factors associated with breastfeeding in rural communities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We combined qualitative and quantitative data from the Family Life Project, consisting of: (1) a longitudinal cohort study\\u000a (N = 1292) of infants born September 2003–2004 and (2) a parallel ethnographic study (N = 30 families). Demographic characteristics, maternal and infant health factors, and health services were used to predict\\u000a breastfeeding initiation and discontinuation using

Kori B. Flower; Michael Willoughby; R. Jean Cadigan; Eliana M. Perrin; Greg Randolph

2008-01-01

177

Dance pedagogy case studies: A grounded theory approach to analyzing qualitative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining traditional forms of research to fit unique populations contributes to understanding broad phenomena within the discipline of dance. This paper describes a methodological approach for understanding separate, but interrelated, case studies which illuminated a particular approach to teaching and learning about the body. In each case study the participants explored factual information about the body through movement using a

Margaret Wilson

2009-01-01

178

Ethics Review for Qualitative Inquiry: Adopting a Values-Based, Facilitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many institutions, the institutional review board/research ethics board (IRB/REB) uses the traditional audit approach that emerged from the biomedical community (e.g., Nuremburg Code, Belmont Report) to review the ethical acceptability of research using humans as participants. This approach is guided by participant protection and risk…

Connolly, Kate; Reid, Adela

2007-01-01

179

Adolescent and young adult perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks. A qualitative approach.  

PubMed

Understanding consumer attitudes towards foods remains critically important for manufacturers, retailers and governing bodies. Regulation within the food industry should therefore support food choice whilst protecting members of society. There have been concerns regarding beverages marketed as 'energy drinks' and the levels of caffeine in these drinks. Focus groups were used to assess participants' perceptions and understandings of caffeinated energy drinks across three demographic age groups: 16-21, 22-28 and 29-35 year olds with the narrow age range providing a focused investigation of the demographic group specifically targeted by industry. Thematic analysis revealed a number of differences in participants' perceptions of energy drinks between age groups in relation to themes of advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy seeking, gender, sugar, peer influence, product attributes, safety and taste. Future implications for the use of qualitative research within the health promotion industry are discussed. PMID:23419966

Bunting, H; Baggett, A; Grigor, J

2013-02-16

180

From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

Dartevelle, Sebastian

2007-10-01

181

Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant.  

PubMed

The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects. PMID:24130732

Beatty, William S; Kesler, Dylan C; Webb, Elisabeth B; Raedeke, Andrew H; Naylor, Luke W; Humburg, Dale D

2013-10-09

182

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant  

PubMed Central

The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects.

Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

2013-01-01

183

A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network.  

PubMed

In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor (INR) knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks. PMID:24062690

Nijhout, H Frederik; Callier, Viviane

2013-09-12

184

A qualitative approach to the intangible cost of road traffic injuries.  

PubMed

The consequences of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries (RTI) at the personal and household levels were analysed using qualitative interviews of 12 injured and of 12 relatives of people who died for this reason. Collisions change physical and mental health both of the injured and of their relatives. This leads to changes in daily activities and even to the redefinition of future life. RTI also changes the way people see and act in life, becoming an experience that teaches them. Survivors commonly transmit a road safety message afterwards. Changes in family life were evident (in extreme cases family's composition also changed), affecting intra-familial relationships. Associated unexpected and unplanned expenditures and loss of income have consequences in the short, medium and long term that unbalance household's economies and immerse people into a constant stress. Individuals and family's future plans are occasionally condition to whether they have or not debts. Household dependence in economic terms was sometimes observed, as well as uncertainty about future life and household's sustainability. Sometimes, households change and adapt their life to what they now are able to afford, having important repercussions in vital spheres. PMID:21827293

Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Híjar, Martha; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Celis, Alfredo

2011-08-09

185

Factors underlying diagnostic delay in tuberculosis patients in a rural area in Tanzania: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays.

Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.

2010-01-01

186

A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network  

PubMed Central

In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor (INR) knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks.

Nijhout, H. Frederik; Callier, Viviane

2013-01-01

187

Understanding Trends : A Qualitative Approach to Trend Identification and their Statistical Significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying trends in time series is necessary to increase the confidence level of the analysis of climate data. This entails finding trends that are statistically significant and categorizing them as linear, quadratic or cubic. Current methods identifying trends use various techniques such as polynomial regression, variate differencing and others. We propose methods such as boot strapping and frequency domain analysis that additionally address other key issues such as identifying the presence of trends within a segment of the time series and computing their individual statistical significances, and further perform a qualitative analysis in finally understanding how trend removal affects global statistics. The methods proposed play an important role in data driven discovery of climate dipoles that represent pairs of regions for which climate anomaly time series are in opposite polarities to each other. In such cases, the methods proposed can be used to identify spurious negative correlations that are caused primarily due to trends but not due to climate teleconnections. Given the general applicability of these methods, it may also prove useful to many time series data other than climate. This research is funded by NSF grant 1029711.

Kumar, A.; Liess, S.; Kawale, J.; Kumar, V.; Chatterjee, S.

2011-12-01

188

Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

2013-01-01

189

A Qualitative Sociological Approach to Address Issues of Diversity for Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies prevailing conceptual approaches employed to formulate issues of diversity for social work research and practice. It argues that the notions of “welfare” and “diversity” are customarily defined within unduly narrow realms. “Welfare” is normally defined from the ideological perspective of modern mainstream society, even though competing minority ideologies of “welfare” are both possible and evident. “Diversity” is

Shaheen H. Azmi

1999-01-01

190

Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

2008-05-05

191

Phenomenology of SUSY models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a review of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), concentrating mainly in the steps needed to derive the lagrangian of the model within the superspace formalism. Some attention is also given to the reduction of parameters that results from incorporating the hypothesis of Grand Unification and low energy Supergravity; the most salient phenomenological consequences are also discussed.

Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo

1996-02-01

192

Training Online Faculty: A Phenomenology Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Literature on training faculty to teach online still dwells on the issues explored a decade ago. To make a substantial move in this area, it is necessary to re-evaluate the essence of training in the context of producing qualified online faculty to teach quality online courses. Employing a phenomenological approach, this study examines seven…

Kang, Haijun

2012-01-01

193

Training Online Faculty: A Phenomenology Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on training faculty to teach online still dwells on the issues explored a decade ago. To make a substantial move in this area, it is necessary to re-evaluate the essence of training in the context of producing qualified online faculty to teach quality online courses. Employing a phenomenological approach, this study examines seven…

Kang, Haijun

2012-01-01

194

Phenomenological Investigation of Despair in Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current psychopathological literature, the concept of despair is almost redundant. At most, the term is applied in a behavioral biological context as a synonym for helplessness and hopelessness. In light of the fact that the subjective experience of despair is neglected, the present paper adopts a phenomenological approach. The selection and hermeneutic investigation of philosophical concepts serve as tools

Martin Bürgy

2008-01-01

195

Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach that is based on the Green’s method leads to the Poincare´ velocity variables and

Alex Mahalov; Ye Zhou

1996-01-01

196

A microscopic optical model analyses of proton-nucleus elastic scattering is compared to the results of the optical model from the global Dirac phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we compare two optical models. First, an analyses using coordinate space microscopic optical potentials formed by full folding effective two nucleon interactions with one body density matrix elements of the nuclear ground state is discussed. Second, an energy dependent global Dirac Phenomenological optical model from elastic proton scattering data at nuclei at energgies from 30 MeV to 1 GeV. We find that these optical potentials can be used to calculate final state interactions for a wide variety of nuclear reactions. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY -- 0098645.

Deb, Pradip; Clark, Bunny; Amos, Ken

2004-10-01

197

Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.  

PubMed

People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions. PMID:23801355

Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

2013-06-25

198

Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

Gardner, Robin P.; Ai, Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

2011-10-01

199

Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

Broussard, Lisa

2006-01-01

200

Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

Broussard, Lisa

2006-01-01

201

Residual stresses induced by laser coatings: phenomenological analysis and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser surface treatments induce, like any other surface treatment, thermal gradients and hence residual stresses. In the present work, these stresses are determined in the case of coatings of various metallic materials on two different substrates: a low carbon steel and an austenitic stainless steel. Qualitative analysis of experimental results is performed by using a phenomenological modelling based on a

M. Pilloz; J. M. Pelletier; A. B. Vannes

1992-01-01

202

Toward an Understanding of Jewish Identity: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To begin mapping the landscape of contemporary Jewish identity from a phenomenological perspective, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews of 10 Jewish adults in the northeastern United States. Coding resulted in 6 universal themes (dynamic nature of self-identification, early formative experiences, desire to…

Friedman, Michelle L.; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Blustein, David L.

2005-01-01

203

Analysis of Noise Spectral Density for Phenomenological Models of Hysteresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical technique based on Monte Carlo simulations is developed to compute the spectral densities of the output variable in phenomenological models of hysteresis. The input signal is described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the magnetization is computed by using various hysteresis models: the Energetic, Jiles-Atherton, and Preisach models. General qualitative features of these spectral densities are examined and their

Ayodeji Adedoyin; Mihai Dimian; Petru Andrei

2009-01-01

204

Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art…

Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

2013-01-01

205

Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;…

Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred

2012-01-01

206

Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

Curry, Kathy S.

2010-01-01

207

THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEEP HYPNOSIS: QUiescent and Physically Active  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the phenomenology of hypnotic virtuosos, the author employed a 2 (hypnosis vs. control) × 3 (quiescent, pedaling a stationary bike, having a motor pedal the bike) within-subjects design with quantitative and qualitative measures. In a “neutral hypnosis” context with the only suggestion being to go as deeply into hypnosis as possible, participants reported alterations in body image, time

Etzel Cardeña

2005-01-01

208

Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a)

Kathy S. Curry

2010-01-01

209

Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.  

PubMed

The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

2010-11-05

210

Natural enamel caries in polarized light microscopy: differences in histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative approach to interpret enamel birefringence.  

PubMed

Lesion area measurement of enamel caries using polarized light microscopy (PLM) is currently performed in a large number of studies, but measurements are based mainly on a mislead qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence in a single immersion medium. Here, five natural enamel caries lesions are analysed by microradiography and in PLM, and the differences in their histopathological features derived from a qualitative versus a quantitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are described. Enamel birefringence in different immersion media (air, water and quinoline) is interpreted by both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the former leading to an underestimation of the depth of enamel caries mainly when the criterion of validating sound enamel as a negatively birefringent area in immersion in water is used (a current common practice in dental research). Procedures to avoid the shortcomings of a qualitative interpretation of enamel birefringence are presented and discussed. PMID:22414271

De Medeiros, R C G; Soares, J D; De Sousa, F B

2012-03-14

211

Hands-on approach during breastfeeding support in a neonatal intensive care unit: a qualitative study of Swedish mothers' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Assisting mothers to breastfeed is not easy when babies experience difficulties. In a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), nurses often help mothers by using hands-on-breast without their permission. Little is known about how mothers feel about this unusual body touching. To gain more knowledge from mothers who lived through this experience, this hands-on practice was studied in a NICU in Sweden. Methods Between January and June 2001, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten mothers of preterm or sick term infants and all of them experienced the hands-on approach. In this research, Radnitzky's seven principles of hermeneutic interpretation were applied in order to interpret the meaning of mothers' responses. This article presents results related to the period of initiation of breastfeeding. This qualitative study was based on a combination of the models of Gustafsson, Orem, and Aarts' Marte Meo. Results Five main themes were identified: Insult to integrity, Manipulating the baby, Understanding and adjustment, Breasts as objects, Alternatives to this practice. Hands-on help in the breastfeeding situation was experienced as unpleasant and the women experienced their breasts as objectified. The mothers accepted the hands-on help given by nursing staff, even though they considered it unpleasant. Most mothers expressed a need for assistance when starting breastfeeding, but could not suggest any alternative to hands-on help such as demonstrating with an artificial breast and a doll. Conclusion The study provides information about how mothers experience unexpected hands-on help with breastfeeding in a NICU, which has not been described previously. Since most mothers in this study regarded this behavior as unpleasant and not helpful mostly because it was unexpected and unexplained, it would be important to either explain beforehand to mothers what type of physical approach could be attempted on their body or better, to avoid this type of approach completely.

Weimers, Lena; Svensson, Kristin; Dumas, Louise; Naver, Lars; Wahlberg, Vivian

2006-01-01

212

Highlights on SUSY phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

In spite of the extraordinary success of the Standard Model (SM) supplemented with massive neutrinos in accounting for the whole huge bulk of phenomenology which has been accumulating in the last three decades, there exist strong theoretical reasons in particle physics and significant 'observational' hints in astroparticle physics for new physics beyond it. My lecture is devoted to a critical assessment of our belief in such new physics at the electroweak scale, in particular identifying it with low-energy supersymmetric extensions of the SM. I'll explain why we have concrete hopes that this decade will shed definite light on what stands behind the phenomenon of electroweak symmetry breaking.

Masiero, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Univ. di Padova, Via Marzolo.8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo.8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

2004-12-23

213

Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

214

Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigrams after maximal coronary artery vasodilation with intravenous dipyridamole: comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches  

SciTech Connect

Eighty-six patients had thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigrams after intense coronary artery dilation with i.v. dipyridamole. Tomographic and planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were obtained in each patient. Tomographic scintigrams were interpreted using quantitative or visual criteria; planar scintigrams were assessed using visual criteria only. When visual criteria were used, interobserver variability was 40% for tomographic scintigrams and 44% for planar scintigrams. In the 24 patients with normal or nonsignificant CAD, quantitative analysis of the tomograms (range approach) indicated that one of 24 (4%) had a positive image (specificity 96%%); in contrast, when visual criteria were used to interpret the tomographic or planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, eight of 24 (33%) had positive scintigrams (specificity 67%). In the 51 abnormal patients, the sensitivity of detecting CAD was 46 of 51 (90%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted quantitatively, 39 of 51 (76%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted visually and 41 of 51 (80%) for planar scintigrams assessed visually. The tomographic imaging procedure (quantitative interpretation) also demonstrated a high sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%) in 28 patients (10 normal and 18 CAD), with a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris. Overall, the predictive accuracy of an abnormal scintigram with quantitative tomographic imaging (98%) was significantly better (p<0.05) than either qualitative planar or pinhole imaging. (JMT)

Francisco, D.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City); Collins, S.M.; Go, R.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Van Kirk, O.C.; Marcus, M.L.

1982-08-01

215

Perspectives about and approaches to weight gain in pregnancy: a qualitative study of physicians and nurse midwives  

PubMed Central

Background Over one third of reproductive age women in the US are obese. Pregnancy is a strong risk factor for obesity, with excess weight gain as the greatest predictor of long term obesity. The majority of pregnant women gain more weight than recommended by the Institute of Medicine guidelines. The objective of this study was to understand prenatal care providers’ perspectives on weight gain during pregnancy. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 10 prenatal care providers (three family physicians, three obstetricians, and four nurse midwives) at a University Hospital in the Midwest, that included the ranking of important prenatal issues, and open-ended questions addressing: 1) general perceptions; 2) approach with patients; and 3) clinical care challenges. Results Providers felt that appropriate weight gain during pregnancy was not a high priority. Many providers waited until patients had gained excess weight before addressing the issue, were not familiar with established guidelines, and lacked resources for patients. Providers also believed that their counseling had low impact on patients, avoided counseling due to sensitivity of the topic, and believed that patients were more influenced by other factors, such as their family, habits, and culture. Conclusions Both providers and patients may benefit from increased awareness of the morbidity of excess weight gain during pregnancy. Practice-level policies that support the monitoring and management of weight gain during pregnancy could also improve care. Research that further investigates the barriers to appropriate weight gain is warranted.

2013-01-01

216

Phenomenological Perspectives On Philosophical Didactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a I would like to explore the field of phenomenology with the aim to find resources within phenomenology to help understanding\\u000a the learning processes better, and, if possible, make use of phenomenological methods in teaching philosophy to students in\\u000a A-levels and freshman levels at universities. My paper is particularly aimed at the learning processes in philosophy in general, not necessarily in

A. T. Tymieniecka

217

In favor of (plain) phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plain phenomenology explains theoretically salient mental or psychological distinctions with an appeal to their first-person\\u000a applications. But it does not assume (as does heterophenomenology) that warrant for such first-person judgment is derived\\u000a from an explanatory theory constructed from the third-person perspective. Discussions in historical phenomenology can be treated\\u000a as plain phenomenology. This is illustrated by a critical consideration of Brentano’s

Charles Siewert

2007-01-01

218

Qualitative Motion Reasoning Based on Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative motion reasoning is an important approach to spatial commonsense reasoning. In this paper, we propose a qualitative motion reasoning method based on Voronoi diagrams. The method adopts the vicinity relationship to represent qualitative position and qualitative path. Specifically, the qualitative position is represented by the edges of the Voronoi diagram region the moving point falls in, and the qualitative

Xiaodong Wang; Shizhong Liao

2009-01-01

219

Use of Both Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Study Job Stress in Different Gender and Occupational Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in job stress were investigated, collecting both qualitative (stressful incidents at work) and quantitative (rating scales of commonly experienced job stressors and strains) data from a sample of university employees. Content analyses of the qualitative data revealed 5 major job stressors, 5 major psychological strains, and 4 major physical strains experienced by both genders. When comparisons are made

Cong Liu; Paul E. Spector; Lin Shi

2008-01-01

220

On the verge: phenomenology and empathic unsettlement.  

PubMed

Using a phenomenological approach to questions about empathy and stigma, this essay explores stories told by parents of children with disabilities. In a close reading of "Welcome to Holland," an allegorical account of discovering that one's child has Down syndrome, I explore the concepts of narrative alignment (and positionality) and the politics of recognition in narratives about disability. In addition, this autoethnographic account describes my own "empathic unsettlement" as a parent and as an ethnographer. PMID:22165428

Shuman, Amy

2011-01-01

221

Superstrings, Phenomenology and F-theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give brief ideas on building gauge models in superstring theory, especially the four-dimensional models obtained from the compactification of F-theory. According to Vafa, we discuss the construction of F-theory to approach non-perturbative aspects of type IIB superstring. Then, we present local models of F-theory, which can generate new four-dimensional gauge models with applications to phenomenology.

Adil Belhaj; Leila Medari

2009-01-01

222

A phenomenology of crack abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this dissertation is to identify, describe, and explain the common experiences defining the crack abuser's life-world. Its method is phenomenological. Using basic cybernetic premises, a neurophysiologically oriented phenomenological framework concerning the constitution of thoughts, memories, and perceptions is first written. The framework is designed to hypothetically represent the neuropathology of crack abuse within a perspective that prescinds

Joaquin Trujillo

1999-01-01

223

Phenomenology and the Writing Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The change of emphasis from the written product to writing as a process manifests another important change--one from logical to phenomenological consciousness. Phenomenologically speaking, writing is both "immanent" in the writer and "transcendent" outside the writer. It is thinking of general concepts that actually occurred and writing about…

Carroll, Joyce Armstrong

224

Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models  

SciTech Connect

We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking terms for these models are calculated in the u-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Wang, Ting T. [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Lykken, Joseph D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2005-06-01

225

Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models  

SciTech Connect

We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft SUSY breaking terms for these models are calculated in the complex structure (u)-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Wang, Ting T.; /Michigan U., MCTP

2004-11-01

226

A Qualitative Study of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities under NCLB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to find out if No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has affected the academic achievement rates of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative phenomenological study explored perceptions of both regular education and special education teachers on the achievement rate…

Goodwin, Lisa H.

2011-01-01

227

A Qualitative Study of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities under NCLB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to find out if No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has affected the academic achievement rates of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative phenomenological study explored perceptions of both regular education and special education teachers on the achievement…

Goodwin, Lisa H.

2011-01-01

228

Pulsed laser effects phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive overview of the phenomenology associated with the interaction of intense laser beams with matter is presented. The beam is assumed to be incident on a solid or liquid target located within a transport medium. The discussion is first categorized by the type of this medium; namely, vacuum, gas, liquid, solid or particulate. Then the dependence of the interaction is further classified by the laser flux, pulselength, wavelength and the target properties. The various classes of behavior are discussed along with the conditions for their occurrence. Classes discussed include: slow bulk heating, transparent vapor from the target surface, secondary energy transport to the ablation surface, laser absorption at the critical surface, shock induced blowoff, photoelectric cross section dependence on temperature and density, laser supported combustion and detonation, contained vaporization and Mie scattering. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Dingus, R.S.; Goldman, S.R.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Montierth, L.M.; Stover, E.K.

1988-01-01

229

Phenomenology of scalar leptoquarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the simplest renormalizable scalar leptoquark models where the standard model is augmented only by one additional scalar representation of SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1). The requirement that there be no proton decay from renormalizable interactions singles out two such models, one of which exhibits an unusual top mass enhancement of the ??e? decay rate. We analyze the phenomenology of the model with the unusual top mass enhancement of loop level chirality changing charged lepton processes in the light of existing and upcoming experiments. Both of the models that do not allow proton decay from renormalizable interactions have dimension-5 operators that, even if suppressed by the Planck scale, can give rise to an unacceptably high level of baryon number violation. We discuss symmetries that can forbid these dimension-5 operators.

Arnold, Jonathan M.; Fornal, Bartosz; Wise, Mark B.

2013-08-01

230

Qualitative Adaptive Critics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare the use of qualitative adaptive critics to traditional quantitative critics for the design of control systems. Our approach uses a qualitative implementation of the Bellman recursion to train critic and controller networks. This extends previous work with univariate plants to multivariate plants with multiple control objectives. The results indicate that the superior control achieved by

Thaddeus T. Shannon

2006-01-01

231

Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights  

EPA Science Inventory

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

232

HEMP internal coupling phenomenology study  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a task sponsored by DNA to unravel the electromagnetic coupling problem associated with the interaction of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse HEMP) with typical aerospace systems. A bottom up approach to this task has been selected. In this approach, tools are developed for measuring and predicting the responses of simple test systems; from these measurements and predictions phenomenological understanding of the coupling mechanisms may be obtained and the tools may be verified. The construction and the experimental characterization of a test system embodying the fundamental features of an interior coupling problem, is discussed. Experimental, computational and analytical tools has been applied to this test system. Experimental measurements have revealed a pronounced modal interior response which has been closely replicated with the time domain three dimensional finite difference code G3DXL3. The persistence of these modes has been established analytically with an N-series analysis. Focusing and reflection effects as well as hot spot formation have been examined with the N-series analysis and with a time domain two-dimensional finite element code GEM2D.

Kunz, K.S.; Hudson, H.G.; Breakall, J.K.; King, R.J.; Ziolkowski, R.; Madsen, N.; Peterson, J.; Pennock, S.T.

1985-09-01

233

An exploration of human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention experiences among college women: a descriptive qualitative approach.  

PubMed

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To enhance understanding of young women's experiences of human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: High-risk types of human papillomavirus are a key aetiologic factor behind cervical cancer. Recently, human papillomavirus vaccination is considered an effective approach to prevent vaccine-specific typed human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer in women. However, several controversial issues still arise about routine administration of human papillomavirus vaccines, and the literature on young women's protection against human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer is limited. DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative design categorised responses into themes. METHODS: Sixteen sexually active college women (aged 20-22 years) were recruited via purposive and snow-ball sampling in Southern Taiwan. Every participant underwent an in-depth interview which was audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Analysis of the interview material was inductive and followed a thematic analysis approach. Procedures to confirm confidentiality, credibility and consistency were considered. RESULTS: This article provides an insight into the college women's experiences in the obstacles to and striving towards breakthroughs of human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention. The obstacles include inadequate health literacy, financial difficulty, negative medical experiences and gender myths. The striving towards breakthroughs consists in self-protection and knowledge support. CONCLUSION: College women experience difficulties with human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention. They desire to have a publicly funded human papillomavirus immunisation programme, friendly medical environments, sufficient knowledge and open-minded society to maintain their health. Such reflection information is helpful to design effective human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention campaigns. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Young women do not know how to protect against human papillomavirus infection, although human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer prevention methods are definite. This study provides useful information for health care professionals to assess the intervention education and health care to develop a thorough human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer programme. To have control of human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer for young women, personal health care management, prophylactic medicine and Pap tests should be integrated into human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer campaigns. PMID:23521597

Tu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

2013-03-25

234

String Theory Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the qualitative features of string theory compactifications with low energy effective theory close to (supersymmetric versions of) the Standard Model of Particle Physics. We cover Calabi-Yau compactifications of heterotic strings, intersecting brane models, and the recent setup of F-theory models.

Angel Uranga

2010-01-01

235

String Theory Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the qualitative features of string theory compactifications with low energy effective theory close to (supersymmetric versions of) the Standard Model of Particle Physics. We cover Calabi-Yau compactifications of heterotic strings, intersecting brane models, and the recent setup of F-theory models.

Uranga, Angel

2010-11-01

236

The Potential for a More Clinical Approach to Child Welfare Supervision to Promote Practice and Case Outcomes: A Qualitative Study in Four States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes qualitative findings from a mixed method study of the impact of implementing clinical supervision in four public child welfare agencies. Particular emphasis is on the development of learning organizational cultures, promotion of self-reflective and evidence-informed practice, and outcomes-focused approaches to working with families. Themes identified from 15 focus groups with supervisors are provided, in terms of their

Crystal Collins-Camargo; Kenneth Millar

2010-01-01

237

[Phenomenology of dreams].  

PubMed

A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

Pringuey, Dominique

2011-10-01

238

Fitting the phenomenological MSSM  

SciTech Connect

We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C. [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Quevedo, Fernando [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); CERN, PH-TH, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2010-05-01

239

On memories of childhood abuse: a phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To explore the phenomenon of memories and reported recovered memories of childhood abuse, and to examine ways in which clients and therapists assess the veridicality of such memories.Method: Qualitative methodology utilizing phenomenological inquiry. Within the context of a wider study exploring perceptions of helpful and unhelpful factors in the therapeutic process, a sub-sample of 36 in-depth interviews with clients,

Peter Dale; John Allen

1998-01-01

240

The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.  

PubMed

The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

2013-09-01

241

Experimental Phenomenology and Visual Literacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental phenomenology requires that educators acknowledge the experiences of the learner. Today, many of those experiences are images that come from television. In a behaviorist or humanist tradition, learning takes place through experience, and lear...

J. A. Hortin

1980-01-01

242

Phenomenology and Theory of Confinement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phenomenological and theoretical arguments of the separation of the hadronization dynamics from confinement and the idea of the ''kinematic'' confinement are discussed. The recent theory contains results which point out that the Wilson criterion and the c...

V. N. Pervushin

1987-01-01

243

A qualitative approach to the use of economic data in the selection of medicines for hospital formularies: a French survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Qualitative interviews were conducted with pharmacists in hospitals and clinics in the Rhône-Alpes region of France to determine the role of economic data when selecting medicines for formularies, to identify barriers to the use of this information and to study to what degree a healthcare establishment's financing system influences the use of this data.Method: A stratified sample of healthcare

Hans-Martin Späth; Marie Charavel; Magali Morelle; Marie-Odile Carrere

2003-01-01

244

Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

Bell, Jo

2009-01-01

245

Qualitative and Quantitative Shifts in Adolescent Problem Behavior Development: A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the nature of problem behavior development from late childhood through adolescence, to assess the quantitative development of problem behavior (alcohol use, marijuana use, deviance, academic failure) as well as potential qualitative shifts in problem behavior over time. Multivariate latent growth curve modeling (LGM) analyses and a cohort-sequential design were employed. Data were

Susan C. Duncan; Terry E. Duncan; Lisa A. Strycker

2001-01-01

246

Aging and Identity-In-The-World: A Phenomenological Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses a criticism of "objectivistic" approaches to aging and identity as a vehicle for a phenomenological rethinking of those topics. Suggests a theory of identity, properly understood, is already a theory of aging. Concludes that this approach overcomes the parallel problems of objectivism versus subjectivism and biologism versus sociologism.…

Ainlay, Stephen C.; Redfoot, Donald L.

1982-01-01

247

Dilemmas in qualitative health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a

Lucy Yardley

2000-01-01

248

Unspoken phenomena: using the photovoice method to enrich phenomenological inquiry.  

PubMed

Photovoice is a powerful method that is gaining momentum in nursing research. As a relatively new method in nursing science, the situatedness of photovoice within or alongside various research methodologies in a single study remains in a stage of early development. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the photovoice method as a means to elicit phenomenological data when researching the lived experience. While the foundational bases of phenomenology and photovoice differ substantially, the argument presented in this paper suggests that the photovoice method can be successfully used in phenomenological inquiry provided that significant rigour checks are pursued. This includes reflecting upon the origins and understandings of both methodology and method to promote methodological congruency. Data collection and analysis approaches that contribute to phenomenological inquiry using the photovoice method in addition to rigour and ethical considerations are discussed. The use of data generated from photovoice in phenomenological inquiry may fill a void of understanding furnished by limitations of traditional phenomenological inquiry and of spoken language and can enhance understanding of the lived experience, which may not always be best understood by words alone. PMID:22381071

Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D; Ray, Susan L

2012-03-02

249

Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of

Hanne Kjaergaard; Anne Maria Foldgast; Anna-Karin Dykes

2007-01-01

250

Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo. PMID:23498352

Sabo, Megin

2013-01-01

251

Interaction with potential donors' families: The professionals' community of concern--a phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to explore the health professionals' experiences and gain a deeper understanding of interaction with families of critically ill or traumatized patients with severe brain injuries. The methodological approach was qualitative and phenomenological. Data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with nurses, physicians, and chaplains working in two ICUs in a Norwegian university hospital. A thematic analysis was used for analyzing data. Two main themes emerged from analysis: Patient oriented even when present and Family oriented even when absent. Each main theme is divided into two sub-themes. The themes appeared as phases in an interaction process. In the two first phases the interaction may be characterized as Alternating between being absent and present and Following up and withholding information and in the two last phases as Turning point and changing focus and Partly present when waiting for death. The findings are in the discussion illuminated by the phenomenological concept of concern. Concern is visible as care, and the distinction in care between “leaps in” and “leaps ahead” and “ready-to-hand” and “unready-to-hand” are topics in the discussion. Because of the complexity of caring for both patient and family, the situation demands efforts to relieve nurses in particular, during the most demanding phases of the process.

Or?y, Aud; Str?mskag, Kjell Erik; Gjengedal, Eva

2011-01-01

252

Transformations: a phenomenological investigation into the life-world of home haemodialysis.  

PubMed

With a growth in home-care, and increased funding for dialysis, there is a need for the field of Social Work to understand the life-world of people who experience home haemodialysis technology (HDDT). Given little research has focussed on the lived-experiences of this population (Nagle, 1995), an exploratory qualitative study was employed (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). The study investigated the embodied life-world experiences of this population using phenomenological methods (Kvale, 1996; van Manen, 1997). The data was collected and analyzed in terms of the four basic phenomenological categories of lived-time, lived-body, lived-spatiality, lived-relations with others and self (van Manen, 1997). A purposive sample of four was selected, and interviewed using semi-structured interviews, with each participant experiencing various lengths of HHDT. The findings revealed that their life-world had been transformed by their experience of HHDT. In particular, it was documented how participants' adoption of medical practice and discourse has impacted the lived-body, suggesting a need to adopt a plain language or holistic medical discourse practice approach for communication with patients which supports bodily-integrity and sovereignty. Additional findings centered on the incorporation of HHDT into the family unit, and how HHDT may present a health care access barrier to those without homes. Moreover, aspects of the transformation of the home into a hospital were highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that social assessment should consider the patient and family's experience of the dialysis machine. PMID:15022733

Giles, Stephen

2003-01-01

253

What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial.

Prufer, Franziska; Miksch, Antje

2013-01-01

254

Marketing theory and critical phenomenology : Exploring the human side of management practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper uses phenomenology as a critical theoretical lens through which to view marketing management theory. The aim is to demonstrate that it can uncover the extent to which established theory neglects the human side of marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To facilitate a phenomenological discussion, the critical framework of Mingers is utilised. This identifies a critique of rhetoric, of

Barry Ardley

2011-01-01

255

The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic disparities in park access. They revealed trends that may not have been otherwise detectable, such as the spatially inconsistent relationship between physical activity site density and socio-demographics. In order to establish a more stable global model, a number of additional factors, variables, and methods might be used to quantify park accessibility, such as network analysis of proximity, perception of accessibility and usability, and additional park quality characteristics. Accurate measurement of park accessibility can therefore be important in showing the links between opportunities for active behavior and beneficial health outcomes.

Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

2009-01-01

256

Information about ADRs explored by pharmacovigilance approaches: a qualitative review of studies on antibiotics, SSRIs and NSAIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) repeatedly occur after marketing. The aim of this article is to analyse ADRs reported by available ADR signal detection approaches and to explore which information about new and unexpected ADRs these approaches have detected. METHODS: We selected three therapeutic cases for the review: antibiotics for systemic use, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

Lise Aagaard; Ebba Holme Hansen

2009-01-01

257

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

258

Evaluation of a drug and alcohol relapse prevention programme in a special hospital: an interpretative phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores dual-diagnosis patients' perspectives on a relapse prevention programme in a special hospital. Few qualitative studies have been conducted to explore the views and lived experience of dual-diagnosis patients, and none has used qualitative methodology to investigate their subjective experience of a treatment programme. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed to gain a perspective on the patients' experience

Gordon Ritchie; Sarah Weldon; Gary Macpherson; Heather Laithwaite

2010-01-01

259

The precinct experience: a phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the extant literature relating to urban tourism in general, and historic precincts in particular, highlights the predominantly structural and functional nature of existing research. Issues such as spatial form, land-use mix, development processes, management, marketing, economic impact and accommodation are recurring themes. While such studies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of many utilitarian themes

Bruce Hayllar; Tony Griffin

2005-01-01

260

A Phenomenological Approach to Psychological Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper briefly describes assessment practices in terms of their theoretical principles. The practices include: (a) the client is an informed participant even during the assessment process; (b) the referral is situated in terms of actual events; (c) life events are primary data, and test scores are secondary or derived data; (d) interpretation…

Fischer, Constance T.

261

Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to gain phenomenological information about Selective Mutism (SM) in the following areas: (a) mute and variant talking patterns that occur prior to the identification of SM and\\/or which occur as conditions within the SM syndrome, (b) events that precipitate SM, (c) biological vulnerabilities for SM in terms of anxiety and temperament variables, (d) characteristics

Mary Ann Ford; Ingrid E. Sladeczek; John Carlson; Thomas R. Kratochwill

1998-01-01

262

Phenomenological Classification of Depressive Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical cluster analysis methods have been the basis for development of a phenomenological classification of depressive disorders. Verbal descriptions of the distinguishing features of anxious, hostile, agitated, and retarded subtypes of depression are provided to facilitate development of clinical classification concepts. A review of validity…

Overall, John E.; Hollister, Leo E.

1980-01-01

263

Quantum Phenomenology of Conjunction Fallacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum-like description of human decision process is developed, and a heuristic argument supporting the theory as sound phenomenology is given. It is shown to be capable of quantitatively explaining the conjunction fallacy in the same footing as the violation of sure-thing principle.

Cheon, Taksu; Takahashi, Taiki

2012-10-01

264

Phenomenological investigations into personnel signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech has initiated a research program into the issues surrounding the detection of covert personnel present in a wide variety of scenarios. These initial investigations have been focused on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables-particularly in the context of urban environments during this phase. A parallel effort focused on

J. Michael Cathcart

2005-01-01

265

Hyperspectral mine detection phenomenology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the US Army Hyperspectral Mine Detection Phenomenology program was to determine if spectral disciminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines. A primary goal wa to determine the presence and persistence of spectral features produced by buried anti- tank mines as associated with soil properties and vegetation changes over time. Details of the collections

Alexandra M. Smith; Arthur C. Kenton; Robert Horvath; Linnea S. Nooden; Jennifer Michael; James A. Wright; J. L. Mars; James K. Crowley; Marc D. Sviland; Stan Causey; David Lee; Mary M. Williams; Kurt Montavon

1999-01-01

266

A Critical Look at Children and Microcomputers: Some Phenomenological Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a critical analysis of computer technology through the phenomenological approach. The psychological and sociological effects of introducing children to computers are discussed, including the impact that computers have on the child's sense of time and the potential negative effect computers have on the play of children. The article concludes that the trend toward computer technology in

Larry W. Kreuger; Howard Karger; Kathy Barwick

1988-01-01

267

Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

2011-01-01

268

Spirit baptism: a phenomenological study of religious experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentecostalism and glossolalia have received much attention from the social sciences in recent decades. Although much has been learned from research, little attention has been given to initial Spirit baptism (SB) from a descriptive point of view, and none has been given from a phenomenologically oriented approach – which was the concern of this study. To investigate the experience of

W. Paul Williamson; Ralph W. Hood Jr

2011-01-01

269

The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

Dura, Marian T.

2006-01-01

270

Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative

Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

2009-01-01

271

Clarifying Qualitative Research: A Focus on Traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable confusion in the educational literature about the nature of qualitative research. In this article I argue that a major source of the confusion arises from discussing qualitative research as if it is one approach. The discussion in the educational literature concerning qualitative research can be clarified by recognizing that qualitative research comes in many different varieties, which

Evelyn Jacob

1988-01-01

272

The Changing Character of Phenomenological Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodologies of Husserlian and contemporary phenomenological psychology are compared. The Husserlian project was an a priori, descriptive, intuitive inquiry into the universal, necessary structures of intentional phenomena. Contemporary phenomenological psychology, examined here through a review of contemporary psychological articles and methodological sources, includes four types of methods: empirical, hermeneutic. traditional and experimental. Phenomenological psychology continues to attempt to describe

PERRY KLEIN; MALCOLM R. WESTCOTT

1994-01-01

273

Understanding the representational mind: A phenomenological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the relationship between Husserlian phenomenology and scientific psychology. It tries to show how phenomenological results have relevance and validity for present-day cognitive developmental psychology by arguing that consciousness matters in the study of the representational mind. The paper presents some methodological remarks concerning empirical or applied phenomenology; it describes the conception of an exploratory developmental study

Eduard Marbach

1996-01-01

274

Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

Olmo, Gonzalo J.

2011-10-01

275

Building phenomenological models of complex biological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central goal of any modeling effort is to make predictions regarding experimental conditions that have not yet been observed. Overly simple models will not be able to fit the original data well, but overly complex models are likely to overfit the data and thus produce bad predictions. Modern quantitative biology modeling efforts often err on the complexity side of this balance, using myriads of microscopic biochemical reaction processes with a priori unknown kinetic parameters to model relatively simple biological phenomena. In this work, we show how Bayesian model selection (which is mathematically similar to low temperature expansion in statistical physics) can be used to build coarse-grained, phenomenological models of complex dynamical biological processes, which have better predictive powers than microscopically correct, but poorely constrained mechanistic molecular models. We illustrate this on the example of a multiply-modifiable protein molecule, which is a simplified description of multiple biological systems, such as an immune receptors and an RNA polymerase complex. Our approach is similar in spirit to the phenomenological Landau expansion for the free energy in the theory of critical phenomena.

Daniels, Bryan; Nemenman, Ilya

2009-11-01

276

Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

277

Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

2012-01-01

278

The Influence of the Social Network: A Phenomenological Study of Early Adopter Consumers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 early adopter consumers, who used social networks in their decision-making process to purchase a component or complete high-technology home entertainment system. Four core themes of communication, convenience, cost, and technology emerged. Subthemes encompassed…

DeFrange Coston, Rita Louise

2009-01-01

279

A Phenomenological Study of Culturally Proficient School Leadership Resulting in the Narrowing of the Learning Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culturally proficient school leadership and its impact on narrowing the learning gap is both timely, and needed and the focus of discussion for this study. This phenomenological qualitative research study examined culturally proficient school leadership actions that help promote a measurable narrowing of the achievement gap in five southeastern…

Pfaller, Renee L.

2010-01-01

280

A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

Khatib, Eid

2010-01-01

281

A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Effects of an Ethics Course on Business Degree Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the essential meaning adult business school students attributed to the shared experience of an ethics course they took at California State University Sacramento. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with 10 volunteer…

Zmuda, Richard John

2009-01-01

282

Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

2004-01-01

283

History and Social Science Teachers' Perceptions of Their Profession: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chile, teaching is in a period of transition between occupation and profession. To examine teachers' perceptions of their profession, the author conducted a qualitative, phenomenological investigation. He interviewed twenty-seven history and social science teachers employed at urban secondary schools in Chile. He found that teachers believe…

Labrana, Carlos Munoz

2007-01-01

284

Identifying the Criteria for Planning the Selection and Succession of a CIO: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many challenges face CIOs in their management of IT systems; yet, very little research is available regarding the issues and constraints associated with their role. CIO leadership is still a subject of inquiry for those with aspirations to pursue such a position. The specific problem of the current qualitative phenomenological study concerned the…

Williamson, Charles E.

2010-01-01

285

A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

Khatib, Eid

2010-01-01

286

Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

Gillam, Mary M.

2010-01-01

287

A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

Mills-Byrd, Love

2011-01-01

288

Bridging the Gap between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Learning Process: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the learning process for adult learners, resulting in a higher dropout rate than for students who have not experienced similar stress (Kerka, 2002; Smyth, Hockemeyer, Heron, Wonderlich, & Pennebaker, 2008). The purpose of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, explore, and…

Phillips, Charlotte A.

2011-01-01

289

Identifying the Criteria for Planning the Selection and Succession of a CIO: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many challenges face CIOs in their management of IT systems; yet, very little research is available regarding the issues and constraints associated with their role. CIO leadership is still a subject of inquiry for those with aspirations to pursue such a position. The specific problem of the current qualitative phenomenological study concerned the…

Williamson, Charles E.

2010-01-01

290

Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories…

Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

2004-01-01

291

A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

Dickelman, Eric

2009-01-01

292

Listener perceptions along a fluency–disfluency continuum: A phenomenological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological analysis (a qualitative research method) of unbiased listeners’ perceptions to six speech samples across a fluency–disfluency continuum. A sample of 60 individuals heard only one sample chosen from three levels of fluent or three levels of disfluent speech. Listeners were interviewed following the presentation of the speech sample and their

Michael Susca; E. Charles Healey

2002-01-01

293

Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)|

Lambert, Frank L.

2002-01-01

294

Qualitative Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to understand the principles behind a body of work that could be characterized as qualitative vision, we should view it in the context of the rest of the research in the field, as it has been evolving over time. This is what this introduction doe...

Y. Aloimonos

1995-01-01

295

Two phenomenological studies of place  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce our initial investigations into the phenomenology of place as part of the BENOGO project. BENOGO is concerned with giving people the experience of 'being there without going there'. Employing a state-of-the-art mixture of photorealistic, real time rendered images, three-dimensional soundscapes and augmented reality to create a sense of place. The work reported in this paper we describe as

Phil Turner; Susan Turner

2003-01-01

296

Phenomenology and the social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edmund Husserl, Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy, edited with an introduction by Quentin Lauer, N.Y., Harper Torchbooks, 1965, pp. 192. Australian distributor, Book and Film Services. $A2.90, paper.Edmund Husserl. Experience and Judgement, Investigations in a Geneology of Logic, revised and edited by Ludwig Landgrebe, translated with an introduction by James S. Churchill, London, Rout?ledge and Kegan Paul, 1973, pp.

Patricia Springborg

1975-01-01

297

Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

2006-10-01

298

The myth of phenomenological overflow.  

PubMed

In this paper I examine the dispute between Hakwan Lau, Ned Block, and David Rosenthal over the extent to which empirical results can help us decide between first-order and higher-order theories of consciousness. What emerges from this is an overall argument to the best explanation against the first-order view of consciousness and the dispelling of the mythological notion of phenomenological overflow that comes with it. PMID:21782469

Brown, Richard

2011-07-22

299

A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.  

PubMed

This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

2012-05-16

300

Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers’ and beneficiaries’ perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC. Methods We conducted 27 key informant interviews with health officials and partners at national, district and health centre levels; 32 focus group discussions with community members and in-depth interviews with 32 community members and 32 community leaders. Additionally, official PHC related documents were reviewed. Results The findings show that there is a functional PHC system in place in the two study districts, though its implementation is faced with various challenges related to accessibility of services and shortage of resources. Health service providers and consumers shared perceptions on the importance of intensifying community participation to strengthen PHC, particularly within the areas of provision of insecticide treated bed nets, home case management for malaria, management of diarrhoeal diseases, treatment of schistosomiasis and provision of food supplements against malnutrition. Conclusion Our study indicates that intensified community participation based on the CDI approach can be considered as a realistic means to increase accessibility of certain vital interventions at community level.

2012-01-01

301

Motion Imagery's Effect on Air Force Commanders' Decision-Marketing Process: A Phenomenological Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This inquiry focuses on Air Force commanders' personal experiences with motion imagery when used as a tool in the decision-making process. It adopts a grounded theory approach to analyze emergent themes from the commanders' phenomenological perspectives. ...

S. L. Higgins

2002-01-01

302

The experience of loss of voice in adolescent girls: An existential-phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning of the Loss of Voice experience in adolescent girls using an existential-phenomenological interview approach. An open-ended interview was conducted and participants were asked to \\

Deborah Ann Cihonski

2003-01-01

303

A qualitative exploration of communication within the community mental health team.  

PubMed

This qualitative study sought to explore conceptual models employed by community mental health team (CMHT) staff in the care of their clients and how CMHT clinicians communicated with one another, particularly in relation to complex clinical work. The qualitative method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used, and semistructured in-depth interviews with seven UK CMHT clinicians were conducted and analyzed. Four themes were evident in the data and showed that clinicians face complex and competing demands and draw on a range of therapeutic models in their work. It was also clear that much discussion centred primarily on pragmatic issues and lacked conceptual depth. The results underline the complex and challenging nature of CMHT work and suggest that a more systematic approach to interdisciplinary training within teams could be beneficial in increasing clinicians' knowledge, skills, and their understanding of the conceptual models used across different disciplines. PMID:19740140

Donnison, Jenny; Thompson, Andrew R; Turpin, Graham

2009-10-01

304

Experiences of Vasectomy: A Phenomenological Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Irregular growth of population is considered as a serious threat to the international community. It is a major obstacle for socioeconomic development. One of the methods to control the population is by providing effective methods of contraception. Vasectomy, as a simple and effective contraceptive method, has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is very important to involve men in the control of population and the promotion of reproductive health. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of the men who underwent vasectomy. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. The sample consisted of 14 vasectomized men selected through purposive sampling method. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data. Results: The results were transcribed and recorded in comprehensive field notes. Colaizzi's method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the obtained results of the present study, which described the structure of the experiences of men as follows: Opinions about vasectomy, own perceptions about vasectomy, experiences with the procedure, and recommendation of vasectomy to others. Conclusion: Vasectomy can influence achievement of family planning goals and participation of men in this regard. The results of this study can help the planners and health-care providers for appropriate interventions, and training and counseling programmers to increase the acceptability and uptake of vasectomy in the society.

Hosseini, Habibollah; Abdi, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

305

Exploring the provision of hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Identifying factors affecting the provision of trauma care is essential for improving the quality of care for road traffic injury (RTI) victims. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of trauma care among injured patients and health professionals to identify factors influencing an effective trauma care delivery at emergency departments (EDs) in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted with a grounded theory approach. The study participants consisted of 15 health professionals and 20 injured patients. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using constant comparative analysis method. Results: Lack of a systematic approach to providing trauma care at EDs emerged as the core category. The leading factors in the development of the core category were unclear national policies and poor organization of care at the ED. Other major factors were contextual factors in the environment of the hospitals such as inappropriate structure and unsupportive environment and also factors specific to the context of Iran such as a rapid increase in the number of traumas. Professionals reacted to the prevailing conditions in ways that contributed to an ineffective trauma care, even though strategies employed by Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMPs) improved the quality of trauma care locally. Conclusions: Building a national trauma system, using available professional resources especially EMPs, and implementing low cost and evidence-based improvements such as establishing trauma teams and trauma training for staff working at the EDs on a regular basis is necessary in order to improve delivery of trauma care at the hospitals.

Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Johansson, Eva; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasselberg, Marie

2013-01-01

306

Introduction: Qualitative Research in Criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitative methods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology). In addition, it outlines recent trends in qualitative criminology. The potentials and the limits of a perspective of \\

Michael Meuser; Gabi Löschper

2002-01-01

307

Phenomenological theory of superfluidity and superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

Quantum condensation is used here as the basis for a phenomenological theory of superfluidity and superconductivity. It leads to remarkably good calculations of the transition temperatures T[sub c] of superfluid [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He, as well as a large number of cuprate, heavy fermion, organic, dichalcogenide, and bismuth oxide superconductors. Although this approach may apply least to the long-coherence-length metallics, reasonably good estimates are made for them and chevral superconductors. T[sub c] for atomic H is estimated. T[sub c] can be calculated as a function of number density or density of states and effective mass of normal carriers; or alternatively with the Fermi energy as the only input parameter. Predictions are made for a total of 26 superconductors and four superfluids. An estimate is also made for coherence lengths.

Rabinowitz, M. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-02-01

308

Complexity and extended phenomenological-cognitive systems.  

PubMed

The complex systems approach to cognitive science invites a new understanding of extended cognitive systems. According to this understanding, extended cognitive systems are heterogenous, composed of brain, body, and niche, non-linearly coupled to one another. This view of cognitive systems, as non-linearly coupled brain-body-niche systems, promises conceptual and methodological advances. In this article we focus on two of these. First, the fundamental interdependence among brain, body, and niche makes it possible to explain extended cognition without invoking representations or computation. Second, cognition and conscious experience can be understood as a single phenomenon, eliminating fruitless philosophical discussion of qualia and the so-called hard problem of consciousness. What we call "extended phenomenological-cognitive systems" are relational and dynamical entities, with interactions among heterogeneous parts at multiple spatial and temporal scales. PMID:22253176

Silberstein, Michael; Chemero, Anthony

2011-11-10

309

Scaling Phenomenology in Meson Photoproduction from CLAS  

SciTech Connect

In the high energy limit, perturbative QCD predicts that hard scattering amplitudes should follow simple scaling laws. For hard scattering at 90°, we show that experiments support this prediction even in the “medium energy” regime of 2.3 GeV<=sqrt(s)<=2.84 GeV, as long as there are no s-channel resonances present. Our data consists of high statistics measurements for five different exclusive meson photoproduction channels (pomega, peta, peta[prime], K+Lambdaand K+[summation]0) recently obtained from CLAS at Jefferson Lab. The same power-law scaling also leads to “saturated” Regge trajectories at high energies. That is, at large -t and -u, Regge trajectories must approach constant negative integers. We demonstrate the application of saturated Regge phenomenology by performing a partial wave analysis fit to the gammayp-->peta[prime]differential cross sections.

Biplab Dey, Curtis A. Meyer

2010-08-01

310

A combined qualitative-quantitative approach for the identification of highly co-creative technology-driven firms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Value co-creation, is an emerging business and innovation paradigm, however, there is not enough clarity on the distinctive characteristics of value co-creation as compared to more traditional value creation approaches. The present paper summarizes the results from an empirically-derived research study focusing on the development of a systematic procedure for the identification of firms that are active in value co-creation. The study is based on a sample 273 firms that were selected for being representative of the breadth of their value co-creation activities. The results include: i) the identification of the key components of value co-creation based on a research methodology using web search and Principal Component Analysis techniques, and ii) the comparison of two different classification techniques identifying the firms with the highest degree of involvement in value co-creation practices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study using sophisticated data collection techniques to provide a classification of firms according to the degree of their involvement in value co-creation.

Milyakov, Hristo; Tanev, Stoyan; Ruskov, Petko

2010-10-01

311

Physiotherapists' experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as an authoritative expert who determine goals, intervention planning and evaluation. Conclusions Different paradigms of health and disability lead to different approaches to physiotherapy which influence the whole intervention process regarding strategies for the assessment and treatment, all of which influence Family-Centred Service and the child’s motor learning strategies. The results may deepen physiotherapists’ understanding of how different paradigms of health influence the way in which various physiotherapy approaches in research seek to solve the challenge of CP.

2012-01-01

312

Some Surprises and Paradoxes Revealed by Inverse Problem Approach and Notion about Qualitative Solutions of SCHRÖDINGER Equations “IN MIND”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was an important examination to give a review talk at the previous Conference on Inverse Quantum Scattering (1996, Lake Balaton) about computer visualization of this science in front of its fathers — creators, B. M. Levitan and V. A. Marchenko. We have achieved a new understanding that the discovered main rules of transformations of a single wave function bump, e.g., for the ground bound states of one dimensional quantum systems are applicable to any state of any potential with arbitrary number of bumps from finite to unlimited ones as scattering states and bound states embedded into continuum. It appeared that we need only to repeat the rule mentally the necessary number of times. That uttermost simplification and unification of physical notion of spectral, scattering and decay control for any potential have got an obligatory praise from B. M. Levitan at the conference and was a mighty stimulus for our further research After that we have written both Russian (2002) and improved English editions of “Submissive Quantum Mechanics. New Status of the Theory in Inverse Problem Approach”1 (appeared at the very end of 2007). This book was written for correction of the present defect in quantum education throughout the world. Recently the quantum IP intuition helped us to discover a new concept of permanent wave resonance with potential spatial oscillations.2 This means the constant wave swinging frequency on the whole energy intervals of spectral forbidden zones destroying physical solutions and deepening the theory of waves in periodic potentials. It also shows the other side of strengthening the fundamentally important magic structures. A ‘new language’ of wave bending will be presented to enrich our quantum intuition, e.g., the paradoxical effective attraction of barriers and repulsion of wells in multichannel systems, etc.

Zakhariev, B. N.; Chabanov, V. M.

313

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

2005-09-30

314

Z' Phenomenology and the LHC  

SciTech Connect

A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

Rizzo, Thomas G.

2006-10-17

315

Unparticle physics and supersymmetry phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We show a natural form of the interaction between the unparticle and supersymmetry. Using the couplings of the unparticle to supersymmetry presented, as examples, we calculate the differential decay rates for the processes f-tilde{yields}f+U{sub 3/2}, {chi}-tilde{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}+U{sub 3/2}, {chi}-tilde{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}+U{sub 3/2} and {chi}-tilde{sup 0}{yields}Z{sup 0}+U{sub 3/2}. Finally, we discuss the phenomenological implication of our results and give some comments.

Zhang Hao; Li Chongsheng; Li Zhao [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2007-12-01

316

A phenomenological calculus of Wiener description space.  

PubMed

The phenomenological calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the phenomenological calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the phenomenology are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium. PMID:17955459

Richardson, I W; Louie, A H

2007-10-01

317

Phenomenology and the Poststructural Critique of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenology is considered a philosophy of experience. But in the wake of French post?structuralism beginning in the 1970s, the concept of experience within phenomenology has fallen under heavy critique. Even today, in the context of feminist philosophy the phenomenological concept of experience has yet to recover from the poststructuralist critique.In this article, I will closely examine the poststructuralist critique of

Silvia Stoller

2009-01-01

318

Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.|

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

2006-01-01

319

Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

2006-01-01

320

Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.

Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

2007-01-01

321

Psychosocial needs of burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services. PMID:21245766

Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

322

Phenomenology of a lepton triplet  

SciTech Connect

The most general phenomenological model involving a lepton triplet with hypercharge {+-}1 is constructed. A distinctive feature of this model is the prediction of a doubly charged lepton and a new heavy Dirac neutrino. We study the phenomenology of these exotic leptons both in low-energy experiments and at the LHC. The model predicts flavor-changing neutral-current processes such as muon and tau rare decays, which are studied in detail in order to constrain the model parameters. All the decay channels of the exotic leptons are described for a wide range of parameters. It is found that, if the mixing parameters between the exotic and light leptons are not too small (>10{sup -6}), then they can be observable to a 3-5{sigma} statistical significance at the 7 TeV LHC with 10-50 fb{sup -1} luminosity for a 400 GeV mass and 14 TeV with 100-300 fb{sup -1} luminosity for a 800 GeV mass.

Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Garcia Cely, Camilo; Han Tao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wang Zhihui [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-10-01

323

Empathy and Direct Social Perception: A Phenomenological Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quite a number of the philosophical arguments and objections currently being launched against simulation (ST) based and theory-theory\\u000a (TT) based approaches to mindreading have a phenomenological heritage in that they draw on ideas found in the work of Husserl,\\u000a Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Stein, Gurwitsch, Scheler and Schutz. Within the last couple of years, a number of ST and\\u000a TT proponents

Dan Zahavi

324

The Phenomenological Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenological treatment of dissociative identity disorder involves (a) the demystification of dissociation, (b) the breakdown of amnesic barriers, and (c) the integration of alter conscious states. While standard treatment presupposes an understanding of the adaptive role of dissociation in mitigating childhood trauma, phenomenological method entails suspension of judgments about the patient's historical existence, bracketing of clinical theory, and cultivation of

Carl P. Ellerman

1998-01-01

325

Using AGENDA for qualitative data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized approaches to qualitative analysis have lagged significantly behind comparable developments in quantitative analysis. AGENDA, a PC-based, free-form database package, manipulates text as data, performs the basic tasks of qualitative data analysis, and satisfies the criteria of computerized field research methods. AGENDA's contributions to qualitative research outweigh its limitations.

Terance J. Wolfe

1990-01-01

326

CONFRONTING THE ETHICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we question the “ethicism” that often permeates the discourse on qualitative research, that is, the implicit idea that qualitative research is ethically good in itself, or at least ethically superior to the uncaring quantitative approaches. In order to throw light on the ethics of qualitative interviews in contemporary consumer societywhat has also been called “the interview society”we

SVEND BRINKMANN; STEINAR KVALE

2005-01-01

327

QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR REHABILITATION RESEARCH 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research methodology focuses on individuals' lived experiences as they are presented in thoughts, ideas, feelings, attitudes and perceptions. In addition, the research approach emphasizes human behaviour and social inter- action. It explores the quality of a phenomenon, not the quantity. This article outlines the major characteristics of qualitative research methodology and gives applications and examples. The aim of qualitative

Ann Ohman

2005-01-01

328

Qualitative Reasoning about Population and Community Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Traditional approaches to ecological modeling, based on mathematical equations, are hampered by the qualitative nature of ecological knowledge. In this article, we demonstrate that qualitative rea- soning provides alternative and productive ways for ecologists to develop, organize, and implement models. We present a qualitative theory of popula- tion dynamics and use this theory to capture and simulate commonsense theories

Paulo Salles; Bert Bredeweg

2004-01-01

329

Phenomenological regularities pertinent to development of brittle local fractures at high-temperature creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions under which brittle fractures occur in the elements of power equipment operating at high-temperature creep are analyzed. New local fracture criteria are proposed. An engineering method for predicting the lifetime of power equipment on the basis of a phenomenological model of brittle local fractures is developed. The use of the proposed criteria and phenomenological approach allows the lifetime of operating and newly designed power installations to be predicted with essentially better accuracy.

Lanin, A. A.

2013-01-01

330

Towards a Phenomenological Theory of Violence: Reflections Following Merleau-Ponty and Schutz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper lays the groundwork for developing a thorough-going phenomenological description of different phenomena of violence\\u000a such as physical, psychic and structural violence. The overall aim is to provide subject-centered approaches to violence within\\u000a the social sciences and the humanities with an integrative theoretical framework. To do so, I will draw primarily on the phenomenological\\u000a accounts of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and

Michael Staudigl

2007-01-01

331

Pediatric intensive care nurses and their grief experiences: A phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe the grief experience of pediatric intensive care nurses when their patients die.DESIGN: Heideggerian phenomenological approach; nonprobability, purposive sampling; semistructured interviews; data analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenology.SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit within a Canadian pediatric metropolitan university teaching hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Six registered nurses, currently working in the pediatric intensive care unit, who had experienced the death of at

Judy Rashotte; Frances Fothergill-Bourbonnais; Marie Chamberlain

1997-01-01

332

Observation and phenomenology of glueballs  

SciTech Connect

The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

Lindenbaum, S.J.

1985-01-01

333

[Dealing with the phenomenological interview with prostitutes: experience report].  

PubMed

This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the phenomenological interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of approaching the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the phenomenological interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life. PMID:20552844

Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza

334

The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective  

PubMed Central

There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions.

Pies, Ronald

2008-01-01

335

Qualitative Action Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension to action systems is presented facilitating the modeling of continuous behavior in the discrete domain. The original action system formalism has been developed by Back et al. in order to describe parallel and distributed computations of discrete systems, i.e. systems with discrete state space and discrete control. In order to cope with hybrid systems, i.e. systems with continuous evolution and discrete control, two extensions have been proposed: hybrid action systems and continuous action systems. Both use differential equations (relations) to describe continuous evolution. Our version of action systems takes an alternative approach by adding a level of abstraction: continuous behavior is modeled by Qualitative Differential Equations that are the preferred choice when it comes to specifying abstract and possibly non-deterministic requirements of continuous behavior. Because their solutions are transition systems, all evolutions in our qualitative action systems are discrete.

Aichernig, Bernhard K.; Brandl, Harald; Krenn, Willibald

336

Phenomenology of heavy quark systems  

SciTech Connect

The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

Gilman, F.J.

1987-03-01

337

Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking  

SciTech Connect

We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2008-09-05

338

Deflected mirage mediation: a phenomenological framework for generalized supersymmetry breaking.  

PubMed

We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a "deflected" scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. PMID:18851205

Everett, Lisa L; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M

2008-09-04

339

The scope for qualitative methods in research and clinical trials in dementia.  

PubMed

In the evaluation of drugs, the randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial is the 'gold standard'. This method, based on a positivist paradigm, answers questions about efficacy and side-effects of treatments that are accepted as valid, reliable and generalisable, provided the study is well designed and properly conducted. In contrast, qualitative research methodologies, originating from the social sciences, embrace a variety of approaches, including phenomenological and other paradigms. Within clinical and health services research, qualitative approaches view the world more subjectively, acknowledging that the researcher is part of what is researched, focusing on meanings and understanding of experience, rather than on what can be reduced to quantitative measures. They can develop new ideas through induction from data, rather than confirming or refuting hypotheses. Qualitative methods have improved our understanding of the experiences of people with dementia and, if used alongside clinical trials, could be used to improve the relevance of outcomes to patients, compliance and user involvement. They could also possibly generate new measures of efficacy and effectiveness in severe dementia. PMID:15226116

Gibson, Grant; Timlin, Alison; Curran, Stephen; Wattis, John

2004-07-01

340

A phenomenological study of nursing faculty's experiences in transitioning from a classroom to an online teaching role  

Microsoft Academic Search

As universities increasingly offer online nursing education, the transition that faculty members must make to their new instructional role is often overlooked. This phenomenological qualitative research involved the use of semi-structured interviews with 16 nursing faculty from four Florida public universities, who were asked to describe their experiences transitioning from classroom to online teaching. Interview questions focused on their prior

Denise A Passmore

2009-01-01

341

A Phenomenological Exploration of Mandatory Parental or Guardian Involvement with an At-Risk Student Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perception of parent or guardian involvement from a constructivist viewpoint during intervention programs located in Hampton 2 and Pickens counties. The current study involved 15 interviews via three sets of participants, six parents, five teachers and four administrators.…

Mason, Julia Christina

2010-01-01

342

Understanding the Influences of Parenting a Child with Oppositional Defiant Disorder on the Marital Relationship: A Phenomenological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a phenomenological framework this qualitative study explored the experience of parenting a child with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and its influence on the marital relationship. Eight intact married couples with children previously diagnosed with ODD were interviewed to assess each couple’s communication, non-sexual and sexual intimacy, conflict management, conflict avoidance, parenting disagreement related conflict, religious faith and practice, and

Jimmy Kyle Myers

2007-01-01

343

A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Educational, Vocational and Social Experiences of College Educated Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who are visually impaired have significantly lower educational and vocational success rates than their nondisabled peers (Hasazi, Johnson, Hasazi, Gordon, & Hull, 1989; Nagle, 2001). A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to explore the educational, vocational and social experiences of college educated individuals who were…

Joseph, Mary-Anne M.

2010-01-01

344

"Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

2005-01-01

345

Phenomenology of elastic energy loss  

SciTech Connect

The unexpectedly strong suppression of high p{sub T} heavy quarks in heavy-ion collisions has given rise to the idea that partons propagating through a medium in addition to energy loss by induced radiation also undergo substantial energy loss due to elastic collisions. However, the precise magnitude of this elastic energy-loss component is highly controversial. Although for a parton inside a medium it is surprisingly difficult to define the difference between elastic and radiative processes rigorously, the main phenomenological difference is in the dependence of energy loss on in-medium path length: in a constant medium radiative energy loss is expected to grow quadratically with path length, elastic energy loss linearly. In this article, we investigate a class of energy-loss models with such a linear path-length dependence and demonstrate that they are incompatible with measured data on hard hadronic back-to-back correlations where a substantial variation of path length is probed. This indicates that any elastic energy-loss component has to be small.

Renk, Thorsten [Department of Physics, P. O. Box 35, University of Jyvaeskylae, FI-40014 (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland)

2007-12-15

346

Phenomenology of the CAH+ measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CAH+ measure regulates the infinite spacetime volume of the multiverse by constructing a surface of constant comoving apparent horizon (CAH) and then removing the future light cones of all points on that surface (the latter prescription is referred to by the + in the name of the measure). This measure was motivated by the conjectured duality between the bulk of the multiverse and its future infinity and by the causality condition, requiring that the cutoff surfaces of the measure should be spacelike or null. Here we investigate the phenomenology of the CAH+ measure and find that it does not suffer from any known pathologies. The distribution for the cosmological constant ? derived from this measure is in a good agreement with the observed value, and the distribution for the number of inflationary e-foldings satisfies the observational constraint. The CAH+ measure does not exhibit any “runaway” behaviors at zero or negative values of Lambda, which have been recently shown to afflict a number of other measures.

Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

2011-12-01

347

Heterotic Phenomenology of SU(3) Manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating the effects of flux compactifications, such as moduli fixing and supersymmetry breaking, in the E8xE8 heterotic string theory is an important problem both from the theoretical and phenomenological points of view. Since there is a dearth of fluxes in heterotic strings, one way of including fluxes is by considering the internal manifold to be a six dimensional SU(3) manifold. In this talk we focus mainly on a subclass of SU(3) manifolds known as half-flat manifolds. First we consider the ten dimensional solution of the form R^1,2 xZ7, where R^1,2 is a three dimensional Minkowski space-time and Z7 is a non-compact G2 holonomy manifold. Half-flat manifolds can be thought of as hypersurfaces in Z7, and the above construction then implies that the four dimensional effective action that follows from compactification on a half-flat manifold breaks the E8xE8 group down to E6xE8, as in the standard embedding on Calabi-Yau compactifications. Recently, this result was also found by Gurrieri, Lukas and Micu independently using a different approach. In this talk we shall present aspects of the low-energy effective action emphasizing the ten dimensional geometric origin. We shall conclude by mentioning some observations about extending our methods and results to more general SU(3) manifolds.

Ali, Tibra; Cleaver, Gerald

2008-04-01

348

Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.

Sotiriou, Thomas P.

2007-10-01

349

Receiving group clinical supervision: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

This study examined the process of group supervision as experienced by one team of biofeedback therapists working in the south of England. A phenomenological study was undertaken to examine the team's perceptions of attending group supervision over time. Ten one-to-one in-depth interviews were conducted, six of which were with biofeedback therapists currently receiving supervision, three with nurses who used to receive this supervision and one interview with the supervisor. A four-stage model detailing how supervisees' experiences changed as a consequence of continued group supervision was developed. Study data revealed how this process allowed the biofeedback therapists to examine their clinical interventions and align their approach and perspective alongside other team members. This was a valuable and safe way of learning 'on the job' for the newer members of the team. The opportunity for free-thinking and reflection on practice supported clinical decision-making and therapeutic nursing. The more experienced supervisees demonstrated how their continued attendance of the group supervision sessions not only confirmed their expertise in role, but also facilitated their colleagues' development, which enhanced role satisfaction. The data also indicated some of the essential supervisory features of this process. PMID:24005656

Taylor, Claire

2013-08-01

350

Discussions of Diversity in a Classroom: A Phenomenological Study of Students in an MFT Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions about diversity, particularly race, gender, religion and spirituality, and sexual orientation, in marriage and\\u000a family therapy courses can generate emotional responses in students and professors that vary from shame to anger. These discussions\\u000a are necessary to help students understand diverse families as well as how one’s biases can affect his\\/her clinical work. Our\\u000a qualitative study consisted of phenomenological interviews,

Ben Beitin; Robin Duckett; Pam Fackina

2008-01-01

351

Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

2007-01-01

352

A phenomenological finite element model of stereolithography processing  

SciTech Connect

In the stereolithography process, three dimensional parts are built layer by layer using a laser to selectively cure slices of a photocurable resin, one on top of another. As the laser spot passes over the surface of the resin, the ensuing chemical reaction causes the resin to shrink and stiffen during solidification. When laser paths cross or when new layers are cured on top of existing layers, residual stresses are generated as the cure shrinkage of the freshly gelled resin is constrained by the adjoining previously-cured material. These internal stresses can cause curling in the compliant material. A capability for performing finite element analyses of the stereolithography process has been developed. Although no attempt has been made to incorporate all the physics of the process, a numerical platform suitable for such development has been established. A methodology and code architecture have been structured to allow finite elements to be birthed (activated) according to a prescribed order mimicking the procedure by which a laser is used to cure and build-up surface layers of resin to construct a three dimensional geometry. In its present form, the finite element code incorporates a simple phenomenological viscoelastic material model of solidification that is based on the shrinkage and relaxation observed following isolated, uncoupled laser exposures. The phenomenological material model has been used to analyze the curl in a simple cantilever beam and to make qualitative distinctions between two contrived build styles.

Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.

1996-03-01

353

Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies En=20-1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical

Shen Qing-Biao; Feng da-Chun; Zhuo Yi-Zhong

1991-01-01

354

Experiments in phenomenological electrodynamics and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microscopic and the macroscopic (phenomenological) approach to the electromagnetic theory in matter can be looked upon as complementary to each other. In view of the complexity of the deductive microscopic approach it is desirable to use experimental information to test the predictions of the more simple macroscopic theory. The purpose of the present paper is to review and give

I. Brevik

1979-01-01

355

Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: a qualitative approach 1 1 This study was funded by a research grant from the Research Committee of the University of Thessaly (code 2603)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To provide further information regarding factors associated with students’ intrinsic motivation in physical education using a qualitative approach.Design and Methods. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with secondary physical education students who were selected from a pool of 254 students on the basis of their score on relevant questionnaires.Results. Analyses of interview transcripts revealed that factors associated with intrinsic motivation

Maria Hassandra; Marios Goudas; Stiliani Chroni

2003-01-01

356

Confirmation and qualitative evidence-instances: justifying the use of qualitative research methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a preliminary attempt in outlining the directions for a new approach in confirming qualitative research findings. The basic argument is that traditional Confirmation Theory may be applied to establish a firmer epistemological foundation for the acceptance of hypotheses within qualitative-ethnographic research. While all aspects of Confirmation Theory are not applicable to the qualitative case, because the probability

Steven I. Miller

1990-01-01

357

What is a "good outcome" in psychotherapy? A qualitative exploration of former patients' point of view.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore how former psychotherapy patients characterize "good outcome" after having completed treatment that they described as successful, in the sense that therapy had changed their lives in ways that made a difference. Semistructured qualitative depth interviews were conducted with 10 former psychotherapy patients. A hermeneutical-phenomenological approach was used to analyse interview transcripts. The former patients' descriptions of good outcome clustered around four themes: establishing new ways of relating to others; less symptomatic distress, or changes in behavioural patterns contributing to suffering; better self-understanding and insight; and accepting and valuing oneself. Interrelationships between the four components of good outcome, along with limitations and implications of the study, are discussed. PMID:19941195

Binder, Per-Einar; Holgersen, Helge; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark

2010-05-01

358

Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra dimensions, and represents a scenario that is difficult to obtain in string theory. We show that, if this scenario holds, the number of dimensions can be constrained to be larger than the number predicted by critical string theory. Searching for signals of many dimensions is then an important test of whether string theory is a good description of quantum gravity.

Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2006-03-10

359

Confined Molecules under Shear: From a Microscopic Description to Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coarse grained two-state model is derived starting from a molecular dynamics description of a molecular system under shear. This model captures the main features of the response of a confined system under shear, and generalizes the phenomenological Tomlinson model for the response of a driven system. The derivation is based on the solution of coupled microscopic equations using a mean field approximation. The two-state model agrees well with the direct numerical solution and offers a practical approach to investigate the response of sheared systems under a broad range of parameters.

Filippov, A. E.; Klafter, J.; Urbakh, M.

2001-12-01

360

The Experience of Pregnancy: A Hermeneutical/Phenomenological Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe women's experience of pregnancy. The setting was the Alternative Birth Center at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden, from 1996 to 1997. Anonymous diaries were written by 12 women and analyzed using a hermeneutical/phenomenological approach. The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown,” which includes three themes: (1) meeting one's life situation, (2) meeting something inevitable, and (3) preparing for the unknown.The essential structure and interpretation of women's experience of pregnancy can be expressed as “transition to the unknown” …

Lundgren, Ingela; Wahlberg, Vivian

1999-01-01

361

Theory and phenomenology of sparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ch. 1. Supersymmetry: why and how. 1.1. History and motivation. 1.2. Quadratic divergence and unnaturalness. 1.3. Naturalness, nonrenormalization, supersymmetry -- ch. 2. Preliminaries. 2.1. Grassmann elements and variables. 2.2. Supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. 2.3. Glimpse of superspace. 2.4. Supersymmetry and spacetime transformations -- ch. 3. Algebraic aspects. 3.1. Supersymmetry algebra. 3.2. Two component notation. 3.3. Particle supermultiplets -- ch. 4. Free superfields in superspace. 4.1. General superfield in superspace. 4.2. Chiral covariant derivatives. 4.3. Left and right chiral superfields. 4.4. Vector superfields. 4.5. Matter parity and R-parity -- ch. 5. Interacting superfields. 5.1. System of interacting chiral superfields. 5.2. Abelian gauge interactions. 5.3. Supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED). 5.4. Nonabelian gauge interactions. 5.5. Supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SQCD). 5.6. Supersymmetric chiral gauge theory (S[symbol]GT) -- ch. 6. Superspace perturbation theory and supergraphs. 6.1. Nonrenormalization of superpotential terms. 6.2. Functional methods in superspace. 6.3. Functional formulation of superfield theory. 6.4. GRS Feynman rules for the Wess-Zumino model. 6.5. Feynman rules for nonabelian supergauge theories. 6.6. Sample one loop supergraph calculations. 6.7. The nonrenormalization theorem. 6.8. One loop infinities and [symbol]-functions. 6.9. Renormalization group evolution -- ch. 7. General aspects of supersymmetry breaking. 7.1. Initial remarks. 7.2. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking: some generalities. 7.3. The goldstino. 7.4. Model of F-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.5. Model of D-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.6. Dynamical model of supersymmetry breaking. 7.7. Soft explicit supersymmetry breaking. 7.8. The general mass sum rule -- ch. 8. Basic structure of the MSSM. 8.1. Brief review of the Standard Model. 8.2. Superfields of the MSSM. 8.3. Supersymmetric part of the MSSM. 8.4. Some non-Higgs vertices of the MSSM -- ch. 9. Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM. 9.1. The content of [symbol]SOFT. 9.2. Electroweak gauginos and higgsinos. 9.3. Chargino and neutralino interactions with gauge bosons. 9.4. Masses and mixing patterns of sfermions. 9.5. The flavor problem in supersymmetry. 9.6. Interactions of sfermions with gauge bosons. 9.7. Fermion-sfermion-gaugino/higgsino interactions. 9.8. Quartic sfermion vertices -- ch. 10. Higgs bosons in the MSSM. 10.1. Higgs potential in the MSSM. 10.2. Spontaneous breakdown and VEVs. 10.3. Higgs masses at the tree level. 10.4. Higgs-particle vertices. 10.5. Higgs-sparticle vertices. 10.6. Radiative effects on MSSM Higgs particles -- ch. 11. Evolution from very high energies. 11.1. The need for a high scale. 11.2. The running of gauge couplings in the SM and the MSSM. 11.3. Derivation of the remaining RGE equations. 11.4. Application to the MSSM -- ch. 12. Gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. 12.1. General remarks. 12.2. N=l supergravity broken in the hidden sector. 12.3. mSUGRA and its parameters. 12.4. Phenomenology with mSUGRA. 12.5. Beyond mSUGRA. 12.6. Quantum effects and extra dimensions. 12.7. Annex to Ch.12: A brief discussion of N=1 supergravity theory -- ch. 13. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. 13.1. The basic ingredients. 13.2. The minimal model mGMSB. 13.3. Nonminimal messenger sector. 13.4. The [symbol] and B[symbol] problems. 13.5. Direct messenger-matter coupling. 13.6. Flavor symmetries for the GMSB scenario -- ch. 14. Beyond the MSSM. 14.1. Motivation and outline. 14.2. The next-to-the-minimal supersymmetric standard model. 14.3. Introduction to imparity violation. 14.4. Phenomenological limits on trilinear [symbol] couplings. 14.5. Bilinear [symbol] violation. 14.6. Neutrino masses in supersymmetric theories -- ch. 15. Supersymmetry at colliders. 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Signals of charginos and neutralinos. 15.3. Signals of sleptons. 15.4. Signals of gluinos and squarks. 15.5. The quest for supersymmetric Higgs bosons. 15.6. Collider signals in the presence of [symbol] violation -- ch. 16. Supers

Drees, M.; Godbole, Rohini M.; Roy, Probir

362

Getting Started in Qualitative Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, we introduce strategies and procedures for collecting and analyzing qualitative data and discuss other aspects of qualitative research such as the role of theory. There are multiple traditions of qualitative research, each with its own methods and terminology. Here, we provide a generic approach to qualitative research that is consistent with most qualitative research traditions. This article consists of nine sections: 1) Introduction, 2) Research Questions and Study Design, 3) Collecting Data, 4) Processing Data, 5) Coding and Analyzing Data, 6) Multiple Representations and Making Inferences, 7) Theoretical perspectives, 8) An Illustration of the Research Process and 9) Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research. Throughout this article, strategies and examples are provided to help researchers that are both new and veterans to Physics Education Research (PER) to get started in qualitative PER.

Otero, Valerie K.; Harlow, Danielle

2009-06-11

363

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

364

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

365

Qualitative Velocity and Ball Interception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many approaches for qualitative spatial reasoning, navigation of an agent in a more or less static environment is considered (e.g. in the double-cross calculus (12)). However, in general, real environment are dynamic, which means that both the agent itself and also other objects and agents in the environment may move. Thus, in order to perform spatial reasoning, not only

Frieder Stolzenburg; Oliver Obst; Jan Murray

2002-01-01

366

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

367

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

368

Phenomenology of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes  

SciTech Connect

Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3 {le} {omega}/{omega}{sub ci} {le} 1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y-K.M. Peng, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7 < n < 9. The polarization of the modes, measured using an array of four Mirnov coils, is found to be compressional. The frequency scaling of the modes agrees with the predictions of a numerical 2-D code, but the detailed structure of the spectrum is not captured with the simple model. The fast ion distribution function, as calculated with the beam deposition code in TRANSP [R.V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)], is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.

E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov; J. Menard

2004-05-13

369

Phenomenology of colloidal crystal electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the motion of polycrystalline solids comprising of charged sub-micron latex spheres suspended in deionized water. These were subjected to a low frequency alternating square wave electric field in an optical cell of rectangular cross section. Velocity profiles in X and Y direction were determined by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. The observed complex flow profiles are time dependent due to the combined effects of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, crystal elasticity, and friction of the crystals at the cell wall. On small time scales elastic deformation occurs. On long time scales channel formation is observed. At intermediate times steady state profiles are dominated by a solid plug of polycrystalline material moving in the cell center. At large field strengths the plug shear melts. Mobilities in the shear molten state are on the order of (6.5+/-0.5) 10-8 m2 V-1 s-1 and connect continuously with those of the equilibrium fluid. The apparent mobility of the plug is much larger than of the fluid and like the mobility of the fluid decreases with increasing particle number density. We qualitatively attribute the accelerated motion of the plug to an incomplete exposure to the electro-osmotic flow profile.

Medebach, Martin; Palberg, Thomas

2003-08-01

370

Enhancing pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's health in the infertility clinic and beyond: a phenomenological investigation of caring behaviour  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's perceptions of the essence of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers who they encountered in the clinic environment. Background Despite the ever increasing use of donor oocytes to treat infertility worldwide, little is known about the caring behaviour of nurses and other health-care providers that support and enhance the health of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Design Qualitative, descriptive interviews. Method A Husserlian phenomenological approach. Results Eight women participated in a larger phenomenological study that examined the lived experience of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Five components of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers emerged from the in-depth interviews with the women and were: being available, providing communication, exhibiting compassion, demonstrating competency and promoting empowerment. Being available was described when the participants had ongoing access to or were humanly present with nurses. The ability of nurses to provide communication and education about complex information was perceived as supportive. Nurses exhibited compassion through words and behaviours that expressed empathy and a deep understanding of the women's experience. Competency was demonstrated when a healthy pregnancy was achieved and maintained and through behaviours where a high level of technical and ethical knowledge and skill was observed. Empowerment occurred when nurses encouraged the women to engage in aspects of decision making and when a sense of control over infertility treatment and obstetrical care was promoted. Conclusions For donor oocyte recipient women, caring behaviour in the clinic environment consists of five essential components. The findings support a link between empowerment and the concept of caring. Relevance to clinical practice The dense empirical description of the women's perceptions of caring behaviour are directly applicable to clinical practice, delineating areas for improvement and providing specific data driven interventions including the development of a ‘hope box’.

Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

2010-01-01

371

Hadron mass scaling in Regge phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

The authors show that Regge phenomenology is consistent with the only scaling law for the hadron masses, M{sup *}/M = ({alpha}{prime}/{alpha}{prime}{sup *}){sup 1/2}, where asterisk indicates a finite-temperature quantity. Phenomenological models further suggest the following expression of the above scaling in terms of the temperature-dependent gluon condensate: M{sup *}/M = ({alpha}{prime}/{alpha}{prime}{sup *}){sup 1/2} = ({sup *}/){sup 1/4}.

Burakovsky, L.

1998-12-01

372

Comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the publ...

T. J. Altenbach

1995-01-01

373

Space charge phenomenology in polymeric insulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics related to space charge phenomenology, particularly the origin of space charge and its interaction with the host insulating polymer, have been widely discussed in recent years. Due to the development of reliable techniques for direct observation of space charge it is now possible to obtain, besides obvious indications on space charge and electric field magnitude and location, quantities that

G. C. Montanari; P. H. F. Morshuis

2005-01-01

374

Phenomenology of Bibliotherapy in Modifying Teacher Punitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the phenomenology of bibliotherapy and its effects in changing preservice teachers' punitive attitudes toward children. Participants (N = 29) were enrolled in a university course (Introduction to Emotional Disturbance). Five books by Torey Hayden, autobiographical accounts of teaching and building relationships with students with emotional and behavioral disorders, were read and discussed within the framework of group

Mike Marlowe; George Maycock

2000-01-01

375

Phenomenological gravitational waveforms from spinning coalescing binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate knowledge of the coalescing binary gravitational waveform is crucial for experimental searches as the ones performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. Following an earlier paper by the same authors we refine the construction of analytical phenomenological waveforms describing the signal sourced by generically spinning binary systems. The gap between the initial inspiral part of the waveform, described by spin-Taylor

R. Sturani; S. Fischetti; L. Cadonati; G. M. Guidi; J. Healy; D. Shoemaker; A. Vicere

2010-01-01

376

Phenomenological aspects of F-theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilizing a heterotic string vacuum with a large expectation value of the dilaton and simultaneously breaking low-energy supersymmetry is a long-standing problem of string phenomenology. We reconsider these issues in light of the recent developments in F-theory.

Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Louis, Jan

1998-01-01

377

Aspects of M Theory and Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is presented of selected topics, including a world-sheet\\u000aformulation of M theory, couplings and scales in M phenomenology, the perils of\\u000abaryon decay and the possible elevation of free-fermion models to true M- or\\u000aF-theory compactifications.

John Ellis

1998-01-01

378

Aspects of M Theory and Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is presented of selected topics, including a world-sheet formulation of M theory, couplings and scales in M phenomenology, the perils of baryon decay and the possible elevation of free-fermion models to true M- or F-theory compactifications.

Jonathan Richard Ellis

1999-01-01

379

The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is

David J. Muller

1998-01-01

380

Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

2010-01-01

381

A phenomenologic study of chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have seldom invited patients with chronic pain to describe their lived experiences. This phenomenologic study involved in-depth interviews with nine women and four men with nonmalignant chronic pain. The essence of participants’ experiences was unremitting torment by a force or monster that cannot be tamed. The body was altered and recalcitrant, the life world was shrunken, and the pain

Sandra Thomas; M. Johnson

2000-01-01

382

Phenomenological study of the polarized lepto production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this note we make a phenomenological study of the recent EMC data on polarized structure function g(sub 1)(sup P)(x). Using general principles like Regge behaviour and positivity we derive simple parametrizations for quark and gluon polarized distribut...

P. Chiappetta G. Girardi

1989-01-01

383

A Phenomenological Study of School Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This phenomenological study of school consolidation is an investigation of how education policy that dictates the reorganization of schools and districts impacts educational choices, learning environments, and school culture. Although quality studies of optimal school size for promoting student achievement and cutting costs have emerged in the…

Nitta, Keith; Holley, Marc; Wrobel, Sharon

2008-01-01

384

Humor in nursing practice: a phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humor is an important but underutilized resource in nurse-patient interaction. The multidimensional value of humor in providing nursing care has recently begun to receive attention. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the meaning of nurses' use of humor in their nursing practice. Twenty-one registered nurses enrolled in a graduate nursing program described in detail an experience they

Cheryl Tatano Beck

1997-01-01

385

OCD in Bahrain: a Phenomenological Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients with a primary diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were studied during the course of the year 1994 from a phenomenological point of view in order to delineate the various forms and contents of obsessions and compulsions.An attempt was made to highlight the frequency with which the different forms and contents occur. Six types of obsessions were identified: doubts,

A. Shooka; M. K. Al-Haddad; A. Raees

1998-01-01

386

A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

2012-01-01

387

Moral Friction, Moral Phenomenology, and the Improviser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation offers a phenomenology of that mode of self-interpretation in which it becomes possible for an interpreter to intentionally participate in the production of moral norms to which the interpreter himself or herself feels bound. Part One draws on Richard Rorty's notion of the \\

Benjamin Scott Young

2012-01-01

388

Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the…

Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

2010-01-01

389

Phenomenological Evidence for Two Types of Paranoia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Two types of paranoia have been identified, namely persecution (or ‘Poor Me’) paranoia, and punishment (or ‘Bad Me’) paranoia. This research tests predicted differences in phenomenology – specifically, in person evaluative beliefs, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and anger. Method: Fifty-three people with current paranoid beliefs were classified as Poor Me, Bad Me, or neither (classification was reliable). Key dependent variables

P. D. J. Chadwick; P. Trower; T.-M. Juusti-Butler; N. Maguire

2005-01-01

390

Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b?=?3.688, P?=?0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b?=?6.847, P<0.001). Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b?=?1.776, P?=?0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the appearance of specific guidelines and editorials/methodological papers on the subject, are independently associated with the publication of original qualitative research; irrespective of the journals' impact factor.

Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

2011-01-01

391

Qualitative accounts of urban commuter cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the live experiences of urban commuter cycling (UCC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In semi-structured interviews, participants described day-to-day experiences of UCC in a single English city. Verbatim transcripts were coded using the themes of time, space, body and human relations, and interpreted through the principles of hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings – The nine

J. McKenna; M. Whatling

2007-01-01

392

Transition from Higher Education to National Health Service for Visually Impaired Physiotherapists: An Interpretative Phenomenological Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This idiographic study aims to hear the voices of a small group of visually impaired physiotherapists to explore their lived experience of transition from higher education (HE) into employment. The findings are based on six semi-structured interviews analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Participants were visually impaired…

Atkinson, Karen; Hutchinson, Jane Owen

2013-01-01

393

Investigating Cognitive Processes within a Practical Art Context: A Phenomenological Case Study Focusing on Three Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A phenomenological approach was employed in order to record and present the lived experiences of three students during a five-hour art-making activity. Theoretical definitions of cognitive processes pertinent to art and design were compared with the descriptions gathered from the students. The research was intended to portray as accurately as…

Hickman, Richard; Kiss, Lauren

2013-01-01

394

Student Nurses’ Experience of Experiential Teaching and Learning: towards a phenomenological understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the use of a phenomenological research methodology to investigate the influence on clinical practice of pre? and post?registration nurse education which makes explicit use of experiential teaching and learning approaches. The primary aims of the research were: first, to examine the learners’ understanding of experiential teaching and learning, and, secondly, to examine the claims made for

Anita J. Green; David G. Holloway

1996-01-01

395

Using Phenomenology to Understand Experiences of Racism for Second-Generation South Asian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to describe the lived experiences of racism for second-generation Canadian women of South Asian descent and how this affected their identity. Six adult co-researchers shared their experiences of what occurred when faced with racism. A phenomenological approach was employed, out of which five categories…

Beharry, Pauline; Crozier, Sharon

2008-01-01

396

The Octagon Model of Volunteer Motivation: Results of a Phenomenological Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual motivation is the core of the actualization and continuity in voluntary work from both the standpoint of theoretical research and practical volunteerism. Volunteer motivation also provides an excellent research area for investigating the wider sociological theme of late-modern participation. This study, based on the data from 18 interviews, explores volunteer motivation utilizing a phenomenological approach to individual experience and

Anne Birgitta Yeung

2004-01-01

397

Recovery Experiences of Taiwanese Women after Terminating Abusive Relationships: A Phenomenology Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the recovery experiences of women who had suffered intimate partner violence in Taiwan. A phenomenological study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample of eight women. Colaizzi's approach to narrative analysis was applied. Findings indicate that "reconstructing the self"…

Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching

2013-01-01

398

Leaving the intensive care unit: a phenomenological study of the patients’ experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge from intensive care (ICU), is said to pose difficulties for patients; a phenomenon referred to as “relocation stress”. However, this phenomenon has not been fully examined, particularly from the critical care patients’ perspective. This study, therefore, explored the lived experience of transfer from ICU to the ward. Phenomenology, based on the interpretative Heideggerian approach was used to guide the

Aidin A. McKinney; Pat Deeny

2002-01-01

399

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

Wells, James D.

2000-12-14

400

Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

2006-01-01

401

Qualitative Kinematics of Linkages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important aspect of qualitative spatial reasoning is understanding mechanisms. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of motion for mechanical linkages. In particular, we describe how to analyze the behavior of a mechanism which has a movable axis....

H. Kim

1990-01-01

402

Phenomenology of light quark jet quenching in AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore phenomenological signatures of light quark jet quenching within the AdS/CFT correspondence. Firstly, we note that the numerical studies indicate a linear path dependence of the instantaneous energy loss of light quarks modeled as falling strings. Secondly, we propose a phenomenological model for generic description of their energy loss and use it to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA for light quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions. Comparing with the light hadron RAA data at the LHC, a qualitative agreement is shown. Thirdly, we show how the observed quantitative disagreement can be partially alleviated by including the effects from higher derivative corrections to AdS5.

Ficnar, Andrej; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

2013-09-01

403

The Influence of Practice Standards on Massage Therapists' Work Experience: A Phenomenological Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This original research is framed in phenomenological methodology, based on interviews conducted and interpreted using qualitative research methods. The findings suggest that, because of both direct and indirect factors (such as the nebulous nature of the work, general isolation in work conditions, and physical concerns), massage therapists perform their work with multiple sources of ambiguity that are potentially anxiety-causing. Licensing offers potential relief for this anxiety, but also generates a new set of frustrations and work concerns. The new concerns include the potential that practice will change to adapt to non-relevant standards and the difficulty of defining a body of work that frequently defies a “one size fits all” categorization. This pilot study suggests several areas for further exploration and also demonstrates the generativity of phenomenological methodology for research related to massage therapy.

Fortune, Luann D.; Gillespie, Elena

2010-01-01

404

The experience of watching dance: phenomenological–neuroscience duets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses possible correspondences between neuroscientific findings and phenomenologically informed methodologies\\u000a in the investigation of kinesthetic empathy in watching dance. Interest in phenomenology has recently increased in cognitive\\u000a science (Gallagher and Zahavi 2008) and dance scholars have recently contributed important new insights into the use of phenomenology in dance studies (e.g.\\u000a Legrand and Ravn (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

Corinne Jola; Shantel Ehrenberg; Dee Reynolds

405

Feminist Phenomenology and the Woman in the Running Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern phenomenology, with its roots in Husserlian philosophy, has been taken up and utilised in a myriad of ways within different disciplines, but until recently has remained relatively underused within sports studies. A corpus of sociological-phenomenological work is now beginning to develop in this domain, alongside a longer-standing literature in feminist phenomenology. These specific social-phenomenological forms explore the situatedness of

Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson

2011-01-01

406

An expansion for neutrino phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a formalism for constructing the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix and neutrino masses using an expansion that originates when a sequence of heavy right handed neutrinos are integrated out, assuming a seesaw mechanism for the origin of neutrino masses. The expansion establishes relationships between the structure of the PMNS matrix and the mass differences of neutrinos, and allows symmetry implications for measured deviations from tri-bimaximal form to be studied systematically. Our approach does not depend on choosing the rotation between the weak and mass eigenstates of the charged lepton fields to be diagonal. We comment on using this expansion to examine the symmetry implications of the recent results from the Daya-Bay collaboration reporting the discovery of a non zero value for ? 13, indicating a deviation from tri-bimaximal form, with a significance of 5.2 ?.

Grinstein, Benjamín; Trott, Michael

2012-09-01

407

Partial least squares methods for spectrally estimating lunar soil FeO abundance: A stratified approach to revealing nonlinear effect and qualitative interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial least squares (PLS) regressions were applied to lunar highland and mare soil data characterized by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) for spectral estimation of the abundance of lunar soil chemical constituents FeO and Al2O3. The LSCC data set was split into a number of subsets including the total highland, Apollo 16, Apollo 14, and total mare soils, and then PLS was applied to each to investigate the effect of nonlinearity on the performance of the PLS method. The weight-loading vectors resulting from PLS were analyzed to identify mineral species responsible for spectral estimation of the soil chemicals. The results from PLS modeling indicate that the PLS performance depends on the correlation of constituents of interest to their major mineral carriers, and the Apollo 16 soils are responsible for the large errors of FeO and Al2O3 estimates when the soils were modeled along with other types of soils. These large errors are primarily attributed to the degraded correlation FeO to pyroxene for the relatively mature Apollo 16 soils as a result of space weathering and secondary to the interference of olivine. PLS consistently yields very accurate fits to the two soil chemicals when applied to mare soils. Although Al2O3 has no spectrally diagnostic characteristics, this chemical can be predicted for all subset data by PLS modeling at high accuracies because of its correlation to FeO. This correlation is reflected in the symmetry of the PLS weight-loading vectors for FeO and Al2O3, which prove to be very useful for qualitative interpretation of the PLS results. However, this qualitative interpretation of PLS modeling cannot be achieved using principal component regression loading vectors.

Li, Lin

2008-12-01

408

TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Background The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and auditing of standards for IPC provision and practice, adequate TB training for both staff and patients, and the establishment of a cross-cultural communication strategy, including rapid access to interpreters.

2011-01-01

409

Proceedings, phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomenology and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1991, was sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Materials Science, the Advanced Studies Program on High Temperature Superconductivity Theory (ASP), and the Exploratory Research and Development Center. This is the second symposium in the series. High Temperature Superconductivity, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1989, also published by Addison Wesley, focused on the cutting-edge theoretical and experimental issues in high temperature superconductors. This symposium, with its focus on the phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors, gives a complementary review of the aspects of the field closely related to the impact of high temperature superconductors on technology. The objective of ASP is to advance the field on a broad front with no specific point of view by bringing a team of leading academic theorists into a joint effort with the theoretical and experimental scientists of a major DOE national laboratory. The ASP consisted of fellows led by Robert Schrieffer (UCSB and now FSU) joined by David Pines (University of Illinois), Elihu Abrahams (Rutgers), Sebastian Doniach (Stanford), and Maurice Rice (ETH, Zurich) and theoretical and experimental staff of Los Alamos National Laboratory. This synergism of academic, laboratory, theoretical, and experimental research produced a level of interaction and excitement that would not be possible otherwise. This publication and the previous one in the series are just examples of how this approach to advancing science can achieve significant contributions.

Bedell, K. S.

410

Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

Oseguera, A. Anthony

411

‘There's always this sense of failure’: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of primary care counsellors' experiences of working with the borderline client  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explores the experiences of five primary care counsellors working in the NHS with clients identified as diagnosable with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants completed a semi-structured interview about their experiences of clinical work with BPD clients. Interview transcripts were analysed via Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and three master-themes were identified: recognition and implications; managing feelings of inadequacy;

Rosemary Rizq

2011-01-01

412

Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his ``cognitive immunology''. The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of ``Process Being'' self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

Kazansky, Alexander B.

2004-08-01

413

Phenomenology of microwave coupling, part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity like objects, or the so called back door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry. Coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. The initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz) are summarized.

King, R. J.; Breakall, J. K.; Hudson, H. G.; Morrison, J. J.; McGevna, V. G.; Kunz, K. S.; Ludwigsen, A. P.; Gnade, D. K.

1984-11-01

414

The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person: A phenomenological-hermeneutic study  

PubMed Central

This qualitative focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner's injury. The study revealed how the injury was experienced from the partners’ perspective through the aftermath. In the acute phase after the injury, partners also felt harmed, and support was needed in relation to their own daily activities, eating, resting, and managing distress. During the institutionalized rehabilitation, partners felt torn between supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own.

Buus, Niels

2011-01-01

415

Phenomenological Z2 lattice gauge theory of the spin-liquid state of the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a phenomenological Z2 lattice gauge theory to describe the spin-liquid state of the S=(1)/(2) kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the sector with zero total spin. The model is a natural generalization of the Misguich-Serban-Pasquier Hamiltonian with added interactions that are strongly constrained by lattice symmetries. We are able to reproduce qualitatively many of the characteristic features observed in recent numerical studies. We also make connections to the previous works along similar lines.

Wan, Yuan; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

2013-03-01

416

Warped Phenomenology of Higher-Derivative Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the phenomenological implications at colliders for the existence of higher-derivative gravity terms as extensions to the Randall-Sundrum model. Such terms are expected to arise on rather general grounds, e.g. ,f rom string theory. In 5-d, if we demand that the theory be unitary and ghost free, these new contributions to the bulk action are uniquely of the Gauss-Bonnet

Thomas G. Rizzoa

417

String phenomenology in the era of LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-energy supersymmetry phenomenology for specific classes of string compactifications is investigated given that the low-energy physics may provide a clue as to the structure of the fundamental theory at high energy scales. The one-parameter model (OPM), a highly constrained subset of minimal Supergravity where all the soft-supersymmetry breaking terms may be fixed in terms of the gaugino mass, is

James A. Maxin

2010-01-01

418

Superconductivity in PdH: phenomenological explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on PdHx(D) at 300 K shows electrical resistivity ? lower than that of the pure Pd for stoichiometry x=H\\/Pd close to the unit. At this stoichiometric value x=1 a Tc of 9 K and higher Tc for x>1 have been measured. In these systems Tc increases with stoichiometry x, hence a phenomenological description of the ? for highly

Paolo Tripodi; Daniele Di Gioacchino; Jenny Darja Vinko

2004-01-01

419

Phenomenological theory of bistability in polariton diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polariton diodes have been recently shown to exhibit pronounced bistability induced by the control of the light-matter coupling via an external bias and optical pumping [D. Bajoni, E. Semenova, A. Lemaître, S. Bouchoule, E. Wertz, P. Senellart, S. Barbay, R. Kuszelewicz, and J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 266402 (2008)]. In the present paper, we detail the phenomenological theory developed to describe the observed hysteresis cycles and present additional experimental data confirming the validity of the present model.

Bajoni, Daniele; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lemaître, Aristide; Barbay, Sylvain; Kuszelewicz, Robert; Bloch, Jacqueline

2010-08-01

420

Skilled Coping And Sport: Promises Of Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenology holds much potential to make meaningful contributions to research on sport. In this paper, I argue that concepts such as equipment, habit and readiness-at-hand will help to uncover heretofore unexamined strands of athletic embodiment. Through an examination of the work of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Hubert Dreyfus I take some initial steps towards outlining not only

Bryan Hogeveen

2011-01-01

421

On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this

Félix Darve; François Nicot

2005-01-01

422

Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-02-01

423

Oral mucositis: a phenomenological study of pediatric patients’ and their parents’ perspectives and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal  The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe children’s and their parents’ lived experiences of\\u000a oral mucositis (OM) and to explore their needs in relation to OM.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 children who had experienced WHO grade ??2 OM during chemotherapy\\u000a within the previous 6 months. Parents from each family were also interviewed in the

Karis Kin-fong Cheng

2009-01-01

424

Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

Mashhadi, Azam

425

Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

2011-01-01

426

Qualitative Analysis of Heterosexual Women's Experience of Sexual Pain and Discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this qualitative analysis, the author explored heterosexual women's accounts of the lived experience of sexual pain and discomfort. The author's aim was to expand theoretical and empirical knowledge in the area of female sexual dysfunction by providing a detailed description of the subjective experience of female sexual concerns. Empirical phenomenological methodology was used to analyze the data generated during

Olga Sutherland

2012-01-01

427

A qualitative study of the experience of parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent–toddler group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent–toddler group. Semi?structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three ‘superordinate themes’, each of which captures a certain aspect of the parents' experiences of attending the toddler

Maria Barros; Annabel Kitson; Nick Midgley

2008-01-01

428

Rivers' Confluence: A Qualitative Investigation into Gifted Educators' Experiences with Collaboration with School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the lack of information in either the school counseling or the gifted education fields on how school counselors and educators of the gifted work together, research into how individuals from both professions collaborate to serve gifted students and their families becomes important. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to…

Wood, Susannah M.

2012-01-01

429

Exploring the Use of Poetry in Counselor Training and Supervision: A Qualitative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the use poetry in counselor training and supervision. Over the course of a semester, counseling students enrolled in either a practicum or internship class were taken through a series of poetry-based activities. Ten students volunteered to participate in the study. Using a qualitative research design rooted in phenomenology and…

McNichols, Christine D.

2010-01-01

430

The use of self-help books during the divorce process: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study reflects the principles of hermeneutic phenomenology and narrative theory. It explored the essences (themes) of the meaning of recommending or reading self-help books by therapists and divorced adults during the divorce process. Participants told their stories during small group interviews of three or four participants.^ Themes discovered from the therapist small group interviews were Discrepant Time, Practical

Mary Kay Schwartz Kruse

1998-01-01

431

On Being JewishA Qualitative Study of Identity Among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants’ developmental history and current experience of being Jewish in Britain today: (a) early influences on Jewish

Jennifer Sinclair; David Milner

2005-01-01

432

Computational Properties of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

. While the computational properties of qualitative temporalreasoning have been analyzed quite thoroughly, the computational propertiesof qualitative spatial reasoning are not very well investigated. Infact, almost no completeness results are known for qualitative spatialcalculi and no computational complexity analysis has been carried outyet. In this paper, we will focus on the so-called RCC approach and useBennett's encoding of spatial reasoning

Bernhard Nebel; Universits Ulm

1995-01-01

433

Conceptualising Qualitative Research in Curriculum Studies: an international study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is becoming increasingly popular amongst curriculum subject specialists and this is noticeable amongst geographical educators seeking alternative approaches to conducting studies concerned with complex human phenomena. It has not been ascertained just what conception geographical educators have of qualitative research. In this paper we seek to address the questions: What is the experience of qualitative research possessed by

Rod Gerber; Michael Williams; Ove Biilmann

1995-01-01

434

Nuance, Complexity, and Context: Qualitative Methods in Genetic Counseling Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its potential for capturing complexity and process and its focus on communicating the meaning in human action, qualitative research is rapidly gaining acceptance in a wide variety of disciplines. Various qualitative approaches to research support its potential usefulness in genetic counseling research. Formulation of research questions and selection of appropriate qualitative methods are the first step. Interviewing, narrative

Diane Beeson

1997-01-01

435

Being a qualitative researcher.  

PubMed

This article, from a keynote address, is the result of some of the things which I learned about qualitative research during my many years of doing and teaching it. The main point I make is that qualitative researchers should present a good story which is based on evidence but focused on meaning rather than measurement. In qualitative inquiry, the researchers' selves are involved, their experiences become a resource. Researchers cannot distance themselves from the other participants, although they cannot fully present their meaning and experience. I also discuss voice, paradigm, and innovation as potentially problematic issues in qualitative research. These are terms often used but not always examined for their meaning in qualitative inquiry. If researchers are aware and sensitive, rather than overemotional or self-absorbed, qualitative research can be enlightening, person-centered, and humanistic. PMID:21266705

Holloway, Immy; Biley, Francis C

2011-01-25

436

Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

2012-01-01

437

From Ritual to RelationshipA person-centred approach to consent in qualitative research with older people who have a dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasingly relevant debate around consent, particularly around persons with a dementia, across research and practice. This article will begin by critically reviewing the traditional competency-based approach to informed consent in research with older people who have dementia. Currently, most researchers are not describing how persons with dementia are included in the consent process other than through an

Jan Dewing

2002-01-01

438

Praphase concept for the phenomenological description of magnetoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex cascades of phase transitions with the alternation of antiferromagnetic, incommensurate, and magnetoelectric phases are observed in most crystals having magnetoelectric properties. The entire variety of observed phase transitions in numerous recent works is described by introducing several order parameters which are sequentially "condensed" with a decrease in temperature. The possibility of introducing the praphase concept into consideration to reduce the number of order parameters and interpret rich phase diagrams due to the smaller number of instabilities is demonstrated by the examples of MnWO4 and CuO magnetoelectrics. This approach is also used in the phenomenological description of the phase transitions in the BiFeO3 ferroelectromagnetic with the cubic phase of the perovskite structure as a starting point.

Sakhnenko, V. P.; Ter-Oganessian, N. V.

2012-01-01

439

Postmaterialism, new environmental paradigm and ecocentric approach: A qualitative and quantitative study of environmental attitudes of Turkish senior high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to elucidate the determinant factors that affect environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey and the origins of these EAs. Over nine hundred students from different school types, neighborhoods, geographical regions, social-economic backgrounds participated in the questionnaire based surveys which are called the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) and the General Attitudes and Perceptions (GAP), and twenty of those students were interviewed as well. Survey results show that EAs of students vary depending on school type, gender, parents' education levels and professions, and household income. Normal public high school students, females, lower-middle class students, students with well educated parents in white collar professions, and student with liberal parents have more pro-environmental attitudes than the others. With regard to school type, students from public technical high school (vocational school), almost all of which are based on single-sex education, have scored the lowest on both surveys which are the NEP and the GAP. The results from the qualitative portion are as follows: Students' perceptions about the environment and related issues are limited to their local habitat. Although the mean scores of students on both surveys do not differ to a statistically significant extent depending on geographical regions, interviews show that participants from different regions have distinct priorities, which range from poverty to sea pollution. Even though students' first priority in their lives is education, education is perceived as a mechanism to achieve a more prosperous life rather than an end in itself. Almost all interview participants agree on the importance of education in shaping EAs. Interestingly, some interviewees (four out of ten males) also comment that a man's sense of his own masculinity can be threatened when confronted by another man to change his attitude towards the environment.

Taskin, Ozgur

440

Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.  

PubMed

Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis. PMID:19642962

Liamputtong, Pranee

2009-08-01

441

Qualitative methods in environmental health research.  

PubMed Central

Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices.

Brown, Phil

2003-01-01

442

Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.  

PubMed

Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry. PMID:23718744

Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

2013-05-30

443

Examination of pain experiences of cancer patients in Western Turkey: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the individual experience of living with cancer pain. This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data and a qualitative Colaizzi method of analysis was performed. Following the analysis of the data, the expressions made by the cancer patients during the interviews were grouped under 5 themes. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 5 themes and 19 subthemes of responses were determined describing the pain of the cancer patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that cancer patients go through negative physical, psychological, and social experiences due to the pain they suffered. PMID:24121701

Korhan, Esra Akin; Yildirim, Yasemin; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Uslu, Ruçhan

444

Visualizing Qualitative Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

Slone, Debra J.

2009-01-01

445

Quality in Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

Clive Seale

1999-01-01

446

Teaching Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

Delyser, Dydia

2008-01-01

447

Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a.

Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

2012-01-01

448

Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on 'strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems'. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO's Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO's six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a. PMID:23066520

Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

2012-08-22

449

Sampling in Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal.

LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

2011-01-01

450

Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao

2000-04-01

451

Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao

2000-02-25

452

Phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions  

SciTech Connect

We discuss phenomenological extraction of Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) from experimental data. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. TMDs reveal three-dimensional distribution of partons inside polarised nucleon. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised experiments using Spin Asymmetries in particular Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs). We discuss transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon.

Prokudin, Alexei [Jefferson Lab,12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2011-10-24

453

Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

1985-08-01

454

A phenomenological thermodynamic potential for potassium niobate  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological thermodynamic potential in form of an eight-order polynomial of the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire (LGD) expansion has been determined for a bulk potassium niobate (KNbO3) single crystal. Such potential is tested by calculating the structural and ferroelectric properties including polarizations, dielectric constants, lattice constants, and phase transition temperatures as well as their shifts under the hydrostatic pressure. The fitted LGD energy expansion coefficients can be used in the phase-field model to explain and predict ferroelectric properties of the bulk and thin film KNbO3.

Liang, Linyun; Li, Yulan; Chen , L.Q.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Lu, Guang-Hong

2009-02-20

455

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

456

Qualitative analysis of biochemical reaction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative analysis of biochemical reaction systems is presented. A discrete event systems approach is used to represent and analyze bioreaction pathways. The approach is based on Petri nets, which are particularly suited to modeling stoichiometric transformations, i.e. the inter-conversion of metabolites in fixed proportions. The properties and methods for the analysis of Petri nets, along with their interpretation for

Venkatramana N. Reddy; Michael N. Liebman; Michael L. Mavrovouniotis

1996-01-01

457

"Don’t wait for them to come to you, you go to them". A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Methods Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group) or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Results Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent’s awareness of ‘what works’ and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the ‘social’ rather than the ‘health’ benefits of walking. Conclusions Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and motivation within disengaged sedentary communities. Walking promotion professionals require better training and resources to deliver appropriate recruitment strategies to reach priority groups.

2012-01-01

458

Phenomenology and model building with supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a very brief and non-technical introduction to supersymmetry phenomenology we consider several different scenarios where a symmetry between fermions and bosons enhances our understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe. First we consider phenomenological applications to B-physics experiments, where the presence of superpartners are shown to be capable of accounting for anomalous CP-asymmetries measured in b ? s transitions. In particular, with an SO(10) SUSY-GUT strong correlations exist between measurements in the Bd and Bs system through the generation of right-handed new physics operators. Beyond B-physics, supersymmetry may be responsible for proton decay even without a grand unified theory, giving a window onto physics at the Planck scale. We move on to consider an exciting new model of a supersymmetric, composite Higgs boson, dubbed the Fat Higgs. In this framework the special; exactly proven properties of supersymmetric theories help us construct a model with a heavy Higgs boson that results from strong dynamics but still allows for the incorporation of flavor physics. Finally, the stringent constraints of supersymmetric theories are further exploited in the study of supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics, demonstrating in particular the similarities between the symmetry breaking patterns of supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric color superconductivity.

Larson, Daniel Todd

459

Superstring compactification and low-energy phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We have presented some aspects of Superstring compactification from 10 to 4 dimensions and the effect of different types of compactification of the extra 6 dimensions on the low energy physics. We have reviewed the consequences of demanding the extra 6 dimensions to form a manifold as well as an N = 1 Supersymmetry at low energies. While doing this we have also highlighted some of the fundamental phenomenological problems like proton decay and neutrino mass and their possible solutions. The dissertation includes a description of the method of calculation of discrete symmetries and Yukawa couplings between different fermions and mirror fermions in these kinds of manifold compactification. The explicit calculations for one particular case with three fermion generations is presented. The reasons for the necessity of an intermediate scale of symmetry breaking (between Plank scale and the electro-weak scale) are explained and one particular scenario of such symmetry breaking which preserves Supersymmetry is given. We have studied the effect of E{sub 6} singlets on F-flatness and on the phenomenology.

Mohapatra, P.K.

1987-01-01

460

Pattern-Forming Instabilities: A Phenomenological Approach through Simple Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the streets of clouds to the submarine sand ripples or the striations on the coats of some animals, nature offers many examples of spontaneous patterned structures originating from various instabilities. These patterns can in turn destabilize and show a rich, complex dynamics and possibly end up in disordered behaviours. For over 20 years,…

Brunet, Philippe

2007-01-01

461

What Determines the Nature of Gravity? A Phenomenological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational field can only be explored through the motion of test objects. To achieve this one first has to set up the correct equations of motion. Initially these equations are based on Newton’s laws. Corresponding experiments that support Newton’s laws are described. Furthermore, the basic characteristics of the motion of test objects in gravitational fields are described. This leads to the notion of Einstein’s Equivalence Principle which has as consequence a metric theory of gravity. One particular metric theory is General Relativity based on Einstein’s field equations with its particular predictions for effects like periastron advance, light deflection, etc. An overview over the experimental confirmation of General Relativity, in particular those presented at this workshop, is given. This workshop summary ends with open problems. We also describe some of the strategies for the experimental search for a quantum gravity theory.

Lämmerzahl, Claus

2009-12-01

462

The phenomenology of life phenomena--in a nursing context.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe and develop knowledge about life phenomena in a life-philosophical and nursing context. Knowledge about life phenomena is part of a care-ethical understanding with a focus on relations. Life phenomena are to be understood as a generalized label for the various phenomena which are given with human existence. The Danish life philosophical tradition with the perspective of life as experienced has something to say in relation to a further refinement of the phenomenology of life phenomena. The refinement will be described as an ethical and existential understanding of the phenomena of nursing. The first part of the article takes a philosophical approach to the phenomenology of life phenomena. It attempts to locate life phenomena in relation to, respectively, needs, senses, and feelings. In order to maintain an overview, the attempt is made to separate needs, senses, and feelings, although in real life these are closely interwoven. The article also describes philosophy and life phenomena in relation to nursing as an empirical field. In nursing there is a risk that life phenomena become invisible to those whose task is to help the ill person adjust to a new life situation. For the nurse, it will be a continuing task, never completed, to develop a sensory-based, situation-determined attention to the patient. And the nurse must be continually aware of whether mere 'need-oriented' nursing is controlling her professional actions as a nurse. Taking a point of departure in the nurse's sensory, situationally determined attention, the last part of the article focuses on needs, senses, and feelings in connection with the nurse being able to direct her attention to the patient's life phenomena. PMID:16965305

Delmar, Charlotte

2006-10-01

463

Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering and Dirac Phenomenology: What We Have Learned and What Remains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now generally recognized that the Dirac equation is a viable alternative to the usual Schrödinger equation approach for analyzing nucleon-nucleus scattering data. This paper reviews the development of Dirac phenomenology, stressing how closely this development has been tied to experiment. In addition we discuss a new method for extracting neutron densities from intermediate energy elastic proton-nucleus scattering observables uses a global Dirac phenomenological (DP) approach based on the Relativistic Impulse Approximation (RIA). Data sets for 40Ca, 48Ca and 208Pb in the energy range from 500 MeV to 1040 MeV are used. The global fits reproducing the data well and this allows one to obtain the proton and neutron densities, their root-mean-square radii, Rp and Rn, and the neutron skin thickness, Sn = Rn - Rp.

Clark, B. C.; Kerr, Lisa K.; Hama, S.

2005-05-01

464

Phenomenological investigations in high-altitude EMP (HEMP)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the presently available state-of-the-art analysis tools and extensions of these that are applicable to enhancing our understanding of the interaction and coupling phenomena associated with the high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and its effects on military systems. Such an in-depth understanding would provide the framework for a more scientific approach to system testing and hardening. In the report, we also briefly review past research programs in this area and evaluate the degree of their success. The emphasis in system assessment tools is placed on a probabilistic failure analysis approach that can provide a framework for vulnerabilities assessment and hardening. In coupling the emphasis is placed on a phenomenological understanding which involves a multifaceted approach involving analytical, computational, and experimental techniques in a complementary way. In component susceptibility, the emphasis is on the development of validated one, two and possibly three dimensional computer models that include the major physical phenomena such as heat and electronic transport equations. A gap exists in being able to express physics quantities in these codes in terms of nonlinear circuit parameters that can be used in the circuit codes.

Cabayan, H.S. (ed.)

1984-07-01

465

The Qualitative Exploration of Process-Sensitive Peer Group Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this article are to present a model of peer group supervision and highlight findings from a qualitative exploration of this approach with master's-degree students in counseling and doctoral candidate supervisors. Based on previous approaches, a process-sensitive peer group supervision (PSPGS) model was developed to incorporate group process dynamics and supervision concepts. Results from a qualitative investigation of

Teresa M. Christensen; William B. Kline

2001-01-01

466

Towards Distillation Process Supervision using Qualitative Model-Based Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a contribution to Qualitative Reasoning for distillation process supervision. Initial results using a Qualitative Physics to model physical systems have been encouraging, but scaling the approach to realistic problems does not appear as straightforward as initially expected. An approach based on Transfer Function theory is proposed with an application study to a computer simulation of a distillation

S. E. Feray-Beaumont; M. T. Tham; A. J. Morris

1991-01-01

467

"What is Found There"1: Qualitative Analysis of Physician-Nurse Collaboration Stories  

PubMed Central

Background Effective physician–nurse collaboration is an important, but incompletely understood determinant of patient and nurse satisfaction, and patient safety. Its impact on physicians has not been described. This study was undertaken to develop a fuller understanding of the collaboration experience and its outcomes. Methods Twenty-five medical residents, 32 staff nurses, 5 physician and 5 nurse faculty wrote narratives about successful collaboration; the narratives were then qualitatively analyzed. Narrative analysis was the initial qualitative method iteratively employed to identfy themes. A phenomenological approach was subsequently used to develop a framework for collaborative competence. Results Collaboration triggers, facilitative behaviors, outcomes and collaborative competence were the themes identified. Affect was identified in the triggers leading to collaboration and in its outcomes. Practioners typically entered a care episode feeling worrried, uncertain or inadequate and finished the interaction feeling satisfied, understood and grateful to their colleagues. The frequency of affective experience was not altered by gender, profession, or ethnicity. These experiences were particularly powerful for novice practioners of both disciplines and appear to have both formative and transformative potential. Collaborative competence was characterized by a series of graduated skills in clinical and relational domains. Many stories took place in the ICU and afterhours settings. Conclusions Despite the prevailing wisdom that nursing and medicine are qualitatively different, the stories from this study illuminate surprising commonalities in the collaboration experience, regardless of gender, age, experience, or profession. Collaborative competence can be defined and its component skills identified. Contexts of care can be identified that offer particularly rich opportunities to foster interprofessional collaboration.

Morse, Diane S.; Glessner, Theresa; Gardner, Kathryn

2008-01-01

468

A high-latitude phenomenological model of auroral precipitation and ionospheric effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological approach was taken to model the behavior of the high latitude ionosphere in support of data generated by spectrophotometric images taken by satellites. The model, based on the collected particle precipitation data, incorporates expressions for the differential energy distribution and spatial extent and temporal variations of auroral electron precipitation in the 0.35 keV- 1 MeV range during substorm

K. L. Miller; R. R. Vondrak

1985-01-01

469

Exploring Informational Privacy Perceptions in the Context of Online Social Networks: A Phenomenology Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper presents a conceptual framework of informational privacy dimensions and its elements in the context of social networks\\u000a that derived from the understanding of the user’s perceptions based on a focus group interview. Phenomenology approach is\\u000a adopted as it enables us to discover the lived experiences of the people involved rather using a survey or a self reported\\u000a attitude

Emma Mior Ibrahim; Mior Ibrahim

470

A phenomenological model to represent the kinetics of growth by Corynebacterium glutamicum for lysine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corynebacterium glutamicum is commonly used for lysine production. In the last decade, several metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully\\u000a applied to C. glutamicum. However, only few studies have been focused on the kinetics of growth and lysine production. Here, we present a phenomenological\\u000a model that captures the growth and lysine production during different phases of fermentation at various initial dextrose

Kalyan Gayen; K. V. Venkatesh

2007-01-01

471

Appreciating phenomenology and feminism: Researching quiltmaking and communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion The effort to “appreciate” phenomenology and feminism in the study of quiltmaking discourse self-reflexively joins a philosophy of experience with a politics of women's experiences. At the same time it reveals method to be an embodied practice which involves knowledge as power, and it discovers power relations between researchers and the researched within particular contexts and relationships. For phenomenology,

Kristin M. Langellier

1994-01-01

472

Conflict Experience: A Phenomenological Study among Young People in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to investigate how young people in Sweden experience conflicts. The study is phenomenological, which means that the focus is on the essence of the investigated experience. Data have been collected by self-reports and analyzed with the help of an empirical phenomenological method. The research process has resulted in…

Szklarski, Andrzej

2007-01-01

473

Hegel, Alienation, and the Phenomenological Development of Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it has long been recognized that the concept ‘alienation’ plays a crucial role in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and indeed his overall philosophical project, too often commentators simply note its importance without providing an in-depth discussion of this important concept. I aim to remedy this by providing an extended discussion of the role that alienation plays in the phenomenological

Gavin Rae

2012-01-01

474

A Critical Background of PHILCOM: Phenomenology and Marxism  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHILCOM was conceived as a free-space for engaging in the development of a philosophy of communication, welcoming all. Two major strands of continental philosophy fueled the inception of PHILCOM: Marxism and Phenomenology and its critique of the human sciences. If Marxism and Phenomenology have taught us anything it is not to forget our origins. Such forgetting often condemns us to

Joe Pilotta

2005-01-01

475

Micro-electromechanically informed phenomenological constitutive models for ferroelectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate phenomenological constitutive laws for ferroelectric ceramics that can be rapidly integrated are required for finite element models aiming to resolve the complex fields in ferroelectric devices. At best, phenomenological theories can provide a framework within which thermodynamic restrictions are satisfied and undetermined functions exist for \\

Chad M. Landis; Jianxin Wang; Jianshun Sheng

2003-01-01

476

Reflections on the Use of a Phenomenological Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers reflections on the use of a phenomenological method in the exploration of the experience of taking part in extreme sport. A phenomenological method was chosen in an attempt to gain some understanding of the meaning and significance of an embodied experience. The paper presents a brief account of the process and outcome of the research. This is

Carla Willig

2007-01-01

477

How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The education system needs strategies to attract future scientists and practitioners. There is an alarming decline in the number of students choosing science subjects. Reasons for this include the perceived complexity and the lack of effective cognitive tools that enable learners to acquire the expertise in a way that fits its qualitative nature. The DynaLearn project utilises a "Learning by modelling" approach to deliver an individualised and engaging cognitive tool for acquiring conceptual knowledge. The modelling approach is based on qualitative reasoning, a research area within artificial intelligence, and allows for capturing and simulating qualitative systems knowledge. Educational activities within the DynaLearn software address topics at different levels of complexity, depending on the educational goals and settings. DynaLearn uses virtual characters in the learning environment as agents for engaging and motivating the students during their modelling exercise. The DynaLearn software represents an interactive learning environment in which learners are in control of their learning activities. The software is able to coach them individually based on their current progress, their knowledge needs and learning goals. Within the project 70 expert models on different environmental issues covering seven core topics (Earth Systems and Resources, The Living World, Human population, Land and Water Use, Energy Resources and Consumption, Pollution, and Global Changes) will be delivered. In the context of the core topic "Land and Water Use" the Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management has developed a model on Sustainable River Catchment Management. River systems with their catchments have been tremendously altered due to human pressures with serious consequences for the ecological integrity of riverine landscapes. The operation of hydropower plants, the implementation of flood protection measures, the regulation of flow and sediment regime and intensive land use in the catchments have created ecological problems. A sustainable, catchment-wide management of riverine landscapes is needed and stated by water right acts, e.g. the European Water Framework and Floods Directive. This interdisciplinary approach needs the integration of natural riverine processes, flood protection, resource management, landscape planning, and social and political aspects to achieve a sustainable development. Therefore the model shows the effects of different management strategies concerning flood protection, restoration measures and land use. The model illustrates the wide range of ecosystem services of riverine landscapes that contribute to human well-being such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The effects of different land use strategies in the catchment are highlighted by means of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The model is used to support activities of students at the University as well as at High School within the DynaLearn Software to promote scientific culture in the secondary education system. Model fragments allow learners to re-use parts of the existing model at different levels of complexity. But learners can also construct their own conceptual system knowledge, either individually or in a collaborative setting, and using the model as a reference for comparisons of their own understanding. Of special interest for the DynaLearn project is the intended development of interdisciplinary and social skills like cooperative working, cross-linked thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and the identification of the conflicts between environment, economy, legislation, science, technology, and society. A comprehensive evaluation of the DynaLearn software is part of the project. To be effective, science education should focus on understanding scientific concepts and on application of scientific knowledge to everyday life. Conceptual knowledge of systems behaviour is crucial for society to understand and successfully interact w

Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

2010-05-01

478

Volunteering in dementia care - a Norwegian phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today. Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role. Conclusion In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual trust and freedom should be emphasized. Being conscious of important volunteer characteristics like their experiences, knowledge, and caring behavior, as well as a focus on the staff showing appreciation and providing feedback, may be the difference between success and failure.

Soderhamn, Ulrika; Landmark, Bj?rg; Aasgaard, Live; Eide, Hilde; Soderhamn, Olle

2012-01-01