Sample records for qualitative phenomenological approach

  1. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing. PMID:8038622

  2. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  3. Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Goulding

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

  4. Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the field of educational evaluation. Each approach is reviewed in terms of the work of its major proponents. The dominant forms of qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic…

  5. Teachers' Interactive Whiteboard Training in Title I Mathematics Classrooms: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of teachers at an urban Title 1 elementary school regarding the training, beliefs and use of interactive whiteboards as a resource to raise student mathematical achievement levels. The problem addressed in this qualitative phenomenological study was the…

  6. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  7. A phenomenological approach to the optoacoustic effect in discharge plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sofonea; I. I. Popescu

    1986-01-01

    A previous phenomenological model of the optogalvanic effect is extended to explain some features of the optoacoustic effect which occurs simultaneously in discharge plasmas. Theoretical results are found to be in qualitative agreement with previous experimental ones.

  8. Qualitative Phenomenological Examination of IT Project Management in Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what caused IT projects to fail at a high rate in the pharmaceutical industry. IT projects failures delayed development of new drugs that can help save lives. It was imperative to evaluate what caused project failures because the collateral damage was delay in drug development. This qualitative

  9. An Exploration of How Foster Parents Educationally Assist Foster Children: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are academically at risk as a result of abuse, neglect and family disruptions. Findings from previous studies have underscored the critical role played by foster parents in monitoring the academic progress of the children placed in the home. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify the skill…

  10. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  11. Perceptions of Women Laid off from Technology Positions: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The number of women in the information technology (IT) profession has fluctuated along with the growth of business. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions of women who had been laid off from IT positions during the economic downturn period between 2007 and 2010. The research study was designed to…

  12. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  13. Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths

    E-print Network

    Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

    2014-12-22

    Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  14. Researching embodiment in movement contexts: a phenomenological approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øyvind F. Standal; Gunn Engelsrud

    2011-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied learning, and discussing these in light of a

  15. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  16. An exploration of walking behaviour—An interpretative phenomenological approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine D. Darker; Michael Larkin; David P. French

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a rich and detailed account of participants’ experiences of walking using the qualitative method of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were a snowball sample of 10 members of the UK general public, aged 25–35 years, with equal numbers of males and females. Participants reported walking as not being “proper” exercise, and that it

  17. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    PubMed

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective. PMID:24761600

  18. Differentiating between descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches.

    PubMed

    Matua, Gerald Amandu; Van Der Wal, Dirk Mostert

    2015-07-01

    Aim To provide insight into how descriptive and interpretive phenomenological research approaches can guide nurse researchers during the generation and application of knowledge. Background Phenomenology is a discipline that investigates people's experiences to reveal what lies 'hidden' in them. It has become a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts. Phenomenology has transitioned from descriptive phenomenology, which emphasises the 'pure' description of people's experiences, to the 'interpretation' of such experiences, as in hermeneutic phenomenology. However, nurse researchers are still challenged by the epistemological and methodological tenets of these two methods. Data sources The data came from relevant online databases and research books. Review methods A review of selected peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2013 was conducted using CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. In addition, selected textbooks that addressed phenomenology as a philosophy and as a research methodology were used. Discussion Evidence from the literature indicates that most studies following the 'descriptive approach' to research are used to illuminate poorly understood aspects of experiences. In contrast, the 'interpretive/hermeneutic approach' is used to examine contextual features of an experience in relation to other influences such as culture, gender, employment or wellbeing of people or groups experiencing the phenomenon. This allows investigators to arrive at a deeper understanding of the experience, so that caregivers can derive requisite knowledge needed to address such clients' needs. Conclusion Novice nurse researchers should endeavour to understand phenomenology both as a philosophy and research method. This is vitally important because in-depth understanding of phenomenology ensures that the most appropriate method is chosen to implement a study and to generate knowledge for nursing practice. Implications for research/practice This paper adds to the current debate on why it is important for nurse researchers to clearly understand phenomenology as a philosophy and research method before embarking on a study. The paper guides novice researchers on key methodological decisions they need to make when using descriptive or interpretive phenomenological research approaches. PMID:26168810

  19. Towards qualitative approaches to multistage decision making

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    Towards qualitative approaches to multi­stage decision making H'el`ene Fargier, J'erâ??ome Lang and R Intelligence community towards the foundations and computational methods of decision making under uncertainty into the planning paradigm; but up to now, they have focussed on ``classical'' models for decision making, based

  20. Towards qualitative approaches to multistage decision making

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    Towards qualitative approaches to multi­stage decision making R'egis Sabbadin, H'el`ene Fargier, fargier, langg @irit.fr Abstract In this paper we propose a generalisation to multi­stage decision making methods of decision making under uncertainty. This is especially relevant for applications to planning

  1. Reasoning composite beliefs using a qualitative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bon K. Sy

    1991-01-01

    A Bayesian network is a knowledge representation technique for use in expert system development. The probabilistic knowledge encoded in a Bayesian network is a set of composite hypotheses expressed over the permutation of a set of variables (propositions). Ordering these composite hypotheses according to their a posteriori probabilities can be exponentially hard. This paper presents a qualitative reasoning approach which

  2. Expression of Emotions through Art: A Phenomenological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasson, Cheryl G.

    This paper examines phenomenological approaches to studying expressions of emotions through art. The author begins her discussion by defining the terms in the title. Expressions are controlled, deliberate gestures. Emotions are sensations which involve appraisals of something. Art is something consciously controlled by the artist. The creation of…

  3. Phenomenological approaches of inflation and their equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Ramírez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we analyze two possible alternative and model-independent approaches to describe the inflationary period. The first one assumes a general equation of state during inflation due to Mukhanov, while the second one is based on the slow-roll hierarchy suggested by Hoffman and Turner. We find that, remarkably, the two approaches are equivalent from the observational viewpoint, as they single out the same areas in the parameter space, and agree with the inflationary attractors where successful inflation occurs. Rephrased in terms of the familiar picture of a slowly rolling, canonically normalized scalar field, the resulting inflaton excursions in these two approaches are almost identical. Furthermore, once the Galactic dust polarization data from Planck are included in the numerical fits, inflaton excursions can safely take sub-Planckian values.

  4. A modest proposal for another phenomenological approach to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled "The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology." This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straight jacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  5. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  6. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  7. College Student Success: A Qualitative Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Ralph Mario; Padilla, Raymond V.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study highlighted student perspectives on barriers to success at a community college located in a south Texas city. The study examined barriers to student success, the knowledge that successful students possess to overcome the barriers, and the actions that successful students undertake to overcome the barriers. Padilla's (2004)…

  8. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  9. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  10. Dark Matter Profiles in Clusters of Galaxies: a Phenomenological Approach

    E-print Network

    Yinon Arieli; Yoel Rephaeli

    2003-01-14

    There are some basic differences between the observed properties of galaxies and clusters and the predictions from current hydrodynamical simulations. These are particularly pronounced in the central regions of galaxies and clusters. The popular NFW (Navarro, Frenk, and White) profile, for example, predicts a density cusp at the center, a behavior that (unsurprisingly) has not been observed. While it is not fully clear what are the reasons for this discrepancy, it perhaps reflects (at least partly) insufficient spatial resolution of the simulations. In this paper we explore a purely phenomenological approach to determine dark matter density profiles that are more consistent with observational results. Specifically, we deduce the gas density distribution from measured X-ray brightness profiles, and substitute it in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation in order to derive the form of dark matter profiles. Given some basic theoretical requirements from a dark matter profile, we then consider a number of simple profiles that have the desired asymptotic form. We conclude that a dark matter density profile of the form 1/(1+r/r_a)^3 is most consistent with current observational results.

  11. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  12. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design provides an overview of the five main traditions of qualitative research. The author explains the uniqueness of each approach and its applicability to different types of inquiry. Illustrative examples from public health and social science fields are provided. The book details study design, question development, data collection and analysis, and summarizing and interpreting results, and how the research process differs according to each approach. This resource can serve as a useful guide for public health practitioners and graduate-level students interested in the theory and practice of rigorous qualitative research. PMID:25835019

  13. High School Teachers' Experience of Student Behavior Problems: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Gillet, Kyle S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the findings of a qualitative study exploring high school teachers' perceptions of student behavior problems. Four focus groups, each including four to eight teachers, were conducted through major school districts in two Southwestern states (Texas and Arizona). Descriptive phenomenology was used to identify patterns and…

  14. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

  15. A General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David R.

    2006-01-01

    A general inductive approach for analysis of qualitative evaluation data is described. The purposes for using an inductive approach are to (a) condense raw textual data into a brief, summary format; (b) establish clear links between the evaluation or research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data; and (c) develop a…

  16. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  17. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

  18. A fuzzy-logic-based approach to qualitative modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michio Sugeno; Takahiro Yasukawa

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a general approach to quali- tative modeling based on fuzzy logic. The method of qualitative modeling is divided into two parts: fuzzy modeling and linguistic approximation. It proposes to use a fuzzy clustering method (fuzzy c-means method) to identify the structure of a fuzzy model. To clarify the advantages of the proposed method, it also shows some

  19. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The University Student's Studies within the Lifeworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greasley, Kay; Ashworth, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The "Approaches to Studying Inventory" (ASI) was based on qualitative research by Marton and Saljo, which established "surface" and "deep" approaches to study. This article attempts a new qualitative explication of the meanings of study. A heuristic due to Husserl is employed which distinguishes between the "noema", the "subjective object" of…

  20. Constructive integration of learning theory and phenomenological approaches to biofeedback training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avram J. Zolten

    1989-01-01

    Two major sources of theoretical development for biofeedback as an intervention paradigm are considered. An integration of cognitive learning theory approaches to the potential regulation of autonomic processes in an information-processing framework and the phenomenological information-processing approach of Kelly's personal construct theory suggest a new methodological paradigm for biofeedback as a tool of psychotherapeutic intervention, especially for the discipline of

  1. The Sociopolitical Importance of Genetic, Phenomenological Approaches to Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science…

  2. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  3. A Heideggerian Phenomenology Approach to Higher Education as Workplace: A Consideration of Academic Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heidegger's early works provide his most important contribution to our understanding of being, while his discussion of the effects of technology on that being in his later works is one of his best known contributions. I use his phenomenological approach to understanding the workplace and then, from a range of potential applications, choose to…

  4. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  5. On a New Approach to Meson Phenomenology with the Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Carina; Hilger, Thomas; Gómez-Rocha, María; Krassnigg, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    We investigate capabilities of the effective interaction in a rainbow-ladder truncated meson model of QCD within a covariant Landau-gauge Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach. Based upon past success for the light- as well as heavy-quark domains, we discuss the range of applicability and features of an effort with comprehensive phenomenological claim and goals.

  6. Analyzing large free-response qualitative data sets — a novel quantitative-qualitative hybrid approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Light; Ken Yasuhara

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative analysis tends to be unwieldy for large data sets yet is an indispensable tool for understanding how and why phenomena occur. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a method that is credible yet economical for large, specific, qualitative data sets. The strength of our hybrid, qualitative-quantitative method comes from using automated text analysis techniques to focus

  7. Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Häkkinen, Jukka; Nyman, Göte

    2007-02-01

    Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 60 participants after a subjective audiovisual quality evaluation experiment. The assessment compared several, relatively low audio-video bitrate ratios with five different television contents on mobile device. In the analysis, methodological triangulation (grounded theory, Bayesian networks and correspondence analysis) was applied to approach the qualitative quality. The results showed that the most important evaluation criteria were the factors of visual quality, contents, factors of audio quality, usefulness - followability and audiovisual interaction. Several relations between the quality factors and the similarities between the contents were identified. As a research methodological recommendation, the focus on content and usage related factors need to be further examined to improve the quality evaluation experiments.

  8. Qualitative networks: a symbolic approach to analyze biological signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Marc A; Henzinger, Thomas A; Fisher, Jasmin

    2007-01-01

    Background A central goal of Systems Biology is to model and analyze biological signaling pathways that interact with one another to form complex networks. Here we introduce Qualitative networks, an extension of Boolean networks. With this framework, we use formal verification methods to check whether a model is consistent with the laboratory experimental observations on which it is based. If the model does not conform to the data, we suggest a revised model and the new hypotheses are tested in-silico. Results We consider networks in which elements range over a small finite domain allowing more flexibility than Boolean values, and add target functions that allow to model a rich set of behaviors. We propose a symbolic algorithm for analyzing the steady state of these networks, allowing us to scale up to a system consisting of 144 elements and state spaces of approximately 1086 states. We illustrate the usefulness of this approach through a model of the interaction between the Notch and the Wnt signaling pathways in mammalian skin, and its extensive analysis. Conclusion We introduce an approach for constructing computational models of biological systems that extends the framework of Boolean networks and uses formal verification methods for the analysis of the model. This approach can scale to multicellular models of complex pathways, and is therefore a useful tool for the analysis of complex biological systems. The hypotheses formulated during in-silico testing suggest new avenues to explore experimentally. Hence, this approach has the potential to efficiently complement experimental studies in biology. PMID:17408511

  9. Ferroelectricity in asymmetric metal-ferroelectric-metal heterostructures: a combined first-principles-phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Tagantsev, A K; Setter, N

    2007-05-18

    We present an approach to the size effect problem in ferroelectric-electrode systems which combines first-principles calculations and phenomenological theory. The parameters of the model can be extracted from calculations on ultrathin films, while experimentally verifiable predictions can be made on thick films. We illustrate the approach for the case of SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostructures with asymmetric interfaces. This enables us to provide a quantitative description of a number of manifestations of such asymmetry in films of technologically meaningful thickness. PMID:17677739

  10. Self-Disturbance in Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Approach to Better Understand Our Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob; Postmes, Lot; Goedhart, Saskia; Sno, Herman N.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological approach explains the apparently unintelligible experiences of patients with schizophrenia as a disruption of the normal self-perception. Patients with schizophrenia suffer from a decline of “me,” the background core of their experiences. Normally tacit experiences intrude into the forefront of their attention, and the sense that inner-world experiences are private diminishes. These patients lose the sense that they are the origin of their thoughts and actions; their self-evident network of meanings and a solid foundation of life disintegrate. Subsequently, their experiential world is transformed, alienated, intruded, and fragmented. In this article, a phenomenological investigation of the self-experiences and actions of 4 patients with schizophrenia is presented. PMID:23724352

  11. Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

  12. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all three groups. PMID:26163035

  13. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  14. A computational approach to qualitative analysis in large textual datasets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  15. A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

  16. Barriers to Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southall, Kenneth; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to describe and better understand barriers to accessing low vision rehabilitation services. Methods: A qualitative description research paradigm was employed. Focus group participants were recruited through their involvement in the Montreal Barriers Study in Montreal, Canada. Six focus groups (n = 21 participants)…

  17. Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: Phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2005-05-01

    Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed.

  18. The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

  19. Towards a structured approach to building qualitative reasoning models and simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Bredeweg; Paulo Salles; Anders Bouwer; Jochem Liem; Tim Nuttle; Eugenia Cioaca; Elena Nakova; Richard Noble; Ana Luiza Rios Caldas; Yordan Uzunov; Emilia Varadinova; Andreas Zitek

    2008-01-01

    Successful transfer and uptake of qualitative reasoning technology for modelling and simulation in a variety of domains has been hampered by the lack of a structured methodology to support formalisation of ideas. We present a framework that structures and supports the capture of conceptual knowledge about system behaviour using a qualitative reasoning approach. This framework defines a protocol for representing

  20. To Learn More about Learning: The Value-Added Role of Qualitative Approaches to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    As we face increasing accountability in higher education, how we measure student learning should exceed the calls for an account of learning that places students at the center. Qualitative approaches to assessment and theoretical underpinnings gleaned from the qualitative research tradition may provide a way that we can support a more holistic…

  1. Plenty of Blame to Go Around: A Qualitative Approach to Attribution of Moral Responsibility

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    Plenty of Blame to Go Around: A Qualitative Approach to Attribution of Moral Responsibility Emmett Tomai Ken Forbus Qualitative Reasoning Group Northwestern University 2133 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL with several senses; the one of interest in this process is referred to by Shaver as "moral accountability

  2. Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

  3. [Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a phenomenological approach].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. Phenomenology was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were approached. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning. PMID:23887790

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  5. Data driven approaches vs. qualitative approaches in climate change impact and vulnerability assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebisch, Marc; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Petitta, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade the scope of climate change science has broadened significantly. 15 years ago the focus was mainly on understanding climate change, providing climate change scenarios and giving ideas about potential climate change impacts. Today, adaptation to climate change has become an increasingly important field of politics and one role of science is to inform and consult this process. Therefore, climate change science is not anymore focusing on data driven approaches only (such as climate or climate impact models) but is progressively applying and relying on qualitative approaches including opinion and expertise acquired through interactive processes with local stakeholders and decision maker. Furthermore, climate change science is facing the challenge of normative questions, such us 'how important is a decrease of yield in a developed country where agriculture only represents 3% of the GDP and the supply with agricultural products is strongly linked to global markets and less depending on local production?'. In this talk we will present examples from various applied research and consultancy projects on climate change vulnerabilities including data driven methods (e.g. remote sensing and modelling) to semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches. Furthermore, we will discuss bottlenecks, pitfalls and opportunities in transferring climate change science to policy and decision maker oriented climate services.

  6. A phenomenological approach to normal form modeling: a case study in laser induced nematodynamics

    E-print Network

    C. Toniolo; G. Russo; S. Residori; C. Tresser

    2005-03-03

    An experimental setting for the polarimetric study of optically induced dynamical behavior in nematic liquid crystal films has allowed to identify most notably some behavior which was recognized as gluing bifurcations leading to chaos. This analysis of the data used a comparison with a model for the transition to chaos via gluing bifurcations in optically excited nematic liquid crystals previously proposed by G. Demeter and L. Kramer. The model of these last authors, proposed about twenty years before, does not have the central symmetry which one would expect for minimal dimensional models for chaos in nematics in view of the time series. What we show here is that the simplest truncated normal forms for gluing, with the appropriate symmetry and minimal dimension, do exhibit time signals that are embarrassingly similar to the ones found using the above mentioned experimental settings. The gluing bifurcation scenario itself is only visible in limited parameter ranges and substantial aspect of the chaos that can be observed is due to other factors. First, out of the immediate neighborhood of the homoclinic curve, nonlinearity can produce expansion leading to chaos when combined with the recurrence induced by the homoclinic behavior. Also, pairs of symmetric homoclinic orbits create extreme sensitivity to noise, so that when the noiseless approach contains a rich behavior, minute noise can transform the complex damping into sustained chaos. Leonid Shil'nikov taught us that combining global considerations and local spectral analysis near critical points is crucial to understand the phenomenology associated to homoclinic bifurcations. Here this helps us construct a phenomenological approach to modeling experiments in nonlinear dissipative contexts.

  7. Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duobliene, Lilija

    2013-01-01

    The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

  8. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  9. Understanding factors influencing Latina women's screening behavior: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Torres, Essie; Erwin, Deborah O; Treviño, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand influential factors associated with decisions to obtain breast or cervical cancer screening by diverse Latinas after attending a community-based educational program. Forty-five interviews were conducted in Arkansas, New York City and Buffalo, New York. Thematic data analyses were conducted to understand influential factors following from the intervention. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: Social Capital, Screening Utilization, Health Care Provider (HCP) Communication and Social Networks. Social Capital included resources, access or screening knowledge women had prior to participation in the program and new resources and contacts gained through the program that influenced care seeking. Screening Utilization factors included past health experiences and participation in the program. HCP Communication included perceptions of quality of care and communication issues with HCPs that positively and negatively impacted screening. Social Networks included women's networks regarding emotional support, encouragement to discuss health issues, overall family network and how these may influence health-seeking behaviors. These findings suggest that participating in group-based health outreach programs empowered women by increasing their knowledge and awareness about the health care system and enabled them, with the tools provided, to become proactive in their health care-seeking behaviors. PMID:23131588

  10. A qualitative approach to classifying head and eye pose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Beardsley

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to classify the focus of attention of a subject who is switching his or her attention between a number of surrounding objects. The specific application is to classify, the focus of attention of a car driver as straightahead, towards the dashboard, or towards one of the mirrors. A quantitative approach to this problem requires

  11. Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

  12. Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

  13. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches to social research in human geography -- an impossible mixture?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Philip

    1998-01-01

    The author addresses the potential of a multiple-methods approach in human geography, an approach to social research which has received little explicit attention in the geographical literature to date. The relationship between epistemology and methodology is outlined, and the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative methods are described. Some problems surrounding subjectivity and objectivity in social research are also

  14. Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…

  15. Passive millimeter-wave imaging technology and phenomenology: a common denominator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger M.; Trott, Keith D.; Ewen, Doc

    1995-10-01

    Passive imaging technology has been recognized and reduced to practice for sensing targets in the battlefield environment for several decades. Most imaging is done at optical and infrared wavelengths which require favorable weather conditions. This paper describes what is on the horizon for a new imaging technology 'passive millimeter wave (PMMW) imaging' that can operate in all weather conditions. It will introduce the reader to the unique world of PMMW imaging by describing the technical approach underway at the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Advanced Guidance Division, Eglin AFB, Florida. A PMMW analytical model has been developed and a data collection/phenomenology testbed is being built to validate this model. This will be a mobile test facility that will provide the needed ground truth for an Airborne PMMW Captive Flight Test program in the FY97/98 timeframe. The thrust of this analytical model is the treatment of theoretical equations that allow low altitude imaging in and out of the millimeter wave spectral 'window' frequencies. PMMW sensors at 35, 60 (non- window), and 95 GHz are being fabricated and will be collocated on the same platform to validate this model. This testbed will be the hardware used to begin a radiometric imaging program that will serve not only military needs for advanced munition sensor development, but commercial and academic endeavors as well.

  16. A phenomenological-mathematical approach in simulating the loss in weight of chlorine during sodalite synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasculli, Antonio; Novembre, Daniela

    2012-05-01

    In a previous paper we described the results of a sodalite synthesis, performed by the mixing of metakaolinite and NaCl within an alumina crucible, heated in an oven at a temperature of 850 °C and ambient pressure. During the synthesis process, a loss of weight of the open crucible, attributed to chlorine (Cl) diffusion through the granular material contained inside the crucible, was observed. A very simple model was proposed, aimed at reproducing mathematically the experimental data behavior. Nevertheless, experimental and numerical result comparisons suggested the need for some modeling improvements. Thus, in this paper the already proposed analytical solution, based on the usual “first principles” approach, was modified through a backfitting phenomenological-analytical approach. We explored the assumptions that at the beginning of the experiment, the inventory of chlorine was completely or partially bound in the matrix, and that it was transformed into a gas free to diffuse only gradually over the transient. In addition, we explored the effect of full or partial variability in time of the diffusion coefficient. The apparent delay in the release of chlorine gas through the matrix mixture could be justified by an incomplete heating of the crucible at 850 °C and/or by some structure change of the mixture during the synthesis processes, eventually resulting in changes of diffusion coefficient values. The influences of the actual measurement process on the mathematical modeling setting, in particular the removal of some quantity of substance for diffractometer analysis, are also discussed. The final numerical results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. Finally, it is worth noting that, notwithstanding the proposed methodology is addressed to the specific problem, it could have application in different fields.

  17. Phenomenological contributions to understanding hypnosis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick

    2003-12-01

    This article provides a summary of the available qualitative literature on hypnosis of importance to empirical study of hypnosis. The author advocates a link between phenomenological research and the qualitative research of perceptual theory to deepen an understanding of hypnosis previously missing in the research literature and in debates on the theoretical approaches to hypnosis. The author suggests linking Giorgi's and Wasicsko's research methodologies to advance qualitative research. Researchers could conduct more qualitative research on the experience of hypnosis to expand and explicate subjective experiencing and enhance exploration of individual differences that cannot be captured in artificially controlled environments. PMID:14723451

  18. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  19. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  20. A phenomenological approach toward patient-specific computational modeling of articular cartilage including collagen fiber tracking.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Trobin, Werner; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bischof, Horst; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2009-09-01

    To model the cartilage morphology and the material response, a phenomenological and patient-specific simulation approach incorporating the collagen fiber fabric is proposed. Cartilage tissue response is nearly isochoric and time-dependent under physiological pressure levels. Hence, a viscoelastic constitutive model capable of reproducing finite strains is employed, while the time-dependent deformation change is purely isochoric. The model incorporates seven material parameters, which all have a physical interpretation. To calibrate the model and facilitate further analysis, five human cartilage specimens underwent a number of tests. A series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences is taken, next the cartilage surface is imaged, then mechanical indentation tests are completed at 2-7 different locations per sample, resulting in force/displacement data over time, and finally, the underlying bone surface is imaged. Imaging and mechanical testing are performed with a custom-built robotics-based testing device. Stereo reconstruction of the cartilage and subchondral bone surface is employed, which, together with the proposed constitutive model, led to specimen-specific finite element simulations of the mechanical indentation tests. The force-time response of 23 such indentation experiment simulations is optimized to estimate the mean material parameters and corresponding standard deviations. The model is capable of reproducing the deformation behavior of human articular cartilage in the physiological loading domain, as demonstrated by the good agreement between the experiment and numerical results (R(2)=0.95+/-0.03, mean+/-standard deviation of force-time response for 23 indentation tests). To address validation, a sevenfold cross-validation experiment is performed on the 21 experiments representing healthy cartilage. To quantify the predictive error, the mean of the absolute force differences and Pearson's correlation coefficient are both calculated. Deviations in the mean absolute difference, normalized by the peak force, range from 4% to 90%, with 40+/-25% (M+/-SD). The correlation coefficients across all predictions have a minimum of 0.939, and a maximum of 0.993 with 0.975+/-0.013 (M+/-SD), which demonstrates an excellent match of the decay characteristics. A novel feature of the proposed method is 3D sample-specific numerical tracking of the fiber fabric deformation under general loading. This feature is demonstrated by comparing the estimated fiber fabric deformation with recently published experimental data determined by diffusion tensor MRI. The proposed approach is efficient enough to enable large-scale 3D contact simulations of knee joint loading in simulations with accurate joint geometries. PMID:19725695

  1. Through the lens of Merleau-Ponty: advancing the phenomenological approach to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sandra P

    2005-01-01

    Phenomenology has proved to be a popular methodology for nursing research. I argue, however, that phenomenological nursing research could be strengthened by greater attention to its philosophical underpinnings. Many research reports devote more page space to procedure than to the philosophy that purportedly guided it. The philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty is an excellent fit for nursing, although his work has received less attention than that of Husserl and Heidegger. In this paper, I examine the life and thought of Merleau-Ponty, with emphasis on concepts, such as perception, intentionality and embodiment, which have particular relevance to the discipline of nursing. PMID:15659091

  2. Teachers' Responses to Using a Small-Group Delivery Method during Reading Instruction: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy M. Valentine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine teachers' perspectives on transitioning from a predominately whole to small-group delivery method during reading instruction. This study used a qualitative approach and nested itself in an epistemology of constructivism. The research operated under the umbrella of practice ethnography as it closely…

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Code Clone Detection Techniques and Tools: A Qualitative Approach

    E-print Network

    Cordy, James R.

    Comparison and Evaluation of Code Clone Detection Techniques and Tools: A Qualitative Approach University of Bremen, Germany Abstract Over the last decade many techniques and tools for software clone of the current state-of-the-art in clone detection techniques and tools, and organize the large amount

  4. Continuous Cauchy wavelet transform analyses of EXAFS spectra: A qualitative approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Continuous Cauchy wavelet transform analyses of EXAFS spectra: A qualitative approach Manuel Muñoz1): EXAFS GLASS PROPERTIES: Speciation CRYSTAL STRUCTURE: Thorite Zircon * Corresponding author: Manuel al. (2002) CCWT analyses of EXAFS spectra - Page 2 ABSTRACT To better understand the extended x

  5. Multiple pathways to knowledge generation: qualitative and quantitative research approaches in sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thelma S. Horn

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative research approaches incorporate different research methodologies but also are structured, evaluated and justified using different philosophical bases. Thus, they may truly involve different ‘ways to know’. The purpose of this article is to present one quantitative scholar’s perceptions as to how the work produced by both sets of researchers can be used to enhance the teaching, advising

  6. Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitanova, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

  7. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  8. Representing pain in film: A phenomenological approach to Gibson, Tarantino and Lynch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne Svenungsson

    2012-01-01

    What does pain look like? Pain is felt, as every human being knows. But what about its visibility? Is it possible to depict pain? We can represent its visible expressions. We can also, to a certain extent, capture that which causes pain. But what about pain itself? This paper addresses the question of how to represent pain from a phenomenological

  9. A Phenomenological Approach to Uncovering the Essence of Grieving Experiences of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergene, Lisa Beth

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that during their time on campus, as many as half of all undergraduates will experience the death of a loved one (Balk, 2001; Balk, Walker, & Baker, 2010; Holland & Neimeyer, 2010). The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological method to uncover a thick, rich description of the lived experience of…

  10. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. PMID:23932101

  11. Hedwig Conrad-Martius’ Phenomenological Approach to Life Sciences and the Question of Vitalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Cordelli

    2008-01-01

    The philosophy of Hedwig Conrad-Martius represents a very important intersection point between phenomenological research\\u000a and the natural sciences in the twentieth century. She tried to open a common pattern from the ontology of the physical being\\u000a up to anthropology, passing from the biological sciences. An intersection point that, for the particular features of her thought,\\u000a is rather a perspective point

  12. A Qualitive Modeling Approach for Fault Detection and Diagnosis on HVAC Systems 

    E-print Network

    Muller, T.; Rehault, N.; Rist, T.

    2013-01-01

    A QUALITATIVE MODELING APPROACH FOR FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS ON HVAC SYSTEMS Thorsten M?ller Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems - ISE 79110 Freiburg, Germany Tim Rist ABSTRACT This paper describes... be saved by the practical implementation of automated Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) to support a condition-based maintenance (Katipamula and Brambley 2005). Although big research efforts have been carried out in the last two decades...

  13. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative

  14. Dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling in fluxonium qubits: a phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilla, Samuele; Hassler, Fabian; Napoli, Anna; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2015-06-01

    The fluxonium qubit has arisen as one of the most promising candidate devices for implementing quantum information in superconducting devices, since it is both insensitive to charge noise (like flux qubits) and insensitive to flux noise (like charge qubits). Here, we investigate the stability of the quantum information to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. Microscopically, this dephasing is due to the dependence of the quasiparticle transmission probability on the qubit state. We argue that on a phenomenological level the dephasing mechanism can be understood as originating from heat currents, which are flowing in the device due to possible effective temperature gradients, and their sensitivity to the qubit state. The emerging dephasing time is found to be insensitive to the number of junctions with which the superinductance of the fluxonium qubit is realized. Furthermore, we find that the dephasing time increases quadratically with the shunt-inductance of the circuit which highlights the stability of the device to this dephasing mechanism.

  15. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews. PMID:24413767

  16. Phenomenology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Phenomenology Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison pursues "a broad range of research in particle physics theory and phenomenology." At this website, users can view concise summaries of its many focuses including in neutrino physics, string theory and extra dimensions, and electroweak physics. Visitors can find links to the homepages of many of the researchers involved with the Institute. The website features the upcoming and past events held by the Institute such as the Pheno Symposiums. Individuals can examine abstracts and compressed postscripts of the phenomenology preprints since 1994 as well as articles about the newest issues in phenomenology written for the popular press.

  17. On the phenomenology of empathy in nursing: empathy or sympathy?

    PubMed

    Yegdich, T

    1999-07-01

    In her recent phenomenological study Baillie attempted to describe the essential structure of empathy in surgical nursing. The study is important in that it utilizes a qualitative research method to investigate the phenomena of empathy, in contrast to previous quantitative studies. Although the phenomenological approach is clearly identified and ascribed to Husserl as the founder of the phenomenological movement, as well as utilizing the peculiarly Husserlian notion of bracketing, or epoché, in an attempt to describe the essence (another Husserlian objective) of the phenomenon under investigation (empathy), the research method does not reflect Husserl's philosophy. The results reflect nurses' subjective views on empathy, an exercise consistent with the nurse-phenomenologists quoted, who without exception, all believe Husserlian phenomenology concerns itself with subjective experience. However, in seeking the essence of phenomena unclouded by subjective opinion, Husserl stands in contrast to nursing interpretations of phenomenology's famous catch phrase, 'back to the things themselves' (zu den Sachen selbst). Nurse-phenomenologists have misunderstood the intention of Husserlian phenomenology, and despite their opposition to traditional scientific methods, are still mired in the Kantian notion of science as a reality independent of mind. A theme consistent with the 'things-in-themselves', not the things themselves. As such, nursing's use of the phenomenological method is questionable, and therefore the research findings on the phenomenon of empathy need to be reformulated. Interestingly, the phenomenon of empathy challenges us to question such underlying assumptions on how we view the world. PMID:10403984

  18. Towards Qualitative Comparison of Simulink Model Clone Detection Approaches Matthew Stephan, Manar H. Alafi, Andrew Stevenson, James R. Cordy

    E-print Network

    Cordy, James R.

    Towards Qualitative Comparison of Simulink Model Clone Detection Approaches Matthew Stephan, Manar the Simulink model clone detection approaches in literature, in- cluding a new one currently being developed to compare approaches based on clone relevance, performance, types of clones detected, user interaction

  19. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning. PMID:23054668

  20. Qualitative evaluation: A critical and interpretative complementary approach to improve health programs and services

    PubMed Central

    Tayabas, Luz María Tejada; León, Teresita Castillo; ESPINO, JOEL MONARREZ

    2014-01-01

    This short essay aims at commenting on the origin, development, rationale, and main characteristics of qualitative evaluation (QE), emphasizing the value of this methodological tool to evaluate health programs and services. During the past decades, different approaches have come to light proposing complementary alternatives to appraise the performance of public health programs, mainly focusing on the implementation process involved rather than on measuring the impact of such actions. QE is an alternative tool that can be used to illustrate and understand the process faced when executing health programs. It can also lead to useful suggestions to modify its implementation from the stakeholders’ perspectives, as it uses a qualitative approach that considers participants as reflective subjects, generators of meanings. This implies that beneficiaries become involved in an active manner in the evaluated phenomena with the aim of improving the health programs or services that they receive. With this work we want to encourage evaluators in the field of public health to consider the use of QE as a complementary tool for program evaluation to be able to identify areas of opportunity to improve programs’ implementation processes from the perspective of intended beneficiaries. PMID:25152220

  1. A qualitative approach to economic-environmental dispatch; Treatment of multiple pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gjengedal, T.; Hansen, O. (Norwegian Inst. of Tech. (NTH), Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering, 7034 Trondheim (Norway)); Johansen, S. (Norwegian Electric Power Research Inst. (EFI), 7034 Trondheim (Norway))

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the principles, and suggests a methodology for expanding the dispatch of electrical power production systems for involving a pure minimum cost dispatch, to also include environmental objectives. The approach is qualitative in that no attempt is made as to assign a specific monetary value to environmental impacts, but rather maintaining the physical value of the impact through the decision process. However, the initial relative weights assigned to environmental impacts in the methodology are based on the many recent attempts to monetize environmental damages. The main contribution of the approach is to analyze how dispatch changes as a function of the total environmental weight, and as a function of the relative weighing of individual environmental insults, e.g., SO[sub 2], NO[sub x] and CO[sub 2]. The methodology is illustrated with a sample production system involving environmental coast estimates from major US studies.

  2. Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

  3. Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265

  4. Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265

  5. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  6. Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim

    2013-09-01

    Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned. PMID:23925405

  7. The changing face of phenomenological research: traditional and American phenomenology in nursing.

    PubMed

    Caelli, K

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, phenomenological researchers in nursing have become concerned about the differences between traditional European phenomenology and the way phenomenology is frequently conducted in nursing. Indeed, Crotty asserts that much of the phenomenology conducted by nurses cannot be phenomenology because it does not espouse the constructionist epistemological position regarded by Husserl as essential to phenomenology. This article explores the differences between traditional European and American phenomenology and argues that the latter approach extends the phenomenological project in valuable and meaningful ways that are particularly appropriate for the health sciences. PMID:10947482

  8. Modeling approaches for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of cellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of systems biology is the construction of predictive models of bio-molecular networks. Cellular networks of moderate size have been modeled successfully in a quantitative way based on differential equations. However, in large-scale networks, knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is often too limited to allow for the set-up of predictive quantitative models. Here, we review methodologies for qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. In particular, we focus on three different but related formalisms facilitating modeling of signaling processes with different levels of detail: interaction graphs, logical/Boolean networks, and logic-based ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Albeit the simplest models possible, interaction graphs allow the identification of important network properties such as signaling paths, feedback loops, or global interdependencies. Logical or Boolean models can be derived from interaction graphs by constraining the logical combination of edges. Logical models can be used to study the basic input–output behavior of the system under investigation and to analyze its qualitative dynamic properties by discrete simulations. They also provide a suitable framework to identify proper intervention strategies enforcing or repressing certain behaviors. Finally, as a third formalism, Boolean networks can be transformed into logic-based ODEs enabling studies on essential quantitative and dynamic features of a signaling network, where time and states are continuous. We describe and illustrate key methods and applications of the different modeling formalisms and discuss their relationships. In particular, as one important aspect for model reuse, we will show how these three modeling approaches can be combined to a modeling pipeline (or model hierarchy) allowing one to start with the simplest representation of a signaling network (interaction graph), which can later be refined to logical and eventually to logic-based ODE models. Importantly, systems and network properties determined in the rougher representation are conserved during these transformations. PMID:23803171

  9. A Qualitative Study of Parenting Stress, Coping, and Discipline Approaches among Low-Income Traumatized Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kistin, Caroline J; Radesky, Jenny; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Tompson, Martha C; O’Connor, Erin; Silverstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of harsh discipline is a risk factor for child maltreatment and is more common among families in which mothers have previously experienced trauma. We sought to understand the stressors experienced by low-income traumatized mothers and the perceived impact of those stressors on their discipline approaches. Methods We conducted 30 in-depth qualitative interviews with low-income mothers with a history of trauma. We triangulated the results with experts in behavioral health, and with a subset of the informants themselves, to ensure data reliability. Results We identified the following themes: 1. Repetitive child behaviors are the most stressful. 2. Mothers commonly cope by taking time away; this can result in prolonged unsupervised periods for children. 3. Harsh discipline is used deliberately to prevent future behavior problems. 4. Mothers relate their children’s negative behaviors to their own past experiences; in particular, those who have suffered domestic violence fear that their children will be violent adults. Conclusions Our findings suggest that trauma-informed interventions to promote positive discipline and prevent child maltreatment should help mothers predict and plan for stressful parent-child interactions; identify supports that will allow them to cope with stress without leaving their children for prolonged periods; and explicitly address long-term goals for their children and the impact of different discipline approaches. PMID:24633062

  10. Meaning of well-being among Iranian women: A phenomenological descriptive approach

    PubMed Central

    Dalvandi, Asghar; Rohani, Camelia; Mosallanejad, Zahra; Hesamzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Well-being is a subjective concept and means different things to various people. Most of the research investigating the experience has concentrated on its problematic and pathological aspects. The aim of this research was to enhance the understanding of the contextual meaning of well-being based on personal life experiences of the participants. This will be of help to experts in the field of health for monitoring, diagnosis, nursing, treatment, and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by utilizing the Husserlian approach which involves direct exploration analysis and the description of a particular phenomenon. Data were collected by conducting unstructured, in-depth interviews of 20 Iranian young and middle-aged women. Analysis was conducted using the Colaizzi's methodology. Results: The general meaning of the phenomenon, well-being, is understood as having the feeling of peace in life by the participants in this study. Well-being was identified by six major themes, including enjoying and being satisfied with life, the feeling of belonging together (or relating to others), the feeling of being healthy, the feeling of a relationship with God, to be able to afford what one needs to buy, and life as a whole (interconnection between different aspects of a person's life). Conclusions: Well-being as a feeling of peace in life can originate from both hedonic and eudemonic perspectives. A person's state of satisfaction in different aspects of her life can lead to the experience of well-being. All these aspects should be taken into account when health practitioners plan to promote the state of well-being among people. PMID:25709686

  11. How a qualitative approach to concept map analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Kinchin; David B. Hay; Alan Adams

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative approach to analysing students' concept maps. The classification highlights three major patterns which are referred to as 'spoke', 'chain' and 'net' structures. Examples are given from Year 8 science classes. The patterns are interpreted as being indicators of progressive levels of understanding. It is proposed that identification of these differences may help the classroom teacher

  12. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  13. Decoding the integrated approach to yoga therapy: Qualitative evidence based conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Villacres, Maria Del Carmen; Jagannathan, Aarti; Nagarathna, R; Ramakrsihna, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define, decode, and append to the conceptual frame-work of the integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT). Materials and Methods: Four stakeholders who followed two in-patients with depression over a period of 2 weeks in the residential center Arogyadhama (of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samsthana, Bangalore, India) were interviewed before the start of the IAYT treatment and prior to discharge of the patient. The patients were also interviewed pre and post and were observed once during their session. The data from the audio recordings from eight in-depth interviews were transcribed manually and qualitative analysis was conducted. Results: The conceptual frame-work of IAYT depicts that patient related factors (“co-operation of patient”, “patients awareness of his/her condition”), therapist related factors (“ability to guide”, “the assistance to the patients”, “explanation of the exercises”) and treatment related factors (“combination of psychiatric or Ayurvedic medication with yoga”, “counseling during the IAYT treatment”, duration of treatment), play an integrated role in reaching the “aim of IAYT” and experiencing “improvements and changes”. Conclusion: The IAYT is a holistic program and the ability of the patient to cooperate with and integrate the available factors (therapist related and treatment related) could enable best results. PMID:25035604

  14. Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru. PMID:22269578

  15. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

  16. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  17. Telephone interviewing: is it compatible with interpretive phenomenological research?

    PubMed

    Sweet, Linda

    2002-02-01

    The telephone has long been used as a medium of communication. In more recent years the telephone has become a legitimate tool in marketing and survey research (Barriball et al. 1996). Telephone interviewing is becoming an increasingly popular form of interview for qualitative research (Carr & Worth 2001). Whilst there have been discussions in the literature on logistical advantages and disadvantages of telephone interviewing, there has been little debate as to whether this form of interview is compatible with qualitative health research. Much of the literature reporting this interview method is based on quantitative or structured questionnaire style research under the guise of 'qualitative' research. So the question remains: Is the telephone interview compatible with interpretive phenomenological research? This paper describes how telephone interviewing was used in a recently conducted interpretive phenomenological study, and argues that this is a methodologically and economically valuable data collection technique in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers should not rely exclusively on the face-to-face interview, as the telephone interview can be an equally valuable data collection approach. PMID:12013519

  18. Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005 in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify barriers of reduce the cesarean section rate in Iran, as perceived by obstetricians and midwives as the main behavioral change target groups. Methods A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis. Results After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable. Conclusion Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package. PMID:21729279

  19. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. PMID:23388187

  20. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8?years with an average of 11.8?years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. PMID:25492274

  1. Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Ed

    In this paper the role of qualitative research in special education is examined. The implications of an earlier naturalistic study are cited, an important one being the tendency in the literature to oversimplify the naturalistic paradigm; and the case is made that implementing such a paradigm is a "labor intensive" approach to research in which no…

  2. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  3. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  4. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Audience's Perceptions of Creativity in Online Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I seek to inquire upon audience's perceptions of creativity in online advertising--a heretofore poorly understood area. This paper initially outlines current academic understanding of creativity in online advertising, mainly derived from quantitative assessments. It then advances a qualitative methodology including diary-interviews…

  5. A Qualitative Case Study Approach To Examine Information Resources Management. (Utilisation d'une Approche Qualitative par Methode de cas pour Etudier la Gestion des Ressources D'information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative approach was used to study the complex and poorly defined concept of information resources management. Explains the general approach to data collection, its advantages and limitations, and the process used to analyze the data. Presents results, along with lessons learned through using method. (Author/AEF)

  6. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  7. Comparison and evaluation of code clone detection techniques and tools: A qualitative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chanchal Kumar Roy; James R. Cordy; Rainer Koschke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade many,techniques and tools for software clone detection have been proposed. In this paper, we provide a qualitative comparison and evaluation of the current state-of-the-art in clone detection techniques and tools, and organize the large amount of information into a coherent conceptual framework. We begin with background concepts, a generic clone detection process and an overall

  8. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scolozzi, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.scolozzi@fmach.it [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all& #x27; Adige, (Italy); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  9. Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive phenomenological approach. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive phenomenological approach. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497

  10. The phenomenological movement and research in the human sciences.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Amedeo

    2005-01-01

    Phenomenology, as a modern movement in philosophy, has focused discussion upon human subjectivity in new and critically important ways. Because human participants can relate intentionally to objects of the world consciousness manifests relationships to things and others that are other than cause-effect relationships. Consequently, the concepts and practices of the natural sciences are not the best model for the human sciences to follow. Husserl in his philosophy introduced a method for a more adequate approach to the achievements of consciousness and when properly modified the phenomenological method can serve as the basis for the human sciences, including nursing. The use of such a method can make the qualitative analysis of phenomena rigorous and scientific. PMID:15574702

  11. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  12. Darwin and Phenomenology Beyond the Standard Model

    E-print Network

    Paul H. Frampton

    2006-08-03

    After preamble about Darwin, my talk described the conformality approach to extending the standard model of particle phenomenology using an assumption of no conformal anomaly at high energy. Topics included quiver gauge theory, the conformality approach to phenomenology, strong-electroweak unification at 4 TeV, cancellation of quadratic divergences, cancellation of U(1) anomalies, and a dark matter candidate.

  13. Phenomenology as rhetoric.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2005-06-01

    The literature on 'nursing phenomenology' is driven by a range of ontological and epistemological considerations, intended to distance it from conventionally scientific approaches. However, this paper examines a series of discrepancies between phenomenological rhetoric and phenomenological practice. The rhetoric celebrates perceptions and experience; but the concluding moment of a research report almost always makes implicit claims about reality. The rhetoric insists on uniquely personal meanings; but the practice offers blank, anonymous abstractions. The rhetoric invites us to believe that knowing is subjective and involved, but at the same time it recommends a technique (bracketing) which can only represent a crude, and entirely misconceived, gesture towards objectivity. Finally, the rhetoric claims that generalisation is beside the point; but the majority of researchers generalise anyway. In quietly ignoring their own rhetoric, 'phenomenologists' appropriate scientific prerogatives illegitimately. For their methods do not entitle them to lay claim to anything resembling 'objectivity', or generalisability, or 'reality', or theoretical abstraction. Like other researchers, they want to talk in generalisable terms about reality; they want to be objective, they want to do theory. But they are saddled with a philosophy that is disabling, because it says they can only talk about perceptions, and meanings, and uniqueness. PMID:15892726

  14. Adolescent and young adult perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Bunting, H; Baggett, A; Grigor, J

    2013-06-01

    Understanding consumer attitudes towards foods remains critically important for manufacturers, retailers and governing bodies. Regulation within the food industry should therefore support food choice whilst protecting members of society. There have been concerns regarding beverages marketed as 'energy drinks' and the levels of caffeine in these drinks. Focus groups were used to assess participants' perceptions and understandings of caffeinated energy drinks across three demographic age groups: 16-21, 22-28 and 29-35 year olds with the narrow age range providing a focused investigation of the demographic group specifically targeted by industry. Thematic analysis revealed a number of differences in participants' perceptions of energy drinks between age groups in relation to themes of advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy seeking, gender, sugar, peer influence, product attributes, safety and taste. Future implications for the use of qualitative research within the health promotion industry are discussed. PMID:23419966

  15. Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking. PMID:20181322

  16. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members, donations from neighbors and the community, and additional benefits from employers. However, insured households overall had positive perceptions of insurance. PMID:25308817

  17. The status of Husserlian phenomenology in caring research.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, A

    2000-01-01

    In a recent article, Paley criticized nursing research that claimed to be phenomenological and recommended that all reference to Husserl be dropped by nurses following certain qualitative procedures. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Paley is wrong in his recommendation by showing that Paley (i) does not distinguish scientific phenomenology from philosophical phenomenology; (ii) is severely limited with respect to scholarly references that legitimate and articulate the scientific phenomenological method; (iii) seems to be unaware of the precedents for attempting scholarly analyses of the experiences and behaviors of others; and (iv) seems to be unaware of the internal history of the development of the scientific phenomenological method, which would show its close relationship to Husserl. Although deficiencies in nursing phenomenological research can be found, the solution is not to drive the researchers away from phenomenology, but to encourage them to apply the scientific phenomenological method in a better way. PMID:12035260

  18. Who is in control? Clinicians’ view on their role in self-management approaches: a qualitative metasynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola; McPherson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician perceptions of involvement in delivery of self-management approaches. Setting All healthcare settings. Design EBSCO, Scopus and AMED databases were searched, in July 2013, for peer-reviewed studies in English reporting original qualitative data concerning perceptions of clinicians regarding their involvement in or integration of a self-management approach. Of 1930 studies identified, 1889 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Full text of 41 studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers; 14 papers were included for metasynthesis. Findings and discussion sections were imported into Nvivo-10 and coded line-by-line. Codes were organised into descriptive themes and cross-checked against original sources to check interpretation, and refined iteratively until findings represented an agreed understanding. Studies were appraised for quality. Results Delivering self-management in practice appeared to be a complex process for many clinicians. The issue of ‘control’ arose in all studies, both in the qualitative data and authors’ interpretations. The first theme: Who is in control?—represented ways clinicians talked of exercising control over patients and the control they expected patients to have over their condition. The second theme: Changing clinician views—reflected what appeared to be an essential transformation of practice experienced by some clinicians in the process of integrating self-management approaches into the practice. A range of challenges associated with shifting towards a self-management approach were reflected in the third theme, Overcoming challenges to change. Tensions appeared to exist around forming partnerships with patients. Strategies found helpful in the process of change included: dedicating time to practice reciprocity in communication style, peer support and self-reflection. Conclusions A consistent finding across studies is that ‘control’ is a key feature of how self-management is viewed by clinicians. They described challenges associated with the paradigm shift required to share or let go of control. Future research should identify whether strategies described by clinicians are key to successful self-management. PMID:25943372

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects. PMID:24130732

  20. Image of God, religion, spirituality, and life changes in breast cancer survivors: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Judith A; Edward, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Religion and spirituality are much studied coping mechanisms; however, their relationship to changes in behaviors, relationships, and goals is unclear. This study explored the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on religion/faith and changes in behaviors, relationship, or goals. In this qualitative study, women, who participated in a larger, quantitative study, completed written responses to questions regarding the role of religion/faith in their lives, the impact of their diagnosis on their image of God and on faith/religious beliefs, and any changes in behaviors, relationships, or life goals were examined. Based on previous findings noting differences in psychological outcomes based on a higher (HE) or lesser (LE) engaged view of God, 28 (14 HE; 14 LE) women were included in the analysis. Awareness of life and its fleeting nature was common to all. Ensuing behaviors varied from a need to focus on self-improvement-egocentrism (LE)-to a need to focus on using their experiences to help others-altruism (HE). Study results suggest that seemingly small, but highly meaningful, differences based on one's worldview result in considerably different attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. PMID:24740646

  1. Environmental influences on physical activity in rural Midwestern adults: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults. PMID:24662894

  2. A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network

    PubMed Central

    Nijhout, H. Frederik; Callier, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor (INR) knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks. PMID:24062690

  3. Factors underlying diagnostic delay in tuberculosis patients in a rural area in Tanzania: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays. PMID:20878458

  4. 'Horses for Courses': the differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Anthony C; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Landorf, Karl

    2002-03-01

    Some clinicians may feel dissociated from, and intimidated by the ever-increasing emphasis on research. However, with an understanding of some of the basic principles and key terms, research can feel less daunting. It is the aim of this article, the second in a series of three focusing on understanding research, to introduce clinicians to the different approaches to research, to improve understanding of what the approaches mean, and to highlight when a particular approach may be appropriate. Furthermore, the article will provide an explanation of some of the common terms used within clinical research. This should aid the clinician in applying good, simple, scientific principles to evaluating clinical research evidence. PMID:11904331

  5. Doctors’ approaches to PSA testing and overdiagnosis in primary healthcare: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To explain general practitioners’ (GPs’) approaches to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and overdiagnosis; (2) to explain how GPs reason about their PSA testing routines and (3) to explain how these routines influence GPs’ personal experience as clinicians. Setting Primary care practices in Australia including men's health clinics and rural practices with variable access to urology services. Participants 32 urban and rural GPs within Australia. We included GPs of varying ages, gender (11 female), clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Primary and secondary outcome measure(s) Data were analysed using grounded theory methods to determine how and why GPs provide (or do not provide) PSA testing to their asymptomatic male patients. Results We observed patterned variation in GP practice, and identified four heuristics to describe GP preference for, and approaches to, PSA testing and overdiagnosis: (1) GPs who prioritised avoiding underdiagnosis, (2) GPs who weighed underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis case by case, (3) GPs who prioritised avoiding overdiagnosis and (4) GPs who did not engage with overdiagnosis at all. The heuristics guided GPs’ Routine Practice (usual testing, communication and responses to patient request). The heuristics also reflected GPs’ different Practice Rationales (drawing on experience, medicolegal obligations, guidelines and evidence) and produced different Practice Outcomes (GPs’ experiences of the consequences of their PSA testing decisions). Some of these heuristics were more responsive to patient preferences than others. Conclusions Variation in GPs’ PSA testing practices is strongly related to their approach to overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer. Men receive very different care depending on their GP's reasoning and practice preferences. Future policy to address overdiagnosis will be more likely to succeed if it responds to these patterned variations. PMID:25783420

  6. When expressions make impressions-nurses' narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding.

    PubMed

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses' lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs' lived experience of patients' expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: "Sensing vulnerability" and "Empathizing with." The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, "Feeling exceptional" and "Being trusted." The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, "Being disappointed" and "Being angry." The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: "Being generous or reserved." Patients' expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role. PMID:24138930

  7. Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological reference of…

  8. Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment. PMID:24083795

  9. Phenomenology and Sports Psychology: Back To The Things Themselves!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Nesti

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that the increasing interest in the use of phenomenological methods in sport psychology could help rescue research in this area from its current obsession with measurement and prediction. Phenomenology proceeds from a very different set of philosophical assumptions from the natural science approach that underlies most research and practice in sport psychology. Phenomenology insists that psychology should

  10. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  11. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity. PMID:23035337

  12. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  13. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

  14. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making. PMID:25876262

  15. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider. PMID:25804178

  16. Causal Set Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Lydia

    2010-09-01

    Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.

  17. Qualitative research in finance - pedigree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Burton

    Purpose - This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

  18. The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Walters, A J

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation. PMID:8708201

  19. Phenomenology and psychophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Horst

    2005-01-01

    Recent philosophy of mind has tended to treat “inner” states, including both qualia and intentional states, as “theoretical posits” of either folk or scientific psychology. This article argues that phenomenology in fact plays a very different role in the most mature part of psychology, psychophysics. Methodologically, phenomenology plays a crucial role in obtaining psychophysical results. And more importantly, many psychophysical

  20. Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandersson, Claes

    In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…

  1. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies.

  2. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies. PMID:26064687

  3. Applications of Dirac Phenomenology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Shinichi

    There is increasing evidence that relativistic effects play an important role in the description of nuclear structure and reactions. We briefly review Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) and explain how nuclear densities and relativistic Hartree optical potentials are obtained using QHD as the underlying theory. The results of phenomenological optical model analyses based on a Dirac equation are discussed. A wide range of energies and various targets are considered. High quality fits to elastic differential cross section, analyzing power, and spin rotation function measurements are obtained. A relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for proton-nucleus elastic scattering is outlined. In these parameter-free calculations we find that the relativistic approach is superior to the nonrelativistic calculations, especially with regard to spin observables at 300 Mev and above. Below 300 Mev, neither calculation agrees well with experiment. We also use the RIA to calculate optical potentials for a use in a relativistic generalization of the Lane equations. The procedure is used to calculate observables for the ('90)Zr(p,p) and ('90)Zr(p,n)('90)Nb(IAS) reactions at 160 and 500 Mev. These predictions are compared to nonrelativistic impulse approximation results and to experimental data. RIA calculations of antiproton-nucleus scattering are compared with the recent 46.8 Mev p-('12)C elastic scattering data. The calculated cross sections agree well with data. The difference between relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation using the same input is small.

  4. Applications of Dirac phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, S.

    1984-01-01

    The results of phenomenological optical model analyses based on a Dirac equation are discussed. A wide range of energies and various targets are considered. High quality fits to elastic differential cross section, analyzing power, and spin rotation function measurements are obtained. A relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for proton-nucleus elastic scattering is outlined. In these parameter-free calculations the authors find that the relativistic approach is superior to the nonrelativistic calculations, especially with regard to spin observables at 300 MeV and above. Below 300 MeV, neither calculation agrees well with experiment. The author also uses the RIA to calculate optical potentials for a use in a relativistic generalization of the Lane equations. The procedure is used to calculate observables for the /sup 90/Zr(p,p) and /sup 90/Zr(p,n)/sup 90/Nb(IAS) reactions at 160 and 500 MeV. These predictions are compared to nonrelativistic impulse approximation results and to experimental data. RIA calculations of antiproton-nucleus scattering are compared with the recent 46.8 MeV P-/sup 12/C elastic scattering data. The calculated cross sections agree well with data. The difference between relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation using the same input is small.

  5. The Utilization of Qualitative and Quantitative Data for Health Education Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation: A Spiral Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hein de Vries; Wies Weijts; Margo Dijkstra; Gerjo Kok

    1992-01-01

    The process of development of a Dutch smoking prevention project is described. An essential feature of the project is the combination and interaction of qualitative and quantitative research methods. It is advocated that each method has its own contribution and can be considered as a separate methodology contributing to social science in general and health education research in particular. Combining

  6. "What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

  7. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  8. A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

    2010-01-01

    Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

  9. Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and…

  10. Phenomenology Tools on Cloud Infrastructures using OpenStack

    E-print Network

    Campos, I; Heinemeyer, S; Lopez-Garcia, A; Pahlen, F v d

    2012-01-01

    We present a new environment for computations in particle physics phenomenology employing recent developments in cloud computing. On this environment users can create and manage "virtual" machines on which the phenomenology codes/tools can be deployed easily in an automated way. We analyze the performance of this environment based on "virtual" machines versus the utilization of "real" physical hardware. In this way we provide a qualitative result for the influence of the host operating system on the performance of a representative set of applications for phenomenology calculations.

  11. Phenomenology Tools on Cloud Infrastructures using OpenStack

    E-print Network

    I. Campos; E. Fernandez del Castillo; S. Heinemeyer; A. Lopez-Garcia; F. v. d. Pahlen

    2013-03-17

    We present a new environment for computations in particle physics phenomenology employing recent developments in cloud computing. On this environment users can create and manage "virtual" machines on which the phenomenology codes/tools can be deployed easily in an automated way. We analyze the performance of this environment based on "virtual" machines versus the utilization of "real" physical hardware. In this way we provide a qualitative result for the influence of the host operating system on the performance of a representative set of applications for phenomenology calculations.

  12. Phenomenology tools on cloud infrastructures using OpenStack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, I.; Fernández-del-Castillo, E.; Heinemeyer, S.; Lopez-Garcia, A.; Pahlen, F.; Borges, G.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new environment for computations in particle physics phenomenology employing recent developments in cloud computing. On this environment users can create and manage "virtual" machines on which the phenomenology codes/tools can be deployed easily in an automated way. We analyze the performance of this environment based on "virtual" machines versus the utilization of physical hardware. In this way we provide a qualitative result for the influence of the host operating system on the performance of a representative set of applications for phenomenology calculations.

  13. Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz August, 2011 Michael Dine Arenas for String Phenomenology #12;Possible Arenas for a String Phenomenology 1 Hierarchy problem: LHC scale physics: supersymmetry, RS, large

  14. Connecting String Theory and Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    G. L. Kane

    2002-10-29

    To make progress in learning the underlying fundamental theory, it will be necessary to combine bottom-up phenomenology and top-down analysis -- in particular, top-down is unlikely to succeed alone. Here I elaborate on the role of both, and describe obstacles that need to be overcome to help data point toward the underlying theory, as well as approaches that might help to bypass full systematic treatments. I also summarize arguments that superpartners are probably being produced at the Tevatron Collider.

  15. What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Prüfer, Franziska; Miksch, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial. PMID:23986779

  16. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  17. Phenomenology and connectionism.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  18. Individualised Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses student evaluation in relation to adult and continuing education programs offered by the Department of Adult Education, University College, Cork. He highlights the need for a more individualized and interactive approach to evaluation, allowing the student to benefit from qualitative feedback in the process of being evaluated.…

  19. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  20. Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching, teacher satisfaction and communities of practice in art, design and communication courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Drew

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how approaches to teaching relate to the concept of communities of practice and to monitor teacher satisfaction as a function of approach to teaching. Following interviews with art, design and communication teachers, a slightly revised ATI, with the inclusion of teacher satisfaction and communities of practice items, was distributed to teachers in

  1. Barriers to and facilitators for screening women for intimate partner violence in surgical fracture clinics: a qualitative descriptive approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major health issue that involves any physical, sexual or psychological harm inflicted by a current or former partner. Musculoskeletal injuries represent the second most prevalent clinical manifestation of IPV. Health care professionals, however, rarely screen women for IPV. Using qualitative methods, this study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to IPV screening and potential facilitators for overcoming these barriers among orthopaedic surgeons and surgical trainees. Methods We conducted three focus groups with orthopaedic surgeons, senior surgical trainees, and junior surgical trainees. A semi-structured focus group guide was used to structure the discussions. Transcripts and field notes from the focus groups were analyzed using the qualitative software program N’Vivo (version 10.0; QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). To further inform our focus group findings and discuss policy changes, we conducted interviews with two opinion leaders in the field of orthopaedics. Similar to the focus groups, the interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed. Results In the analysis, four categories of barriers were identified: surgeon perception barriers; perceived patient barriers; fracture clinic barriers and orthopaedic health care professional barriers. Some of the facilitators identified included availability of a crisis team; development of a screening form; presence of IPV posters or buttons in the fracture clinic; and the need for established policy or government support for IPV screening. The interviewees identified the need for: the introduction of evidence-based policy aiming to increase awareness about IPV among health care professionals working within the fracture clinic setting, fostering local and national champions for IPV screening, and the need to generate change on a local level. Conclusions There are a number of perceived barriers to screening women in the fracture clinic for IPV, many of which can be addressed through increased education and training, and additional resources in the fracture clinic. Orthopaedic health care professionals are supportive of implementing an IPV screening program in the orthopaedic fracture clinic. PMID:23560744

  2. Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152

  3. The complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism as a philosophical perspective for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Todres, L; Wheeler, S

    2001-02-01

    The focus of this paper draws on the thinking of Husserl, Dilthey and Heidegger to identify elements of the phenomenological movement that can provide focus and direction for qualitative research in nursing. The authors interpret this tradition in two ways: emphasizing the possible complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism, and demonstrating how these emphases ask for grounding, reflexivity and humanization in qualitative research. The paper shows that the themes of grounding, reflexivity and humanization are particularly important for nursing research. PMID:11137717

  4. Being Bullied in Adolescence: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Cheryl L.; Lesperance, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Bullying is a destructive behaviour that peaks in early adolescence and causes or contributes to myriad negative outcomes. There is little understanding of what the experience of being bullied means to those who endure it. This study attempts to elucidate that meaning. A phenomenological approach is used to gather information from three adolescent…

  5. Recent Developments in Heavy-Quarkonium Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Hee Sok Chung; Jungil Lee; Chaehyun Yu

    2008-08-31

    We review recent developments in heavy-quarkonium phenomenology within the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach. Main issues we consider in this work include the polarization of prompt J/psi at the Fermilab Tevatron and the large relativistic and QCD corrections to double-charmonium production at the B factories. We also consider inclusive charm production in bottomonia decays.

  6. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

  7. Toward an Understanding of Jewish Identity: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Michelle L.; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Blustein, David L.

    2005-01-01

    To begin mapping the landscape of contemporary Jewish identity from a phenomenological perspective, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews of 10 Jewish adults in the northeastern United States. Coding resulted in 6 universal themes (dynamic nature of self-identification, early formative experiences, desire to…

  8. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

  9. Undergraduate Female Science-Related Career Choices: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kathy S.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in…

  10. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  11. Husserl, phenomenology and nursing.

    PubMed

    Paley, J

    1997-07-01

    Discussions of phenomenological research in nursing consistently appeal to either Husserl or Heidegger in justifying the technical and conceptual resources they deploy. This paper focuses on Husserl, and examines the relationship between his phenomenology and the accounts of it that are to be found in the nursing literature. Three central ideas are given particular attention: the phenomenological reduction, phenomena, and essence. It is argued that nurse researchers largely misunderstand these concepts and that, as a result, their version of Husserl's philosophy bears little resemblance to the original. A further consequence is that the project of identifying the 'essential structure' of a phenomenon, typically adopted by the nurse researchers who cite Husserl as an authority, comes close to being unintelligible. It is suggested that, while the methods used in 'phenomenological' nursing research may still have some legitimacy, they cannot achieve what they are alleged to achieve, and they should be detached from the framework of Husserlian ideas and terminology which is supposed to justify them. PMID:9231294

  12. Phenomenology as a resource for patients.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi

    2012-04-01

    Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology. PMID:22474139

  13. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst common issues were identified through the two research approaches, key differences also emerged. The classical, more quantitative approach provided objective measurement of problem frequency, which was compared with owners' perceptions of importance. The qualitative participatory approach provided greater opportunity for researchers to gain detailed understanding of local issues and appreciate how owners defined and prioritised problems affecting them and their animals. Both approaches provided valuable and complementary information that can be used to inform interventions aimed at providing sustainable improvements in the health and wellbeing of working animals and their owners. It is recommended that both quantitative and qualitative approaches are employed as part of detailed needs assessment work prior to defining and prioritising the charity's future interventions. PMID:23419786

  14. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union’s perspective. PMID:25942432

  15. Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents seventeen approaches that use cubic splines and Fourier series for restoring short term missing data in time series of building energy use and weather data. The study is based on twenty samples of hourly data, each at least one...

  16. Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents seventeen approaches that use cubic splines and Fourier series for restoring short term missing data in time series of building energy use and weather data. The study is based on twenty samples of hourly data, each at least one...

  17. Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

    This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to…

  18. How a Qualitative Approach to Concept Map Analysis Can Be Used To Aid Learning by Illustrating Patterns of Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.; Hay, David B.; Adams, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Classification of concept maps made in British science classes resulted in three patterns that indicate students' progressive levels of understanding. The classification method analyzes hierarchy, processes, complexity, conceptual development, and representation. It suggests teaching approaches based on students' existing concept structures. (SK)

  19. Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families

    PubMed Central

    Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

  20. Philosophical Phenomenology: A Methodology for Holistic Educational Research. Multicultural Research Guides Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    This paper presents phenomenology as an alternative approach in conducting educational research. The aim of phenomenological research is the exploration of the fundamental consciousness of the person or people being studied so that their perceptions can be identified and interpreted. Today's phenomenology comes from the work of a group of European…

  1. Dark Energy Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Martin Kunz; Luca Amendola; Domenico Sapone

    2008-06-08

    We discuss the phenomenology of the dark energy in first order perturbation theory, demonstrating that the dark energy cannot be fully constrained unless the dark matter is found, and that there are two functions that characterise the observational properties of the dark sector for cosmological probes. We argue that measuring these two functions should be an important goal for observational cosmology in the next decades.

  2. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  3. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  4. Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Goldman, Roberta E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n?=?35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed. PMID:24392949

  5. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

  6. New interpretative styles: progress or contamination?: psychoanalysis and phenomenological psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rossi Monti, Mario

    2005-08-01

    Psychoanalysis has started to recoup, often quite implicitly, a more phenomenological stance, ever since psychoanalysts have started working with borderline and psychotic patients. As many of these patients have commonly been through traumatic experiences, psychoanalysts have been using an approach that questions the role of traditional psychoanalytical interpretation and pays more attention to the patient's inner conscious experiences; this approach is characteristic of a specific form of contemporary psychiatry: phenomenological psychopathology, founded by Karl Jaspers in 1913 and developed into a form of psychotherapy by Ludwig Binswanger, with his Daseinsanalyse. If what we could call a phenomenological 'temptation' has been spreading over psychoanalysis, so too has a psychoanalytical 'temptation' always been present in phenomenological psychopathology. In fact, even though this branch of psychiatry has led us towards a deeper understanding of the characteristics of psychotic being-in-the-world, its therapeutic applications have never been adequately formalised, much less have they evolved into a specific technique or a structured psychotherapeutic approach. Likewise, phenomenological psychotherapy has always held an anaclitic attitude towards psychoanalysis, accepting its procedures but refusing its theoretical basis because it is too close to that of the objectifying natural sciences. Psychoanalytic 'temptation' and phenomenological 'temptation' can thus be considered as two sides of the same coin and outline a trend in psychoanalytic and phenomenological literature which points out the fundamental role of the patient's inner conscious experiences in the treatment of borderline and psychotic patients. PMID:16040308

  7. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  8. The Effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Generating Students' Learning Motivation towards the Subject of Physics: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the BBTA (brain-based teaching approach) in dealing with issues related to the learning motivation towards the subject of physics amongst secondary school students in Malaysia. This research sample constitutes 100 Form Four science stream students from two science secondary school in the…

  9. Superstrings, Phenomenology and F-theory

    E-print Network

    Adil Belhaj; Leila Medari

    2010-01-05

    We give brief ideas on building gauge models in superstring theory, especially the four-dimensional models obtained from the compactification of F-theory. According to Vafa, we discuss the construction of F-theory to approach non-perturbative aspects of type IIB superstring. Then, we present local models of F-theory, which can generate new four-dimensional gauge models with applications to phenomenology.

  10. Acute peritraumatic dissociation: in favor of a phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Ataria, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of trauma--among them dissociation during trauma, which is considered one of the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder-are not fully understood. This article argues that the application of the phenomenological structure of time and the phenomenological description of the self (minimal self, sense of ownership, sense of agency, sense of self) to dissociation during trauma can improve our understanding of this phenomenon-at its occurrence and during any possible ensuing symptoms. In addition, it is argued that the phenomenological approach, as a method that focuses on the bodily level of experience, in particular the body as it is experienced from within, enables us to penetrate the traumatic experience. Thus, by applying the phenomenological approach we may be able to improve our understanding of the traumatic experience and enable the development of better treatment. PMID:24228843

  11. Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Wang, Ting T.; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2004-11-01

    We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft SUSY breaking terms for these models are calculated in the complex structure (u)-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

  12. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

  13. Neutrino oscillations: theory and phenomenology

    E-print Network

    E. Kh. Akhmedov

    2006-10-05

    A brief overview of selected topics in the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is given. These include: oscillations in vacuum and in matter; phenomenology of 3-flavour neutrino oscillations and effective 2-flavour approximations; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; matter effects on \

  14. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

  15. A Clarification of Heidegger's Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. This article calls for clarifications regarding its characterization of Heideggerian phenomenology. Kendler drew on his admittedly "limited understanding" (p. 322) of Heidegger and rested his critique upon a critical confusion that pervaded his…

  16. Microemulsions: A qualitative thermodynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.; Busse, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (West Germany))

    1990-05-17

    Microemulsions, that is, stable colloidal dispersions of water and nonpolar solvents stabilized by amphiphiles, are of growing interest in research and industry. The phase behavior of the multicomponent mixture is essentially determined by the features of corresponding binary mixtures. The efficiency of an amphiphile in solubilizing the solvents reaches its maximum in the temperature interval in which the mixture separates into three coexisting liquid phases. The domain size of the dispersion is determined by the interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase in the presence of a saturated monolayer. Because the interfacial tension reaches its minimum in the three-phase interval and, furthermore, decreases with increasing amphiphilicity, the transition from weakly structured solutions to microemulsions is gradual. It is, therefore, suggested that microemulsions be defined as stable colloidal dispersions of domains sufficiently large for the dispersed solvent to exhibit the properties as, e.g., the dielectric number of a bulk phase.

  17. Employees' views on outsourcing and its impact on employee turnover: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybelinski, Steven A.

    Increasing use of outsourcing gives employees concern about personal job security. Using a modified van Kaam approach, this qualitative phenomenological study examined perceptions and experiences of 12 employees' on the influence outsourcing had on employee turnover. Five themes describing employee perceptions emerged: (a) preparation---education gives job security, (b) plausibility---all believed job loss plausible, (c) emotional influence---feelings of stress, threat, betrayal, and not being valued, (d) environment---value of communication and interaction with leaders, and (e) confidence---gained from increased education, skills, and knowledge protected from outsourcing. Significance of this study to leadership is the identification of employee perceptions of outsourcing and motivating factors influencing employee turnover during times of outsourcing. Findings might present new information and assist leaders with employee retention concerns for future outsourcing activities.

  18. Participation in church or religious groups and its association with health. Part 2: a qualitative, canadian study.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Robinson, Peter; Cameron, Linda

    2015-06-01

    As part of a mixed-methods study, this qualitative inquiry determined how adolescent participation in church or religious groups related to their health. We used grounded theory with a phenomenological approach to inquiry. Consistent with the quantitative findings, children (n = 12) involved in religious groups reported lower participation in risk behaviors, higher pro-social behaviors, but poorer levels of emotional well-being and physical health. Findings raise theological and practical questions about the practices and teaching of the church with respect to children's ministry. They suggest an emphasis on teaching about behaviors and morality rather than a more integrative message involving the whole of life. PMID:25385319

  19. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  20. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Results: Analysis of the participants’ experiences led to five main concepts: “Disturbed in femininity-body image,” “discouragement of sexual relations,” “sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant,” “confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment,” and “striving to protect their marriage.” Conclusions: Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples. PMID:25709688

  1. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  2. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  3. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  4. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  5. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  6. Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: a qualitative approach 1 1 This study was funded by a research grant from the Research Committee of the University of Thessaly (code 2603)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hassandra; Marios Goudas; Stiliani Chroni

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To provide further information regarding factors associated with students’ intrinsic motivation in physical education using a qualitative approach.Design and Methods. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with secondary physical education students who were selected from a pool of 254 students on the basis of their score on relevant questionnaires.Results. Analyses of interview transcripts revealed that factors associated with intrinsic motivation

  7. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  8. Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity

    E-print Network

    Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper (arXiv:1412.6000) a general mechanism for emergence of cosmological space-time geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and departure from standard dispersion relations for elementary particle were predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenarios showing that space-time will have to be by nowadays classical to a very high degree in order to be consistent with current observations.

  9. Phenomenological Approach to Multiple Particle Production

    E-print Network

    Ohsawa, A; Tamada, M

    2010-01-01

    We formulate empirically the rapidity density distribution of produced particles in multiple particle production. The assumed mechanism is that the produced particles are emitted isotropically from several emitting centers, located on the rapidity axis. The formula includes five adjustable parameters, which are to be determined by the experimental data of (pseudo-)rapidity density distributions and transverse momentum distributions at various energies. It is a distinguished difference of the present rapidity density distribution from those of other models that the particle production is suppressed strongly in the forward region. We discuss multiplicity and inelasticity at high energies, the pseudo-rapidity density distribution at LHC energy and some speculations, based on the present formulation.

  10. Phenomenological Approach to Multiple Particle Production

    E-print Network

    A. Ohsawa; E. H. Shubuya; M. Tamada

    2010-09-20

    We formulate empirically the rapidity density distribution of produced particles in multiple particle production. The assumed mechanism is that the produced particles are emitted isotropically from several emitting centers, located on the rapidity axis. The formula includes five adjustable parameters, which are to be determined by the experimental data of (pseudo-)rapidity density distributions and transverse momentum distributions at various energies. It is a distinguished difference of the present rapidity density distribution from those of other models that the particle production is suppressed strongly in the forward region. We discuss multiplicity and inelasticity at high energies, the pseudo-rapidity density distribution at LHC energy and some speculations, based on the present formulation.

  11. Phenomenological Approach to Multiple Particle Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ohsawa; E. H. Shubuya; M. Tamada

    2010-01-01

    We formulate empirically the rapidity density distribution of produced particles in multiple particle production. The assumed mechanism is that the produced particles are emitted isotropically from several emitting centers, located on the rapidity axis. The formula includes five adjustable parameters, which are to be determined by the experimental data of (pseudo-)rapidity density distributions and transverse momentum distributions at various energies.

  12. Triple-Regge phenomenology. A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Triantafillopoulos, E.

    1985-07-01

    The amplitude for the inclusive reaction A+B..-->..C+anything is evaluated in terms of known quantities, overcoming the difficulty of the triple-Regge vertex by expressing the three-Reggeon residue ..beta..i-italic..cap alpha../sub i//sup P/ in terms of the residue ..beta../sub R//sub i/R/sub i//sup P/, where R/sub i/ is a known resonance on the ..cap alpha../sub i/ trajectory. An application to pp..--> pi../sup + -/X is made.

  13. Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Given

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

  14. Towards a nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Dienes, Keith R.; Mavroudi, Eirini

    2015-06-01

    Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to studying the rich and diverse phenomenologies of heterotic strings exhibiting spacetime supersymmetry. Unfortunately, during this same period, there has been relatively little work studying the phenomenologies associated with their nonsupersymmetric counterparts. The primary reason for this relative lack of attention is the fact that strings without spacetime supersymmetry are generally unstable, exhibiting large one-loop dilaton tadpoles. In this paper, we demonstrate that this hurdle can be overcome in a class of tachyon-free four-dimensional string models realized through coordinate-dependent compactifications. Moreover, as we shall see, it is possible to construct models in this class whose low-lying states resemble the Standard Model (or even potential unified extensions thereof)—all without any light superpartners, and indeed without supersymmetry at any energy scale. The existence of such models thus opens the door to general studies of nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology, and in this paper we proceed to discuss a variety of theoretical and phenomenological issues associated with such nonsupersymmetric strings. On the theoretical side, we discuss the finiteness properties of such strings, the general characteristics of their mass spectra, the magnitude and behavior of their one-loop cosmological constants, and their interpolation properties. By contrast, on the phenomenological side, the properties we discuss are more model-specific and include their construction techniques, their natural energy scales, their particle and charge assignments, and the magnitudes of their associated Yukawa couplings and scalar masses.

  15. Investigating How Secondary School Students Learn To Solve Correlational Problems: Quantitative and Qualitative Discourse Approaches to the Development of Self-Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasavvidis, Ilias; Pieters, Jules M.; Plomp, Tjeerd

    2000-01-01

    Examined the transition from other-regulation to self-regulation by studying correlational problem solving among 10 secondary school students individually tutored in problem solving. Quantitative discourse analysis supported the idea of a transition from other to self-regulation and qualitative analysis supported the idea of assimilation of the…

  16. QUALITATIVE SPATIAL REASONING USING CONSTRAINT CALCULI

    E-print Network

    Renz, Jochen

    Chapter 1 QUALITATIVE SPATIAL REASONING USING CONSTRAINT CALCULI Jochen Renz Australian National University 1. Introduction Qualitative reasoning is an approach for dealing with commonsense knowledge is that it is considered to be closer to how humans represent and reason about commonsense knowledge. Another motivation

  17. Qualitative Probabilistic Networks in Medical Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Beumer

    Abstract We will present an overview of qualitative probabilistic networks in the context of skin diseases with children. The basic framework,will be explained, with particular attention to the notions of qualitative influence, product synergy and intercausal reasoning. The drawbacks of this basic approach soon become apparent; most notably, the problem of overab- straction or overgeneralization. Answering the need for refinement,

  18. The Perceptions of Black High School Students Regarding Their Experiences Prior to an Assignment to a District Alternative Educational Placement: A Phenomenological Single Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Margie

    2014-04-28

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological single case study was to understand the perceptions of Black high school students regarding their experiences prior to being sent to a district’s discipline alternative ...

  19. Applications of Phenomenology in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The

    This article explains that the phenomenological approach in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through…

  20. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  1. Requiem for Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Five papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982) focused on qualitative analysis curricula and instruction. Topics included benefits of qualitative analysis, use of iodo/bromo-complexes in qualitative analysis schemes, lecture demonstrations, and brief descriptions of three courses. (JN)

  2. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  3. A Qualitative Physics Confluences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan De Kleer; John Seely Brown

    A qualitative physics predicts and explains the behavior of mechanisms in qualitative terms. The goals for the qualitative physics are (1) to be far simpler than the classical physics and yet retain all the important distinctions (e.g., state, oscillation, gain, momentum) without invoking the mathematics of continuously varying quantities and differential equations, (2) to produce causal accounts of physical mechanisms

  4. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  5. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  7. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from…

  8. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Effects of an Ethics Course on Business Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Richard John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the essential meaning adult business school students attributed to the shared experience of an ethics course they took at California State University Sacramento. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semistructured interviews with 10 volunteer…

  9. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  10. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  11. Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

  12. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

  13. The Meaning and Use of Intuition in Novice Nurses: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A.; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to determine the meaning and use of intuition in novice nurses with an above-average self-perception of intuitiveness in their 1st year of practice. Sixteen novice nurses from a variety of hospitals and specialty areas were interviewed to discover the meaning of intuitive knowing and to…

  14. Information Technology Certifier Perspectives on Areas Affecting Certification Assessments: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Steven Russell

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) certifiers evaluate risk and develop mitigations ensuring IT infrastructures remain protected within acceptable levels of operation, which if not properly maintained can potentially result in loss of life within Department of Defense (DoD) and federal environments. This qualitative phenomenological exploratory study…

  15. A Phenomenological Case Study: Teacher Bias Effects on Early Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological case study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 20 current and past early education teachers who have experience in assessing children through observational assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if bias affects the documentation of observational assessment and the implementation…

  16. A Phenomenological Examination of Perceived Skills and Concepts Necessary for Teaching Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapetanis, Ana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of high stakes testing to improve educational outcomes falls short in many settings. Proposals for improvement include providing more opportunities for students to extend their thinking, gaining experience in the social nature of science, and learning how to interpret, explain, and justify results. This phenomenological qualitative project…

  17. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  18. Influence of Culture and Discrimination on Care-Seeking Behavior of Elderly African Americans: A Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shadi S. Martin; Jacqueline Trask; Tina Peterson; Bryan C. Martin; Josh Baldwin; Matthew Knapp

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small

  19. Chapter 4: Phenomenological Coherence Introduction

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    . In following chapter, I will address the implications that these phenomenological properties have on cognitive (Gentner, 1983) and MAC/FAC (Gentner and Forbus, 1991). The initial theories of analogy, commonly referred) developed a theory, structure-mapping, to address the fact that analogies are not feature comparisons

  20. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  1. Qualitative vs. Fuzzy Represenations of Spatial Distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory is a well-established modeling tool with applications in many domains, one of them being spatial reasoning.\\u000a Qualitative approaches to the representation of spatial knowledge, by contrast, have become increasingly popular only in the\\u000a last five years. In this paper, we compare fuzzy and qualitative approaches to the representation of the distance between\\u000a two entities in physical space.

  2. Therapists' experience of loss: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Kouriatis, Konstantinos; Brown, Dora

    This qualitative study aimed to explore therapists' experiences of loss. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 therapists and the data were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three master themes emerged from the analysis: (a) the grieving therapist, (b) hindrances in grieving, and (c) the impact of loss on therapeutic work. Therapists talked about their grief and elaborated on how they coped with their bereavement. Hindrances in their grief were reported, emerging both from others' stance and from their own. Participants found that their experience of loss was related to both challenges and advancements in their therapeutic work. PMID:24673037

  3. Phenomenological local field enhancement factor distributions around electromagnetic hot spots.

    PubMed

    Le Ru, E C; Etchegoin, P G

    2009-05-14

    We propose a general phenomenological description of the enhancement factor distribution for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and other related phenomena exploiting large local field enhancements at hot spots. This description extends naturally the particular case of a single (fixed) hot spot, and it is expected to be "universal" for many classes of common SERS substrates containing a collection of electromagnetic hot spots with varying geometrical parameters. We further justify it from calculations with generalized Mie theory. The description studied here provides a useful starting point for a qualitative (and semiquantitative) understanding of experimental data and, in particular, the analysis of the statistics of single-molecule SERS events. PMID:19449901

  4. Phenomenology and theory of horizontally oscillated granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica Ciamarra, M.; Coniglio, A.; Nicodemi, M.

    2007-03-01

    We overview the physics of a granular mixture subject to horizontal oscillations, recently investigated via experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. First we discuss the rich phenomenology exhibited by this system, which encompasses both segregation and dynamical instabilities. Then we show that the phenomenology can be explained via an effective interaction approach, by which the driven, non-thermal, granular mixture in mapped into a monodispersed thermal system of particles interacting via an effective potential. After determining the effective interaction we discuss its microscopic origin and investigate how it induces the observed phenomenology. Finally, as much as in thermal fluids, from the effective interaction we derive a Cahn-Hilliard dynamics equation, which appears to capture the essential characteristics of the dynamics of the granular mixture.

  5. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems. PMID:18286395

  6. What is a "good outcome" in psychotherapy? A qualitative exploration of former patients' point of view.

    PubMed

    Binder, Per-Einar; Holgersen, Helge; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how former psychotherapy patients characterize "good outcome" after having completed treatment that they described as successful, in the sense that therapy had changed their lives in ways that made a difference. Semistructured qualitative depth interviews were conducted with 10 former psychotherapy patients. A hermeneutical-phenomenological approach was used to analyse interview transcripts. The former patients' descriptions of good outcome clustered around four themes: establishing new ways of relating to others; less symptomatic distress, or changes in behavioural patterns contributing to suffering; better self-understanding and insight; and accepting and valuing oneself. Interrelationships between the four components of good outcome, along with limitations and implications of the study, are discussed. PMID:19941195

  7. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  8. Phenomenological modeling of dye-sensitized solar cells under transient conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luísa Andrade; José Sousa; Helena Aguilar Ribeiro; Adélio Mendes

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological model is proposed for a better understanding of the basic working mechanisms of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A steady-state approach allows the construction of the I–V characteristics, giving important informations about the main factors that influence DSCs’ performance. On the other hand, the transient approach model is an important tool to relate the phenomenological behavior with certain dynamic

  9. Barriers and facilitators to yoga use in a population of individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Combs, Martha A; Thorn, Beverly E

    2014-11-01

    Yoga has been found to be efficacious in treating chronic low back pain, yet biomedical treatments are most commonly used for pain. Promoting yoga as part of integrative care would reduce exclusive reliance on high-cost, higher-risk biomedical treatments. Attitudes toward yoga play a role in consideration of it as a treatment. The current study examined attitudes toward yoga in adults with chronic low back pain and compared these results to those found in a 2009 general population study. Participants completed a semi-structured interview where they responded to items about perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to trying yoga. Participant responses were analyzed qualitatively and several common themes emerged. Themes identified by participants indicated there is mixed information about yoga in the public domain and that clarification of what yoga is, how it can be beneficial, and what it requires one to do physically may help promote its use. PMID:25130139

  10. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  11. A qualitative and quantitative study of psychotherapists' congruence in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shyh Shin; Ng, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the phenomenological world of 11 Satir-based Singaporean Chinese therapists with regard to their experience of congruence. A mixed qualitative-cum-quantitative research method was used in this study. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore (a) the phenomenological world of therapists with regard to their lived experience of congruence in their personal or inner lives, (b) how this congruence is used in psychotherapy, and (c) how therapists can enhance their level of congruence. Quantitative findings include (a) significant nonparametric correlations among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels of congruence with overall congruence; (b) significant nonparametric correlation between intrapersonal congruence and interpersonal congruence; (c) significant nonparametric correlations between overall congruence and interpersonal congruence with self-esteem and life satisfaction; and (d) significant nonparametric correlations between intrapersonal congruence and self-esteem. These results may have research and clinical implications for the practice of psychotherapy. PMID:18815957

  12. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil

    2003-11-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  13. Quality in Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive Seale

    1999-01-01

    A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

  14. Explanation and Qualitative Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Bouwer; Bert Bredeweg

    1999-01-01

    Qualitative Reasoning is often seen as a powerful basis for generating explanations, because the behaviour of interest is explicitly modelled in terms of relevant com- ponents, processes, causality relations, quantity spaces, assumptions, states and transitions, while neglecting unnecessary details like quantitative values. However, the link between qualitative reasoning and explanation is often seen as a direct one-to-one mapping, whereas studies

  15. QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students construct qualitative models of an ecosystem and use the models to evaluate the direct and indirect effects that may result from perturbations to the ecosystem. Qualitative modeling is described for use in two procedures, each with different educational goals and student backgrounds in min...

  16. Qualitative Studies: Historiographical Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    This paper provides an overview of qualitative studies' antecedents among historiographers and of the positivist tide which nearly engulfed them. Humans live by interpretations. The task of social science--the basic task of qualitative studies--is to study these interpretations so that we can better understand the meanings which people use to…

  17. Qualitative Studies in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

  18. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    ?? Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessment of generic features of qualitative research. In using these, account will need to be taken of the particular method of data collection and methodological approach being used. There may be a need for appraisal criteria suited to the different methods of qualitative data collection and to different methodological approaches. These more specific criteria would help to distinguish fatal flaws from more minor errors in the design, conduct, and reporting of qualitative research. There will be difficulties in doing this because some aspects of qualitative research, particularly those relating to quality of insight and interpretation, will remain difficult to appraise and will rely largely on subjective judgement. PMID:15175495

  19. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  20. Qualitative models for planning: A gentle introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannes, James D.; Carnes, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative modeling is the study of how the physical world behaves. These physical models accept partial descriptions of the world and output the possible changes. Current systems assume that the model is static and that physical entities do not effect change into the world. An approach to planning in physical domains and a working implementation which integrates qualitative models with a temporal interval-based planner are described. The planner constructs plans involving physical qualities and their behavioral descriptions.

  1. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  2. A transpersonal approach to care: a qualitative study of performers' experiences with DooR to DooR, a hospital-based arts program.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, Caitlin E; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2014-06-01

    The arts have a history of relaxing and calming patients in the hospital setting, yet research is limited on how arts may aid in the healing process. DooR to DooR was established to bring comfort, respite, and healing to hospitalized patients, family members, and health care staff. DooR to DooR is located in the University of North Carolina Hospitals at Chapel Hill, North Carolina; professional performing artists visit there, spending 5 to 10 minutes with each patient, family member, and health care staff. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand performers' experiences and of how arts-based programs can facilitate improved patient outcomes in the hospitalized setting to help nurses better use the arts in their care of patients and families. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) the arts are therapeutic for all involved, (b) the arts transform the hospital environment, and (c) nurses and the other medical staff play an important role. The significance of this study for nursing practice is that the arts are a plausible intervention for the hospital because they may help improve patient outcomes by reducing pain and depression and by relieving stress among staff and family members. More research is needed to determine the level of arts-as-an-intervention knowledge among nurses. PMID:24176898

  3. Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  4. Phenomenology of a lepton triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Garcia Cely, Camilo; Han Tao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wang Zhihui [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-10-01

    The most general phenomenological model involving a lepton triplet with hypercharge {+-}1 is constructed. A distinctive feature of this model is the prediction of a doubly charged lepton and a new heavy Dirac neutrino. We study the phenomenology of these exotic leptons both in low-energy experiments and at the LHC. The model predicts flavor-changing neutral-current processes such as muon and tau rare decays, which are studied in detail in order to constrain the model parameters. All the decay channels of the exotic leptons are described for a wide range of parameters. It is found that, if the mixing parameters between the exotic and light leptons are not too small (>10{sup -6}), then they can be observable to a 3-5{sigma} statistical significance at the 7 TeV LHC with 10-50 fb{sup -1} luminosity for a 400 GeV mass and 14 TeV with 100-300 fb{sup -1} luminosity for a 800 GeV mass.

  5. Existential and Phenomenological Influences in Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    1979-01-01

    Existentialism, methodology, phenomenology, and hermeneutics are defined as they apply to philosophy of education. A chronological presentation of the literature outlines the contributions of each. (JMF)

  6. On the the phenomenology of extended Brans-Dicke Gravity

    E-print Network

    Lima, Nelson A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a designer approach for extended Brans-Dicke gravity and use it to construct a semi-analytic model for the effective equation of state, the effective Newton's constant at the background and at the linear level and the gravitational slip. By doing so, we are able to explore the dependence of these four phenomenological parameters on more fundamental parameters of the theory.

  7. Phenomenology without phenomena: a discussion of the use of phenomenology to examine expertise in long-term care of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, J

    1994-02-01

    Phenomenological approaches to research have gained popularity in nursing research over past years, in particular the use of critical incident technique. Phenomenology can be traced back to existentialist philosophy where it is expounded in the work of Husserl and Heidegger. One of the most notable examples of phenomenological research in nursing has been the work of Benner who has used this approach to examine expertise in nursing. This paper is an account of a study which attempted to adapt phenomenological methods to the investigation of expertise in nurses working in long-term care settings, which was curtailed by the apparent inability of nurses in the study to identify any significant incidents. The paper examines this problem in the light of existentialist philosophy and suggests that the apparent lack of expertise identified in the nurses might be due more to a tendency of phenomenological studies to focus more on articulation than on attunement or potential, the other elements of dasein. The paper concludes that attention to these elements is required when phenomenology is used. PMID:8188966

  8. Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

  9. An affirmation of the phenomenological psychological descriptive method: a response to Rennie (2012).

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Amedeo

    2014-12-01

    Rennie (2012) made the claim that, despite their diversity, all qualitative methods are essentially hermeneutical, and he attempted to back up that claim by demonstrating that certain core steps that he called hermeneutical are contained in all of the other methods despite their self-interpretation. In this article, I demonstrate that the method I developed based upon Husserlian phenomenology cannot be so interpreted despite Rennie's effort to do so. I claim that the undertaking of a psychological investigation at large can be considered interpretive but that when the phenomenological method based upon Husserl is employed, it is descriptive. I also object to the attempt to reduce varied theoretical perspectives to the methodical steps of one of the competing theories. Reducing theoretical perspectives to core steps distorts the full value of the theoretical perspective. The last point is demonstrated by showing how the essence of the descriptive phenomenological method is missed if one follows Rennie's core steps. PMID:24773359

  10. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management

    PubMed Central

    Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a. PMID:23066520

  11. Iranian nurses’ experiences of brain dead donors care in intensive care units: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946

  12. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Thorsley, David; Leproult, Rachel; Spiegel, Karine; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-11-15

    Both circadian rhythmicity and sleep play significant roles in the regulation of plasma cortisol concentration by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Numerous studies have found links between sleep and changes in cortisol concentration, but the implications of these results have remained largely qualitative. In this article, we present a quantitative phenomenological model to describe the effects of different sleep durations on cortisol concentration. We constructed the proposed model by incorporating the circadian and sleep allostatic effects on cortisol concentration, the pulsatile nature of cortisol secretion, and cortisol's negative autoregulation of its own production and validated its performance on three study groups that experienced four distinct sleep durations. The model captured many disparate effects of sleep on cortisol dynamics, such as the inhibition of cortisol secretion after the wake-to-sleep transition and the rapid rise of cortisol concentration before morning awakening. Notably, the model reconciled the seemingly contradictory findings between studies that report an increase in cortisol concentration following total sleep deprivation and studies that report no change in concentration. This work provides a biomathematical approach to combine the results on the effects of sleep on cortisol concentration into a unified framework and predict the impact of varying sleep durations on the cortisol profile. PMID:23011061

  13. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  14. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

  15. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Linde, Andrei; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low-energy spectrum as a function of m 3/2. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  16. "Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Teacher and Administrator Experiences in the Analysis and Interpretation of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Matthew William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative empirical phenomenological study was to examine the experience of analyzing and interpreting student assessment data from the perspective of both teachers and administrators in order to identify: (a) those aspects of the experiences which are similar or dissimilar among the two groups, (b) the priorities and…

  18. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  19. A Phenomenological Exploration of Nurses' Perceptions of the Effect of Electronic Documentation on Healing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Sharon Lee

    2011-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study was an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the effect of information technology on healing relationships between nurses and patients. Extensive advancements in health care information technology have developed over the last decade, and have affected the health care environment. The increased time and…

  20. Making the Change: From a Teacher-Centered to a Learner-Centered Environment--A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, Patty L.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education is calling for transformation in teaching practices which includes learner-centered environments. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore 15 nursing faculty life experiences as they relate to the choice of a learning environment. Participants expressed their life experiences through interview…

  1. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Teen Mothers Who Graduated from High School and Attended or Completed College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroble, Christine Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to (1) explore the lived experience of teen mothers who graduated from high school and attended or completed college and (2) discover the school factors that contributed to their academic success. The goal was that in discovering the "essence" of participants' experience,…

  2. A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants, nine teachers and three administrators, volunteered for this six-week study at a private, K3-12 school in Broward County, Florida. The…

  3. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  4. [Reflections on phenomenological research in nursing].

    PubMed

    Schoppmann, S; Pohlmann, M

    2000-12-01

    This essay is concerned with the question which philosophical traditions underpin the phenomenological perspective in nursing research. The word phenomenology is often used synonymously on the level of the theory of science as well as on the level of research methods. Besides the similarity in the designation of phenomenology as a philosophical tradition and as a research method, there are to be found a number of terms in the nursing literature, such as hermeneutic, interpretive or interpretative phenomenology. Therefore it is hard to differentiate between the various accounts and to use them for a concrete inquiry in nursing. The differences and the resulting consequences for phenomenological research methods shall be described whereby the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger are taken into account. PMID:11221204

  5. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  6. The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective.

    PubMed

    Pies, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

  7. Using Monte-Carlo approach for analysis of quantitative and qualitative operation of reservoirs system with regard to the inflow uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Mostafa; Zadbar, Ali; Elyasi, Elham; Jalaal, Maziar

    2015-05-01

    Operation of dams' reservoir systems, as one of the main sources of our country's surface water, has a particular importance. Since the operational hydrological and meteorological parameters of water budget in reservoir systems' operation are indefinite, in order to choose a comprehensive and optimal policy for the operation analysis of these systems, water inflow is considered as the most important hydrological parameter in an uncertain reservoir system. Monte-Carlo approach was applied to study the water inflow impact on the performance of both single and multi-reservoir systems. Doing so, artificial statistics for monthly inflow time series of each production reservoir system and the probable distributions of time, quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency standards were analyzed in five different simulation and optimization models as the system's efficiency criteria. The reason for choosing Karun 3, Karun 4, and Khersan 1 dams was the need for three dams to be setup as reservoir systems in both serial and parallel forms. The results of the operation criteria analysis indicated that for the operation of the whole system, the best quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency values were in the optimized single-reservoir model, and the best time reliability value was in the optimized multi-reservoir model. Moreover, the inflow uncertainty had the minimum impact on the quantitative reliability criteria and the maximum impact on the resiliency criteria.

  8. Qualitative Research Methodology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert G.

    Intended to evoke discussion in the research community about the research trend of the 21st century, this paper provides a broad, general definition of qualitative research that covers the many terms currently used under this heading, and discusses seven issues that the research community should address in some manner: (1) new or fad; (2) too many…

  9. Qualitative Viscous Cosmology

    E-print Network

    A. A. Coley; R. J. van den Hoogen; R. Maartens

    1996-05-28

    The Full (non--truncated) Israel--Stewart theory of bulk viscosity is applied to dissipative FRW spacetimes. Dimensionless variables and dimensionless equations of state are used to write the Einstein--thermodynamic equations as a plane autonomous system and the qualitative behaviour of this system is determined. Entropy production in these models is also discussed.

  10. A Qualitative Exploration of Children’s Understanding of Indiscriminate Friendliness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Bennett; Colin Espie; Barbara Duncan; Helen Minnis

    2009-01-01

    Eight young people (aged 9—14) were interviewed about indiscriminately friendly behaviour. The majority of the sample had a history of maltreatment and placements within foster and care settings. These young people were described as indiscriminately friendly by clinicians, guardians and via the Relationships Problems Questionnaire. Interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, a qualitative methodology. Emergent themes were drawn

  11. THE TRAGIC-IRONIC SELF: A Qualitative Case Study of Suicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Sandage

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative case study is described of a man who died from suicide after incarceration, which is part of a larger multimethod family case study. Hermeneutical phenomenological analyses in this study were based on personal archival documents he collected during his incarceration and interpreted theoretically using Kohutian self psychology and McAdams' narrative theory of personality. Based on procedures from prior

  12. A Qualitative Inquiry into Community College Students' Perceptions of Teacher Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeger, Elizabeth Bradford

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the value of passionate teaching and about passionate teachers. This qualitative phenomenological study examines how community college students perceive passionate teaching. The research results identify qualities of learning intimacy: caring, quality of instruction, zest, and discipline expertise and passionate…

  13. A qualitative analysis of child sex offenders involved in the manufacture of indecent images of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Sheehan; Joe Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of four males convicted of manufacturing indecent images of children to determine whether there were similarities or differences in their experiences, perspectives and behaviours which might lead to a better understanding of this offence type. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is used to examine the participants' responses to a semi-structured interview. The

  14. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  15. “Caring for insiderness”: Phenomenologically informed insights that can guide practice

    PubMed Central

    Todres, Les; Galvin, Kathleen T.; Dahlberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the “insider” perspective has been a pivotal strength of qualitative research. Further than this, within the more applied fields in which the human activity of “caring” takes place, such understanding of “what it is like” for people from within their lifeworlds has also been acknowledged as the foundational starting point in order for “care” to be caring. But we believe that more attention needs to be paid to this foundational generic phenomenon: what it means to understand the “insiderness” of another, but more importantly, how to act on this in caring ways. We call this human phenomenon “caring for insiderness.” Drawing on existing phenomenological studies of marginal caring situations at the limits of caring capability, and through a process of phenomenologically oriented reflection, we interrogated some existential themes implicit in these publications that could lead to deeper insights for both theoretical and applied purposes. The paper provides direction for practices of caring by highlighting some dangers as well as some remedies along this path. PMID:24461568

  16. A phenomenological finite element model of stereolithography processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.

    1996-03-01

    In the stereolithography process, three dimensional parts are built layer by layer using a laser to selectively cure slices of a photocurable resin, one on top of another. As the laser spot passes over the surface of the resin, the ensuing chemical reaction causes the resin to shrink and stiffen during solidification. When laser paths cross or when new layers are cured on top of existing layers, residual stresses are generated as the cure shrinkage of the freshly gelled resin is constrained by the adjoining previously-cured material. These internal stresses can cause curling in the compliant material. A capability for performing finite element analyses of the stereolithography process has been developed. Although no attempt has been made to incorporate all the physics of the process, a numerical platform suitable for such development has been established. A methodology and code architecture have been structured to allow finite elements to be birthed (activated) according to a prescribed order mimicking the procedure by which a laser is used to cure and build-up surface layers of resin to construct a three dimensional geometry. In its present form, the finite element code incorporates a simple phenomenological viscoelastic material model of solidification that is based on the shrinkage and relaxation observed following isolated, uncoupled laser exposures. The phenomenological material model has been used to analyze the curl in a simple cantilever beam and to make qualitative distinctions between two contrived build styles.

  17. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Emma P; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole - showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  18. Uncovering Spiritual Resiliency Through Feminist Qualitative Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Blieszner; Janet L. Ramsey

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted in Germany and America explored how spirituality might facilitate resiliency in old women. Believing in the importance of matching research methods with research goals, we used a feminist, qualitative, denominationally specific approach. We proposed that, through such a design, it would be possible to (a) allow the unique experiences of old women to be expressed; (b) identify

  19. The NUDIST qualitative data analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

    1991-01-01

    Most computer approaches to qualitative data analysis have concentrated on coding and retrieval of text. This paper describes a research project which set out to support a range of methods for the analysis of unstructured data, with emphasis on the building and testing of grounded theory. It resulted in software whose innovations include: a) No limit to the number of

  20. Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Peters

    2010-01-01

    As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

  1. Enhancing Institutional Assessment Efforts through Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Banta, Trudy W.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the why behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Phenomenological theory of echo poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micheli, E.; Viano, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    In scattering theory the effect associated with the downward crossing of the phase-shift ??(k) (? being the orbital angular momentum and k the momentum) through ??=?/2 (mod ?) is called echo. In the standard nuclear theory (Breit-Wigner theory) the echo is described and evaluated in terms of scattering by an impenetrable sphere. However, this model holds only at sufficiently high energy, while it is inadequate at low energy. In this paper we show that the echo effect can be associated with two different regimes acting at low and high energy, respectively. At high energy the hard-sphere scattering model seems to describe appropriately the phenomenon. At low energy we propose a mechanism due to the exchange forces induced by the Pauli exclusion principle in the fermionic interaction, which leads to nonlocal potentials. These potentials admit for the scattering amplitude pole singularities in the fourth quadrant of the complex angular momentum plane. This paper analyzes the role played by this class of poles in the description of the low energy regime of echoes. A specific phenomenological analysis is performed, taking as typical example the ?-? elastic scattering.

  3. The phenomenology of maverick dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina

    Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both spin-independent (XENON100 and SuperCDMS) and spin-dependent (COUPP) experiments. We further study the distinguishability of maverick WIMP production signals at the Tevatron and the LHC---at its early and nominal configurations---using standard simulation packages, place constraints on maverick WIMP properties using existing collider data, and determine projected mass reaches in future data from both colliders. We find ourselves in a unique era of theoretically-motivated, high-precision dark matter searches that hold the potential to give us important insights, not only into the nature of dark matter, but also into the physics that lies beyond the standard model.

  4. Academic rigour in the lived experience of researchers using phenomenological methods in nursing.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Beeby, J; Parker, D

    1995-06-01

    In its quest for knowledge, nursing has relied heavily on the positivist approach to scientific enquiry. Phenomenological enquiry identifies the essence of a phenomenon and accurately describes it through the lived experience. Through consistency in the use of the methodology, and avoidance of method slurring, academic rigour can be maintained. It is advocated that the phenomenological method is congruent with nursing ideals where humanistic knowledge is valued. Nurses and phenomenologists share skills in observation, interviewing, interaction and interpersonal relationships in the appreciation of the individual's perception of an experience. Through the development of professional practice, nurses thus gain the tools to assist them in phenomenological research. It is suggested that, given appropriate attention to rigour, phenomenological methodology could become the basic instrument in the reform of nursing research as it moves from the positivist to the humanist paradigm. PMID:7665777

  5. A case study of qualitative change in system dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAVIER ARACIL; MIGUEL TORO

    1984-01-01

    The application of dynamical systems qualitative analysis techniques to the study of models of socio-economical systems showing abrupt changes in its qualitative behaviour is proposed. The approach is based on the multiple time-scale properties of a class of non-linear perturbed systems. The change of qualitative behaviour produced in the system can be explained through the singularities of a properly defined

  6. Qualitative model-based diagnosis using possibility theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslyn, Cliff

    1994-01-01

    The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.

  7. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding of philosophical and theoretical works - a condition of quality scholarship - depends on our reading of both originary texts and contemporary literature from the humanities and the social sciences. This understanding, far from obliging researchers to always trace (often erroneously) their work to its philosophical roots, opens other, often more sound, methodological possibilities. PMID:24320982

  8. Freeway Traffic Qualitative Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente R. Tomás; Luís A. García

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a A new freeway traffic simulator based on a deep model behaviour is proposed. This simulator is defined and developed for helping\\u000a human traffic operators in taking decisions about predictive control actions in situations prior to congestion. The simulator\\u000a uses qualitative tags and cognitive events to represent the traffic status and evolution and the temporal knowledge base produced\\u000a by its execution

  9. Qualitative Physiology: from Qualitative Processes to Virtual Patients 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Cavazza; Altion Simo

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of qualitative physiology in the field of cardiac emergencies, which is integrated to a 3D virtual patient. . The system integrates qualitative simulation techniques with a realistic visual simulation of the patient in a 3D environment representing an ER room. We have adapted Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) to the representation of physiological processes

  10. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  11. Construction of response surface designs for qualitative and quantitative factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. J. Wu; Yuan Ding

    1998-01-01

    A general approach is proposed for constructing response surface designs of economical size for qualitative and quantitative factors. It starts with an efficient design (e.g. central composite design) for the quantitative factors and then partitions the design points into groups corresponding to different level combinations of the qualitative factors. Good designs are selected to ensure high estimation efficiency for models

  12. Multicultural Counseling and Qualitative Research: Shared Worldview and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Niloufer; Dupuy, Paula

    1996-01-01

    Identifies similarities between multicultural counseling competencies and the basic assumptions and methodology of qualitative research. Examines how various characteristics shared by these two approaches (i.e., using appropriate strategies and skills) are addressed under aspects of qualitative research, such as selection of the research question…

  13. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  14. Case Adaptation with Qualitative Algebras Valmi Dufour-Lussier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for the adaptation of spatial or temporal cases in a case-based reason- ing system. Qualitative algebras are used on qualitative algebras. A temporal example from the cooking domain is given.1 1 Introduction Case-based on Case-Based Reasoning [Dufour-Lussier et al., 2012]. revision-based adaptation, and QSTR. The approach

  15. Qualitative Spatial Reasoning Using Orientation, Distance, and Path Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Zimmermann; Christian Freksa

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: We give an overview of an approach to qualitative spatial reasoning based ondirectional orientation information as available through perception processes or natural languagedescriptions. Qualitative orientations in 2-dimensional space are given by the relationbetween a point and a vector. The paper presents our basic iconic notation for spatial orientationrelations that exploits the spatial structure of the domain and explores a

  16. The problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss.

    PubMed

    Moyle, W; Clinton, M

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses a methodological difficulty that arose when uncovering the conscious experience of being nurtured as an in-patient with depression on a psychiatric ward. It considers the problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss in a patient who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The paper begins by describing the prevalence of depression and its significance for nurses working in in-patient settings. Examples of empirical research into memory loss in depression are used to show what researchers must set aside if they are to arrive at a phenomenological description of memory loss. The choice of a phenomenological approach to the wider study from which the methodological problem discussed here arose is then justified. The phenomena of memory is introduced to show the methodological significance of attempting to arrive at a phenomenological description of the statement made by one of the participants, a woman being treated as an in-patient for major depression. A possible description of the phenomena of memory loss based on the existential phenomenology of Sartre is offered to call into question the ability of researchers to bracket their assumptions. The significance for nurses of the wider study from which our example is taken is then described. Finally it is argued that despite the methodological difficulty described, a phenomenological perspective based on the philosophy of Husserl can point nurses in the direction of meeting the human needs of their patients. PMID:9231285

  17. Experiences of New Information Technology Managers: A Qualitative Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of IT Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Walter Wesley, V.

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning from a technical role to a managerial role has many challenges, particularly in information technology (IT) (Lester & Parnell, 2006). These challenges include people or soft skills, language skills, knowledge, intuition, mentoring, and delegation (Brokett, 2007; Feyerherm & Rice, 2002; Lester & Parnell, 2006). The IT…

  18. Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffington Ameir, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

  19. A comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-02-13

    Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the public, and political pressures all affect the manner in which risk assessments are carried out. This paper surveys some risk matrix techniques, examining the uses and applicability for each. Limitations and problems for each technique are presented and compared to the others. Risk matrix approaches vary from purely qualitative axis descriptions of accident frequency vs consequences, to fully quantitative axis definitions using multi-attribute utility theory to equate different types of risk from the same operation.

  20. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  1. Qualitative visual environment retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara; Prabhudesai, Amit B; Chaudhuri, Subhasis

    2006-12-01

    A system for retrieval of an unstructured environment under static and dynamic scenarios is proposed. The use of cylindrical mosaics or omnidirectional images is exploited for providing a rich description about the surrounding environment spanning 360 degrees. The environment description is based on defining the attributes of the nodes of a graph derived from the angular partitions of the captured images. Content-based image retrieval for each of these partitions is performed on an exemplar image database to annotate the nodes of the graph. The complete environment description is recovered by collating the retrieval results over all the partitions based on a simple voting scheme. This offers a qualitative description of the location in a totally natural and unstructured surrounding. The experiments yield quite promising results. PMID:17186813

  2. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  3. Supersymmetry and Supergravity: Phenomenology and Grand Unification

    E-print Network

    R. Arnowitt; Pran Nath

    1993-09-16

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of $SU(2) \\times U(1)$, proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  4. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Nath, P. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  5. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of African Caribbean women's experiences and management of emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Sisley, Emma J; Hutton, Jane M; Louise Goodbody, C; Brown, June S L

    2011-07-01

    African Caribbean women are under-represented within mental health services in the United Kingdom, despite sociocontextual vulnerabilities which may increase emotional distress. This qualitative study aimed to explore individual explanatory models of experiences of distress, coping and help-seeking choices, with a view to improving cultural relevance of services. Participants were recruited following their self-referral to self-help community wellbeing workshops. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was carried out following semi-structured interviews with seven African Caribbean women in central London, who reported previously experiencing emotional distress. The study was conducted during 2009. Five super-ordinate themes emerged from the data: explanations of distress, experiences of distress, managing distress, social and cultural influences and seeking help. Each super-ordinate theme consisted of several subthemes which described participants' experiences. Gender roles and a cultural legacy of being strong and hiding distress emerged as influential in participants' beliefs about managing personal difficulties. However, this was balanced with an acknowledgement that intergenerational differences highlighted an increasing acceptance amongst the community of talking about issues and seeking professional support. The findings offered support for the notion that understandings and responses to personal distress are subject to broad-ranging and interwoven influences. This complexity may be conceptualised as an 'exploratory map' where individuals make links between their current and newly encountered knowledge and experience to guide their personal route to coping and help-seeking. The study provides support for tailoring services to individual needs using a flexible approach which empowers individuals from black and minority ethnic groups by valuing explanatory models of distress alternative to the westernised medical model. Furthermore, findings emphasise the importance of readily available and accessible information about statutory and non-statutory community resources which use language relevant to the communities they are aimed at engaging. PMID:21314849

  6. "It's very hard to change yourself": an exploration of overactivity in people with chronic pain using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy; Gordon, Kellie; Bagraith, Karl Singh

    2015-07-01

    Overactivity (activity engagement that significantly exacerbates pain) is a common term in the chronic pain literature. Overactivity is accepted clinically as a behaviour that adversely affects an individual's daily functioning and is the target of one of the most widely endorsed pain management strategies among health professionals (ie, activity pacing). Little research, however, has investigated links between overactivity behaviour and indicators of patient functioning, and activity pacing has not been evaluated as a stand-alone treatment specifically for individuals with chronic pain who are habitually overactive. Two studies, using qualitative research designs and interpretative phenomenological analyses, were conducted to provide insight into (1) why certain individuals develop habitual overactivity patterns in response to pain, (2) the impact of overactivity on daily functioning, and (3) the value of activity pacing as a treatment strategy for this population. Findings suggest that overactivity behaviour is complex, influenced by multiple factors, and negatively impacts on multiple quality-of-life domains. Some participants who were followed up 3 to 6 months after a pain management program were able to learn pacing strategies and enact behaviour change with health professional support; however, the majority reported difficulties changing their behaviour after treatment. It is suggested that provision of pacing education, alone, to chronic pain patients who engage in overactivity behaviour may not be effective in eliciting behavioural change. Key factors that participants believed to contribute to the development and maintenance of their overactive behaviour in this study should be considered in future clinical approaches and empirical investigations. PMID:25887466

  7. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  8. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers. PMID:21179252

  9. Negotiating the Dimensions of the Digital Divide: A Phenomenological Study of Jordanian Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arouri, Yousef Mhmoud Said

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study was designed to explore and learn how six pre-service teachers, studying at one of the Jordanian universities in the capital of Amman, identify, experience, and negotiate the barriers to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) access in their schooling experiences. The process of collecting…

  10. A phenomenological study on dilute magnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Bijan Kumar; Paul, Somnath; Sarkar, A.

    2015-06-01

    A phenomenological study on DMS has been undertaken. The developed simple formulation is made to examine the dependence of magnetism in the system with cluster size of local magnet, temperature and concentration of the clusters in dielectric background. The overall success is found to be good.

  11. The Phenomenology of Homesickness in Boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Thurber

    1999-01-01

    Homesickness is the distress or impairment caused by an actual or anticipated separation from home. It is characterized by acute longing and preoccupying thoughts of home and attachment objects. This study extended previous research on the phenomenology of childhood homesickness by assessing a sample of 316 boys, ages 8–16, who were spending 2 weeks at a single-sex residential summer camp.

  12. The Phenomenological Role of Consciousness in Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick A. Heelan

    A structural analogy is pointed out between a hermeneutically developed phenomenological description, based on Husserl, of the process of perceptual cognition on the one hand and quantumm e- chanical measurement on the other hand. In Husserl's analytic phase of the cognition process, the \\

  13. The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Muller

    1998-01-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is

  14. A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

  15. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.

  16. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  17. The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

  18. Phenomenology of n -n ¯ oscillations revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-01

    We revisit the phenomenology of n -n ¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n -n ¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  19. An Historical Phenomenology of Mean and Median

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arthur; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Using Freudenthal's method of historical phenomenology, the history of statistics was investigated as a source of inspiration for instructional design. Based on systematically selected historical examples, hypotheses were formulated about how students could be supported in learning to reason with particular statistical concepts and graphs. Such a…

  20. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  1. Phenomenological Evidence for Two Types of Paranoia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. J. Chadwick; P. Trower; T.-M. Juusti-Butler; N. Maguire

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Two types of paranoia have been identified, namely persecution (or ‘Poor Me’) paranoia, and punishment (or ‘Bad Me’) paranoia. This research tests predicted differences in phenomenology – specifically, in person evaluative beliefs, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and anger. Method: Fifty-three people with current paranoid beliefs were classified as Poor Me, Bad Me, or neither (classification was reliable). Key dependent variables

  2. Surveying the Phenomenology of General Gauge Mediation

    E-print Network

    Linda M. Carpenter

    2008-12-11

    I explore the phenomenology, constraints and tuning for several weakly coupled implementations of multi-parameter gauge mediation and compare to minimal gauge mediation. The low energy spectra are distinct from that of minimal gauge mediation, a wide range of NLSPs is found and spectra are significantly compressed thus tunings may be generically reduced to a part in 10 to a part in 20.

  3. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-01

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  4. A phenomenological exploration of the constructs of ‘home’ in Jewish emerging adults in gap-year programmes in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assael Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examines the construct of ‘home’ for Jewish emerging adults participating in a Jewish, semi-autonomous gap-year programme in Israel. Fifteen participants aged 18–22 were sampled from different gap-year programmes. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews including queries regarding participants' meaning of ‘home’ prior to embarking on the programme. Shared dimensions of home constructs included home in

  5. Professional nurse and generic care of childbirthing women conceptualized within Leininger's culture care theory and using Colaizzi's phenomenological method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julianna M Finn

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was discovery of the meanings of care\\/non-care as experienced by ten European-American women during childbirth. This research was conceptualized within Leininger's (1991) Theory of Culture Care which includes definitions of professional nurse and generic care and the significance of world view, cultural and social structure factors as the basis of embedded care. The

  6. Discrete, qualitative models of interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Ballerstein, Kathrin; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Lindquist, Jonathan Axel; Beyer, Tilo; Schraven, Burkhart; Weismantel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Logical models for cellular signaling networks are recently attracting wide interest: Their ability to integrate qualitative information at different biological levels, from receptor-ligand interactions to gene-regulatory networks, is becoming essential for understanding complex signaling behavior. We present an overview of Boolean modeling paradigms and discuss in detail an approach based on causal logical interactions that yields descriptive and predictive signaling network models. Our approach offers a mathematically well-defined concept, improving the efficiency of analytical tools to meet the demand of large-scale data sets, and can be extended into various directions to include timing information as well as multiple discrete values for components. PMID:23277042

  7. Learning about Ecological Systems by Constructing Qualitative Models with DynaLearn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiba, Moshe; Zuzovsky, Ruth; Mioduser, David; Benayahu, Yehuda; Nachmias, Rafi

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative model of a system is an abstraction that captures ordinal knowledge and predicts the set of qualitatively possible behaviours of the system, given a qualitative description of its structure and initial state. This paper examines an innovative approach to science education using an interactive learning environment that supports…

  8. Using Shared Leadership to Achieve School Improvement Goals: A Qualitative Study of One High School's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the impact of shared leadership committees on school improvement efforts. The research identified which leadership factors lead to successful shared leadership committees and which supports and structures were needed for the committees to be meaningful in regards to school improvement. Certified…

  9. Collaborative Data-Driven Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Primary Grade Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Christine R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the lived experiences of primary classroom teachers participating in collaborative data-driven decision making. Hermeneutic phenomenology served as the theoretical framework. Data were collected by conducting interviews with thirteen classroom teachers who taught in grades kindergarten through…

  10. Qualitative interviewing as measurement.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2010-04-01

    The attribution of beliefs and other propositional attitudes is best understood as a form of measurement, however counter-intuitive this may seem. Measurement theory does not require that the thing measured should be a magnitude, or that the calibration of the measuring instrument should be numerical. It only requires a homomorphism between the represented domain and the representing domain. On this basis, maps measure parts of the world, usually geographical locations, and 'belief' statements measure other parts of the world, namely people's aptitudes. Having outlined an argument for this view, I deal with an obvious objection to it: that self-attribution of belief cannot be an exercise in measurement, because we are all aware, from introspection, that our beliefs have an intrinsically semantic form. Subsequently, I turn to the philosophical and methodological ramifications of the measurement theoretic view. I argue, first, that it undermines at least one version of constructivism and, second, that it provides an effective alternative to the residually Cartesian philosophy that underpins much qualitative research. Like other anti-Cartesian strategies, belief-attribution-as-measurement implies that the objective world is far more knowable than the subjective one, and that reality is ontologically prior to meaning. I regard this result as both plausible and welcome. PMID:20415963

  11. Actin Automata: Phenomenology and Localizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Mayne, Richard

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, whose roles in cell function include structural support, contractile activity to intracellular signaling. We model actin filaments as two chains of one-dimensional binary-state semi-totalistic automaton arrays to describe hypothetical signaling events therein. Each node of the actin automaton takes state "0" (resting) or "1" (excited) and updates its state in discrete time depending on its neighbor's states. We analyze the complete rule space of actin automata using integral characteristics of space-time configurations generated by these rules and compute state transition rules that support traveling and mobile localizations. Approaches towards selection of the localization supporting rules using the global characteristics are outlined. We find that some properties of actin automata rules may be predicted using Shannon entropy, activity and incoherence of excitation between the polymer chains. We also show that it is possible to infer whether a given rule supports traveling or stationary localizations by looking at ratios of excited neighbors that are essential for generations of the localizations. We conclude by applying biomolecular hypotheses to this model and discuss the significance of our findings in context with cell signaling and emergent behavior in cellular computation.

  12. Developing students' qualitative muscles in an introductory methods course.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of qualitative research (QR) has coincided with methodological innovations, the proliferation of qualitative textbooks and journals, and the greater availability of qualitative methods courses. In spite of these advances, the pedagogy for teaching qualitative methods has received little attention. This paper provides a philosophical foundation for teaching QR with active learning strategies and shows how active learning is fully integrated into a one-semester course. The course initiates students into qualitative dispositions and skills as students develop study aims and procedures; enter the field to gather data; analyze the full set of student-generated data; and write results in a final report. Conducting a study in one semester is challenging but has proven feasible and disabuses students of the view that QR is simple, unscientific, or non-rigorous. Student reflections on course assignments are integrated into the paper. The strengths and limitations of this pedagogical approach are also described. PMID:25178908

  13. Advancing Phenomenological Research: Applications of "Body Schema," "Body Image," and "Affordances" in Neglect.

    PubMed

    Klinke, Marianne E; Thorsteinsson, Björn; Jónsdóttir, Helga

    2014-05-12

    In this article, we review the latest trends of data collection methods in phenomenological nursing studies. Subsequently, by using a philosophical analysis, mainly inspired by Merleau-Ponty's embodied phenomenology and a case construction of an individual with hemi-spatial neglect-a common disorder following stroke-we explore the concepts "body schema," "body image," and "affordances." Applying these concepts helps to illuminate the temporal, spatial, and perceptual world of people encountering discrepancy between perception and reality because of disease-a discrepancy seen in hemi-spatial neglect. Concepts to capture the multifaceted challenges that occur under these circumstances are lacking. Systematically incorporating the aforementioned concepts might help to advance phenomenological research and articulate these difficulties. We propose suggestions on data generation to reveal situated, meaning-infused, embodied experiences in patients with hemi-spatial neglect. The need to step beyond the privileged emphasis on interviews, toward experimenting with other approaches of data collection, is underscored. PMID:24819692

  14. Empathy and alteration: the ethical relevance of a phenomenological species concept.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Darian

    2014-10-01

    The debate over the ethics of radically, technologically altering the capacities and traditional form of the human body is rife with appeals to and dismissals of the importance of the integrity of the human species. Species-integrist arguments can be found in authors as varied as Annas, Fukuyama, Habermas, and Agar. However, the ethical salience of species integrity is widely contested by authors such as Buchanan, Daniels, Fenton, and Juengst. This article proposes a Phenomenological approach to the question of species-integrity, arguing in favor of a phenomenon of species-recognition that carries an ethical pull. Building on Husserl's Phenomenological account of empathy and the lived-body, as well as Schopenhauer's concept of compassion as an ethical urphenomenon, I develop a "Phenomenological species concept" (PSC), which I argue has the ethical significance that biological species concepts do not. The PSC reorients the debate over human alteration and species integrity. PMID:25223413

  15. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  16. Qualitative Tree Languages Arnaud Carayol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative Tree Languages Arnaud Carayol LIGM (Univ. Paris Est & CNRS) Arnaud) Olivier.Serre@liafa.jussieu.fr Abstract--We study finite automata running over infinite binary trees) of non-accepting branches. In this qualitative setting, a tree is accepted by the automaton

  17. APPEALING SAP TERMINATION QUALITATIVE MEASURE

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    APPEALING SAP TERMINATION QUALITATIVE MEASURE How to Provide Proof of Additional Units Earned of the Financial Aid homepage at www.fullerton.edu/financialaid to download the "2012- 2013-SAP Correction for August 24, 2012. How to Appeal for Failure to Meet the Qualitative SAP Measure: If you had extenuating

  18. Exploring possible causes of fatal burns in 2007 using Haddon’s Matrix: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Arshi, Shahnam; Mohammad Hosseini, Mirkazem; Samadirad, Bahram; Nadir Mohammadi, Mehryar; Daemi, Amin; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Burns are a major factor in injury mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the possible causes of fatal burns using Haddon’s Matrix. Methods: This is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. We collected elicitation interview data using nine corroborators who were the most knowledgeable about the index burn event. Immediately after recording, the data was verbatim. Each event was analyzed using Haddon’s Matrix. Results: Interviewees provided detailed information about 11 burn cases. Overall, 202 burn-related factors were extracted. Using Haddon’s Matrix, 43 risk factors were identified. The most common included the lack of basic knowledge of burn care, the use of unsafe appliances including kerosene heaters and stoves in hazardous environments such kitchens and bathrooms, poor burn care delivery system in hospitals, poor and unsafe living conditions, financial issues, and other factors detailed in the article. Conclusions: Our findings suggest burn related prevention efforts should focus on improving human living conditions, promoting the use of safe heating appliances, providing public burn-safety precautions education, and improving the quality of care in burn centers and hospitals. The use of Haddon’s Matrix in future injury research is discussed. PMID:24879079

  19. Depression and embodiment: phenomenological reflections on motility, affectivity, and transcendence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    This paper integrates personal narratives with the methods of phenomenology in order to draw some general conclusions about 'what it means' and 'what it feels like' to be depressed. The analysis has three parts. First, it explores the ways in which depression disrupts everyday experiences of spatial orientation and motility. This disruption makes it difficult for the person to move and perform basic functional tasks, resulting in a collapse or contraction of the life-world. Second, it illustrates how depression creates a situational atmosphere of emotional indifference that reduces the person's ability to qualitatively distinguish what matters in his or her life because nothing stands out as significant or important anymore. In this regard, depression is distinct from other feelings because it is not directed towards particular objects or situations but to the world as a whole. Finally, the paper examines how depression diminishes the possibility for 'self-creation' or 'self-making'. Restricted by the illness, depression becomes something of a destiny, preventing the person from being open and free to access a range of alternative self-interpretations, identities, and possible ways of being-in-the-world. PMID:23378190

  20. Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Kathy S.

    This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.

  1. Using a source–receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Badol; Nadine Locoge; Thierry Léonardis; Jean-Claude Galloo

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of this two part study was (1) to conduct VOC measurements in order to further understand VOC behaviour in an urban area influenced by industrial emissions and (2) to evaluate the role of these specific sources relative to urban sources. In this first paper a thorough descriptive and qualitative analysis is performed. A second article will be

  2. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  3. Phenomenology of pain and suffering at the end of life: a humanistic perspective in gerontological health and social work.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the phenomenology of pain and suffering and the fundamentally social nature of living with serious illness for older adults at life's end. She focuses on three concerns in gerontological health and social work: developing a phenomenological account of lived experiences of pain and suffering; articulating a humanistic phenomenological perspective on the axiological and ethical dimensions of pain and suffering; and exploring a phenomenological approach to a more humanistic, person-centered social work practice with older adults in end-of-life and palliative care. The contribution that the author makes through this article is in elaborating a humanistic framework for understanding agency, obligation, and ethical choice in end-of-life decision making. PMID:21391076

  4. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  5. Phenomenology of Philosophy of Science: OPERA data

    E-print Network

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2012-06-15

    I observe that, as the physics side of the OPERA-anomaly story is apparently unfolding, there can still be motivation for philosophy of science to analyze the six months of madness physicists spent chasing the dream of a new fundamental-physics revolution. I here mainly report data on studies of the OPERA anomaly that could be relevant for analyses from the perspective of phenomenology of philosophy of science. Most of what I report is an insider's perspective on the debate that evolved from the original announcement by the OPERA collaboration of evidence of superluminal neutrinos. I also sketch out, from a broader perspective, some of the objectives I view as achievable for the phenomenology of philosophy of science.

  6. Phenomenology of Philosophy of Science: OPERA data

    E-print Network

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    I observe that, as the physics side of the OPERA-anomaly story is apparently unfolding, there can still be motivation for philosophy of science to analyze the six months of madness physicists spent chasing the dream of a new fundamental-physics revolution. I here mainly report data on studies of the OPERA anomaly that could be relevant for analyses from the perspective of phenomenology of philosophy of science. Most of what I report is an insider's perspective on the debate that evolved from the original announcement by the OPERA collaboration of evidence of superluminal neutrinos. I also sketch out, from a broader perspective, some of the objectives I view as achievable for the phenomenology of philosophy of science.

  7. Phenomenological Modeling of Infrared Sources: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Chun Ming; Kwok, Sun (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Infrared observations from planned space facilities (e.g., ISO (Infrared Space Observatory), SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)) will yield a large and uniform sample of high-quality data from both photometric and spectroscopic measurements. To maximize the scientific returns of these space missions, complementary theoretical studies must be undertaken to interpret these observations. A crucial step in such studies is the construction of phenomenological models in which we parameterize the observed radiation characteristics in terms of the physical source properties. In the last decade, models with increasing degree of physical realism (in terms of grain properties, physical processes, and source geometry) have been constructed for infrared sources. Here we review current capabilities available in the phenomenological modeling of infrared sources and discuss briefly directions for future research in this area.

  8. Phenomenology of Neutron-Antineutron Oscillations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Susan; Jafari, Ehsan

    2014-09-01

    We revisit the phenomenology of neutron-antineutron (n- n) oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n- n transition rate can be enhanced under special conditions, opening new pathways for its empirical study. We revisit the phenomenology of neutron-antineutron (n- n) oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n- n transition rate can be enhanced under special conditions, opening new pathways for its empirical study. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics under grant DE-FG02-96ER40989.

  9. A Phenomenological Discrete Brittle Damage-Mechanics Model for Fatigue of MEMS Devices With Application to LIGA Ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor S. Slack; Farshid Sadeghi; Dimitrios Peroulis

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue initiation and failure of various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is of significant importance as they gain widespread acceptance in sensors and electronics. This paper presents an approach for utilizing available experimental fatigue data to evaluate the fatigue lives of MEMS components. The approach is based on a phenomenological discrete material representation in which a domain is represented by a collection

  10. 'You always have to return to your parents': An Interpretative Phenomenological Investigation of Chinese Attachment Styles and Experience in a Changing World 

    E-print Network

    Barry, Alexandra

    2013-07-02

    This study addresses the largely unexplored area of Chinese interpersonal relationships and attachment styles post-modernization of China. A Phenomenological approach was employed to shed light on how traditional Confucian beliefs and modern values...

  11. Collider Phenomenology: Basic Knowledge and Techniques

    E-print Network

    Tao Han

    2005-08-09

    This is the writeup for TASI--04 lectures on Collider Phenomenology. These lectures are meant to provide an introductory presentation on the basic knowledge and techniques for collider physics. Special efforts have been made for those theorists who need to know some experimental issues in collider environments, and for those experimenters who would like to know more about theoretical considerations in searching for new signals at colliders.

  12. Phenomenology of the Pokaran pne experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Chidambaram; S K Sikka; Satish C Gupta

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenology of the Pokaranpne experiment (yield - 12 kiloton oftnt) conducted in a shale-sandstone rock, 107 meters underground, is described with the aid of computations using a one-dimensional\\u000a spherical symmetric rock mechanics computer code developed by the authors. The calculated values of cavity radius, spall velocity\\u000a and extent of rock fracturing are in good agreement with the observed values.

  13. A phenomenological model of protein folding

    E-print Network

    Danielsson, Ulf H; Niemi, Antti J

    2009-01-01

    We construct a phenomenological effective field theory model that describes the universality class of biologically active single-strand proteins. The model allows both for an explicit construction of native state protein conformations, and a dynamical description of protein folding and unfolding processes. The model reveals a connection between homochirality and protein collapse, and enables the theoretical investigation of various other aspects of protein folding even in the case of very long polypeptide chains where other methods are not available.

  14. Quantum Foam and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Y. Jack Ng

    2004-05-14

    Spacetime undergoes quantum fluctuations, giving rise to spacetime foam, a.k.a. quantum foam. We discuss some properties of spacetime foam, and point out the conceptual interconnections in the physics of quantum foam, black holes, and quantum computation. We also discuss the phenomenology of quantum foam, and conclude that it may be difficult, but by no means impossible, to detect its tiny effects in the not-too-distant future.

  15. An improved phenomenological model of ionospheric density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. T. Chiu

    1975-01-01

    A global representation of the large scale variations of ionospheric electron density with the annual, diurnal and solar activity cycles is described. A phenomenological model requiring minimal computer storage space is constructed from monthly-averaged hourly ionospheric sounding data from some 50 stations during the epoch 1957-1970 provided by World Data Center (A). The model describes noontime F2-layer critical frequencies to

  16. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  17. Skin Picking Phenomenology and Severity Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Neziroglu, Fugen; Rabinowitz, Dena; Breytman, Anna; Jacofsky, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite the substantial distress and impairment often associated with skin picking, there currently is only limited research examining various phenomenological aspects of this behavior. The present research contributes to the existing literature by investigating phenomenological variables related to skin picking, such as family involvement, anxiety, depression, and the emotional consequences of skin picking. Moreover, on the basis of symptom severity level, differences were explored between individuals with skin picking who were from a psychiatric population. Method: Forty individuals with various clinician-ascertained DSM-IV diagnoses in addition to skin picking symptomatology participated in the present study, which was conducted from September 2002 through January 2003. Participants were administered a self-report questionnaire (which assessed demographic, symptom, and past diagnostic information) as well as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-Injury Interview. Results: Phenomenological data on various aspects of individuals with skin picking are presented. Individuals with mild skin picking and individuals with severe skin picking were compared and found to differ in the level of distress they experienced (t = ?2.35, p = .05) and the amount of damage caused by their picking behavior (t = ?3.06, p = .01). Conclusion: Overall, skin picking represents a behavior with its own unique characteristics and accompanying levels of distress and impairment that warrants specific attention by clinicians. PMID:18787665

  18. Phenomenological Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravalla, Vidyashankar; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2008-07-01

    Shape memory alloys exhibit two characteristic effects, viz., shape memory and superelasticity or pseudoelasticity, due to a reversible solid-solid transformation brought about by either temperature or stress or both. The two important aspects involved in modeling the macroscopic SMA behavior are the constitutive equation describing the stress-strain-temperature relationship and the evolution kinetics describing the phase transformation as a function of the driving forces. Phenomenological models for macroscopic behavior of SMAs are frequently used wherein the aforementioned aspects of SMA behavior are treated independently. Using empirical data, a phase diagram is constructed to describe evolution of martensitic phase fraction (?) as a function of stress and temperature. A constitutive equation is derived using the appropriate form of free energy. In this paper, salient aspects in phenomenological models are discussed and a robust model for SMA behavior is presented. Using a distance based memory parameter, rate based kinetics is provided along with a differential form of constitutive equation. Also, several critical issues in phenomenological modeling like prescribing consistent kinetics and catering to arbitrary thermomechanical loading are highlighted. Through numerical studies, it is shown that the proposed model provides consistent kinetics and caters to arbitrary thermomechanical loading.

  19. Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

    2013-07-01

    Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry. PMID:23718744

  20. Phenomenological description of anisotropy effects in some ferromagnetic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopova, Diana V.; Todorov, Michail D.

    2015-07-01

    We study phenomenologically the role of anisotropy in ferromagnetic superconductors UGe2, URhGe, and UCoGe for the description of their phase diagrams. We use the Ginzburg-Landau free energy in its uniform form as we will consider only spatially independent solutions. This is an expansion of previously derived results where the effect of Cooper-pair and crystal anisotropies is not taken into account. The three compounds are separately discussed with the special stress on UGe2. The main effect comes from the strong uniaxial anisotropy of magnetization while the anisotropy of Cooper pairs and crystal anisotropy only slightly change the phase diagram in the vicinity of Curie temperature. The limitations of this approach are also discussed.

  1. Etiologic, phenomenologic, and endophenotypic overlap of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the history of psychiatric nosology, with particular reference to the nineteenth-century origins of the concepts of manic-depressive illness and schizophrenia as distinct clinical syndromes and their evolution and diagnostic refinement over time. I document how the terminology applied to these entities has generated controversy, and discuss the ways in which the resulting diagnostic entities as defined by pure phenomenological symptom descriptors fail to capture discrete diagnostic distinctions, leading some researchers to posit an illness continuum rather than separate disorders. Furthermore, the two syndromes overlap substantially on multiple biologic measures, and clarity is lacking as to the underlying etiology and pathology necessary to move from descriptions of clinical syndromes to diseases. I next examine how biologically based classifications agnostic to conventional diagnostic schemes may be useful and how these are being implemented in practice, and conclude by summarizing where such approaches are likely to lead. PMID:25581236

  2. Totally symmetric order parameter in the framework of the phenomenological theory of phase transitions: Ferroelastics

    SciTech Connect

    Gufan, A. Yu. [Rostov State University, Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ag_ag@mail.ru

    2007-07-15

    A new approach is proposed for constructing the phenomenological theory of phase transitions. The approach is based on the classical Landau theory with allowance made for the order parameter that corresponds to changes in the charge distribution probability density of a crystal and does not affect the symmetry of the high-symmetry phase. It is demonstrated that this approach makes it possible to describe phase transitions in terms of a nonequilibrium polynomial Landau potential of degree four in the components of the order parameters. The capabilities of the proposed approach are illustrated with three systems that undergo ferroelastic phase transitions.

  3. Qualitative Representation of Positional Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliseo Clementini; Paolino Di Felice; Daniel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    A framework for the qualitative representation of positional information in a two-dimensionalspace is presented. Qualitative representations use discrete quantity spaces, wherea particular distinction is introduced only if it is relevant to the context being modeled.This allows us to build a flexible framework that accommodates various levels of granularityand scales of reasoning. Knowledge about position in large-scale space is commonlyrepresented by

  4. Computational approach to phenomenological mesoscopic field dislocation mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish

    2005-11-01

    A variety of physically observed size-effects and patterning behavior in plastic response at the micron scale and below have raised interesting challenges for the modeling of plastic flow at these scales. In this thesis, two such models appropriate for length scales of < 0.1mum and 0.1mum-100mum are considered. The first (FDM) is conceptually appropriate for scales where all dislocations are resolved. The second (PMFDM) is a moving space-time averaged version of the first, appropriate for mesoscopic plasticity. In the first part of the thesis, FDM is shown to be capable of representing the elastic stress fields of dislocation distributions in a generally anisotropic medium of finite extent. It is also shown to have some success, naturally limited as expected, in prediction of yield drop, back stress and development of inhomogeneity from homogeneous initial conditions and boundary conditions which would otherwise produce homogeneous deformation in conventional plasticity. The space-time averaged version of FDM, PMFDM, requires additional closure statements due to the inherent nonlinearity of FDM. This is achieved through the use of a robust macroscopic model of strain-gradient plasticity that attempts to model effects of geometrically-necessary dislocations only in work-hardening. Finite element method-based computational predictions of the theory demonstrate several experimentally observed features of meso and macro scale plasticity. The model, which fundamentally accounts for fine scale dislocation mechanisms, seems to be an adequate representation of plasticity for these scales.

  5. Quantized heat transport in small systems: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, F; Márkus, F; Gambár, K

    2009-03-01

    Recent progress in nanoscale materials science has pushed the basic research on physical effects while going to such length scales. Particularly, the study of size effects on heat conductivity has attracted much theoretical and experimental interest. In this work we explore the possibilities to study such kinds of phenomena through the quantization of the dynamic equations of a class of nonlinear heat transport macroscopic models. We develop a quantization procedure to search the energy level structure of one-dimensional nanosystems. The procedure may have applications in other fields of the physics of mesoscopic systems. PMID:19391908

  6. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  7. Qualitative management accounting research: rationale, pitfalls and potential : A comment on Vaivio (2008)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lillis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper's purpose is to provide a commentary on “Qualitative management accounting research: rationale, pitfalls and potential,” a paper by Juhani Vaivio. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is to draw on alternative research paradigms to expand the definition and discussion of qualitative research in management accounting. Findings – The paper endorses many of the prescriptions in Vaivio but expands

  8. A Qualitative Assessment of Program Characteristics for Preventing Secondary Conditions in Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C.; Chin, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. Methods This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Results Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Conclusions Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted. PMID:25032710

  9. How Qualitative Methods Contribute to Understanding Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Andrea; Golin, Carol; Simoni, Jane M.; Luborsky, Mark; Pearson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Strict adherence to medication regimens is generally required to obtain optimal response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, we have made limited progress in developing strategies to decrease the prevalence of nonadherence. As we work to understand adherence in developed countries, the introduction of ART in resource-poor settings raises novel challenges. Qualitative research is a scientific approach that uses methods such as observation, interviews, and verbal interactions to gather rich in-depth information about how something is experienced. It seeks to understand the beliefs, values, and processes underlying behavioral patterns. Qualitative methods provide powerful tools for understanding adherence. Culture-specific influences, medication beliefs, access, stigma, reasons for nonadherence, patterns of medication taking, and intervention fidelity and measurement development are areas ripe for qualitative inquiry. A disregard for the social and cultural context of adherence or the imposition of adherence models inconsistent with local values and practices is likely to produce irrelevant or ineffective interventions. Qualitative methods remain underused in adherence research. We review appropriate qualitative methods for and provide an overview of the qualitative research on ART nonadherence. We discuss the rationales for using qualitative methods, present 2 case examples illustrating their use, and discuss possible institutional barriers to their acceptance. PMID:17133205

  10. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  11. A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Matteo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

  12. Phenomenology of a SU(2) triplet Higgs.

    E-print Network

    Sabio Vera, Agustin

    ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 03 07 04 5v 1 3 Ju l 2 00 3 PHENOMENOLOGY OF A SU(2) TRIPLET HIGGS ? AGUST?´N SABIO VERA Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HE, Cambridge, U.K. We study the Renormalization Group (RG) evolution... of the couplings in a model with a real SU(2) triplet in the Higgs sector. Insisting that the model remain valid up to 1 TeV we show that it is possible for there to be no light Higgs bosons without any otherwise dramatic deviation from the physics of the Standard...

  13. Dark matter complementarity in the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Ahmed [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Road, Argonne, IL 60439 and University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-06-24

    The lightest neutralino of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with R-parity conservation is one of the most well-studied dark matter (DM) candidates. Using a set of models in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), we examine the abilities of XENON100/1T, LUX-ZEPLIN, Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and the LHC to study neutralino dark matter. We find that direct detection, indirect detection, neutrino telescope, and collider searches for minimal supersymmetry often fulfill concomitant roles.

  14. Stau LSP and comparison with H^+(-) phenomenology

    E-print Network

    A. G. Akeroyd; Chun Liu; Jeonghyeon Song

    2001-09-15

    In supersymmetric models with explicit breaking of R-parity the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) may be the lightest stau, $\\stau_1$. Such a scenario would provide a clear sign of R-parity violating SUSY, although its phenomenology may resemble that of a charged Higgs boson, $H^\\pm$. We discuss various ways of distinguishing a LSP $\\stau_1$ from $H^\\pm$ at future colliders, and address the case of $\\stau_1$ mimicking the signal for $H^\\pm$. As an example we suggest that the recent L3 signal for $H^+H^-\\to qq'qq'$ and $H^+H^-\\to qq'\\tau\

  15. Dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the dissociative phenomenology of dissociative identity disorder (DID). The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) was administered to 34 patients with DID, 23 patients with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS), 52 patients with mixed psychiatric disorders, and 58 normal individuals. DID patients obtained significantly higher scores than the other three groups on 27 dissociation-related variables. DDNOS patients had significantly higher scores than normals and mixed psychiatric patients on 17 and 15 dissociation-related variables, respectively. The findings of the present study are virtually identical to a large body of replicated findings about the dissociative phenomenology of DID. This broad range of dissociation-related phenomena, which routinely occurs in individuals with DID, is largely absent from the DSM-IV-TR account of DID. Factor analysis of the 11 dimensions of dissociation that are measured by the MID extracted only one factor that accounted for 85% of the variance. It was concluded that dissociation is a unifactorial taxon or natural type that has different aspects or epiphenomena (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization, voices, trance, etc.). PMID:11838024

  16. Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

    2005-11-18

    So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness problem" and "universality issue".

  17. Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.

  18. Volunteering in dementia care – a Norwegian phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Landmark, Bjørg; Aasgaard, Live; Eide, Hilde; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today. Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role. Conclusion In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual trust and freedom should be emphasized. Being conscious of important volunteer characteristics like their experiences, knowledge, and caring behavior, as well as a focus on the staff showing appreciation and providing feedback, may be the difference between success and failure. PMID:22396627

  19. The phenomenology and neurobiology of delusion formation during psychosis onset: Jaspers, Truman symptoms, and aberrant salience.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Aaron L; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Following the publication of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology (1913), delusions have been characterized as being nonunderstandable in terms of the person's biography, motivations, and historical-cultural context. According to Jaspers, this loss of understandability is due to an underlying neurobiological process, which has interrupted the normal development of the individual's personality. Inheriting the 19th-century division between the natural- and human-historical sciences, Jaspers emphasizes the psychological understanding of mental disorders as narrative-based, holistic, and contextual. By doing so, he embraces cultural, ethnic, and individual differences and anticipates a person-centered medicine. However, he also affirms the value of explanatory neurobiological approaches, especially in the research and diagnosis of delusions. The phenomenological approach leads to neurobiological hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally. The present article addresses these issues by illustrating Jaspers' fundamental contribution to current neurobiological research concerning the formation of delusions during early phases of psychosis. Specifically, we present delusional mood and Truman symptoms as core phenomenological features at the origin of psychosis onset, and we discuss their neurobiological substrate with the aberrant salience and dopamine dysregulation models. Jaspers and his successors' phenomenological approach suggests that delusion is formed through loss of context in its experiential-perceptual origins. This is consistent with the more recent neurobiological models. PMID:23354468

  20. Using qualitative research methods in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelmina C. Savenye; Rhonda S. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATING ISSUES related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods\\u000a to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose\\u000a of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins by describing how qualitative\\u000a research is defined, key characteristics of qualitative research,

  1. The promises of qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Gergen, Kenneth J; Josselson, Ruthellen; Freeman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We address the significance and implications of the formal entry of qualitative inquiry into the American Psychological Association. In our view, the discipline is enriched in new and important ways. Most prominently, the qualitative movement brings with it a pluralist orientation to knowledge and to practices of inquiry. Adding to the traditional view of knowledge as empirically supported theory are research practices congenial with varying accounts of knowledge, including, for example, knowledge as hermeneutic understanding, social construction, and practice-based experience. Added to the goal of prediction are investments in increasing cultural understanding, challenging cultural conventions, and directly fostering social change. The qualitative movement also enriches the discipline as a whole through the special ways in which it inspires new ranges of theory, fosters minority inclusion, and invites interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, the movement holds promise in terms of the discipline's contribution to society at large. Here we focus on the advantages of knowing with others in addition to about them, and on ways in which qualitative work enhances communication with the society and the world. Realizing these potentials will depend on developments in responsible research and reporting, academic and journal policies, along with the discipline's capacities for appreciating a more comprehensive orientation to inquiry. PMID:25581004

  2. Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert; Munson, April

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

  3. Qualitative Models for Requirements Engineering

    E-print Network

    Menzies, Tim

    variables If sort attributes on "infogain" and learn using first N attributes then good theories with low N all the what-ifs 2. Data mining to find the master variables · Treatment" = policy · what to do · what: ­ lightweight formal methods · Chung, Mylopoulos et.al. ­ "soft goal" graphs · Shaw, Garlan: ­ qualitative

  4. Qualitative Evaluation for Program Improvement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Action research consists of a family of research methodologies which pursue action and research outcomes at the same time. This is a resource file which supports the regular public program "areol" (action research and evaluation on line). Using an evaluation process in the general style of action research, it illustrates some points about qualitative research and evaluation.

  5. Grant Writing Using Qualitative Methods

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Grant Writing Using Qualitative Methods Michael L. Hecht Distinguished Professor Communication Arts and Sciences Crime, Law, and Justice #12; Section 1: Grants Overview Section 2: Grant Criteria Section 3: Grant Writing Section 4: Grant Reviews & Revision Get Funded! (OK, write proposal) Workshop Outline

  6. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  7. Qualitative Evaluation Audits in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Field experiences with external (qualitative) evaluation audits based on the work of E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln (1981, 1985) are detailed, including evaluation contexts and purposes, procedures, and findings. Such audits represent a viable meta-evaluative tool for assessing the quality of naturalistic evaluation results. (SLD)

  8. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  9. Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

  10. Supersymmetric phenomenology, model building, and signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribs, Graham Douglas

    1998-11-01

    The phenomenology of several classes of supersymmetric models are considered, including general weak scale models, supergravity-motivated models, models with a light gravitino, and gauge-mediated models. In supergravity-motivated models, the trilepton signal from chargino-neutralino production at the Tevatron is computed with an estimation of the signal and background after cuts. Several effects related to the branching ratio of /tilde N2/to/tilde N1l+/ell/sp- are identified that could suppress the rate to an undetectable level. The two photon signal of the lightest Higgs boson in supersymmetry at LHC is computed, and again several effects that could suppress or enhance the signal are identified. In general weak scale models, an unusual ee/gamma/gamma+/not ET event at the Tevatron is considered as a signal of supersymmetry assuming the dominant decay /tilde N2/to/tilde N1/gamma, and the consequences are extensively discussed. In models with a light gravitino, a discussion of the importance of the gravitino interactions when the gravitino is light is given, and the decay widths of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle into the gravitino and a particle are computed. If /tilde N1/to/tilde G/gamma is dominant and the decay occurs close the interaction vertex, then an excellent signal of this model is inclusive ?gamma plus missing energy (plus anything else). In gauge-mediated models, the phenomenology is divided into four main categories associated with which sparticles dominantly decay into the gravitino, and the collider signals are discussed. In addition, the three-body decay ~ellR/to/ell/tau/tilde?1 is identified as a generic process that occurs when the ~tau1 is the next-to-lightest sparticle and /tilde N1 is heavy; the width is calculated, and the decay length is shown to be possibly macroscopic. Finally, connections between the weak scale and much higher scales are considered. The supertrace of the weak scale model is discussed and its renormalization group evolution is calculated, illustrating one quantity that is possibly important for phenomenology. The nearly renormalization group invariant quantity M//alpha is then considered, and it is shown to be rather robust when extrapolated to much higher scales, although a series of effects can disrupt the evolution. These effects are typically at the few to tens of percent level, but some could give much larger corrections. Simultaneously, the ratio is sensitive to such effects, although disentangling the various contributions is likely to be a formidable task.

  11. Agnew's general strain theory reconsidered: a phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, David

    2011-10-01

    Since its inception, strain theory has attempted to explore the dynamic evoked between the process of goal identification and the process of goal acquisition as this relates to subsequent criminal behavior. Over the years of its development, strain theorists have attempted to broaden the initial scope of this perspective. Robert Agnew with his general strain theory has sought to introduce a variety of other factors relative to the experience of strain and the capacity they represent concerning subsequent criminal activity. However, these recent developments have not addressed until recently, and only in somewhat limited ways, the theoretical and methodologic implications and limits of this theoretical approach. This article proposes that the way in which Agnew's formulation of general strain, particularly in its most recent conceptualization as story lines, fundamentally transforms the theoretical and methodological grounding of this approach but fails to offer a clearly articulated alternative theoretical perspective by which to conceptualize this "turn." Phenomenology provides such an alternative perspective and helps to greatly expand our understanding of the human experience of strain. PMID:20807864

  12. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  13. CAQDAS: a supplementary tool for qualitative market research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The

  14. Literature as Qualitative Inquiry: The Novelist as Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a literary turn in parts of the social sciences. Attention has been given to social science writings as literature. In this article, the author approaches the issue from the opposite direction by engaging with literature as qualitative social inquiry. He does so through a reading of the French novelist Michel…

  15. Evaluation of Stemming Errors: Towards a Qualitative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinaldo Viana Alvares; Rubem Mondaini

    In this work we stress the importance of the qualitative evaluation approach of stemming algorithms. The evaluation methods of stemming errors are usually depicted in a quantitative analysis (2). The application of stemming algorithms to a previously chosen word leads to the isolation of its stem. The stem is considered a concise representation of a word and should be seen

  16. Database Organization for Qualitative Analysis: The NUDIST System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative data analysis is an approach to the use of unstructured data that is widely practised (and studied) in the social sciences, history and literary studies. It is used in many areas derivative from social sciences, such as market analysis, legal evidence analysis, health and demographic studies, education, journalism, etc. It is also coming to be recognised as significant in

  17. Food Choice Processes of Older Adults: A Qualitative Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Winter Falk; Carole A. Bisogni; Jeffery Sobal

    1996-01-01

    One way to promote optimal nutrition for older adults is to expand nutrition professionals’ understanding of the cognitive food choice processes of the elderly. This investigation used a constructivist approach and qualitative methods to elicit the factors important to the food choices of individuals aged 65 years and older who lived independently. Using a multiple-perspective model of the food choice

  18. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  19. Teaching Qualitative Energy-Eigenfunction Shape with Physlets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne J.

    2007-01-01

    More than 35 years ago, French and Taylor outlined an approach to teach students and teachers alike how to understand "qualitative plots of bound-state wave functions." They described five fundamental statements based on the quantum-mechanical concepts of probability and energy (total and potential), which could be used to deduce the shape of…

  20. Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

    1987-01-01

    The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

  1. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  2. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois (United States)

    2010-03-30

    There is a large body of phenomenological work that quantifies the physics reach of future long baseline oscillation experiments. In this article we discuss what assumptions are made about each experiment's ability to predict its far detector signal and background statistics. To understand the difficulty associated with making background predictions even with a near detector, we also examine the current experience of the MINOS experiment, and its ability to predict its far detector signal and background fractions for its electron neutrino oscillation search. Finally, we discuss the program that is needed in order to get from the current state of the art in far detector predictions to what is required (or often simply assumed) for future generations of oscillation experiments.

  3. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one to verify sea breeze forecasts, and three were capable of verifying several phenomena. The AMU also determined the feasibility of transitioning each technique into operations and rated the operational capability of each technique on a subjective 1-10 scale: (1) 1 indicates that the technique is only in the initial stages of development, (2) 2-5 indicates that the technique is still undergoing modifications and is not ready for operations, (3) 6-8 indicates a higher probability of integrating the technique into AWIPS with code modifications, and (4) 9-10 indicates that the technique was created for AWIPS and is ready for implementation. Eight of the techniques were assigned a rating of 5 or below. The other two received ratings of 6 and 7, and none of the techniques a rating of 9-10. At the current time, there are no phenomenological model verification techniques ready for operational use. However, several of the techniques described in this report may become viable techniques in the future and should be monitored for updates in the literature. The desire to use a phenomenological verification technique is widespread in the modeling community, and it is likely that other techniques besides those described herein are being developed, but the work has not yet been published. Therefore, the AMIU recommends that the literature continue to be monitored for updates to the techniques described in this report and for new techniques being developed whose results have not yet been published. 111

  4. JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.

  5. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  6. Phenomenology of light fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan; Nojiri, Mihoko M.

    2013-10-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) has been an attractive possibility attempting to explain the observed ratio of baryon to dark matter abundance in the universe. While a bosonic ADM is constrained by the limits from existence of old neutron stars, a fermionic ADM requires an additional light particle in order to annihilate its symmetric component in the early universe. We revisit the phenomenology of a minimal GeV scale fermionic ADM model including a light scalar state. The current constraints on this scenario from cosmology, dark matter direct detection, flavour physics and collider searches are investigated in detail. We estimate the future reach on the model parameter space from next-generation dark matter direct detection experiments, Higgs boson property measurements and search for light scalars at the LHC, as well as the determination of Higgs invisible branching ratio at the proposed ILC.

  7. Scalar Moduli, Wall Crossing and Phenomenological Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath

    2012-09-01

    We present the scalar moduli stabilization from the perspective of the real intrinsic geometry. In this paper, we describe the physical nature of the vacuum moduli fluctuations of an arbitrary Fayet configuration. For finitely many Abelian scalar fields, we show that the framework of the real intrinsic geometry investigates the mixing between the marginal and threshold vacua. Interestingly, we find that the phenomena of wall crossing and the search of the stable vacuum configurations, pertaining to D-term and F-term scalar moduli, can be accomplished for the Abelian charges. For given vacuum expectation values of the moduli scalars, we provide phenomenological aspects of the vacuum fluctuations and phase transitions in the supersymmetry breaking configurations.

  8. Phenomenological calculations of shielding spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Zamani, M.

    2013-06-01

    The high level of radiation generated by a spallation source requires the design of an appropriate shielding to surround the source in order to fulfill radiation protection standards. A calculation of the spallation neutron attenuation is presented for various shielding materials, using a phenomenological model, based on the Moyer model. In the first step of the calculation, the interaction length of neutrons for each neutron energy and shielding material was estimated using inelastic cross-sections. In the second step the calculation deals with the attenuation of the neutron flux applying the Moyer model, for each material and neutron energy region. The transmission factors were calculated and compared with experimental data collected from the "Gamma-2" and the "E+T" projects running in JINR (Dubna, Russia). The results of the present work were also compared to the data obtained by different Monte Carlo codes such as MORSE, MCNPX, MARS14 and LAHET.

  9. [Phenomenology of multiculturalism and intercultural pluralism].

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is defined as the combination, within a given territory, of a social unit and a cultural plurality by way of exchanges and communications among actors who use different categories of expression, analysis and interpretation. A multiculturalist project should not promote a society that is split up into closed groups; on the contrary, it should set forth policies based on communication and cooperation processes among the cultural communities. To understand this concept, we will present the ontological basis of this phenomenonin the search for a communicational solution, with our startpoint being a phenomenological description of the way in which multiculturalism manifests to us in life; to later deepen into the meaning of the phenomenon,and finally offer a pluralist solution to the problems and challenges cultural differences bring about. PMID:23338645

  10. Phenomenological models of synaptic plasticity based on spike timing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail Morrison; Markus Diesmann; Wulfram Gerstner

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is considered to be the bio- logical substrate of learning and memory. In this document we review phenomenological models of short-term and long- term synaptic plasticity, in particular spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). The aim of the document is to provide a framework for classifying and evaluating different models of plasticity. We focus on phenomenological synaptic models that are

  11. On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Clavelli, Louis J.

    On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology L. Clavelli Department of Physics noticeable tension between string theory and phenomenology in particle physics. It is interesting to muse over the roots of this situation in the very early days of string theory. In this personal account

  12. Hegel, Alienation, and the Phenomenological Development of Consciousness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Rae

    2012-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that the concept ‘alienation’ plays a crucial role in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and indeed his overall philosophical project, too often commentators simply note its importance without providing an in-depth discussion of this important concept. I aim to remedy this by providing an extended discussion of the role that alienation plays in the phenomenological

  13. Peer-led and professional-led group interventions for people with co-occurring disorders: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Pallaveshi, Luljeta; Balachandra, Krishna; Subramanian, Priya; Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study evaluated the experience of people with co-occurring disorders (mental illness and addiction) in relation to peer-led and professional-led group interventions. The study used a qualitative (phenomenological) approach to evaluate the experience of a convenience sample of 6 individuals with co-occurring disorders who participated in up to 8 sessions each of both peer-led and professional-led group interventions (with a similar rate of attendance in both groups). The semi-structured interview data were coded and thematically analyzed. We found 5 themes within and across the 2 interventions. In both groups, participants experienced a positive environment and personal growth, and learned, albeit different things. They were more comfortable in the peer-led group and acquired more knowledge and skills in the professional-led group. Offering both peer-led and professional-led group interventions to people with co-occurring disorders may be better than offering either alone. PMID:23943019

  14. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative. PMID:22450402

  15. Elderly self-management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders. METHODS: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method. RESULTS: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitative study included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care. PMID:21589781

  16. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

  17. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  18. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  19. Fatherhood and children with complex healthcare needs: qualitative study of fathering, caring and parenting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family. PMID:21496238

  20. Principle component analyses of questionnaires measuring individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hazel P; Ward, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Questionnaires have been developed for categorising grapheme-colour synaesthetes into two sub-types based on phenomenology: associators and projectors. The general approach has been to assume a priori the existence of two sub-types on a single dimension (with endpoints as projector and associator) rather than explore, in a data-driven fashion, other possible models. We collected responses from 175 grapheme-colour synaesthetes on two questionnaires, the Illustrated Synaesthetic Experience Questionnaire (Skelton, Ludwig, & Mohr, 2009) and Rouw and Scholte's (2007) Projector-Associator Questionnaire. After Principle Component Analysis both questionnaires were comprised of two factors which coincide with the projector/associator distinction. This suggests that projectors and associators are not opposites of each other, but separate dimensions of experience (e.g. some synaesthetes claim to be both, others claim to be neither). The revised questionnaires provide a useful tool for researchers and insights into the phenomenology of synaesthesia. PMID:25703387

  1. Simultaneous Measurement of Tracer and Interdiffusion Coefficients: An Isotopic Phenomenological Diffusion Formalism for the Binary Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.

  2. A new approach to qualitative analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues in cucumber using a double gas chromatographic system: GC-pulsed-flame photometry and retention time locking GC-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J Aybar; González, E Fernández; García-Ayuso, L E; Casado, A González; Cuadros-Rodríguez, L

    2003-06-13

    A qualitative method for the screening of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that could present in different types of vegetables has been established and validated. A typical multi-residue extraction procedure of OPs using ethyl acetate and sodium sulphate has been applied. No clean-up was required after extraction, and concentrated extracts were analysed by gas chromatography with pulsed-flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD). Confirmation of compound identities was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MSD) in the electron impact (EI) mode with full scan acquisition. Retention time locking (RTL) software was used in order to improve the method capability of identification and confirmation. Spiked samples at pesticide concentrations equal to the maximum residue level (MRL) were used to check chromatographic performance and for validation studies. The proposed method allows a rapid and accurate identification of the studied OPs until the ng ml(-1) range for those whose use is forbidden, and above their MRL concentration for the rest. PMID:18969065

  3. The Case for Fiction as Qualitative Research: Towards a Non-Referential Ground for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mus, Stijn

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…

  4. Discriminating qualitative model generation from classified data A. Subias, L. Trav-Massuys1

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Discriminating qualitative model generation from classified data A. Subias, L. Travé-Massuyès1 LAAS qualitative model from the data clusters corresponding to classified data. The results of this approach to classified data. This model must be discriminating in the sense that the data belonging to different

  5. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  6. Outsourcing within aerospace manufacturing enterprises: A phenomenological study and outsourcing leadership model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Enrique, Jr.

    Many aerospace workers believe transferring work projects abroad has an erosive effect on the U.S. aerospace industry (Pritchard, 2002). This qualitative phenomenological study examines factors for outsourcing decisions and the perceived effects of outsourcing on U.S. aerospace workers. The research sample consists of aerospace industry leaders and nonleaders from the East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast of the United States. Moustakas' modified van Kaam methods of analysis (1994) and Decision Explorer analysis software were applied to the interview transcripts. Resultant data identified five core themes: communication, best value, opportunities, cost, and offset consideration. The themes provided the framework for a model designed to assist leaders in making effective decisions and communicating the benefits of those decisions when considering outsourcing of work projects.

  7. A phenomenological study of obesity and physical activity in southern African American older women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Pamela G; Eaves, Yvonne D; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    African American women are more likely to be classified as overweight or obese than European American women and little is known about this phenomenon. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of overweight and obese African American older women living in the southern regions of the United States. Semistructured, audiotaped interviews were conducted to elicit narratives from nine participants. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and then coded and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis framework. Three major categories emerged: impact of health conditions, incongruent perceptions, and the desire for independence. The focus of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for this group should incorporate activities that will help them remain independent, because weight loss is not a primary motivator. PMID:24812205

  8. The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, David J.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is investigated. The rest of the work is devoted to the phenomenology of models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB). In GMSB models, the lighter stau can be the next to lightest supersymmetric particle. The signals at hadronic colliders for GMSB models with minimal visible sector content are explored for this case. A GMSB model with non-minimal visible sector content is also explored. This is the left-right symmetric GMSB model which contains doubly charged bosons and fermions that could be light enough in mass to be produced at Run II of the Tevatron. Findings and conclusions. The presence of a charged Higgs boson that is lighter than the top quark is found to have a significant impact on the expected signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron. This is marked by an overall decrease in high pT electrons and muons in the final states. In addition, for tan beta less than about one, the three-body decay H+?bbW leads to final states that are not present in the Standard Model. For GMSB models with the lighter stau as the next to lightest supersymmetric particle, the signature at the Tevatron typically involves two or three tau-jets plus large missing transverse energy. This tau-jet signature can be even more pronounced in left-right symmetric GMSB models due to the production of light doubly charged fermions that may couple preferentially to the third generation of leptons. The left-right models can be distinguished from GMSB models with minimal visible sector content by the distribution in angle between the highest ET tau-jets when they come from same sign tau leptons.

  9. Women in Transition: A Qualitative Analysis of Definitions of Poverty and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh-McDonald, Crystale M.; Schroeder, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    A phenomenological approach examined the stories of ten women transitioning from childhood poverty to adult life. Women were chosen from a pool of participants in an Upward Bound program designed to assist low-income and/or first-generation college students in the Midwestern United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

  10. Nurses' perceptions of leadership in an adult intensive care unit: a phenomenology study.

    PubMed

    Linton, Jenelle; Farrell, Maureen J

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore ICU nurses' perceptions of nursing leadership in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The nursing profession needs leaders at all levels; ward, administration and executive and in an era in which there is a shortage of ICU nurses, nursing leadership is important, as positive leadership skills correlate with enhanced recruitment and retention of these specialist nurses. Six ICU nurses with at least 5 years experience in ICU nursing were recruited from a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to depict the lived experiences of nurses' leadership in the adult ICU. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions and analysed using Giorgi's [Giorgi A. Toward phenomenologically based research in psychology. J Phenomenol Psychol 1970;1:75-98] descriptive method for data analysis. Five themes emerged and these were all inter-related: leading by example, communication, ability to think outside the management square, knowing your staff and stepping up in times of crisis. These findings highlight the importance of nursing leadership in the adult ICU and the need to ensure that all current and future nursing ICU leaders are adequately prepared and educated for this role. This information may also be used to assist in the development of leadership skills in ICU nurses. PMID:19131249

  11. A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2) ?=?0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. PMID:23647360

  12. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  13. Could quantum gravity phenomenology be tested with high intensity lasers?

    SciTech Connect

    Magueijo, Joao [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H8 (Canada); Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    In phenomenological quantum gravity theories, Planckian behavior is triggered by the energy of elementary particles approaching the Planck energy, E{sub P}, but it is also possible that anomalous behavior strikes systems of particles with total energy near E{sub P}. This is usually perceived to be pathological and has been labeled 'the soccer ball problem'. We point out that there is no obvious contradiction with experiment if coherent collections of particles with bulk energy of order E{sub P} do indeed display Planckian behavior, a possibility that would open a new experimental window. Unfortunately, field theory realizations of 'doubly' (or deformed) special relativity never exhibit a soccer ball problem; we present several formulations where this is undeniably true. Upon closer scrutiny we discover that the only chance for Planckian behavior to be triggered by large coherent energies involves the details of second quantization. We find a formulation where the quanta have their energy-momentum (mass-shell) relations deformed as a function of the bulk energy of the coherent packet to which they belong, rather than the frequency. Given ongoing developments in laser technology, such a possibility would be of great experimental interest.

  14. Qualitative inquiry and the debate between hermeneutics and critical theory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James A; DeForge, Ryan T

    2014-11-01

    Two issues have been central to ongoing disputes about judgments of quality in qualitative inquiry: (a) the ways in which paradigmatic orientations are understood to guide procedural decisions and (b) the meaning and intelligibility of paradigmatic incommensurability. In this article, we address these two key issues through an exploration of the debates between hermeneutics and critical social theory, including the exchanges between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy. We suggest that the key epistemological issue addressed in these debates is the nature of interpretation, separating the two philosophical camps based on beliefs about whether foundational knowledge is possible to achieve. We conclude the article by discussing the implications of these different positions for beliefs about quality in qualitative inquiry, and comment on the role of judgment in assessments of the value and quality of different approaches to qualitative research. PMID:25192763

  15. Higgs phenomenology in the Stealth Doublet Model

    E-print Network

    Enberg, Rikard; Wouda, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a model for the Higgs sector with two scalar doublets and a softly broken $Z_2$ symmetry. One of the doublets breaks the electroweak symmetry and has tree-level Yukawa couplings to fermions. The other doublet has no vacuum expectation value and no tree-level couplings to fermions. Because the $Z_2$ parity is broken the two doublets can mix, which leads to a distinct and novel phenomenology. This Stealth Doublet Model can be seen as a generalization of the Inert Doublet Model with a broken $Z_2$ symmetry. We outline the model and present constraints from theory, electroweak precision tests and collider searches, including the recent observation of a Higgs boson at the LHC. The CP-odd scalar $A$ and the charged scalar $H^\\pm$ couple to fermions at one-loop level. We compute the decays of $A$ and $H^\\pm$ and in particular the one-loop decays $A \\to f \\bar{f}$, $H^\\pm \\to f \\bar{f}^\\prime $, $H^\\pm \\to W^\\pm Z $ and $H^\\pm \\to W^\\pm \\gamma$. We also describe how to calculate and renormalize such proces...

  16. Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Kane, J O; Mizuta, A; Pound, M W; Remington, B A

    2006-04-10

    The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for the initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by the linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.

  17. Phenomenological Implications of Heavy Axion Models

    SciTech Connect

    Giannotti, M.; Nita, R.; Welch, E. [Physical Sciences, Barry University, FL 33161, Miami Shores (United States)

    2010-08-30

    Several models predict the existence of heavy (mass{approx}MeV or so) pseudoscalar (axion-like) particles. This possibility is permitted only if the relation between the axion mass and the Peccei-Quinn constant is relaxed.Here we consider a possible phenomenological consequence of these models. After being produced in the supernova core, these heavy axions would escape and a fraction of them would decay into photons before reaching the earth. We calculated the expected spectrum of these photons from the supernovae SN1987A and CAS A, in terms of the axion mass and the Peccei-Quinn constant f{sub a}, and compared our results to the data from the FERMI Large Area Telescope. The analysis provides strong constraints on the allowed region in the axion parameter space for 100 keV < or approx. m{sub a} < or approx. 1 GeV. This mass region is completely excluded unless f{sub a}>10{sup 112} GeV. For axion masses {approx}100 MeV, the constraint is stronger f{sub a}> a few 10{sup 14} GeV.

  18. Little Higgs Models and Their Phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Maxim Perelstein

    2005-12-09

    This article reviews the Little Higgs models of electroweak symmetry breaking and their phenomenology. Little Higgs models incorporate a light composite Higgs boson and remain perturbative until a scale of order 10 TeV, as required by precision electroweak data. The collective symmetry breaking mechanism, which forms the basis of Little Higgs models, is introduced. An explicit, fully realistic implementation of this mechanism, the Littlest Higgs model, is then discussed in some detail. Several other implementations, including simple group models and models with T parity, are also reviewed. Precision electroweak constraints on a variety of Little Higgs models are summarized. If a Little Higgs model is realized in nature, the predicted new particles should be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The expected signatures, as well as the experimental sensitivities and the possible strategies for confirming the Little Higgs origin of new particles, are discussed. Finally, several other related topics are briefly reviewed, including the ultraviolet completions of Little Higgs models, as well as the implications of these models for flavor physics and cosmology.

  19. Theory and phenomenology of Dirac leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brooks D.

    2007-07-01

    Dirac leptogenesis, in which neutrinos are purely Dirac and develop small but nonzero effective masses without the aid of the see-saw mechanism, provides an interesting alternative to the standard leptogenesis picture. Here we review the theory and phenomenology of Dirac leptogenesis and show that it is a viable theory capable of simultaneously satisfying all relevant bounds from cosmology, neutrino physics, and flavor violation. In addition, we also explore several potential extensions of the model, such as the possibility of right-handed sneutrino dark matter and the potential for relating the leptogenesis mechanism to the origin of the mu-term. Theories with a heavy gravitino and gaugino masses generated by anomaly mediation emerge as one natural context for Dirac leptogenesis. In such models the lightest neutralino is often expected to be predominately wino or Higgsino, and is a viable dark matter candidate. We conclude with an examination of the prospects for detecting the effectively monoenergetic photon signal that results from the annihilation of such a dark matter particle in the galactic halo.

  20. Phenomenological model for H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyabu, N.

    1985-08-01

    A phenomenological model has been developed to clarify the role of the boundary configuration in the heat transport of the H-mode regime. We assume that the dominant mechanism of heat loss at the edge of the plasma is convection and that the diffusion coefficient (D/sub edge/) at the edge of the plasma increases rapidly with plasma pressure, but drops to a low value when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold value. When particle refueling takes place without time delay, as in the case of a limiter discharge, the unfavorable temperature dependence of the D/sub edge/ prohibits even a modest rise of the edge temperature. In a divertor discharge, the particles lost from the closed surface are kept away from the edge region for a time comparable to or longer than the energy transport time in the edge region. Thus, rapid increase in the heat flux allows an excursion of the edge temperature to a higher value thereby reaching the threshold value of the H-transition.

  1. Energetically based phenomenological constitutive model for rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popio, James Anthony

    This study is concerned with an energetically based phenomenological constitutive model for rubber under dynamic loading conditions. The dynamic rubber performance is explained using classical thermodynamics and linear viscoelasticity. The model is then applied to raw experimental and classical data. The raw experimental data is provided by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company at different temperatures and frequencies using dynamic forced vibration. The data is in the form of hysteresis loops that are shown to represent cycles similar to those in classical thermodynamics. The experimental data is implicitly fitted with the equation of an ellipse. This equation is shown to be a quadratic form containing stress and strain, and is shown to be equal to the rate of energy dissipation. Using principles associated with linear viscoelasticity, the model is shown to incorporate both fluid and solid aspects of material performance. The idea is that, no matter how explicit the constitutive model, it is inherently impossible to tell in advance how much the material behaves like a fluid and how much it behaves like a pure solid. It turns out that this behavior does not need to be quantified with this method; it naturally appears in the coefficients of the constitutive equation, which is a major contribution of this work. In addition, the other significant contribution of this work is a relationship between the coefficients of this model and the loss and storage moduli of the material, which allows the application of this method to classical experimental data.

  2. A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.

  3. Bi-galileon theory II: phenomenology

    E-print Network

    Antonio Padilla; Paul M. Saffin; Shuang-Yong Zhou

    2013-03-05

    We continue to introduce bi-galileon theory, the generalisation of the single galileon model introduced by Nicolis et al. The theory contains two coupled scalar fields and is described by a Lagrangian that is invariant under Galilean shifts in those fields. This paper is the second of two, and focuses on the phenomenology of the theory. We are particularly interesting in models that admit solutions that are asymptotically self accelerating or asymptotically self tuning. In contrast to the single galileon theories, we find examples of self accelerating models that are simultaneously free from ghosts, tachyons and tadpoles, able to pass solar system constraints through Vainshtein screening, and do not suffer from problems with superluminality, Cerenkov emission or strong coupling. We also find self tuning models and discuss how Weinberg's no go theorem is evaded by breaking Poincar\\'e invariance in the scalar sector. Whereas the galileon description is valid all the way down to solar system scales for the self-accelerating models, unfortunately the same cannot be said for self tuning models owing to the scalars backreacting strongly on to the geometry.

  4. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Signell, P.

    1981-03-01

    This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the ..pi..N and ..pi pi.. physical regions of the N anti N ..-->.. ..pi pi.. amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers.

  5. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  6. Hermeneutic phenomenology: a methodology of choice for midwives.

    PubMed

    Miles, Maureen; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne; Taylor, Beverley

    2013-08-01

    Hermeneutic phenomenology has been used widely by researchers to understand lived experiences. This methodology asserts that individual people are as unique as their life stories. The practice of midwifery is underpinned by a philosophy that values women and the uniqueness of their child-bearing journey. The tenets of hermeneutics phenomenology align with those of contemporary midwifery practice, making it a useful research methodology for providing insights into issues relevant to the profession. The purpose of this paper is to unravel some foundational concepts of hermeneutic phenomenology and recommend it as a methodology of choice for midwives to apply to their application to midwifery-in-action. PMID:23915410

  7. The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of “cruelty” by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement. PMID:24971072

  8. Tailoring defect free fusion welds based on phenomenological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit

    In the last few decades, phenomenological models of fusion welding have provided important understanding and information about the welding processes and welded materials. For example, numerical calculations of heat transfer and fluid flow in welding have enabled accurate quantitative calculations of thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in fusion welding. In many simple systems such as gas tungsten arc (GTA) butt welding, the computed thermal cycles have been used to quantitatively understand weld metal phase compositions, grain sizes and inclusion structure. However, fabrication of defect free welds with prescribed attributes based on scientific principles still remains to be achieved. In addition, higher fabrication speeds are often limited by the occurrence of humping defects which are characterized by periodic bead-like appearance. Furthermore, phenomenological models have not been applied to tailor welds with given attributes. The goal of the present work is to apply the principles of heat transfer and fluid flow to attain defects free welds with prescribed attributes. Since there are a large number of process variables in welding, the desired weld attributes such as the weld geometry and structure are commonly produced by empirically adjusting the welding variables. However, this approach does not always produce optimum welds and inappropriate choice of variables can lead to poor welds. The existing transport phenomena based models of welding can only predict weld characteristics for a given set of input welding variables. What is needed, and not currently available, is a capability to systematically determine multiple paths to tailor weld geometry and assess robustness of each individual solution to achieve safe, defect free welds. Therefore, these heat transfer and fluid flow based models are restructured to predict the welding conditions to achieve the defect free welds with desired attributes. Systematic tailoring of weld attributes based on scientific principles still remains an important milestone in changing welding from almost an empirical art to a mainstream science-based technology. The ability to determine multiple welding variable sets to achieve desired weld attributes, based on scientific principles, would be an important step to achieve this goal. Furthermore, no comprehensive unified theoretical model exists today that can predict the formation of commonly occurring humping defects considering the effects of important welding variables such as the arc current, voltage, welding speed, nature of the shielding gas, electrode geometry, torch angle and ambient pressure. In this research work, a model is developed to achieve desired weld attributes and avoid high speed weld defects like humping. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. USING CONCEPT MAPS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Daley

    Despite the huge increase in the number of qualitative research studies conducted, using concept maps as a methodological research strategy has received little attention in recent literature. This paper will discuss the connections between qualitative research and concept maps. Additionally, four strategies for incorporating concept maps in qualitative research will be presented along with sample maps for each strategy. Finally,

  10. Interviews and the Philosophy of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Interviewing is key to many forms of qualitative educational research; we interview respondents for oral histories, life histories, ethnographies, and case studies (see Tierney & Dilley, 2002, for an overview of interviewing in education). Despite the primacy of verbal data in qualitative research, basic introductions to qualitative research…

  11. Qualitative Research--Another Way of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent R.

    Qualitative research is based on the direct observation of human activity and interaction in an ongoing, naturalistic fashion. Qualitative researchers are concerned with the internal life of schools; what is really occurring in classrooms, corridors, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Qualitative researchers look at what people ordinarily take for…

  12. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  13. Teaching qualitative research as a means of socialization to nursing.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Daniella; Tamir, Batya; Man, Michal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to present a model for teaching qualitative research as part of nursing education. The uniqueness of the course model is that it seeks to combine two objectives: (1) initial familiarization of the students with the clinical-nursing environment and the role of the nurse; and (2) understanding the qualitative research approach and inculcation of basic qualitative research skills. The article describes how teaching two central genres in qualitative research - ethnographic and narrative research - constitutes a way of teaching the important skills, concepts, and values of the nursing profession. The article presents the model's structure, details its principal stages, and explains the rationale of each stage. It also presents the central findings of an evaluation of the model's implementation in eight groups over a two-year period. In this way the article seeks to contribute to nursing education literature in general, and to those engaged in clinical training and teaching qualitative research in nursing education in particular. PMID:25799426

  14. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They expressed high levels of job satisfaction and a desire to continue in the position. The study findings have several implications for the practice of exhibition development, including grounding it in a defined exhibition planning process, providing mentors and other resources for learning, and improving upon museum studies programs by providing avenues for exhibition development practice in the science center context.

  15. Final Report String Phenomenology 2011: The Tenth Annual Meeting on String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Gary; Everett, Lisa

    2011-08-26

    The Tenth Annual International String Phenomenology Conference was held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison on August 22-26, 2011. The Conference was organized by Profs. Gary Shiu and Lisa Everett, with the help of two postdoctoral fellows Heng-Yu Chen and Jiajun Xu. The scientific subjects of the talks and discussions were chosen to be widely interdisciplinary, reflecting the scope and maturity of the field. The conference brought together researchers of diverse subfields in physics and mathematics to present and discuss recent developments in connecting observable particle physics and cosmology with the domain of fundamental theory. This report summarizes the outcome of this conference.

  16. Sociocultural influences on newborn health in the first 6 weeks of life: qualitative study in a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given regional variability and minimal improvement in infant mortality rates in Pakistan, this study aimed to explicate sociocultural influences impacting mothers’ efforts to maintain or improve newborn health. Methods We used a qualitative phenomenological approach. A total of 10 mothers and 8 fathers from a fishing village in Karachi, Pakistan were purposefully sampled and interviewed individually. A focus group was undertaken with four grandmothers (primary decision makers). Transcripts were independently reviewed using interpretive thematic analysis. Results A multigenerational approach was used in infant care, but mothers did not have a voice in decision-making. Parents connected breast milk to infant health, and crying was used as cue to initiate feeding. Participants perceived that newborns required early supplementation, given poor milk supply and to improve health. There were tensions between traditional (i.e., home) remedies and current medical practices. Equal importance was given to sons and daughters. Conclusion Findings suggest that social and cultural influences within families and the community must be considered in developing interventions to improve newborn health. Introducing non-breast milk substances into newborn diets may reduce the duration of exclusive or partial breastfeeding and increase risks to infant health. PMID:25030836

  17. Phenomenology and psychopathology: was there ever a relationship?

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    The philosophical doctrine known as phenomenology is believed by many to have provided during the early 20th century the conceptual basis of the new descriptive language of psychiatry, the very language that made possible the development of systems such as the DSM-III-R. To ascertain whether this is in fact the case is essential to the solution of technical problems affecting current psychopathological descriptions. This report argues against the above-mentioned belief, and suggests that the alliance between phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology was just a marriage of convenience, and that it was Karl Jaspers who made it appear as if his own views were based on Husserlian phenomenology. Indeed, a comparison of the clinical meaning and usage of mental symptoms before and after 1913 shows that Jaspers borrowed a great deal from 19th-century alienists, and that calling his views phenomenological added little to their meaning. PMID:8348798

  18. MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Steenburgh, Jim

    MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY Michael P. Meyers NOAA/National Weather Service, Grand Junction, Colorado and W. James Steenburgh Department of the American Meteorological Society Mountain Weather and Forecasting Monograph Draft from Friday, May 21, 2010

  19. Conditions that Create Therapeutic Connection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Shavers, Marjorie C.; Baker, Caroline A.; Dagg, David R.; Taylor, Demetra T.

    2012-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, counselor and client participants (N = 14) described the conditions that fostered meaningful therapeutic connections. Among all participants, consistent descriptors appeared that were rigorously synthesized into a detailed depiction of therapeutic contact. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Facility Monitoring: A Qualitative Theory for Sensor Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Data fusion and sensor management approaches have largely been implemented with centralized and hierarchical architectures. Numerical and statistical methods are the most common data fusion methods found in these systems. Given the proliferation and low cost of processing power, there is now an emphasis on designing distributed and decentralized systems. These systems use analytical/quantitative techniques or qualitative reasoning methods for date fusion.Based on other work by the author, a sensor may be treated as a highly autonomous (decentralized) unit. Each highly autonomous sensor (HAS) is capable of extracting qualitative behaviours from its data. For example, it detects spikes, disturbances, noise levels, off-limit excursions, step changes, drift, and other typical measured trends. In this context, this paper describes a distributed sensor fusion paradigm and theory where each sensor in the system is a HAS. Hence, given the reach qualitative information from each HAS, a paradigm and formal definitions are given so that sensors and processes can reason and make decisions at the qualitative level. This approach to sensor fusion makes it possible the implementation of intuitive (effective) methods to monitor, diagnose, and compensate processes/systems and their sensors. This paradigm facilitates a balanced distribution of intelligence (code and/or hardware) to the sensor level, the process/system level, and a higher controller level. The primary application of interest is in intelligent health management of rocket engine test stands.