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1

Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. Methods This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. Results In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Conclusions Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia.

Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

2014-01-01

2

Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

Christina Goulding

2005-01-01

3

Phenomenological Approach to Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking to determine the training methods that can most effectively develop highly proficient performance, this report describes the molecular analytic techniques currently used in the Air Force (the instructional systems (ISD) approach based on breaking a complex task into discrete steps) and presents the limitations of these techniques for…

Klein, Gary A.

4

An integrated approach to determine phenomenological equations in metallic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is highly desirable to be able to make predictions of properties in metallic materials based upon the composition of the material and the microstructure. Unfortunately, the complexity of real, multi-component, multi-phase engineering alloys makes the provision of constituent-based (i.e., composition or microstructure) phenomenological equations extremely difficult. Due to these difficulties, qualitative predictions are frequently used to study the influence of microstructure or composition on the properties. Neural networks were used as a tool to get a quantitative model from a database. However, the developed model is not a phenomenological model. In this study, a new method based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and monte carlo was proposed. These three methods, when coupled in the manner described in this study, allows for the extraction of phenomenological equations with a concurrent analysis of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to a multi-component, multi-phase microstructure exhibiting phases with varying spatial and morphological distributions. Specifically, this approach has been applied to derive a phenomenological equation for the prediction of yield strength in alpha+beta processed Ti-6-4. The equation is consistent with not only the current dataset but also, where available, the limited information regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium.

Ghamarian, Iman

5

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

6

An Algorithmic Approach to Heterotic String Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We briefly review the recent programme to construct, systematically and algorithmically, large classes of heterotic vacua, as well as the search for the MSSM therein. Specifically, we outline the monad construction of vector bundles over complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds, their classification, stability, equivariant cohomology and subsequent relevance to string phenomenology. It is hoped that this top-down algorithmic approach will isolate special corners in the heterotic landscape.

Yang-Hui He

2010-01-14

7

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH What is Considered `Scientific Knowledge documents, observations and transcripts Basic Features of Qualitative Research (2) Research procedures'? Importance of methodology Need for empirical data Procedures and protocols in research Competing sources

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

8

Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths  

E-print Network

Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

2014-12-22

9

Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

2013-01-01

10

[An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].  

PubMed

The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective. PMID:24761600

Langle, A

2014-01-01

11

A qualitative approach to teaching capacitive circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated students' qualitative understanding of dc circuits containing resistors and a capacitor. We found that a year after traditional lecture instruction as part of an introductory physics course, most students were unable to predict the behavior of a series circuit consisting of a battery, a bulb, and a capacitor. Among the difficulties identified we found that almost half of the students implicitly abandoned the idea that a complete circuit is necessary for a bulb to light when a capacitor is introduced into the circuit. We have developed curriculum that enables students to construct a phenomenological model in which they liken the behavior of a capacitor to that of a wire, a switch, and a battery; this allows them to qualitatively describe circuits with batteries, bulbs, and capacitors. We have also developed curriculum on the determination of RC times. Post-test results show a significant increase in understanding of capacitive circuits.

Smith, David P.; Kampen, Paul van

2013-05-01

12

Towards qualitative approaches to multistage decision making  

E-print Network

Towards qualitative approaches to multi­stage decision making R'egis Sabbadin, H'el`ene Fargier, fargier, langg @irit.fr Abstract In this paper we propose a generalisation to multi­stage decision making methods of decision making under uncertainty. This is especially relevant for applications to planning

Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

13

Towards qualitative approaches to multistage decision making  

E-print Network

Towards qualitative approaches to multi­stage decision making H'el`ene Fargier, J'erâ??ome Lang and R Intelligence community towards the foundations and computational methods of decision making under uncertainty into the planning paradigm; but up to now, they have focussed on ``classical'' models for decision making, based

Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

14

AUTOMATION IN SITE MANAGEMENT: A QUALITATIVE APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will address a new approach to construction management: Qualitative Construction Site Assessment System (QCSAS). QCSAS is essentially a site management software package. The objective of this system is three fold. Firstly, it aims to provide a holistic view of construction site to the project manager. It tries to achieve this by tracking essential factors like construction progress, construction

Tarun Bhambra; S. V. Barai

2007-01-01

15

Do antidepressants affect the self? A phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore the questions of how and to what extent new antidepressants (selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors,\\u000a or SSRIs) could possibly affect the self. I do this by way of a phenomenological approach, using the works of Martin Heidegger\\u000a and Thomas Fuchs to analyze the roles of attunement and embodiment in normal and abnormal ways of being-in-the-world. The\\u000a nature

Fredrik Svenaeus

2007-01-01

16

Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

2014-01-01

17

Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.  

PubMed

Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

2014-07-01

18

A phenomenological approach to modeling chemical dynamics in nonlinear and two-dimensional spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We present an approach for calculating nonlinear spectroscopic observables, which overcomes the approximations inherent to current phenomenological models without requiring the computational cost of performing molecular ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

19

Philosophy, Phenomenology, and Neuroscience: The Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Approach to a Comprehensive Understanding of Addiction.  

E-print Network

??ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONPhilosophy, Phenomenology, and Neuroscience: The Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Approach to a Comprehensive Understanding of Addiction by Jason David Gray Doctor of… (more)

Gray, Jason David

2013-01-01

20

Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

Beck, Cheryl Tatano

1997-01-01

21

The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

Bazzul, Jesse

2014-07-01

22

High School Teachers' Experience of Student Behavior Problems: A Phenomenological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we examine the findings of a qualitative study exploring high school teachers' perceptions of student behavior problems. Four focus groups, each including four to eight teachers, were conducted through major school districts in two Southwestern states (Texas and Arizona). Descriptive phenomenology was used to identify patterns and…

Bean, Roy A.; Gillet, Kyle S.

2009-01-01

23

A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

Waldrop, Grover L.

2009-01-01

24

Approaches to qualitative fire safety risk assessment in hotel facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate approaches pertaining to qualitative fire risk assessment of existing hotel facilities, for the purpose of identifying and eliminating fire hazards, and meeting requirements of the current legislation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper carries out several research activities, including: identifying the set of factors that render hotel facilities a high-risk type of

Mohammad A. Hassanain

2009-01-01

25

Psychopathology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Phenomenological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the beginning of the 20th century, the idea of obsession found in the literature was mostly a broad and unspecific one, and it has, to some extent, persisted in this form until the present day. At the same time, however, Esquirol and Westphal began to develop a concept of obsession in the strict sense, and Jaspers used the phenomenological

M. Bürgy

2005-01-01

26

Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory  

SciTech Connect

A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

1985-11-01

27

Towards a new approach to quantum gravity phenomenology  

E-print Network

The idea that quantum gravity manifestations would be associated with a violation of Lorentz invariance is very strongly bounded and faces serious theoretical challenges. This leads us to consider an alternative line of thought for such phenomenological search. We discuss the underlying viewpoint and briefly mention its possible connections with current theoretical ideas. We also outline the challenges that the experimental search of the effects would seem to entail.

Alejandro Corichi; Daniel Sudarsky

2005-03-17

28

A fuzzy-logic-based approach to qualitative modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a general approach to quali- tative modeling based on fuzzy logic. The method of qualitative modeling is divided into two parts: fuzzy modeling and linguistic approximation. It proposes to use a fuzzy clustering method (fuzzy c-means method) to identify the structure of a fuzzy model. To clarify the advantages of the proposed method, it also shows some

Michio Sugeno; Takahiro Yasukawa

1993-01-01

29

A phenomenological approach to experiences with technology: current state, promise, and future directions for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose\\u000a phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on\\u000a the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment this literature, I explain\\u000a the phenomenological concept of

Sebnem Cilesiz

30

Modelling infrared galaxy evolution using a phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize the cosmological evolution of the sources contributing to the infrared extragalactic background, we have developed a phenomenological model that constrains in a simple way the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function with redshift, and fits all the existing source counts and redshift distributions, cosmic infrared background intensity and fluctuation observations, from the mid-infrared to the submillimetre range. The model is based on template spectra of starburst and normal galaxies, and on the local infrared luminosity function. Although the cosmic infrared background can be modelled with very different luminosity functions as long as the radiation production with redshift is the right one, the number counts and the anisotropies of the unresolved background imply that the luminosity function must change dramatically with redshift, with a rapid evolution of the high-luminosity sources (L > 3 × 1011 Lsolar) from z= 0 to z= 1, which then stay rather constant up to redshift z= 5. The derived evolution of the infrared luminosity function may be linked to a bimodal star formation process: one associated with the quiescent and passive phase of the galaxy evolution, and one associated with the starburst phase, triggered by merging and interactions. The latter dominates the infrared and submillimetre output energy of the Universe. The model is intended as a convenient tool to plan further observations, as illustrated through predictions for Herschel, Planck and ALMA observations. Our model predictions for given wavelengths, together with some useful routines, are available for general use.

Lagache, G.; Dole, H.; Puget, J.-L.

2003-01-01

31

Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

Miner-Romanoff, Karen

2012-01-01

32

A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

Cilesiz, Sebnem

2011-01-01

33

On a New Approach to Meson Phenomenology with the Bethe-Salpeter Equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate capabilities of the effective interaction in a rainbow-ladder truncated meson model of QCD within a covariant Landau-gauge Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach. Based upon past success for the light- as well as heavy-quark domains, we discuss the range of applicability and features of an effort with comprehensive phenomenological claim and goals.

Popovici, Carina; Hilger, Thomas; Gómez-Rocha, María; Krassnigg, Andreas

2014-12-01

34

Transport Coefficients of High Temperature SF6 in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Using a Phenomenological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport coefficients of high temperature sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium are calculated using collision integrals derived in a phenomenological approach which could be a valuable tool in the calculation of complete data sets for complex mixtures, including interactions hardly handled in the accurate multipotential methods. A systematic comparison with transport coefficients obtained using an old data set and experimental test is performed to check the reliability of the proposed approach in evaluating transport cross sections.

Wang, Wei-Zong; Rong, Ming-Zhe; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yi

2014-03-01

35

Dosimetry of Auger emitters: Physical and phenomenological approaches  

SciTech Connect

Recent radiobiological studies have demonstrated that Auger cascades can cause severe biological damage contrary to expectations based on conventional dosimetry. Several determinants govern these effects, including the nature of the Auger electron spectrum; localized energy deposition; cellular geometry; chemical form of the carrier; cellular localization, concentration, and subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate in that these considerations are ignored. Our results provide the basis for biophysical approaches toward subcellular dosimetry of Auger emitters in vitro and in vivo. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1987-01-01

36

Pattern-forming instabilities: a phenomenological approach through simple examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the streets of clouds to the submarine sand ripples or the striations on the coats of some animals, nature offers many examples of spontaneous patterned structures originating from various instabilities. These patterns can in turn destabilize and show a rich, complex dynamics and possibly end up in disordered behaviours. For over 20 years, these patterns have generated much interest in the physics community, in order to approach fundamental problems such as transition to turbulence or morphogenesis in a more tractable framework. Because the study of such systems needs certain conceptual tools of nonlinear physics and stability analysis, they are generally introduced to students only in post-graduate lectures. We propose here a simplified approach of such phenomena through experimental and numerical examples that can be reproduced with a rather simple set of apparatus: a convection experiment and two gutter-like experiments where a liquid overflows from an overhang, as well as a numerical model consisting of a generic, nonlinear partial differential equation.

Brunet, Philippe

2007-03-01

37

Coherent transport in semiconductor heterostructures: A phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a theoretical method for describing coherent quantum transport in semiconductor heterostructures and particularly in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The method is an extension of standard rate-equation models to include coherence. Instead of building the model from microscopic considerations, we construct it from the following requirements: invariance under basis change, non-negativity of the density matrix, and compatibility with existing rate-equation models. The computational effort associated with the proposed method is very modest. It is shown that the role of coherence in QCLs is crucial and omitting it from the calculation leads to unphysical results. The discussion in the paper is focused on QCLs but the approach applies in general to semiconductor heterostructures.

Gordon, Ariel; Majer, Daniel

2009-11-01

38

Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

A qualitative approach was used to interview 23 Sudanese refugees residing in Brisbane, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine the participants' pre-migration, transit and post-migration experiences. Refugees reported traumatic and life-threatening experiences during the pre-migration and transit phases, and difficulties with resettlement during the post-migration phase. Nevertheless, participants reported using a number of coping strategies across all phases, including: reliance on religious beliefs, cognitive strategies such as reframing the situation, relying on their inner resources, and focusing on future wishes and aspirations. Social support also emerged as a salient coping strategy. The findings are useful for mental health professionals as they highlight the difficulties experienced by refugees across phases of migration as well as strategies they use to manage these traumas and stresses. PMID:18799645

Khawaja, Nigar G; White, Katherine M; Schweitzer, Robert; Greenslade, Jaimi

2008-09-01

39

Investigating Reasons for CPAP Adherence in Adolescents: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represent an important but understudied subgroup of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors related to adherence from the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: Individual open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 21) and caregivers (n = 20). Objective adherence data from the adolescents' CPAP machines during the previous month was obtained. Adolescents with different adherence levels and their caregivers were asked their views on CPAP. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we identified themes and developed theories that explained the adolescents' adherence patterns. Results: Adolescent participants (n = 21) were aged 12-18 years, predominantly male (n = 15), African American (n = 16), users of CPAP for at least one month. Caregivers were mainly mothers (n = 17). Seven adolescents had high use (mean use 381 ± 80 min per night), 7 had low use (mean use 30 ± 24 min per night), and 7 had no use during the month prior to being interviewed. Degree of structure in the home, social reactions, mode of communication among family members, and perception of benefits were issues that played a role in CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Understanding the adolescent and family experience of using CPAP may be key to increasing adolescent CPAP adherence. As a result of our findings, we speculate that health education, peer support groups, and developmentally appropriate individualized support strategies may be important in promoting adherence. Future studies should examine these theories of CPAP adherence. Citation: Prashad PS; Marcus CL; Maggs J; Stettler N; Cornaglia MA; Costa P; Puzino K; Xanthopoulos M; Bradford R; Barg FK. Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1303-1313. PMID:24340293

Prashad, Priya S.; Marcus, Carole L.; Maggs, Jill; Stettler, Nicolas; Cornaglia, Mary A.; Costa, Priscilla; Puzino, Kristina; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Bradford, Ruth; Barg, Frances K.

2013-01-01

40

A Qualitive Modeling Approach for Fault Detection and Diagnosis on HVAC Systems  

E-print Network

This paper describes the basics and first test results of a model based approach using qualitative modeling to perform Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) on HVAC and R systems. A quantized system describing the qualitative behavior of a...

Muller, T.; Rehault, N.; Rist, T.

2013-01-01

41

Evolutionary Theory of Mate Selection and Partners of Trans People: A Qualitative Study Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much research into mate selection, non-heterosexual populations are often only included for comparison purposes, while trans people and their partners are overlooked. This study attempts to address this using qualitative methodology to explore the mate selection of the partners of trans people. Six participants were recruited from online…

Forde, Amanda

2011-01-01

42

An Approach to Qualitative Emergency Rami Al-Salman, Frank Dylla and Lutz Frommberger  

E-print Network

An Approach to Qualitative Emergency Management Rami Al-Salman, Frank Dylla and Lutz Frommberger to qualitative emergency management. This will empower emergency managers to query spatial databases using Emergency management system ÁVolunteered geographic information Á Qualitative spatial representations Á

Bremen, Universität

43

Educational Needs Assessment for Psychiatry Residents to Prevent Suicide: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Suicide is a commonly encountered and stressful event in professional life of any psychiatrist. Suicide risk assessment is a major gateway to patient treatment and management. It is a core competency requirement in training of psychiatry. The present study designed to assesseducational needsfor suicide prevention in residents of psychiatry in two medical schools in Iran, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBUMS) inTehran. Methods: This was a qualitative triangulation study, conducted in two steps. The first step was based on a phenomenological approach and the second was based on focus groups. The studied population was the psychiatric residents of IUMS and SBUMS. Purposive sampling was implemented until saturation. Interviews were performed. Colaizzi method was used to analyze the data. In the second step, participants attended a session, in which all final codes of the first step were discussed, and regarding the views, educational priorities and needs were listed. Results: A total of 2047 codes, extracted from 31 interviews, analyzed through Colaizzi method, were categorized in three groups: Educational, facilities and processes, human resources. Conclusions: According to defects of current educational program, we suggest regular reevaluations and revisions of clinical training programs according to current needs. PMID:24319561

Barekatain, Majid; Aminoroaia, Mahin; Samimi, Seyed Mehdi Ardestani; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Attari, Abbas

2013-01-01

44

Attitudes toward Infection Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background The risks and benefits of infection prophylaxis are uncertain in children with cancer and thus, preferences should be considered in decision making. The purpose of this report was to describe the attitudes of parents, children and healthcare professionals to infection prophylaxis in pediatric oncology. Methods The study was completed in three phases: 1) An initial qualitative pilot to identify the main attributes influencing the decision to use infection prophylaxis, which were then incorporated into a discrete choice experiment; 2) A think aloud during the discrete choice experiment in which preferences for infection prophylaxis were elicited quantitatively; and 3) In-depth follow up interviews. Interviews were recorded verbatim and analyzed using an iterative, thematic analysis. Final themes were selected using a consensus approach. Results A total of 35 parents, 22 children and 28 healthcare professionals participated. All three groups suggested that the most important factor influencing their decision making was the effect of prophylaxis on reducing the chance of death. Themes of importance to the three groups included antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medications, the financial impact of outpatient prophylaxis and the route and schedule of administration. Conclusion Effect of prophylaxis on risk of death was a key factor in decision making. Other identified factors were antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medication, financial impact and administration details. Better understanding of factors driving decision making for infection prophylaxis will help facilitate future implementation of prophylactic regiments. PMID:23112849

Diorio, Caroline; Tomlinson, Deborah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Regier, Dean A.; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

2012-01-01

45

Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

46

A Simple Approach to Emulation for Computer Models With Qualitative and Quantitative Factors  

E-print Network

- 1 - A Simple Approach to Emulation for Computer Models With Qualitative and Quantitative Factors al. 2009). Several methods are now available for building Gaussian process based emulators. In this article, we propose a new approach to the emulation of computer codes with qualitative and quantitative

Qian, Peter Z. G.

47

The quality of qualitative research.  

PubMed

In general, an appreciation of the standards of qualitative research and the types of qualitative data analyses available to researchers have not kept pace with the growing presence of qualitative studies in medical science. To help rectify this problem, the authors clarify qualitative research reliability, validity, sampling, and generalizability. They also provide 3 major theoretical frameworks for data collection and analysis that investigators may consider adopting. These 3 approaches are ethnography, existential phenomenology, and grounded theory. For each, the basic steps of data collection and analysis involved are presented, along with real-life examples of how they can contribute to improving medical care. PMID:18820144

Collingridge, Dave S; Gantt, Edwin E

2008-01-01

48

A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets  

PubMed Central

In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

Evans, Michael S.

2014-01-01

49

Barriers to Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study sought to describe and better understand barriers to accessing low vision rehabilitation services. Methods: A qualitative description research paradigm was employed. Focus group participants were recruited through their involvement in the Montreal Barriers Study in Montreal, Canada. Six focus groups (n = 21 participants)…

Southall, Kenneth; Wittich, Walter

2012-01-01

50

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: Phenomenological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed.

Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Vekilov, Peter G.

2005-05-01

51

Teaching electric circuits with multiple batteries: A qualitative approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have investigated preservice science teachersâ qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use reasoning based on current and resistance where reasoning based on voltage is a necessity. We also found that problems such as thinking of the battery as a source of constant current resurfaced in this new context, and that answers given were inconsistent with current conservation. We describe the curriculum we developed that enables students to model circuits with multiple batteries qualitatively. Post-test results show that the majority of students were able to apply their newly developed model to make accurate predictions for complex circuits.

Smith, David P.; Van Kampen, Paul

2012-05-21

52

Teaching electric circuits with multiple batteries: A qualitative approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated preservice science teachers’ qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use reasoning based on current and resistance where reasoning based on voltage is a necessity. We also found that problems such as thinking of the battery as a source of constant current resurfaced in this new context, and that answers given were inconsistent with current conservation. We describe the curriculum we developed that enables students to model circuits with multiple batteries qualitatively. Post-test results show that the majority of students were able to apply their newly developed model to make accurate predictions for complex circuits.

Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

2011-12-01

53

[Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a phenomenological approach].  

PubMed

This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. Phenomenology was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were approached. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning. PMID:23887790

Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla

2013-01-01

54

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

2012-01-01

55

A Comparison of PointBased Approaches to Qualitative Temporal Reasoning  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Point­Based Approaches to Qualitative Temporal Reasoning James Delgrande, Arvind, qualitative, point­based temporal reasoning. Given a database of assertions concerning relative occurrences the assertions into a representation that supports efficient reasoning, determining whether a database

Delgrande, James P.

56

A phenomenological approach to understanding the psychological response to chronic low back pain.  

E-print Network

??Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex health problem of psychological manifestations not fully understood. Using interpretive phenomenological analysis, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted… (more)

Aymar, Matthew

2010-01-01

57

Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

Duobliene, Lilija

2013-01-01

58

[Self-medication: a qualitative approach of its motivations].  

PubMed

A qualitative research was realized to verify the occurrence and motivations for self-medication and the quality of the information rendered by pharmacies. We conducted 3 focus groups with 25 patients of a reference public health service for STD treatment in Brasília, Brazil. We used the critical discourse analysis to interpret the data obtained during interviews. The analysis revealed that self-medication was a common practice among participants, motivated mainly by discontentment with the long waiting period and the quality of the public health services. Other motivations included: previous experience with medications, advice from friends and family members and the search for an anonymous service provided at pharmacies due to embarrassment and inadequate care environment at health care services. Care provided at pharmacies was also considered unsatisfactory. Viewed essentially as a commercial establishment, pharmacies have become, yet, an easy accessible alternative. Most of participants perceived the pharmacists as ordinary employees seeking only to increase profits. The results suggest a need to improve access to health care services, as well as to render it more humane. Community pharmacies should to be turned into health establishments to participate in health education and orientation for rational drugs use. PMID:20640337

Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de; Carvalho, Christine Maria Soares de; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar

2010-06-01

59

QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

2015-01-01

60

Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

2011-01-01

61

PhenomenologyAn Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators who use phenomenological approaches to understand experiences of human healing, caring, and wholeness need to consider the differences that exist between descriptive and hermeneutic phenomenology. In this article, these two approaches are compared and contrasted with respect to roots, similarities, and differences. Guidelines are offered to assist prospective investigators in selecting the approach most suitable to personal cognitive style

Danuta M. Wojnar; Kristen M. Swanson

2007-01-01

62

Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach  

SciTech Connect

Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mathematic and Physics Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21

63

A QUALITATIVE EVENT-BASED APPROACH TO FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF HYBRID SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

A QUALITATIVE EVENT-BASED APPROACH TO FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF HYBRID SYSTEMS By Matthew J. Daigle and multiple faults, (iii) developing an integrated framework for diagnosis of parametric, sensor, and discrete of the approach is demonstrated on two practical systems. First, the single fault diagnosis method for continuous

Daigle, Matthew

64

Gauge approach to the ‘pseudogap’ phenomenology of the spectral weight in high Tc cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assume the t-t?-J model to describe the CuO2 planes of hole-doped cuprates and we adapt the spin-charge gauge approach, previously developed for the t-J model, to describe the holes in terms of a spinless fermion carrying the charge (holon) and a neutral boson carrying spin 1/2 (spinon), coupled by a slave-particle gauge field. In this framework we consider the effects of a finite density of incoherent holon pairs in the normal state. Below a crossover temperature, identified as the experimental ‘upper pseudogap’, the scattering of the ‘quanta’ of the phase of the holon-pair field against holons reproduces the phenomenology of nodal Fermi arcs coexisting with a gap in the antinodal region. We thus obtain a microscopic derivation of the main features of the hole spectra due to the pseudogap. This result is obtained through a holon Green function which follows naturally from the formalism and analytically interpolates between a Fermi liquid-like and a d-wave superconductor behaviour as the coherence length of the holon-pair order parameter increases. By inserting the gauge coupling with the spinon we construct explicitly the hole Green function and calculate its spectral weight and the corresponding density of states. So we prove that the formation of holon pairs induces a depletion of states on the hole Fermi surface. We compare our results with ARPES and tunnelling experimental data. In our approach the hole preserves a finite Fermi surface until the superconducting transition, where it reduces to four nodes. Therefore we propose that the gap seen in the normal phase of cuprates is due to the thermal broadening of the SC-like peaks masking the Fermi-liquid peak in the spectral weight. The Fermi arcs then correspond to the region of the Fermi surface where the Fermi-liquid peak is unmasked.

Marchetti, P. A.; Gambaccini, M.

2012-11-01

65

A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

2013-12-01

66

A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Causality Assessment in Early Phase Oncology Clinical Trials: A Phenomenological Study.  

E-print Network

??Research Question: What are the psychosocial factors that affect causality assessment in early phase oncology clinical trials? Methods: Thirty-two qualitative interviews were explicated with the… (more)

Torti, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

67

Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

68

Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

2008-01-01

69

On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

2010-01-01

70

The transformation of Russian management: a qualitative and theory building approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes use of a qualitative research approach to develop fundamental knowledge of Russian management behavior during the ongoing transformation from a planned to a market economy. Data from focus groups of managers was collected in 1989, 1991, and 1992 and showed the dynamic impact of and adjustments to the market economy on the part of Russian managers. This

Avraham Shama

1994-01-01

71

Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

Vitanova, Gergana

2013-01-01

72

Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

2011-01-01

73

Forced convection heat transfer with slurry of phase change material in circular ducts: A phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model describing the thermal behaviour of a slurry of phase change material flow in a circular duct is presented. Reactors connected in series are considered for the representation of the circular duct with constant wall temperature. A phenomenological equation is formulated to take account of the heat generation due to phase change in the particles. Results of the simulation

Laurent Royon; Gérard Guiffant

2008-01-01

74

A Phenomenological Approach to the Teaching of Culture: An Asset to the Teaching of Language Awareness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of phenomenological psychology that contribute to a new concept of cultural studies are discussed. Separation of person, body, language, and culture is shown to be artificial. This concept of culture implies a new concept of language, which can be integrated into a program for teaching language awareness. (33 references) (Author/LB)

Schwerdtfeger, Inge C.

1993-01-01

75

The problem of truth in psychotherapy: a phenomenological approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Scientific method cannot establish whether a patient's productions in psychotherapy are truthful because of the nature of Cartesian dualism. Phenomenology, however, is an alternative that clarifies what is truthful in therapy and provides insight into the process of therapeutic change itself. Basic ideas of Paul Ricoeur and the epistemology of Michael Polanyi are applied to the treatment setting to evaluate change. Clinical examples illustrate the usefulness of exegesis as a paradigm for understanding the process of therapy. PMID:6857296

Draeger, J H

1983-01-01

76

Thermopower and resistivity behavior in Ce-based Kondo-lattice systems: A phenomenological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological model for understanding the thermopower S and the electrical resistivity rho behavior of Ce-based Kondo-lattice systems is described. In this model, the low-temperature S and rho behavior is critically governed by the position of the 4f density of states near the Fermi level EF. The peak in the 4f density of states is centered at an energy kBT0

C. S. Garde; J. Ray

1995-01-01

77

A Phenomenological Lagrangian Approach to Two Kaon Photoproduction and Pentaquark Searches  

E-print Network

We examine cross sections for the processes $\\gamma N\\to NK\\bar{K}$ in the framework of a phenomenological Lagrangian. We include contributions from $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma$ resonances up to spin 3/2, as well as those from an exotic $\\Theta^+$. We allow the $\\Theta^+$ to have spin 1/2 or 3/2, with either positive or negative parity in each case. We also allow the state to be either isovector or isoscalar. We find that the scenario that most closely matches observations at Jefferson Laboratory requires a moderately large coupling of the $\\Theta^+$ to $NK^*$.

W. Roberts

2004-08-12

78

Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions. PMID:22953194

Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

2011-01-01

79

Sense of self-determination and the suicidal experience. A phenomenological approach.  

PubMed

In this paper phenomenological descriptions of the experiential structures of suicidality and of self-determined behaviour are given; an understanding of the possible scopes and forms of lived self-determination in suicidal mental life is offered. Two possible limits of lived self-determination are described: suicide is always experienced as minimally self-determined, because it is the last active and effective behaviour, even in blackest despair; suicide can never be experienced as fully self-determined, even if valued as the authentic thing to do, because no retrospective re-evaluation from some future vantage is possible. The phenomenological descriptions of the possible scope of lived self-determination in suicidality, presented in this paper, should prove to be extremely helpful in three different fields of interest: (a) ethical debates regarding the pros and cons of autonomous or heteronomous suicide; (b) clinical day-to-day practice with respect to treating suicidal people; (c) people who suffered a suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or lost loved ones through suicides. (155 words). PMID:22042597

Schlimme, Jann E

2013-05-01

80

Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

Wertz, Frederick J.

2005-01-01

81

Phenomenology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phenomenology Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison pursues "a broad range of research in particle physics theory and phenomenology." At this website, users can view concise summaries of its many focuses including in neutrino physics, string theory and extra dimensions, and electroweak physics. Visitors can find links to the homepages of many of the researchers involved with the Institute. The website features the upcoming and past events held by the Institute such as the Pheno Symposiums. Individuals can examine abstracts and compressed postscripts of the phenomenology preprints since 1994 as well as articles about the newest issues in phenomenology written for the popular press.

82

The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.  

PubMed

Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning. PMID:23054668

Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

2012-09-01

83

New approaches to understanding hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: phenomenology and possible origins.  

PubMed

The authors review current literature on hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent neuropathological studies showed that hallucinations occur in synucleinopathies and are a significant predictor of Lewy Body depositions. Therefore, hallucinations are a hallmark of PD and of dementia with Lewy Bodies. Visual hallucinations are mostly complex and kinematic; preserved or disturbed insight on the nature of hallucinations is a major prognostic factor, although eventually all hallucinators will present with reduced insight. Current theories on the origin of hallucinations point to visual dysfunction, dream overflow and cognitive impairment, yet objection can be raised on each one of the putative models of hallucinations. Understanding of the origin of hallucinations is required in order to develop treatments: all treatment evaluations were focused in general on psychosis, and only clozapine obtained positive evidence-based ratings on efficacy. However, it is likely that cholinesterase inhibitors, antipsychotics and anti-5-hydroxytryptamine(3) agents and drugs acting on sleep regulation will have different and perhaps opposite effects on different types of hallucinations, whether they are accompanied by disturbed insight, sleep disorders or other psychotic features. Further studies will try to separate phenomenology and responses to treatment and will investigate the relevance of concomitant sleep disorders and abnormality of frontoparietal networks involved in the attention process. PMID:18052766

Onofrj, Marco; Thomas, Astrid; Bonanni, Laura

2007-12-01

84

Qualitative Research Applications in Athletic Training.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. BACKGROUND: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. DESCRIPTION: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. APPLICATIONS: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540

Pitney, William A; Parker, Jenny

2002-12-01

85

Qualitative evaluation: A critical and interpretative complementary approach to improve health programs and services  

PubMed Central

This short essay aims at commenting on the origin, development, rationale, and main characteristics of qualitative evaluation (QE), emphasizing the value of this methodological tool to evaluate health programs and services. During the past decades, different approaches have come to light proposing complementary alternatives to appraise the performance of public health programs, mainly focusing on the implementation process involved rather than on measuring the impact of such actions. QE is an alternative tool that can be used to illustrate and understand the process faced when executing health programs. It can also lead to useful suggestions to modify its implementation from the stakeholders’ perspectives, as it uses a qualitative approach that considers participants as reflective subjects, generators of meanings. This implies that beneficiaries become involved in an active manner in the evaluated phenomena with the aim of improving the health programs or services that they receive. With this work we want to encourage evaluators in the field of public health to consider the use of QE as a complementary tool for program evaluation to be able to identify areas of opportunity to improve programs’ implementation processes from the perspective of intended beneficiaries. PMID:25152220

Tayabas, Luz María Tejada; León, Teresita Castillo; ESPINO, JOEL MONARREZ

2014-01-01

86

Qualitative and quantitative approaches to health impact assessment: An analysis of the political and philosophical milieu of the multi-method approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively new, but increasingly important, contributor to both local and national decision-making processes. Adopting a multi-method approach, it incorporates qualitative and quantitative analyses to determine the various health impacts of policies and projects. HIA thus reflects recent developments in sociological theory, which have promoted qualitative techniques and challenged the dominance of quantitative methods. HIA

Kevin Love; Catherine Pritchard; Kevin Maguire; Ann Mccarthy; Paul Paddock

2005-01-01

87

Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24255875

Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

2013-01-01

88

Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2013-01-01

89

The ACCE method: an approach for obtaining quantitative or qualitative estimates of residual confounding  

PubMed Central

Background:  Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors.  Method:  A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of  “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors.  Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s) that substantially predicts treatment exposure.  Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s) and outcome. Results:  A hypothetical example is provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met.  Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding. Limitations:  Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1) predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2) minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3) assessing the association of the introduced variable(s) with outcome, and 4) deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach). Conclusions:  To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method's basic approach is straightforward.  The method's routine usefulness, however, has not yet been established, nor has the method been fully validated. Rapid further investigation of this novel method is clearly indicated, given the potential value of its quantitative or qualitative output.

Smith, Eric G.

2014-01-01

90

Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to reconstruct guidelines that may govern community patterns. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

2007-01-01

91

SUSY phenomenology  

E-print Network

SUSY PHENOMENOLOGY A Dissertation by BO HU Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful?llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2004 Major Subject: Physics SUSY PHENOMENOLOGY A...) Stephen A. Fulling (Member) Edward S. Fry (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: Physics iii ABSTRACT SUSY Phenomenology. (August 2004) Bo Hu, B.S., Southwestern Jiaotong University; M.S., Beijing Normal University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr...

Hu, Bo

2004-11-15

92

Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

2013-01-01

93

Taxi drivers’ views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: A qualitative study using a social marketing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers’ views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving

Mohsen Shams; Davoud Shojaeizadeh; Reza Majdzadeh; Arash Rashidian; Ali Montazeri

2011-01-01

94

Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned. PMID:23925405

Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim

2013-09-01

95

SUSY Phenomenology  

E-print Network

Three topics on phenomenology in supersymmetric models are reviewed, namely, the Higgs sector in the supersymmetric model, B and K meson decay in the supergravity model and lepton flavor violation processes in supersymmetric grand unified theory.

Yasuhiro Okada

1998-11-28

96

Supersymmetry Phenomenology  

E-print Network

This is a very pedagogical review of supersymmetry phenomenology, given at ICTP Summer School in 1999, aimed mostly at students who had never studied supersymmetry before. It starts with an analogy that the reason why supersymmetry is needed is similar to the reason why the positron exists. It introduces the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians in a practical way. The low-energy constraints, renormalization-group analyses, collider phenomenology, and frameworks of mediating supersymmetry breaking are briefly discussed.

Hitoshi Murayama

2000-02-23

97

Approaching parents to take part in a cleft gene bank: a qualitative pilot study.  

PubMed

Objective : A gene bank, comprising genetic material and environmental and family history data, is being established in the United Kingdom to improve the understanding of the etiology of orofacial clefting (OFC). This study aimed to identify factors that might contribute to participation in a cleft gene bank and what issues need to be considered in approaching parents to be included. Design : A qualitative approach was adopted, using focus groups and interviews. Transcripts of audio recordings were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants : A UK cleft center invited 100 families of children born with OFC to participate. Inclusion criteria included any parent of a child aged between 6 months and 16 years willing to take part. Sixteen parents participated. Results : Participants were generally motivated to take part in a cleft gene bank because they value the discovery of new knowledge of the etiology of OFC. They wanted reassurance about the purpose and integrity of the project. Many conveyed shock at the diagnosis of cleft and offered mixed accounts of experiences with health care professionals. They suggested an individualized approach from a trustworthy and sensitive professional when being invited to join the gene bank, avoiding difficult times associated with new-baby challenges and issues related to the cleft. Conclusions : This pilot study indicates that parents of children born with OFC would be supportive of developing a cleft gene bank, but sensitive issues need to be considered. PMID:21557668

Williams, Lucy; Dures, Emma; Waylen, Andrea; Ireland, Tony; Rumsey, Nichola; Sandy, Jonathan

2012-07-01

98

Evaluating the Process of Online Health Information Searching: A Qualitative Approach to Exploring Consumer Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is a common resource that patients and consumers use to access health-related information. Multiple practical, cultural, and socioeconomic factors influence why, when, and how people utilize this tool. Improving the delivery of health-related information necessitates a thorough understanding of users’ searching-related needs, preferences, and experiences. Although a wide body of quantitative research examining search behavior exists, qualitative approaches have been under-utilized and provide unique perspectives that may prove useful in improving the delivery of health information over the Internet. Objective We conducted this study to gain a deeper understanding of online health-searching behavior in order to inform future developments of personalizing information searching and content delivery. Methods We completed three focus groups with adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, which explored perceptions of online health information searching. Participants were recruited through flyers and classifieds advertisements posted throughout the community. We audio-recorded and transcribed all focus groups, and analyzed data using standard qualitative methods. Results Almost all participants reported using the Internet to gather health information. They described a common experience of searching, filtering, and comparing results in order to obtain information relevant to their intended search target. Information saturation and fatigue were cited as main reasons for terminating searching. This information was often used as a resource to enhance their interactions with health care providers. Conclusions Many participants viewed the Internet as a valuable tool for finding health information in order to support their existing health care resources. Although the Internet is a preferred source of health information, challenges persist in streamlining the search process. Content providers should continue to develop new strategies and technologies aimed at accommodating diverse populations, vocabularies, and health information needs. PMID:25348028

Fiksdal, Alexander S; Kumbamu, Ashok; Jadhav, Ashutosh S; Cocos, Cristian; Nelsen, Laurie A; Pathak, Jyotishman

2014-01-01

99

A phenomenology of Galileo's experiments with pendulums  

E-print Network

A phenomenology of Galileo's experiments with pendulums PAOLO PALMIERI* Abstract. The paper reports in the context of Galileo's writings. The methodology is based on a phenomenological approach to Galileo

Machery, Edouard

100

Treatment decision-making among Canadian youth with severe haemophilia: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The first generation of young men using primary prophylaxis is coming of age. Important questions regarding the management of severe haemophilia with prophylaxis persist: Can prophylaxis be stopped? At what age? To what effect? Can the regimen be individualized? The reasons why some individuals discontinue or poorly comply with prophylaxis are not well understood. These issues have been explored using predominantly quantitative rese-arch approaches, yielding little insight into treatment decision-making from the perspectives of persons with haemophilia (PWH). Positioning the PWH as a source of expertise about their condition and its management, we undertook a qualitative study: (i) to explore and understand the lived experience of young men with severe haemophilia A or B and (ii) to identify the factors and inter-relationships between factors that affect young men's treatment decision-making. This manuscript reports primarily on the second objective. A modified Straussian, grounded theory methodology was used for data collection (interviews) and preliminary analysis. The study sample, youth aged 15-29, with severe haemophilia A or B, was chosen selectively and recruited through three Canadian Haemophilia Treatment Centres. We found treatment decision-making to be multi-factorial and used the Framework method to analyze the inter-relationships between factors. A typology of four distinct approaches to treatment was identified: lifestyle routine prophylaxis, situational prophylaxis, strict routine prophylaxis and no prophylaxis. Standardized treatment definitions (i.e.: 'primary' and 'secondary', 'prophylaxis') do not adequately describe the ways participants treat. Naming the variation of approaches documented in this study can improve PWH/provider communication, treatment planning and education. PMID:25296666

Lane, S J; Walker, I; Chan, A K; Heddle, N M; Poon, M-C; Minuk, L; Jardine, L; Arnold, E; Sholapur, N; Webert, K E

2014-10-01

101

A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

2014-01-01

102

Risk Perception of Nonspecific Low Back Pain among Nurses: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background:Low back pain (LBP) is a common medical problem among nurses. A better understanding of nurses’ experiences about LBP may help to develop preventative approaches. The study aimed to explore risk perceptions of nonspecific LBP among nurses in Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran. Methods: This qualitative study conducted as directed content analysis in 2013. Private semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 30 nurses with minimum of 1-year working experience in hospital. The interview questions were based on perceived severity and vulnerability structures of Protection Motivation Theory. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Perceived Severity had the following sub-themes: developing disorders in one’s own life and profession, psychical and mental consequences, conflicts and problems in family life, and financial problems. Two sub-themes (problems and limitations in hospital’s working system, nature of nursing profession) were identified in relation to perceived vulnerability. Conclusion: Nurses reflected their concerns about the impact of LBP on their job security and their considerations about how their back pain might be interpreted by their employers and co-workers. Importance of transparent medical diagnostic procedure and clinical evidence to justify degree of LBP and its burden on the nurses’ performance was also addressed. PMID:25648952

Abedini, Sedigheh; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Enjezab, Behnaz; Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

2014-01-01

103

A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

104

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

PubMed Central

Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well. PMID:21992627

2011-01-01

105

Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective and sustainable adaptation measures for Hanoi City as well as for Vietnam as a whole. PMID:25511880

Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang

2014-01-01

106

Qualitative mathematical modelling of coupled coast and estuary morphodynamics: a modified Boolean network approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in coastal geomorphology is the prediction of morphological change at a meso-scale (10 to 100 km; 10 to 100 yr). This scale sits awkwardly between understanding of geomorphological processes at the micro-scale, and broader aspects of coastal evolution informed by the Holocene stratigraphic record. In this paper, we explore the potential of a new kind of qualitative mathematical model implemented at a system level. Qualitative models derive predictions from the structure of the system rather from the detailed physics of the underlying processes. Although systems thinking is well established in geomorphology methodologies for converting system diagrams into simulation tools have not been widely investigated. In a recent Defra-funded project in the UK, a Boolean network approach was piloted and applied to the simulation of generic aspects of estuary response to environmental and anthropogenic forcing. We build on this to present a generic approach to the construction of system diagrams for estuaries and adjacent open coasts and their conversion into a network graph. In a Boolean model, each node of this graph is assigned a binary value, the state of which is determined by a logical function that specifies the combined influence of other nodes to which it is connected. System evolution is simulated by specifying a set of initial conditions and repeatedly evaluating the logical functions until an equilibrium condition is reached (either a steady state or a cyclical sequence between two end states). In our enhanced Boolean scheme, changes in morphology are allowed to feed back into intrinsic process variables (e.g. estuary waves or tidal prism), although some processes are externally imposed (e.g. sea-level rise). Arbitrary time lags condition the response of morphology to a change in process, such that some landforms adjust more rapidly than others. We also present a simulator architecture based around a solver and externally specified model components. Model logic (i.e. the formalisation of the geomorphological knowledge) is encapsulated in a set of external functions that are defined by the user. The system components and the interactions between them can thus be altered without any modification to the solver. Evaluation of the model against selected real estuaries reveals broadly plausible behaviour. However, customisation of the generic functions is required to resolve detailed aspects of imposed geology, physical process regime and management history. Formalisation of geomorphological knowledge into consistent systems diagrams and Boolean logical functions can be extremely difficult. The functions chosen must be complex enough to accommodate a useful range of system behaviour, but must also be consistent such that the predicted behaviour constitutes an emergent property of the system rather than a consequence of logical inconsistency in its definition. A trade-off exists between the number of components used to define the system and the tractability of obtaining a logically consistent set of model functions. Further experimentation is needed to find this optimum.

French, J.; Burningham, H.

2011-12-01

107

Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005 in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify barriers of reduce the cesarean section rate in Iran, as perceived by obstetricians and midwives as the main behavioral change target groups. Methods A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis. Results After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable. Conclusion Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package. PMID:21729279

2011-01-01

108

Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.  

PubMed

Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. PMID:23388187

La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

2013-09-01

109

A dynamic qualitative probabilistic network approach for extracting gene regulatory network motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends our work to using qualitative probability to model the naturally-occurring motifs of gene regulatory networks. Having showed in [16] that the qualitative relations defining QPN graphs exhibit a direct mapping to the naturally-occurring network motifs embedded in Gene Regulatory Networks, this work is concerned with generalizing QPN constructs to create a high-level framework from which any regulatory

Zina M. Ibrahim; Alioune Ngom; Ahmed Y. Tawfik

2010-01-01

110

Phenomenology of next-leading BFKL  

E-print Network

We propose a phenomenological study of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) approach applied to the data on the proton structure function $F_2$ measured at HERA in the small-$x_{Bj}$ region ($x_{Bj}<0.01$) and $Q^2$ in the range 5 to 120 GeV$^2$. With a simplified ``effective kernel'' approximation, we present a comparison between leading-logs (LO) and next-to-leading logs (NLO) BFKL approaches in the saddle-point approximation, using known resummed NLO-BFKL kernels. The LO result gives a very good description of the data with a three parameters fit of $F_2$ but an unphysical value of the strong coupling constant, whereas the NLO two parameters fit leads to a qualitatively satisfactory account of the running coupling constant effect but quantitatively, for $Q^2 < 10$ GeV$^2$, it fails to reproduce properly the data.

L. Schoeffel

2005-05-13

111

What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

2010-01-01

112

Attention, Awareness of Contingencies, and Control in Spatial Localization: A Qualitative Difference Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative difference method for distinguishing between aware and unaware processes was applied here to a spatial priming task. Participants were asked simply to locate a target stimulus that appeared in one of four locations, and this target stimulus was preceded by a prime in one of the same four locations. The prime location predicted the…

Vaquero, Joaquin M. M.; Fiacconi, Chris; Milliken, Bruce

2010-01-01

113

Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…

Shank, Gary

114

Listener Perceptions of Stuttering across Two Presentation Modes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare participants' quantitative and qualitative judgments of various forms and frequencies of stuttering, during either audiovisual or audio-only presentation modes. A total of 64 participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned and exposed to only one of the…

Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles; Brouwer, Kyle; Susca, Michael

2005-01-01

115

The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

2004-01-01

116

Challenges Encountered in Implementing Constructivist Teaching in Physics: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of constructivism has resulted in teaching modifications in the science classroom. While the majority of the literature has focused on the promising outcomes of the teaching reform, the present study reports various minor but persistent criticisms. This paper qualitatively analyzes skeptical students' criticisms regarding the…

Chang, Wheijen

2008-01-01

117

String Phenomenology  

E-print Network

Following Dyson's analogy between the quantum field theory and the 19th-century chemistry-both explain how but not why-one could also establish an analogy between atomic physics and string theory. Atomic physics was needed to answer the question why in chemistry, string theory is trying to answer the question why in the standard model. This attempt is very briefly reviewed in this talk. After discussing the phenomenological aspects of string theory, the study of soft terms is emphasized as a possible connection between theory and experiment. Special attention is paid to the issues of flavor changing neutral currents, loop effects, charge and color breaking minima, and M-theory versus weakly coupled string theory.

C. Muñoz

1998-02-23

118

Adolescents and spiritualism: is this a good way to cope with fear? A qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two qualitative studies complement existing literature on coping and paranormal belief, by analysing the link between paranormal experiences of spiritualism and coping. Thirty-six semi-directive interviews of young people aged between 12 and 18 (M?=?15, SD?=?1.3) and 13 non-directive “life story” interviews with young people aged between 16 and 25 (M?=?21, SD?=?2.6) were analysed. It appears that an experience of spiritualism

François P. Mathijsen

2012-01-01

119

Adolescents and spiritualism: is this a good way to cope with fear? A qualitative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two qualitative studies complement existing literature on coping and paranormal belief, by analysing the link between paranormal experiences of spiritualism and coping. Thirty-six semi-directive interviews of young people aged between 12 and 18 (M?=?15, SD?=?1.3) and 13 non-directive “life story” interviews with young people aged between 16 and 25 (M?=?21, SD?=?2.6) were analysed. It appears that an experience of spiritualism

François P. Mathijsen

2011-01-01

120

Portable Dental Chairs and Their Role in Assisting the Community Outreach Program- a Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain conditions limit the independence of deprived people. However, those conditions do not limit the right of these people to receive dental care. Portable dental units may make it possible for the deprived and elderly to receive the care they deserve in more areas. This study aimed to explore dentists’ perceptions of the use of portable dental units in community outreach programs as a precursor to our quantitative study in the future. Materials and Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by one interviewer, seven dentists, two specialists, and 11 final-year dental students who had experience with portable dental units in Isfahan, Iran. The qualitative research method was chosen first due to the rarity of information readily available about the units and second due to their specialist application; with which only certain members of the dental community have experience. Results: Participants described a range of observations they had made whilst using the portable dental units in different locations. The qualitative data were primarily concerned with the range of ideas the interviewers distinguished as relevant when describing the portable dental units. The predominant view most noted within interviews was that the portable units are very useful for the community outreach programs, with two subcategories of serviceability and access to oral health. Other factors mentioned were the competence of the portable dental unit and the factors affecting each individual patient. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate a number of features that may enhance the reputation of portable dental units, due to their useful nature. PMID:25512750

Nilchian, Firoozeh; Sahlabadi, Ali; Skini, Masoomeh

2013-01-01

121

A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity  

SciTech Connect

Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

Scolozzi, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.scolozzi@fmach.it [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all& #x27; Adige, (Italy); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

2012-09-15

122

DSE hadron phenomenology.  

SciTech Connect

A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy {pi}{pi} scattering, B {r_arrow} D{sup *} decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB.

Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.

2000-05-22

123

An approach to acquiring quantitative and qualitative knowledge for fault diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Operation and maintenance activities associated with complex systems require knowledge of the physical system and knowledge of the cognitive task. This paper discusses our methodology for acquiring physical process knowledge necessary for reasoning about faults. Acquisition of process knowledge used in fault diagnosis consists of (1) problem definition and (2) model development. Problem definition activity determines the constraints, physics, physical structure, function, and fault cases associated with the physical system. Model development activity builds knowledge models via fault-case analysis and qualitative analysis. We discuss problem definition and model development activities in context of a single-pass heat exchanger. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

1990-06-01

124

Qualitative and quantitative onchip analysis of circulating blood microparticles through combining SPRi and AFM approaches, and their functional studies on cells  

E-print Network

Qualitative and quantitative onchip analysis of circulating blood microparticles through combining SPRi and AFM approaches, and their functional studies on cells Offer type : PhD project (Bourse MESRD project description: Context : The qualification and quantification of circulating blood

Jeanjean, Louis

125

Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

2011-01-01

126

Darwin and Phenomenology Beyond the Standard Model  

E-print Network

After preamble about Darwin, my talk described the conformality approach to extending the standard model of particle phenomenology using an assumption of no conformal anomaly at high energy. Topics included quiver gauge theory, the conformality approach to phenomenology, strong-electroweak unification at 4 TeV, cancellation of quadratic divergences, cancellation of U(1) anomalies, and a dark matter candidate.

Paul H. Frampton

2006-08-03

127

Phenomenological Approach to Heat Conduction in a One-Dimensional Hard-Point Gas beyond Local Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulation data on stationary heat conduction in a one-dimensional binary hard-point gas are studied: We estimate the validity range of the local equilibrium assumption explicitly. The temperature profiles with the temperature jumps at the boundaries are analyzed consistently by a phenomenological theory beyond the local equilibrium assumption (extended thermodynamics). The agreement between the numerical result of the temperature profiles and its theoretical prediction is fairly well. The heat conductivity is analyzed in two limiting cases: We find that the exponent, which characterizes the divergence of the heat conductivity in a thermodynamic limit, depends on the mass ratio of two different constituent particles. We also find a power law relation between the heat conductivity and the mass ratio in a limit to the system where energy transport is in a ballistic mode.

Taniguchi, Shigeru; Nakamura, Masashi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Isobe, Masaharu; Zhao, Nanrong

2008-01-01

128

The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members, donations from neighbors and the community, and additional benefits from employers. However, insured households overall had positive perceptions of insurance. PMID:25308817

Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

2014-01-01

129

Ethics Review for Qualitative Inquiry: Adopting a Values-Based, Facilitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many institutions, the institutional review board/research ethics board (IRB/REB) uses the traditional audit approach that emerged from the biomedical community (e.g., Nuremburg Code, Belmont Report) to review the ethical acceptability of research using humans as participants. This approach is guided by participant protection and risk…

Connolly, Kate; Reid, Adela

2007-01-01

130

A Qualitative Study of Fitness Instructors' Experiences Leading an Exercise Program for Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with arthritis face challenges when they try to increase their physical activity. The study's objective was to identify elements of a successful community-based exercise program for children with arthritis by investigating the perspectives of fitness instructors who led the program. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach

Hutzal, Carolyn E.; Wright, F. Virginia; Stephens, Samantha; Schneiderman-Walker, Jane; Feldman, Brian M.

2009-01-01

131

Comparison of optical model results from a microscopic Schrödinger approach to nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering with those from a global Dirac phenomenology  

E-print Network

Comparisons are made between results of calculations for intermediate energy nucleon-nucleus scattering for 12C, 16O, 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb, using optical potentials obtained from global Dirac phenomenology and from a microscopic Schr\\"odinger model. Differential cross sections and spin observables for scattering from the set of five nuclei at 65 MeV and 200 MeV have been studied to assess the relative merits of each approach. Total reaction cross sections from proton-nucleus and total cross sections from neutron-nucleus scattering have been evaluated and compared with data for those five targets in the energy range 20 MeV to 800 MeV. The methods of analyses give results that compare well with experimental data in those energy regimes for which the procedures are suited.

P. K. Deb; B. C. Clark; S. Hama; K. Amos; S. Karataglidis; E. D. Cooper

2005-04-29

132

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant  

PubMed Central

The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects. PMID:24130732

Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

2013-01-01

133

Understanding Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation in Rural Communities: A Combined Qualitative/Quantitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine factors associated with breastfeeding in rural communities. Methods We combined qualitative and quantitative data from the Family Life Project, consisting of: (1) a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1292) of infants born September 2003–2004 and (2) a parallel ethnographic study (N = 30 families). Demographic characteristics, maternal and infant health factors, and health services were used to predict breastfeeding initiation and discontinuation using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. Ethnographic interviews identified additional reasons for not initiating or continuing breastfeeding. Results Fifty-five percent of women initiated breastfeeding and 18% continued for at least 6 months. Maternal employment at 2 months and receiving WIC were associated with decreased breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Ethnographic data suggested that many women had never even considered breastfeeding and often discontinued breastfeeding due to discomfort, embarrassment, and lack of assistance. Conclusions Breastfeeding rates in these rural communities lag behind national averages. Opportunities for increasing breastfeeding in rural communities include enhancing workplace support, maximizing the role of WIC, increasing hospital breastfeeding assistance, and creating a social environment in which breastfeeding is normative. PMID:17636458

Flower, Kori B.; Willoughby, Michael; Cadigan, R. Jean; Perrin, Eliana M.; Randolph, Greg

2009-01-01

134

A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network  

PubMed Central

In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor (INR) knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks. PMID:24062690

Nijhout, H. Frederik; Callier, Viviane

2013-01-01

135

[Alternative and complementary medicine in the basic health system network in Brazil: a qualitative approach].  

PubMed

This article focuses on the social representations of health professionals about the introduction of complementary and alternative medical practices in the public health service network in Campinas city (SP, Brazil). Based in an essentially qualitative methodological perspective, the article analyses the general conditions, the problems and the obstacles related to the implementation of such practices. The success of this inclusion was found in four main reasons: the clientele disposition which gives support and demands this kind of service; the health vision of the sanitarian doctors, which is open to such project; the wide support given by the non-medical health professions, which intend to add value and amplify their practice and, finally, the own perspective of the alternative and complementary medicines, which agree with the Unified Health System (SUS) proposals. Despite the success in the implementation of such practices in the health basic system, two negative aspects were detected: the insufficient planning and the simplified vision which converts such rationalities in mere techniques, which follow the same mechanistic principles of the allophatic medicine and the same reified understanding of disease. PMID:21519669

Nagai, Silvana Cappelleti; Queiroz, Marcos de Souza

2011-03-01

136

Researching psychotherapy integration: A heuristic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moustakas argues that questions and methodology in heuristic research flow out of inner awareness, meaning and inspiration. The approach might arguably embrace a combination of qualitative research methods, and constitute a kind of bricolage. This paper describes a heuristic enquiry into psychotherapy integration that used such a combination of methods – an interpretative phenomenological approach, case studies, reflexive action, and

John Nuttall

2006-01-01

137

Relative charge density model on chitosan-fucoidan electrostatic interaction: Qualitative approach with element analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a relative charge density model of prepared chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs) to provide insight into an analysis of the ionic interactions in terms of polyelectrolyte complexes. Using the relative charge density model, the extent of the ionic interactions is predicted in terms of the pH (2 through 6) and used fucoidan to chitosan mass ratio (FCMR) (1:0.05 through 1:1), through which the formation of CFNs can be controlled to be ranked qualitatively according to size and stability. It was confirmed by the measurements of their zeta potentials and sizes and by the analysis of their decay with time. Moreover, the relative charge density model was validated to predict the isoelectric condition of a polyelectrolyte complexed suspension of CFNs. Elemental analysis with a proper mass-conversion showed that the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients of sulfate groups to amino groups in CFNs formed were almost consistent to that of the sulfate groups to amino groups in a chitosan solution mixed with a fucoidan solution prior to the occurrence of polyelectrolyte complexation. In a pH 2-environment, there were locally intensive electrostatic interactions with a low yield to form sulfate group-rich CFNs. In contrast, in a pH 6-environment, extensive electrostatic interactions occurred to form sulfate group-poor CFNs with a high yield. In addition to the chitosan-amide groups, the separate yield-distribution of loaded chitosan indicated the possible involvement of positively charged amino groups in the electrostatic interactions among chitosan molecules. PMID:25091454

Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Kwang-Hee

2014-08-01

138

Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

2013-01-01

139

When expressions make impressions—Nurses’ narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding  

PubMed Central

Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses’ lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs’ lived experience of patients’ expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: “Sensing vulnerability” and “Empathizing with.” The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, “Feeling exceptional” and “Being trusted.” The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, “Being disappointed” and “Being angry.” The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: “Being generous or reserved.” Patients’ expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role. PMID:24138930

Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

2013-01-01

140

A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

2013-01-01

141

A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…

Nduku, Enita Bernice

2012-01-01

142

Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and 'cognitive participation' appeared to be crucial drivers in the initial stage of the process. Conclusions Stepped care for depression is received positively in primary care. While it is difficult for the implementation of a full stepped-care approach to occur within a short time frame, clinicians can make progress towards achieving a stepped-care approach, particularly within the context of a QIC. Creating a shared understanding within multidisciplinary teams of what constitutes depression, reaching a consensus about the content of depression care, and the division of tasks are important when addressing the implementation process. PMID:22293362

2012-01-01

143

How qualitative research can contribute to research in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

A qualitative research design can provide unique contributions to research in the intensive care unit. Qualitative research includes the entire process of research: the methodology (conceptualization of the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, designing the protocol), methods (conducting the research using qualitative methods within the chosen qualitative strategy, analysis of the data, verification of the findings), and writing the narrative. The researcher is the instrument and the data are the participants' words and experiences that are collected and coded to present experiences, discover themes, or build theories. A number of strategies are available to conduct qualitative research and include grounded theory, phenomenology, case study, and ethnography. Qualitative methods can be used to understand complex phenomena that do not lend themselves to quantitative methods of formal hypothesis testing. Qualitative research may be used to gain insights about organizational and cultural issues within the intensive care unit and to improve our understanding of social interaction and processes of health care delivery. In this article, we outline the rationale for, and approaches to, using qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of qualitative methods available and how they can be used alone or in concert with quantitative methods. To illustrate how our understanding of social phenomena such as patient safety and behavior change has been enhanced we use recent qualitative studies in acute care medicine. PMID:17548020

Sinuff, Tasnim; Cook, Deborah J; Giacomini, Mita

2007-06-01

144

Phenomenology from the Lattice  

E-print Network

In recent years the precision of lattice calculations has improved hugely, and the results are making a very significant impact in particle physics phenomenology. Indeed there is no alternative general method which can be used in the evaluation of nonperturbative strong interaction effects for a wide variety of physical processes. In this talk I discuss a selection of topics in flavour physics, including \\textit{mature} quantities for which lattice calculations have been performed for a long time (e.g. the determination of the $V_{us}$ CKM matrix element and $B_K$), quantities which we are now learning to study (e.g. $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ decays amplitudes and the spectrum and mixing of $\\eta-\\eta^\\prime$ mesons) and important phenomenological quantities for which a large amount of experimental data is available but which we do not yet understand how to approach in lattice simulations (e.g. nonleptonic B-decays). The improvement in precision and the extension of the range of processes which can be studied using lattice QCD has to be continued vigorously if precision flavour physics is to play a complementary role to large $p_\\perp$ discovery experiments at the LHC in unravelling the next level of fundamental physics.

Christopher Sachrajda

2011-03-30

145

Hands-on approach during breastfeeding support in a neonatal intensive care unit: a qualitative study of Swedish mothers' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Assisting mothers to breastfeed is not easy when babies experience difficulties. In a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), nurses often help mothers by using hands-on-breast without their permission. Little is known about how mothers feel about this unusual body touching. To gain more knowledge from mothers who lived through this experience, this hands-on practice was studied in a NICU in Sweden. Methods Between January and June 2001, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten mothers of preterm or sick term infants and all of them experienced the hands-on approach. In this research, Radnitzky's seven principles of hermeneutic interpretation were applied in order to interpret the meaning of mothers' responses. This article presents results related to the period of initiation of breastfeeding. This qualitative study was based on a combination of the models of Gustafsson, Orem, and Aarts' Marte Meo. Results Five main themes were identified: Insult to integrity, Manipulating the baby, Understanding and adjustment, Breasts as objects, Alternatives to this practice. Hands-on help in the breastfeeding situation was experienced as unpleasant and the women experienced their breasts as objectified. The mothers accepted the hands-on help given by nursing staff, even though they considered it unpleasant. Most mothers expressed a need for assistance when starting breastfeeding, but could not suggest any alternative to hands-on help such as demonstrating with an artificial breast and a doll. Conclusion The study provides information about how mothers experience unexpected hands-on help with breastfeeding in a NICU, which has not been described previously. Since most mothers in this study regarded this behavior as unpleasant and not helpful mostly because it was unexpected and unexplained, it would be important to either explain beforehand to mothers what type of physical approach could be attempted on their body or better, to avoid this type of approach completely. PMID:17064423

Weimers, Lena; Svensson, Kristin; Dumas, Louise; Navér, Lars; Wahlberg, Vivian

2006-01-01

146

Lagrangian tetrad dynamics and the phenomenology of turbulence Michael Chertkov  

E-print Network

Lagrangian tetrad dynamics and the phenomenology of turbulence Michael Chertkov Department Jersey 07974 Received 23 September 1998; accepted 21 April 1999 A new phenomenological model of turbulent in the right direction one must rely on phenomenology. One reason for pursuing the modeling approach

Chertkov, Mikhael

147

Phenomenology of Incompleteness: from Formal Deductions to Mathematics and  

E-print Network

1 Phenomenology of Incompleteness: from Formal Deductions to Mathematics and Physics Francis Bailly" for this a recent book on a phenomenological approach to the foundations of mathematics. G¨odel's 1931 theorem. Revisiting "Phenomenology, Logic, and the Philosophy of Mathematics"2 Constructivism is the most common

Longo, Giuseppe

148

"If You Weren't Researching Me and a Friend . . ." The Mobius of Friendship and Mentorship as Methodological Approaches to Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the affordances and risks of practicing friendship and mentorship as methodological approaches in two qualitative studies: (a) the mentor's study in a diverse 9th grade classroom and (b) the protege's subsequent study of teacher professional development in the same school. Friendship methodology, as theorized by Tillmann and…

Sassi, Kelly; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

2012-01-01

149

Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

2012-01-01

150

Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights  

EPA Science Inventory

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

151

Causal Set Phenomenology  

E-print Network

Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.

Lydia Philpott

2010-09-08

152

A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom.  

E-print Network

??This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants,… (more)

Robinson, Susan

2012-01-01

153

Phenomenology and psychophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent philosophy of mind has tended to treat “inner” states, including both qualia and intentional states, as “theoretical posits” of either folk or scientific psychology. This article argues that phenomenology in fact plays a very different role in the most mature part of psychology, psychophysics. Methodologically, phenomenology plays a crucial role in obtaining psychophysical results. And more importantly, many psychophysical

Steven Horst

2005-01-01

154

Quantum Spacetime Phenomenology  

E-print Network

I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. And my main focus is on phenomenological programs that managed to affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2008-06-02

155

Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…

Alexandersson, Claes

156

Dilemmas in qualitative health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a

Lucy Yardley

2000-01-01

157

Towards Phenomenological Theorizing About Old Women Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological conceptualization of violence against old battered women. This\\u000a was done by using the concept of intentionality of body, time and space, heuristically. Data for the paper were drawn from\\u000a a series of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of old battered women performed by the authors during the last 5 years.

Tova Band-Winterstein; Zvi Eisikovits

2010-01-01

158

Applications of Dirac Phenomenology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence that relativistic effects play an important role in the description of nuclear structure and reactions. We briefly review Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) and explain how nuclear densities and relativistic Hartree optical potentials are obtained using QHD as the underlying theory. The results of phenomenological optical model analyses based on a Dirac equation are discussed. A wide range of energies and various targets are considered. High quality fits to elastic differential cross section, analyzing power, and spin rotation function measurements are obtained. A relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for proton-nucleus elastic scattering is outlined. In these parameter-free calculations we find that the relativistic approach is superior to the nonrelativistic calculations, especially with regard to spin observables at 300 Mev and above. Below 300 Mev, neither calculation agrees well with experiment. We also use the RIA to calculate optical potentials for a use in a relativistic generalization of the Lane equations. The procedure is used to calculate observables for the ('90)Zr(p,p) and ('90)Zr(p,n)('90)Nb(IAS) reactions at 160 and 500 Mev. These predictions are compared to nonrelativistic impulse approximation results and to experimental data. RIA calculations of antiproton-nucleus scattering are compared with the recent 46.8 Mev p-('12)C elastic scattering data. The calculated cross sections agree well with data. The difference between relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation using the same input is small.

Hama, Shinichi

159

Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and…

Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

2014-01-01

160

A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

2010-01-01

161

Evaluating Community Safety Programmes and Community Engagement: The Role of Qualitative Methods and Collaborative Approaches to Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the role of qualitative and collaborative methods when undertaking evaluation research into local community safety partnerships and neighbourhood strategies. It draws on recent examples of research and evaluation studies of regeneration and community safety programmes in a number of cities and towns in England. The discussion is set against the background of the major changes in policy

Jane Pitcher

2006-01-01

162

Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison  

E-print Network

Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz August, 2011 Michael Dine Arenas for String Phenomenology #12;Possible Arenas for a String Phenomenology 1 Hierarchy problem: LHC scale physics: supersymmetry, RS, large

California at Santa Cruz, University of

163

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

164

Phenomenology of Neutrino Oscillations  

E-print Network

The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.

G. Rajasekaran

2000-04-17

165

THE MERITS OF THREE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Panel Chair:  

E-print Network

There has been growing interest in qualitative research methods and their application to information systems in recent years. Since 1990 panels and/or workshops on qualitative research methods have become a regular feature of ICIS. Prominent among the variety of research strategies which have been suggested in the research literature are case studies, grounded theory, ethnography (Harvey and Myers 1995; Wynn 1991), phenomenology, semiotics (Klein and Truex 1995), hermeneutics, critical hermeneutics (Myers 1994) and critical theory approaches. However, in this discussion there has been little consideration given to the differences between and respective merits of these research methods. While all of the above methods are often labeled “qualitative, ” they are significantly different and are, in some ways, opposed. Some of the methods have different underlying philosophical assumptions, espouse competing values (ethics of research), and advocate different quality criteria. The purpose of the panel is to compare and critique three qualitative approaches to information systems research with regard to their underlying assumptions and quality criteria or ethics of research. The three that will be discussed are ethnography,

Michael Myers; Heinz Klein; Duane Truex; Eleanor Wynn; Michael D. Myers

1996-01-01

166

From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

Dartevelle, Sebastian

2007-10-01

167

Phenomenological theories of ferroelectric phase transitions  

E-print Network

Phenomenological theories of ferroelectric phase transitions W. Cao parameter in the free energy expansion, phenomenological theory can also describe inhomogeneous structures appear-Phenomenological parent and product phases. phenomenological theories in multidimensions for describ-Phenomenological

Cao, Wenwu

168

Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning. Proceedings of KAMALL 2011: New Directions for Blended Learning in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invi  

E-print Network

Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invited conference] 1 Blending research methods Directions for Blended Learning in EFL, Korea, Republic Of (2011)" #12;Alex Boulton. Blending research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

2009-01-01

170

Models and phenomenology  

E-print Network

It is evident that models of the knee should match the observational phenomenology. In this talk I discuss a few aspects of phenomenology, which are important not only for the understanding of the knee origin, but also for the general problem of the origin of cosmic rays. Among them are the shape of the energy spectrum, its irregularity, the sharpness of the knee and its fine structure. The classification of models is given and some examples of the most recent models are discussed. The most probable conclusion deduced from this examination is that the knee has an astrophysical origin and the so called 'source' models of the knee are most likely among them.

A. D. Erlykin

2004-11-09

171

The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic disparities in park access. They revealed trends that may not have been otherwise detectable, such as the spatially inconsistent relationship between physical activity site density and socio-demographics. In order to establish a more stable global model, a number of additional factors, variables, and methods might be used to quantify park accessibility, such as network analysis of proximity, perception of accessibility and usability, and additional park quality characteristics. Accurate measurement of park accessibility can therefore be important in showing the links between opportunities for active behavior and beneficial health outcomes. PMID:19545430

Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

2009-01-01

172

Inquiry Skills: A Phenomenological Study on the Perceptions of First-Year Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the specific factors associated with inquiry skills as a component of success with college level coursework. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted to gain an understanding based on interview responses to questions about learning experiences as perceived…

Donaldson, Audrey

2012-01-01

173

Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is focused on neutrino mixing and neutrino oscillations in the light of the recent experimental developments. After discussing possible types of neutrino mixing for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and considering in detail the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and matter, we review all existing evidence and indications in favour of neutrino oscillations that have been obtained in

W. Grimus; C. Giunti

1999-01-01

174

Phenomenology of ``Onium'' Production  

E-print Network

The phenomenology of heavy quarkonia production in hadron collisions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared to data. Commonly used production models are shown to fail in explaining all the experimental findings. The shortcomings of these models are analysed and possible improvements are discussed.

Matteo Cacciari

1995-05-18

175

Phenomenological Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

Planck scale physics represents a future challenge, located between particle physics and general relativity. The Planck scale marks a threshold beyond which the old description of spacetime breaks down and conceptually new phenomena must appear. In the last years, increased efforts have been made to examine the phenomenology of quantum gravity, even if the full theory is still unknown.

S. Hossenfelder

2006-11-01

176

Colorons: Theory and Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We briefly describe the structure and phenomenology of a flavor-universal extension of the strong interactions, focusing on the color-octet of massive gauge bosons (`colorons') present in the low-energy spectrum. We discuss current limits on the colorons and what future measurements may reveal.

E. H. Simmons

1997-01-13

177

SUSY Phenomenology today  

E-print Network

The review of the SUSY phenomenology today is given with the emphasis on generic properties of SUSY models, SUSY searches at the LHC and in astrophysics. Due to the absence of any definite SUSY signal at accelerators and other experiments, we describe the allowed regions in the MSSM and NMSSM parameter space and discuss the possibilities of SUSY manifestation in the near future.

D. I. Kazakov

2013-06-27

178

Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

2008-05-05

179

Transversity: Theory and phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of transversely polarized quarks inside a transversely polarized nucleon, known as transversity, encodes a basic piece of information on the nucleon structure, sharing the same status with the more familiar unpolarized and helicity distributions. I will review its properties and discuss different ways to access it, with highlights and limitations. Recent phenomenological extractions and perspectives are also presented.

D'Alesio, Umberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari, C. P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2013-04-15

180

Coping with a Child Who Stutters: A Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative methods were used in the form of a phenomenological analysis to explore how families cope with having a child who stutters. Twelve participants, 2 men and 10 women, who have children who stutter participated in this study. The participants were asked to consider their experiences with being the parent of a child who stutters. Analysis…

Plexico, Laura W.; Burrus, Embry

2012-01-01

181

Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

Melton, Amye M.

2012-01-01

182

Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

2013-01-01

183

Toward an Understanding of Jewish Identity: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin mapping the landscape of contemporary Jewish identity from a phenomenological perspective, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews of 10 Jewish adults in the northeastern United States. Coding resulted in 6 universal themes (dynamic nature of self-identification, early formative experiences, desire to…

Friedman, Michelle L.; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Blustein, David L.

2005-01-01

184

The phenomenological ontology of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literary ontology is essentially a phenomenological issue rather than one of epistemology, sociology, or psychology. It is\\u000a a theory of the phenomenological essence intuited from a sense of beauty, based on the phenomenological ontology of beauty,\\u000a which puts into “brackets” the sociohistorical premises and material conditions of aesthetic phenomena. Beauty is the “objectified”\\u000a emotion. This is the phenomenological definition of

Xiaomang Deng

2010-01-01

185

Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families  

PubMed Central

Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

2012-01-01

186

Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis  

E-print Network

The paper presents seventeen approaches that use cubic splines and Fourier series for restoring short term missing data in time series of building energy use and weather data. The study is based on twenty samples of hourly data, each at least one...

Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

2002-01-01

187

Restoration of Short Periods of Missing Energy Use and Weather Data Using Cubic Spline and Fourier Series Approaches: Qualitative Analysis  

E-print Network

This paper presents seventeen approaches that use cubic splines and Fourier series for restoring short term missing data in time series of building energy use and weather data. The study is based on twenty samples of hourly data, each at least one...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

188

Information about ADRs explored by pharmacovigilance approaches: a qualitative review of studies on antibiotics, SSRIs and NSAIDs  

PubMed Central

Background Despite surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) repeatedly occur after marketing. The aim of this article is to analyse ADRs reported by available ADR signal detection approaches and to explore which information about new and unexpected ADRs these approaches have detected. Methods We selected three therapeutic cases for the review: antibiotics for systemic use, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAID) and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI). These groups are widely used and represent different therapeutic classes of medicines. The ADR studies were identified through literature search in Medline and Embase. The search was conducted in July 2007. For each therapeutic case, we analysed the time of publication, the strengths of the evidence of safety in the different approaches, reported ADRs and whether the studies have produced new information about ADRs compared to the information available at the time of marketing. Results 79 studies were eligible for inclusion in the analysis: 23 antibiotics studies, 35 NSAID studies, 20 SSRI studies. Studies were mainly published from the end of the 1990s and onwards. Although the drugs were launched in different decades, both analytical and observational approaches to ADR studies were similar for all three therapeutic cases: antibiotics, NSAIDs and SSRIs. The studies primarily dealt with analyses of ADRs of the type A and B and to a lesser extent C and D, cf. Rawlins' classification system. The therapeutic cases provided similar results with regard to detecting information about new ADRs despite different time periods and organs attacked. Approaches ranging higher in the evidence hierarchy provided information about risks of already known or expected ADRs, while information about new and previously unknown ADRs was only detected by case reports, the lowest ranking approach in the evidence hierarchy. Conclusion Although the medicines were launched in different decades, approaches to the ADR studies were similar for all three therapeutic cases: antibiotics, NSAIDs and SSRIs. Both descriptive and analytical designs were applied. Despite the fact that analytical studies rank higher in the evidence hierarchy, only the lower ranking descriptive case reports/spontaneous reports provided information about new and previously undetected ADRs. This review underscores the importance of systems for spontaneous reporting of ADRs. Therefore, spontaneous reporting should be encouraged further and the information in ADR databases should continuously be subjected to systematic analysis. PMID:19254390

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2009-01-01

189

Dark Energy Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We discuss the phenomenology of the dark energy in first order perturbation theory, demonstrating that the dark energy cannot be fully constrained unless the dark matter is found, and that there are two functions that characterise the observational properties of the dark sector for cosmological probes. We argue that measuring these two functions should be an important goal for observational cosmology in the next decades.

Martin Kunz; Luca Amendola; Domenico Sapone

2008-06-08

190

Topics in String Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We consider two questions in string ``phenomenology.'' First, are there any generic string predictions? Second, are there any general lessons which string theory suggests for thinking about low energy models, particularly in the framework of supersymmetry? Among the topics we consider are the squark and slepton spectrum, flavor symmetries, discrete symmetries including $CP$, and Peccei-Quinn symmetries. We also note that in some cases, discrete symmetries can be used to constrain the form of supersymmetry breaking.

Michael Dine

1993-09-23

191

Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) and community-directed interventions (CDI) are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers’ and beneficiaries’ perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC. Methods We conducted 27 key informant interviews with health officials and partners at national, district and health centre levels; 32 focus group discussions with community members and in-depth interviews with 32 community members and 32 community leaders. Additionally, official PHC related documents were reviewed. Results The findings show that there is a functional PHC system in place in the two study districts, though its implementation is faced with various challenges related to accessibility of services and shortage of resources. Health service providers and consumers shared perceptions on the importance of intensifying community participation to strengthen PHC, particularly within the areas of provision of insecticide treated bed nets, home case management for malaria, management of diarrhoeal diseases, treatment of schistosomiasis and provision of food supplements against malnutrition. Conclusion Our study indicates that intensified community participation based on the CDI approach can be considered as a realistic means to increase accessibility of certain vital interventions at community level. PMID:22995125

2012-01-01

192

A phenomenological approach to the ethics of transplantation medicine: sociality and sharing when living-with and dying-with others.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen a rise in the number of sociological, anthropological, and ethnological works on the gift metaphor in organ donation contexts, as well as in the number of philosophical and theological analyses of giving and generosity, which has been mirrored in the ethical debate on organ donation. In order to capture the breadth of this field, four frameworks for thinking about bodily exchanges in medicine have been distinguished: property rights, heroic gift-giving, sacrifice, and gift-giving as aporia. Unfortunately, they all run into difficulties in terms of both making sense of the relational dimensions of postmortem and live organ donations and being normatively adequate in the sense of shedding light and providing guidance on ethical concerns when body parts are donated. For this reason, this article presents a phenomenological framework of giving-through-sharing, based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's philosophy. This framework makes sense of relational dimensions of postmortem and live organ donation. It also sheds light on three highly debated concerns in organ donation ethics: indebtedness on the part of recipients, the fact that some live donors do not experience donation as a matter of choice, and the potentially painful experience of donors' relatives, who need to make decisions about postmortem organ donation at a time of bereavement. It can indirectly support what may be called a normalization of bodily exchanges in medicine. PMID:25227276

Zeiler, Kristin

2014-10-01

193

Exploring the provision of hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Identifying factors affecting the provision of trauma care is essential for improving the quality of care for road traffic injury (RTI) victims. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of trauma care among injured patients and health professionals to identify factors influencing an effective trauma care delivery at emergency departments (EDs) in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted with a grounded theory approach. The study participants consisted of 15 health professionals and 20 injured patients. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using constant comparative analysis method. Results: Lack of a systematic approach to providing trauma care at EDs emerged as the core category. The leading factors in the development of the core category were unclear national policies and poor organization of care at the ED. Other major factors were contextual factors in the environment of the hospitals such as inappropriate structure and unsupportive environment and also factors specific to the context of Iran such as a rapid increase in the number of traumas. Professionals reacted to the prevailing conditions in ways that contributed to an ineffective trauma care, even though strategies employed by Emergency Medicine Physicians (EMPs) improved the quality of trauma care locally. Conclusions: Building a national trauma system, using available professional resources especially EMPs, and implementing low cost and evidence-based improvements such as establishing trauma teams and trauma training for staff working at the EDs on a regular basis is necessary in order to improve delivery of trauma care at the hospitals. PMID:22095003

Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Johansson, Eva; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasselberg, Marie

2013-01-01

194

Holography and Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We examine various aspects of the conjectured duality between warped AdS$_5$ geometries with boundary branes and strongly coupled (broken) conformal field theories coupled to dynamical gravity. We also examine compactifications with 5-d gauge fields, in which case the holographic dual is a broken CFT weakly coupled to dynamical gauge fields in addition to gravity. The holographic picture is used to clarify a number of important phenomenological issues in these and related models, including the questions of black hole production, radius stabilization, early universe cosmology, and gauge coupling unification.

Nima Arkani-Hamed; Massimo Porrati; Lisa Randall

2000-12-18

195

Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as an authoritative expert who determine goals, intervention planning and evaluation. Conclusions Different paradigms of health and disability lead to different approaches to physiotherapy which influence the whole intervention process regarding strategies for the assessment and treatment, all of which influence Family-Centred Service and the child’s motor learning strategies. The results may deepen physiotherapists’ understanding of how different paradigms of health influence the way in which various physiotherapy approaches in research seek to solve the challenge of CP. PMID:22747596

2012-01-01

196

Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Beyond the Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological\\u000a research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative\\u000a approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative\\u000a and qualitative approaches. This article outlines

Omar Gelo; Diana Braakmann; Gerhard Benetka

2008-01-01

197

Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the nature of clinical knowledge in medicine, exposed some of the shortcomings of quantitative research methods, and briefly introduced qualitative methods as an approach for improved understanding. Here, I shall discuss how scientific quality can be maintained when qualitative research methods are applied. I present some overall standards, describe specific challenges met when the medical researcher uses qualitative

Kirsti Malterud

2001-01-01

198

Planck-Length Phenomenology  

E-print Network

This author's recent proposal of interferometric tests of Planck-scale-related properties of space-time is here revisited from a strictly phenomenological viewpoint. The results announced previously are rederived using elementary dimensional considerations. The dimensional analysis is then extended to the other two classes of experiments (observations of neutral kaons at particle accelerators and observations of the gamma rays we detect from distant astrophysical sources) which have been recently considered as opportunities to explore "foamy" properties of space-time. The emerging picture suggests that there is an objective and intuitive way to connect the sensitivities of these three experiments with the Planck length. While in previous studies the emphasis was always on some quantum-gravity scenario and the analysis was always primarily aimed at showing that the chosen scenario would leave a trace in a certain class of doable experiments, the analysis here reported takes as starting point the experiments and, by relating in a direct quantitative way the sensitivities to the Planck length, provides a model-independent description of the status of Planck-length phenomenology.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2000-08-04

199

Phenomenology of turbulent dynamo growth and saturation  

E-print Network

With a non local shell model of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence we investigate numerically the turbulent dynamo action for low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers ($Pm$). The results obtained in the kinematic regime and along the way to dynamo saturation are understood in terms of a phenomenological approach based on the local ($Pm\\ll 1$) or non local ($Pm\\gg 1$) nature of the energy transfers. In both cases the magnetic energy grows at small scale and saturates as an inverse `` cascade ''.

Rodion Stepanov; Franck Plunian

2007-11-08

200

Superstrings, Phenomenology and F-theory  

E-print Network

We give brief ideas on building gauge models in superstring theory, especially the four-dimensional models obtained from the compactification of F-theory. According to Vafa, we discuss the construction of F-theory to approach non-perturbative aspects of type IIB superstring. Then, we present local models of F-theory, which can generate new four-dimensional gauge models with applications to phenomenology.

Adil Belhaj; Leila Medari

2009-12-29

201

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: A translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve

Kathleen T. Galvin; Les Todres

2011-01-01

202

Pulsed laser effects phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive overview of the phenomenology associated with the interaction of intense laser beams with matter is presented. The beam is assumed to be incident on a solid or liquid target located within a transport medium. The discussion is first categorized by the type of this medium; namely, vacuum, gas, liquid, solid or particulate. Then the dependence of the interaction is further classified by the laser flux, pulselength, wavelength and the target properties. The various classes of behavior are discussed along with the conditions for their occurrence. Classes discussed include: slow bulk heating, transparent vapor from the target surface, secondary energy transport to the ablation surface, laser absorption at the critical surface, shock induced blowoff, photoelectric cross section dependence on temperature and density, laser supported combustion and detonation, contained vaporization and Mie scattering. 21 refs., 2 figs.

Dingus, R.S.; Goldman, S.R.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Montierth, L.M.; Stover, E.K.

1988-01-01

203

Phenomenology of scalar leptoquarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the simplest renormalizable scalar leptoquark models where the standard model is augmented only by one additional scalar representation of SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1). The requirement that there be no proton decay from renormalizable interactions singles out two such models, one of which exhibits an unusual top mass enhancement of the ??e? decay rate. We analyze the phenomenology of the model with the unusual top mass enhancement of loop level chirality changing charged lepton processes in the light of existing and upcoming experiments. Both of the models that do not allow proton decay from renormalizable interactions have dimension-5 operators that, even if suppressed by the Planck scale, can give rise to an unacceptably high level of baryon number violation. We discuss symmetries that can forbid these dimension-5 operators.

Arnold, Jonathan M.; Fornal, Bartosz; Wise, Mark B.

2013-08-01

204

Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

Pompili, Maurizio

2010-01-01

205

Qualitative estimation of the single-electron transfer step energetics mediated by samarium(II) complexes: a "SOMO-LUMO gap" approach.  

PubMed

Lanthanide II organometallic complexes usually initiate reactions via a single-electron transfer (SET) from the metal to a bonded substrate. Extensive mechanistic studies were carried out for lanthanide III complexes in which no change of oxidation state is involved. Some case-dependent strategies were reported by our group in order to account for a SET event in organometallic computed studies. In the present study, we show that analysis of DFT orbital spectra allows differentiating between exothermic and endothermic electron transfer. This methodology appears to be general; it allows differentiating between lanthanide centers and substituent effects on metallocenes. For that purpose, we considered mainly various samarocene adducts as well as a SmI2 complex explicitly solvated by THF. Comparison between DFT methods and ab initio (CAS-SCF and HF) computational level revealed that the SOMO-LUMO gap computed at the DFT B3PW91 level, in combination with small-core RECPs and standard basis sets, offers a qualitative estimation of the energetics of the SET that is in line with both CAS-SCF calculations and experimental results when available. This orbital-based approach, based on DFT calculation, affords a fast and efficient methodology for pioneer exploration of the reactivity of lanthanide(II) mediated by SET. PMID:24620762

Kefalidis, Christos E; Essafi, Stéphanie; Perrin, Lionel; Maron, Laurent

2014-04-01

206

A Qualitative Approach to Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the teaching of physics, the study of electricity and magnetism typically follows the introduction of the basic concepts of mechanics. However, there are some new concepts associated with electromagnetic fields that seem at first to the student to be unrelated to, or even incompatible with, Newton's third law as learned in mechanics.…

Haertel, Hermann

207

Microemulsions: A qualitative thermodynamic approach  

SciTech Connect

Microemulsions, that is, stable colloidal dispersions of water and nonpolar solvents stabilized by amphiphiles, are of growing interest in research and industry. The phase behavior of the multicomponent mixture is essentially determined by the features of corresponding binary mixtures. The efficiency of an amphiphile in solubilizing the solvents reaches its maximum in the temperature interval in which the mixture separates into three coexisting liquid phases. The domain size of the dispersion is determined by the interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase in the presence of a saturated monolayer. Because the interfacial tension reaches its minimum in the three-phase interval and, furthermore, decreases with increasing amphiphilicity, the transition from weakly structured solutions to microemulsions is gradual. It is, therefore, suggested that microemulsions be defined as stable colloidal dispersions of domains sufficiently large for the dispersed solvent to exhibit the properties as, e.g., the dielectric number of a bulk phase.

Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.; Busse, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (West Germany))

1990-05-17

208

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

209

Long-term psychological consequences of symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the psychological consequences of experiencing symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). Design Qualitative interview-based study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting Outpatients who attended an anticoagulation clinic in a district general hospital. Participants Patients attending an anticoagulation clinic following hospital admission for symptomatic PE were approached to participate. A total of 9 (4 women, 5 men) of 11 patients approached agreed to be interviewed. Participants were aged between 26 and 72?years and had previously experienced a PE between 9 and 60?months (median=26?months, mean=24?months). Intervention Audiotaped semistructured qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants experiences of having a PE and how it had affected their lives since. Data were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify emergent themes. Results Three major themes with associated subthemes were identified. Participants described having a PE as a life-changing experience comprising initial shock, followed by feeling of loss of self, life-changing decisions and behaviour modification. Features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were described with flashbacks, hypervigilance and intrusive thoughts being most prevalent. Participants identified several areas of support needed for such patients including easier access to support through information giving and emotional support. Conclusions Long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism go beyond the physical alone. Patients describe experiencing symptomatic PE to be a life-changing distressing event leading to behaviour modification and in some PTSD. It is likely that earlier psychological intervention may reduce such long-term sequelae. PMID:24694625

Noble, Simon; Lewis, Rhian; Whithers, Jodie; Lewis, Sarah; Bennett, Paul

2014-01-01

210

Phenomenology of Supersymmetric James Philip John Hetherington  

E-print Network

Phenomenology of Supersymmetric Models James Philip John Hetherington King's College A dissertation after examination, November 2002. #12; ii #12; iii Phenomenology of Supersymmetric Models James Philip John Hetherington Abstract This thesis describes a set of connected studies regarding the phenomenology

Hammerton, James

211

Phenomenological description of polarization switching in ferroelectric semiconductors with charged defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed the phenomenological description of polarization switching peculiarities in ferroelectric semiconductors with charged defects and prevailing extrinsic conductivity. More precisely, we have modified the Landau-Ginsburg approach and shown that the macroscopic state of the aforementioned inhomogeneous system can be described by three coupled equations for three order parameters. Both the experimentally observed coercive field values, well below the thermodynamic one, and the various hysteresis loop deformations (minor, constricted and double loops) have been obtained in the framework of our model. The obtained results qualitatively explain the ferroelectric switching in such bulk ferroelectric materials as SBN single crystals doped with Ce, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films doped with Nd, and La-doped PZT ceramics.

Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

2005-03-01

212

Employees' views on outsourcing and its impact on employee turnover: A phenomenological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing use of outsourcing gives employees concern about personal job security. Using a modified van Kaam approach, this qualitative phenomenological study examined perceptions and experiences of 12 employees' on the influence outsourcing had on employee turnover. Five themes describing employee perceptions emerged: (a) preparation---education gives job security, (b) plausibility---all believed job loss plausible, (c) emotional influence---feelings of stress, threat, betrayal, and not being valued, (d) environment---value of communication and interaction with leaders, and (e) confidence---gained from increased education, skills, and knowledge protected from outsourcing. Significance of this study to leadership is the identification of employee perceptions of outsourcing and motivating factors influencing employee turnover during times of outsourcing. Findings might present new information and assist leaders with employee retention concerns for future outsourcing activities.

Przybelinski, Steven A.

213

Phenomenological description of bidirectional surface reflection  

E-print Network

Phenomenological description of bidirectional surface reflection Jan J. Koenderink and Andrea J satellites). In some cases one has (usually approximate, phenomenological) models, but in most cases one

O'Brien, James F.

214

Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

2007-01-01

215

Comment on 'Classification scheme for phenomenological universalities in growth problems in physics and other sciences'  

E-print Network

In this communication, the incorrectness of phenomenological approach to the logistic growth equation, proposed by Castorina et al. is presented in detail. The correct phenomenological approach to logistic growth equation is also proposed here. It is also shown that the same leads to different types of biological growths also.

Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

2014-12-22

216

Participation in Church or Religious Groups and Its Association with Health. Part 2: A Qualitative, Canadian Study.  

PubMed

As part of a mixed-methods study, this qualitative inquiry determined how adolescent participation in church or religious groups related to their health. We used grounded theory with a phenomenological approach to inquiry. Consistent with the quantitative findings, children (n = 12) involved in religious groups reported lower participation in risk behaviors, higher pro-social behaviors, but poorer levels of emotional well-being and physical health. Findings raise theological and practical questions about the practices and teaching of the church with respect to children's ministry. They suggest an emphasis on teaching about behaviors and morality rather than a more integrative message involving the whole of life. PMID:25385319

Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Robinson, Peter; Cameron, Linda

2014-11-11

217

The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.  

PubMed

The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

2013-01-01

218

Phenomenology beyond the standard model  

SciTech Connect

An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

2005-03-01

219

Phenomenology with unintegrated parton showers  

E-print Network

We introduce a backward evolution Monte Carlo algorithm implementation of the CCFM equation and present latest developments in phenomenology of hadron-hadron collisions for the Monte Carlo generator Cascade.

Michal Deak

2011-04-08

220

Phenomenology Beyond the Standard Model  

E-print Network

An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the Physics at LHC conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

Joseph D. Lykken

2005-03-16

221

$R$-Parity Breaking Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We review various features of the $R$-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the $R$-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models.

Francesco Vissani

1996-02-26

222

Phenomenologies of Higgs messenger models  

E-print Network

In this paper, we investigate the phenomenologies of models where the Higgs sector plays the role of messengers in gauge mediation. The minimal Higgs sector and its extension are considered respectively. We find that there exist viable models when an appropriate parity is imposed. Phenomenological features in these kind of models include three sum rules for scalar masses, light gluino as well as one-loop $\\mu$ and two-loop $B\\mu$ terms.

Sibo Zheng; Yao Yu; Xing-Gang Wu

2011-01-20

223

Fuzzy Qualitative Trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes fuzzy qualitative representation of trigonometry (FQT) in order to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative representation of physical systems using trigonometry. Fuzzy qualitative coordinates are defined by replacing a unit circle with a fuzzy qualitative circle; the Cartesian translation and orientation are replaced by their fuzzy membership functions. Trigonometric functions, rules and the extensions to triangles

Honghai Liu; George M. Coghill

2005-01-01

224

A review of qualitative methodologies used to explore patient perceptions of arts and healthcare.  

PubMed

Although the importance of the arts in healthcare is increasingly recognised, further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms by which arts and health programmes achieve their impact. An overview of the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of these interventions is lacking. We reviewed the literature to gain insights into the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of the role of arts in healthcare with a view to identifying the most common methodologies used and to guide researchers embarking on research regarding patients' perceptions of arts in healthcare. Our results indicate a paucity of qualitative studies, a variety of methods used and variability of methodological rigour. Grounded theory and phenomenology were the most common approaches adopted, mixed methods approaches were relatively frequent, and versions of 'thematic' or 'content' analysis were commonly cited. Semi-structured interviews were the most popular data collection method. The emphasis of all of the studies was on active or participative arts engagement, with no focus on receptive engagement with the arts and aesthetics. It was concluded that careful consideration of appropriate methodology is important when researching such an exploratory and sensitive area. Individual interviews were most popular and might be appropriate when exploring personal, sensitive experiences. Mixed method studies possibly provide a comprehensive approach which might satisfy both the arts and healthcare settings need for evidence. It seems important to pay attention to rigour in any methodology chosen and a greater focus on receptive engagement with the arts might be encouraged in future research. PMID:22893595

Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

2012-12-01

225

TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: PHENOMENOLOGY  

E-print Network

1 TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: PHENOMENOLOGY RELS 4700/6700 & PHIL 4690/6690 Instructor introduction to phenomenology with a particular focus on phenomenology of religion. We will be concerned with phenomenology as a philosophical movement beginning with Husserl and continuing to the present that makes claims

Doyle, Robert

226

Topics in Supergravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

In the first part of the review article, we discuss the possibility of realizing "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario from a phenomenological model, which we show could be realizable locally as the large volume limit of a type IIB Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold involving a mobile space-time filling D3-brane localized at a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the "big" divisor and multiple fluxed stacks of space-time filling D7-branes wrapping the same "big" divisor. We show that the mass of one of the Higgs doublets can be produced to be of the order of 125 GeV whereas other Higgs as well as higgsino mass parameter to be very heavy- the "mu-split-like SUSY" scenario. Then we discuss the role of the heavy squarks/sleptons and the light Higgs in (i) obtaining long-lived gluinos (ii) in verifying that the NLSPs (squarks/sleptons/neutralino) decay into the LSP (gravitino) respects the BBN constraints with the lifetime of the LSP (gravitino) coming out to be of the order or larger than the age of the universe, (iii) getting gravitino relic abundance of around 0.1, and (iv) obtaining electronic EDM close to the experimental upper bounds. In second part of the review article, we obtain local M-theory uplift of Type IIB background involving non-compact (resolved) warped deformed conifold and (N) space time filling D3-branes placed on the singularity of the conifold, (M) D5-branes wrapped around compact 2-sphere, and (N_f) D7-branes wrapped around non-compact four-cycle via Strominger-Yau-Zaslow's mirror symmetry prescription and show the stability of the solution so obtained. We propose a new MQGP limit corresponding to finite-string-coupling (g_s~ 1)- large-t'Hooft-coupling regime of M-theory. Interestingly, we obtain eta/s=1/4 pi for the uplift and the diffusion constant D~1/T for types IIB/IIA backgrounds in the both limits.

Mansi Dhuria

2014-09-04

227

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

228

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

229

Phenomenological and ontological models in natural science  

E-print Network

The observation of the nature and world represents the main source of human knowledge on the basis of our reason. At the present it is also the use of precise measurement approaches, which may contribute significantly to the knowledge of the world but cannot substitute fully the knowledge of the whole reality obtained also with the help of our senses. It is not possible to omit the ontological nature of matter world. However, any metaphysical consideration was abandoned when mainly under the influence of positivistic philosophy phenomenological models started to be strongly preferred and any intuitive approach based on human senses has been refused. Their success in application region has seemed to provide decisive support for such preference. However, it is limited practically to the cases when only interpolation between measured data is involved. When the extrapolation is required the ontological models are much more reliable and practically indispensable in realistic approach.

Milos V. Lokajicek

2007-10-17

230

Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

Lisa Given

2006-01-01

231

Meta-representational awareness in mild cognitive impairment: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.  

PubMed

Awareness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been studied primarily from a quantitative perspective, which has yielded inconclusive results. A qualitative approach may provide a more in-depth profile of awareness of symptoms and changes among people living with MCI. Few qualitative studies have considered awareness in MCI; therefore, the focus here will be on the experience of living with MCI, and particularly on the psychological impact of living with memory difficulties and how these impact on daily life. Twenty five participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI who had been informed of their diagnosis were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Four higher order themes were identified. An exploratory model is proposed with a dominant theme of 'Fear and uncertainty'; this underpins 'Interdependence', 'Life goes on as normal' and 'Disavowal of difficulty' which are representative of coping responses resulting from appraisal of memory and cognitive difficulties. Participants did not use the term 'MCI', suggesting that this term had little meaning for them; nevertheless, there was a wish for a definitive explanation of the difficulties. The themes elicited from participant accounts indicate that the symptoms of MCI are perceived as a threat to psychological well-being which results in context-specific appraisal of the symptoms of MCI. PMID:23072638

Roberts, Judith L; Clare, Linda

2013-01-01

232

Fuzzy qualitative trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fuzzy qualitative representation of conventional trigonometry with the goal of bridging the gap between symbolic cognitive functions and numerical sensing & control tasks in the domain of physical systems, especially in intelligent robotics. Fuzzy qualitative coordinates are defined by replacing a unit circle with a fuzzy qualitative circle; a Cartesian translation and orientation are defined by

Honghai Liu; George Macleod Coghill; Dave P. Barnes

2009-01-01

233

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

234

The Self-Regulation of Humor Expression: A Mixed Method, Phenomenological Investigation of Suppressed Laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized a mixed method, phenomenological approach to better understand the lived experience of suppressed laughter. Study 1 utilized an empirical, phenomenological analysis of 17 first-person descriptions of suppressed laughter, which identified various essential themes, including the key findings that suppressed laughter occurred within a social context in which laughter was not appropriate and in which the presence of

Brent Dean Robbins; Kyla Vandree

2009-01-01

235

Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

Haymes, Stephen Nathan

2012-01-01

236

Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

2011-01-01

237

The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

Dura, Marian T.

2006-01-01

238

Phenomenological thermodynamics in a nutshell  

E-print Network

Phenomenological thermodynamics in a nutshell Arnold Neumaier Fakult¨at f¨ur Mathematik, Universit of phenomeno- logical equilibrium thermodynamics for single-phase systems in the absence of chemical reactions-known thermodynamics book the basic concepts by means of a few postulates from which every- thing else follows. His

Neumaier, Arnold

239

Perspectives on Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

The idea that quantum gravity manifestations would be associated with a violation of Lorentz invariance is very strongly bounded and faces serious theoretical challenges. Other related ideas seem to be drowning in interpretational quagmires. This leads us to consider alternative lines of thought for such phenomenological search. We discuss the underlying viewpoints and briefly mention their possible connections with other current theoretical ideas.

Daniel Sudarsky

2005-12-01

240

A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

Khatib, Eid

2010-01-01

241

A Phenomenological Examination of Perceived Skills and Concepts Necessary for Teaching Scientific Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of high stakes testing to improve educational outcomes falls short in many settings. Proposals for improvement include providing more opportunities for students to extend their thinking, gaining experience in the social nature of science, and learning how to interpret, explain, and justify results. This phenomenological qualitative project…

Kapetanis, Ana Cristina

2011-01-01

242

Identifying the Criteria for Planning the Selection and Succession of a CIO: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many challenges face CIOs in their management of IT systems; yet, very little research is available regarding the issues and constraints associated with their role. CIO leadership is still a subject of inquiry for those with aspirations to pursue such a position. The specific problem of the current qualitative phenomenological study concerned the…

Williamson, Charles E.

2010-01-01

243

How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to…

McLurkin, Carol

2012-01-01

244

History and Social Science Teachers' Perceptions of Their Profession: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chile, teaching is in a period of transition between occupation and profession. To examine teachers' perceptions of their profession, the author conducted a qualitative, phenomenological investigation. He interviewed twenty-seven history and social science teachers employed at urban secondary schools in Chile. He found that teachers believe…

Labrana, Carlos Munoz

2007-01-01

245

A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

Santangelo, Dan

2012-01-01

246

Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

Bektas, Fatih

2012-01-01

247

A Phenomenological Study of Teacher/Mentors' Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, phenomenological study examines how second-stage teacher/mentors view, interpret, and construct pedagogical content knowledge and then utilize their constructions within a student work sample analysis experience in a mentoring relationship. Three theories undergird this study: Black and Ammon's (1992) teacher development…

Pientka, Valerie Jane

2012-01-01

248

The Perceptions Head Start Teachers Have of Instructional Behaviors for School Readiness: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school readiness of Head Start students has become a major concern in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore Head Start teachers' lived experiences and perceptions of the instructional behaviors necessary for preparing students for kindergarten. The study sample consisted of a purposive…

Jackson, Elinor N.

2011-01-01

249

A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

Davis, Deanna Rachelle

2012-01-01

250

Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in a Rural School District: A Phenomenological Study of Rural Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological research study was to explore the effectiveness of programs and strategies used to recruit and retain highly qualified teachers in accordance with the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) from the perspective of highly qualified teachers in a rural school district in Central Virginia. The data…

Taylor, Laura U.

2012-01-01

251

Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…

Payne, Sheila C.

2012-01-01

252

Phenomenological modelling of first order phase transitions in magnetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First order phase transitions may occur in several magnetic systems, with two structural phases having different magnetic properties each and a structural transition between them. Here, a novel physics based phenomenological model of such systems is proposed, in which magnetization is represented by the volumetric amounts of ferromagnetism (described by extended Jiles-Atherton theory) and paramagnetism (described by the Curie-Weiss law) in respective phases. An identification procedure to extract material parameters from experimental data is proposed. The proposed phenomenological approach was successfully applied to magnetocaloric Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 system and also has the potential to describe the behavior of Griffiths phase magnetic systems.

Melikhov, Yevgen; Hadimani, R. L.; Raghunathan, Arun

2014-05-01

253

Phenomenology of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Densities  

E-print Network

This talk provides a short overview of the phenomenology of transverse momentum depedent distribution and fragmention functions, focussing on the most recent phenomenological developments in the study of their scale evolution and energy depedence.

M. Boglione

2013-09-27

254

Helicity within the Kolmogorov phenomenology of turbulence  

E-print Network

Helicity within the Kolmogorov phenomenology of turbulence Susan Kurien Mathematical Modeling@lanl.gov In a phenomenology in which both energy and helicity exhibit net flux to the small scales it is natural in resolved numerical simulations in [4]. In a phenomenology in which both energy and helicity exhibit net

Kurien, Susan

255

Quantum Gravity Phenomenology, Lorentz Invariance and Discreteness  

E-print Network

Quantum Gravity Phenomenology, Lorentz Invariance and Discreteness Fay Dowker #3; , Joe Henson y invariant, and we recall the reasons why. For illustration, we introduce a phenomenological model of massive { LLI violating phenomenological e#11;ects of quantum gravity { has grown up around this idea

Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick

256

Running Head: PHENOMENOLOGY OF FEELINGS 1 Toward a Phenomenology of Feelings  

E-print Network

Running Head: PHENOMENOLOGY OF FEELINGS 1 Toward a Phenomenology of Feelings Christopher L. Heavey 455030, Las Vegas, NV 89154- 5030. E-mail: chris.heavey@unlv.edu #12;PHENOMENOLOGY OF FEELINGS 2 Abstract present a preliminary phenomenology of feelings. We begin by observing that often feelings do occur

Ahmad, Sajjad

257

Qualitative and Quantitative  

E-print Network

Qualitative and Quantitative Reliability AssessmentKARAMA KANOUN, MOHAMED KAÃ?NICHE, and JEAN-CLAUDE LAPRIE French National Organization for Scientific Research Traditional system reliability efforts have

Kaâniche, Mohamed

258

Cosmic Strings Lens Phenomenology Revisited  

E-print Network

We present investigations of lens phenomenological properties of cosmic strings for deep galaxy surveys. General results that have obtained for lineic energy distribution are presented first. We stress that generically the local convergence always vanishes in presence of strings although there might be some significant distortions. We then propose a simplified model of strings, we call ``Poisson strings'', for which exhaustive investigations can be done either numerically or analytically.

Francis Bernardeau; Jean-Philippe Uzan

2000-08-09

259

Phenomenology from 100 large lattices  

E-print Network

We present a status report on simulations being done on $32^3 \\times 64$ lattices at $\\beta = 6.0$ using quenched Wilson fermions. Phenomenologically relevant results for the spectrum, decay constants, the kaon B-parameter $B_K$, $B_7$, $B_8$, semi-leptonic and $B\\to K^* \\gamma$ form factors are given based on a statistical sample of 100 configurations.

Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Rajan Gupta

1995-01-15

260

Nucleons on the light-cone: Theory and phenomenology of baryon distribution amplitudes  

E-print Network

This is a short review of the theory and phenomenology of baryon distribution amplitudes, including recent applications to the studies of nucleon form factors at intermediate momentum transfers using the light-cone sum rule approach.

V. M. Braun

2006-08-21

261

Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration  

PubMed Central

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: , where µ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and µ = ?1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral Calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

262

Qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes: an approach to effectively assign their absolute configuration.  

PubMed

For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: 1/E = ?(H - K??2), where ? = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and ? = -1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E) with the atom polarizability difference (??) on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration. PMID:24897021

Zheng, Shuang; Chang, Ming-Liang; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Li, Shao-Yong; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Jun-Min

2014-01-01

263

Phenomenology from the Landscape of String Vacua  

E-print Network

This article is the author's PhD thesis. After a review of string vacua obtained through compactification (with and wothout fluxes), it presents and describes various aspects of the Landscape of string vacua. At first it gives an introduction and an overview of the statistical study of the set of four dimensional string vacua, giving the detailed study of one corner of this set (G2-holonomy compactifications of M-theory). Then it presents the ten dimensional approach to string vacua, concentrating on the ten dimensional description of the Type IIA flux vacua. Finally it gives two examples of models having some interesting and characteristic phenomenological features, and that belong to two different corners of the Landscape: warped compactifications of Type IIB String Theory and M-theory compactifications on G2-holonomy manifolds.

Roberto Valandro

2008-01-03

264

Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

1989-01-01

265

Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

2012-01-01

266

Model-based and Qualitative Reasoning in Biomedicine  

E-print Network

various researchers involved in the development and use of model-based and qualitative reasoning methods or possible to use quantitative methods, researchers use qualitative approaches. Depending on the biomedical with research in the biomedical field is that researchers applying model-based and qualitative-reasoning methods

Lucas, Peter

267

Qualitative Studies in HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "What Is It Like To Be an Independent HRD Consultant?" (Alexander Ardishvili), reports on a phenomenological study that investigated the experience of being an independent HRD (human resource development) consultant through interviews with 10 successful HRD consultants. The study identified eight…

1999

268

Quality in Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

Clive Seale

1999-01-01

269

Teaching Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

Delyser, Dydia

2008-01-01

270

Visualizing Qualitative Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

Slone, Debra J.

2009-01-01

271

PHYSICS, QUALITATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

PHYSICS, QUALITATIVE C BIBLIOGRAPHY D. G. Bobrow and R J. Hayes, eds., Artif. Intell. 24," in Gentner and Stevens, 1983, pp. 155--190. J. de Kleer and J. S. Brown "A Qualitative Physics Based.J., 1983. P. Hayes, "The Naive Physics Manifesto," in Hobbs and Moore, 1985, pp 1--36 J R Hobbs and R C

de Kleer, Johan

272

QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL MODELING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Students construct qualitative models of an ecosystem and use the models to evaluate the direct and indirect effects that may result from perturbations to the ecosystem. Qualitative modeling is described for use in two procedures, each with different educational goals and student backgrounds in min...

273

Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

1998-01-01

274

Feeling an outsider left in uncertainty - a phenomenological study on the experiences of older hospital patients.  

PubMed

This paper starts from a care ethical perspective on care and reports on a phenomenological study into older patients' experiences of hospitalisation. Although hospital care for older patients is at the centre of attention, questions what is at stake and what defines quality of care are rarely discussed with a view to the perspective of older patients themselves. The qualitative observational method of shadowing was used. Ten patients of 75 years old or older were shadowed from admission until discharge. The reflective lifeworld approach, based on phenomenological philosophy, was used to analyse the collected data. For the older patients included in the study, the essential meaning of hospitalisation can be described as feeling an outsider left in uncertainty. The word 'left' reveals how hospitalisation is experienced as a solitary struggle with various uncertainties that are related both to the hospital environment and to the patient's personal situation. The essential meaning is composed of the following three constituents: (i) staying in an inhospitable place, (ii) feeling constrained and (iii) experiencing disruption. The busy walking back and forth of care professionals and the functional character of involvement, restrain older patients from participating and make them feel abandoned. Feeling constrained reveals the feelings brought on by the ageing body which are emphasised by hospitalisation but often neglected by hospital staff. The failure of healthcare professionals to recognise and respond to who older patients are aside from their illness exacerbate the experience of disruptions. To improve care, hospital staff must be more sensitive to older patients' uncertainties. Also, hospital staff should provide older patients with understandable information and explanation which besides offering patients the possibility to feel involved, meets their need for recognition. PMID:25376968

van der Meide, Hanneke; Olthuis, Gert; Leget, Carlo

2014-11-01

275

Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory  

E-print Network

The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmog\\'orov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.

G. Gioia; Pinaki Chakraborty

2005-12-20

276

SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA  

SciTech Connect

The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

2005-09-30

277

Phenomenological modeling of memristive devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a computationally inexpensive yet accurate phenomenological model of memristive behavior in titanium dioxide devices by fitting experimental data. By design, the model predicts most accurately I-V relation at small non-disturbing electrical stresses, which is often the most critical range of operation for circuit modeling. While the choice of fitting functions is motivated by the switching and conduction mechanisms of particular titanium dioxide devices, the proposed modeling methodology is general enough to be applied to different types of memory devices which feature smooth non-abrupt resistance switching.

Merrikh Bayat, F.; Hoskins, B.; Strukov, D. B.

2015-01-01

278

Z' Phenomenology and the LHC  

SciTech Connect

A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

Rizzo, Thomas G.

2006-10-17

279

Recent Trends in Superstring Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We review for non-experts possible phenomenological scenari in String Theory. In particular we focus on vacuum configurations with intersecting and/or magnetized unoriented D-branes. We will show how a TeV scale tension may be compatible with the existence of Large Extra Dimensions and how anomalous U(1)'s can give rise to interesting signatures at LHC or in cosmic rays. Finally, we discuss unoriented D-brane instantons as a source of non-perturbative effects that can contribute to moduli stabilization and susy braking in combination with fluxes. We conclude with an outlook and directions for future work.

Massimo Bianchi

2009-09-09

280

Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

2004-01-01

281

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 289 Qualitative Simulation*  

E-print Network

is the study of qualitative causal models [3-20, 24, 25]. Research on qualitative causal models differs fromARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 289 Qualitative Simulation* Benjamin Kuipers Department of Computer Qualitative simulation is a key inference process in qualitative causal reasoning. However, the precise

Kuipers, Benjamin

282

Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Sympathy  

E-print Network

Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Sympathy MARTIN J. MATUSTIK Fordham University Merleau-Ponty never wrote a phenomenology of sympathy. But his use of sympathy in accounting for human relationships parallels in intent and manner his treatment... of perception in the Phenomenology.} In addressing the paradox of alterity, he draws an analogy between perception and sympathy: just as perceptual consciousness founds intersubjective thematic experience, in the same way pre-personal sympathy accounts...

Matustik, Martin J.

283

Myorhythmia: Phenomenology, etiology, and treatment.  

PubMed

Myorhythmia is defined as repetitive, rhythmic, slow (1-4 Hz) movement affecting chiefly cranial and limb muscles. When occurring in the limbs it may be oscillatory and jerky, whereas oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, typically associated with Whipple's disease, is a slow, repetitive, often asymmetrical, facial and ocular movement. Thus, myorhythmia overlaps phenomenologically with tremor and segmental myoclonus. Although often present at rest, it must be differentiated from parkinsonian or dystonic tremor. Recognition of this movement disorder is important because it is usually associated with lesions involving the brainstem, thalamus, or other diencephalic structures with potentially treatable etiologies. In addition to Whipple's disease, myorhythmia has been described in patients with cerebrovascular disease, listeria encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, and other disorders. In addition to our own experience, we have systematically reviewed the medical literature, focusing on the phenomenology, pathophysiology, and etiology of this poorly recognized movement disorder. In this review, we aim to highlight the clinical features that differentiate myorhythmia from other movement disorders. Treatment should be directed against the underlying etiology. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25487777

Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Cardoso, Francisco; Jankovic, Joseph

2014-12-01

284

Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

2007-01-01

285

Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

2006-01-01

286

What factors determine Belgian general practitioners’ approaches to detecting and managing substance abuse? A qualitative study based on the I-Change Model  

PubMed Central

Background General practitioners (GPs) are considered to play a major role in detecting and managing substance abuse. However, little is known about how or why they decide to manage it. This study investigated the factors that influence GP behaviours with regard to the abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilisers among working Belgians. Methods Twenty Belgian GPs were interviewed. De Vries’ Integrated Change Model was used to guide the interviews and qualitative data analyses. Results GPs perceived higher levels of substance abuse in urban locations and among lower socioeconomic groups. Guidelines, if they existed, were primarily used in Flanders. Specific training was unevenly applied but considered useful. GPs who accepted abuse management cited strong interpersonal skills and available multidisciplinary networks as facilitators. GPs relied on their clinical common sense to detect abuse or initiate management. Specific patients’ situations and their social, psychological, or professional dysfunctions were cited as cues to action. GPs were strongly influenced by their personal representations of abuse, which included the balance between their professional responsibilities toward their patients and the patients’ responsibilities in managing their own health as well the GPs’ abilities to cope with unsatisfying patient outcomes without reaching professional exhaustion. GPs perceived substance abuse along a continuum ranging from a chronic disease (whose management was part of their responsibility) to a moral failing of untrustworthy people. Alcohol and cannabis were more socially acceptable than other drugs. Personal experiences of emotional burdens (including those regarding substance abuse) increased feelings of empathy or rejection toward patients. Multidisciplinary practices and professional experiences were cited as important factors with regard to engaging GPs in substance abuse management. Time constraints and personal investments were cited as important barriers. Satisfaction with treatment was rare. Conclusions Motivational factors, including subjective beliefs not supported by the literature, were central in deciding whether to manage cases of substance abuse. A lack of theoretical knowledge and training were secondary to personal attitudes and motivation. Personal development, emotional health, self-awareness, and self-care should be taught to and fostered among GPs to help them maintain a patient-centred focus. Health authorities should support collaborative care. PMID:24927958

2014-01-01

287

Cognitive Styles and Managerial Behaviour: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute further insights into how cognitive styles influence managerial behaviour, using a qualitative approach. Design/methodology/approach: Written testimonies were gathered from people with different cognitive styles, and content analysed (n = 100). Findings: Qualitative evidence was found for…

Cools, Eva; Van Den Broeck, Herman

2008-01-01

288

Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

1983-01-01

289

Observation and phenomenology of glueballs  

SciTech Connect

The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

Lindenbaum, S.J.

1985-01-01

290

Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low-energy spectrum as a function of m 3/2. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

Dudas, Emilian; Linde, Andrei; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.

2013-01-01

291

The second string (phenomenology) revolution  

E-print Network

In the past three years our views on how the standard model of particle physics could be embedded into string theory have dramatically changed. The heterotic string is no longer the only possibility for such an embedding and other perturbative (or non-perturbative) corners of M-theory, like Type I or Type II strings seem now possible. It has also been realized that the string scale $M_s$ is not necessary close to the Planck scale and could be much smaller, of order the intermediate scale $\\sqrt{M_WM_p}$ or even close to the weak scale. In addition, semi-realistic three generation models have recently been constructed starting with Type IIB compact orientifolds. I briefly discuss some of these developements which represent a revolution in our understanding of string phenomenology.

L. E. Ibanez

1999-11-26

292

Agile Customer Engagement: a Longitudinal Qualitative Case Study  

E-print Network

Agile Customer Engagement: a Longitudinal Qualitative Case Study Geir Kjetil Hanssen SINTEF ICT S Customer Engagement, Agile Process, Stakeholder Management, Process Transition. 1. INTRODUCTION Software characteristics of traditional approaches, agile methodologies suggest a different approach, emphasizing close

293

Phenomenology, a framework for participatory design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The philosophical discipline of phenomenology provides the designer with a framework for studying user experience by affording an intrinsically contextual view of the way we interact with things around us. In this paper we argue that phenomenology also plays a critical role in participatory design when it is undertaken as an interpretive and generative process, mindful of end user experience

Christopher Frauenberger; Judith Good; Wendy Keay-Bright

2010-01-01

294

A phenomenological cohesive model of ferroelectric fatigue  

E-print Network

A phenomenological cohesive model of ferroelectric fatigue I. Arias b S. Serebrinsky a, M. Ortiz Abstract We develop a phenomenological model of electro-mechanical ferroelectric fatigue based to fatigue are localized in one or more planar-like regions, modelled by the cohesive surfaces. We validate

Huerta, Antonio

295

Iranian nurses’ experiences of brain dead donors care in intensive care units: A phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946

Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali

2013-01-01

296

A Phenomenological Exploration of Nurses' Perceptions of the Effect of Electronic Documentation on Healing Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The qualitative phenomenological study was an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the effect of information technology on healing relationships between nurses and patients. Extensive advancements in health care information technology have developed over the last decade, and have affected the health care environment. The increased time and…

Bradley, Sharon Lee

2011-01-01

297

"I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this…

Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

2015-01-01

298

A Phenomenological Exploration of Mandatory Parental or Guardian Involvement with an At-Risk Student Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perception of parent or guardian involvement from a constructivist viewpoint during intervention programs located in Hampton 2 and Pickens counties. The current study involved 15 interviews via three sets of participants, six parents, five teachers and four administrators.…

Mason, Julia Christina

2010-01-01

299

A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

Cheppel, Alena

2012-01-01

300

A Phenomenological Study of Teacher and Administrator Experiences in the Analysis and Interpretation of Student Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative empirical phenomenological study was to examine the experience of analyzing and interpreting student assessment data from the perspective of both teachers and administrators in order to identify: (a) those aspects of the experiences which are similar or dissimilar among the two groups, (b) the priorities and…

Ross, Matthew William

2012-01-01

301

Qualitative methods in research on teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research studies the meaning of actions that occur, both in face-to-face interactions and in the wider society surrounding the immediate scene of action. To conduct interpretive research on teaching, intense and long-term participant observation in an educational setting is required, followed by deliberate and long-term reflection on what was observed. Questions regarding the observer's point of view, previously learned formal theories, cultural conditioning, and personal values must be considered. Attitudes toward teaching and learning as well as measures of effectiveness are also worth examining. This paper argues that such detailed scrutiny of everyday teaching routines is a route to improving educational practice, as performed by university researchers as well as practicing teachers.

Erickson, Frederick

2006-05-19

302

“Don’t wait for them to come to you, you go to them”. A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Methods Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group) or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Results Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent’s awareness of ‘what works’ and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the ‘social’ rather than the ‘health’ benefits of walking. Conclusions Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and motivation within disengaged sedentary communities. Walking promotion professionals require better training and resources to deliver appropriate recruitment strategies to reach priority groups. PMID:22882796

2012-01-01

303

Is Europe putting theory into practice? A qualitative study of the level of self-management support in chronic care management approaches  

PubMed Central

Background Self-management support is a key component of effective chronic care management, yet in practice appears to be the least implemented and most challenging. This study explores whether and how self-management support is integrated into chronic care approaches in 13 European countries. In addition, it investigates the level of and barriers to implementation of support strategies in health care practice. Methods We conducted a review among the 13 participating countries, based on a common data template informed by the Chronic Care Model. Key informants presented a sample of representative chronic care approaches and related self-management support strategies. The cross-country review was complemented by a Dutch case study of health professionals’ views on the implementation of self-management support in practice. Results Self-management support for chronically ill patients remains relatively underdeveloped in Europe. Similarities between countries exist mostly in involved providers (nurses) and settings (primary care). Differences prevail in mode and format of support, and materials used. Support activities focus primarily on patients’ medical and behavioral management, and less on emotional management. According to Dutch providers, self-management support is not (yet) an integral part of daily practice; implementation is hampered by barriers related to, among others, funding, IT and medical culture. Conclusions Although collaborative care for chronic conditions is becoming more important in European health systems, adequate self-management support for patients with chronic disease is far from accomplished in most countries. There is a need for better understanding of how we can encourage both patients and health care providers to engage in productive interactions in daily chronic care practice, which can improve health and social outcomes. PMID:23530744

2013-01-01

304

Personal and environmental factors encouraging or preventing healthy lifestyle behaviours among Persian couples: a phenomenological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to qualitatively assess the socio?culturally and religion?driven lived experiences before, during and after pregnancy from Persian men and women’s perspectives using descriptive phenomenological analysis. This study also assessed the application of components of socio?cognitive theory on couples’ lifestyle behaviours. Background: Social and cultural influences on preconception, pregnancy and postnatal behaviours of women have

Marzieh Abbasi; Chris Bewley; Olga van den Akker

2011-01-01

305

Can We Do Trigonometry Qualitatively?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes fuzzy qualitative represen- tation of trigonometry (FQT) in order to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative rep- resentation of physical systems using Trigonom- etry. Fuzzy qualitative coordinates are defined by replacing a unit circle with a fuzzy qualitative circle; the Cartesian translation and orientation are replaced by their fuzzy membership functions. Trigonometric functions, rules and the

Honghai Liu; George M. Coghill

306

Dynamics-generating semigroups and phenomenology of decoherence  

E-print Network

The earlier proposed Dynamics-Generating Approach (DGA) is reviewed and extended. Starting from an arbitrarily chosen group or semigroup which have structure similar to the structure of Galilei group, DGA allows one to construct phenomenological description of dynamics of the corresponding "elementary quantum object" (a particle or non-local object of special type). A class of Galilei-type semigroups, with semigroup of trajectories (parametrized paths) instead of translations, allows one to derive Feynman path integrals in the framework of DGA. The measure of path integrating (exponential of the classic action) is not postulated but derived from the structure of projective semigroup representations. The generalization of DGA suggested in the present paper allows one to derive dynamics of open quantum systems. Specifically, phenomenological description of decoherence and dissipation of a non-relativistic particle is derived from Galilei semigroup.

Michael B. Mensky

2013-12-09

307

The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective  

PubMed Central

There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

Pies, Ronald

2008-01-01

308

Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking  

SciTech Connect

We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2008-09-05

309

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

310

Disciplining Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

2006-01-01

311

Pediatric bipolar disorder: validity, phenomenology, and recommendations for diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To find, review, and critically evaluate evidence pertaining to the phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder and its validity as a diagnosis. Methods The present qualitative review summarizes and synthesizes available evidence about the phenomenology of bipolar disorder (BD) in youths, including description of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of symptoms, clarification about rates of cycling and mixed states, and discussion about chronic versus episodic presentations of mood dysregulation. The validity of the diagnosis of BD in youths is also evaluated based on traditional criteria including associated demographic characteristics, family environmental features, genetic bases, longitudinal studies of youths at risk of developing BD as well as youths already manifesting symptoms on the bipolar spectrum, treatment studies and pharmacologic dissection, neurobiological findings (including morphological and functional data), and other related laboratory findings. Additional sections review impairment and quality of life, personality and temperamental correlates, the clinical utility of a bipolar diagnosis in youths, and the dimensional versus categorical distinction as it applies to mood disorder in youths. Results A schema for diagnosis of BD in youths is developed, including a review of different operational definitions of `bipolar not otherwise specified.' Principal areas of disagreement appear to include the relative role of elated versus irritable mood in assessment, and also the limits of the extent of the bipolar spectrum – when do definitions become so broad that they are no longer describing `bipolar' cases? Conclusions In spite of these areas of disagreement, considerable evidence has amassed supporting the validity of the bipolar diagnosis in children and adolescents. PMID:18199237

Youngstrom, Eric A; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert L

2013-01-01

312

Rivers' Confluence: A Qualitative Investigation into Gifted Educators' Experiences with Collaboration with School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the lack of information in either the school counseling or the gifted education fields on how school counselors and educators of the gifted work together, research into how individuals from both professions collaborate to serve gifted students and their families becomes important. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to…

Wood, Susannah M.

2012-01-01

313

A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

2013-01-01

314

Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

Mashhadi, Azam

315

On Being Jewish: A Qualitative Study of Identity among British Jews in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a qualitative study of Jewish identity in emerging adults between ages 18 and 27, drawn from across the mainstream British Jewish community. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviews covered three main areas, focusing on the participants' developmental history…

Sinclair, Jennifer; Milner, David

2005-01-01

316

Firewall Phenomenology with Astrophysical Neutrinos  

E-print Network

One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, firewalls have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this letter, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or firewall. We predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. We further show that, independent of the generation mechanism, IceCube data can be explained (at $1\\sigma$ confidence level) by conversion of accretion on...

Afshordi, Niayesh

2015-01-01

317

Phenomenology of the CAH+ measure  

E-print Network

The CAH+ measure regulates the infinite spacetime volume of the multiverse by constructing a surface of constant comoving apparent horizon (CAH) and then removing the future lightcones of all points on that surface (the latter prescription is referred to by the "+" in the name of the measure). This measure was motivated by the conjectured duality between the bulk of the multiverse and its future infinity and by the causality condition, requiring that the cutoff surfaces of the measure should be spacelike or null. Here we investigate the phenomenology of the CAH+ measure and find that it does not suffer from any known pathologies. The distribution for the cosmological constant Lambda derived from this measure is in a good agreement with the observed value, and the distribution for the number of inflationary e-foldings satisfies the observational constraint. The CAH+ measure does not exhibit any "runaway" behaviors at zero or negative values of Lambda, which have been recently shown to afflict a number of other measures.

Michael P. Salem; Alexander Vilenkin

2011-07-22

318

The phenomenology of maverick dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both spin-independent (XENON100 and SuperCDMS) and spin-dependent (COUPP) experiments. We further study the distinguishability of maverick WIMP production signals at the Tevatron and the LHC---at its early and nominal configurations---using standard simulation packages, place constraints on maverick WIMP properties using existing collider data, and determine projected mass reaches in future data from both colliders. We find ourselves in a unique era of theoretically-motivated, high-precision dark matter searches that hold the potential to give us important insights, not only into the nature of dark matter, but also into the physics that lies beyond the standard model.

Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina

319

How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The education system needs strategies to attract future scientists and practitioners. There is an alarming decline in the number of students choosing science subjects. Reasons for this include the perceived complexity and the lack of effective cognitive tools that enable learners to acquire the expertise in a way that fits its qualitative nature. The DynaLearn project utilises a "Learning by modelling" approach to deliver an individualised and engaging cognitive tool for acquiring conceptual knowledge. The modelling approach is based on qualitative reasoning, a research area within artificial intelligence, and allows for capturing and simulating qualitative systems knowledge. Educational activities within the DynaLearn software address topics at different levels of complexity, depending on the educational goals and settings. DynaLearn uses virtual characters in the learning environment as agents for engaging and motivating the students during their modelling exercise. The DynaLearn software represents an interactive learning environment in which learners are in control of their learning activities. The software is able to coach them individually based on their current progress, their knowledge needs and learning goals. Within the project 70 expert models on different environmental issues covering seven core topics (Earth Systems and Resources, The Living World, Human population, Land and Water Use, Energy Resources and Consumption, Pollution, and Global Changes) will be delivered. In the context of the core topic "Land and Water Use" the Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management has developed a model on Sustainable River Catchment Management. River systems with their catchments have been tremendously altered due to human pressures with serious consequences for the ecological integrity of riverine landscapes. The operation of hydropower plants, the implementation of flood protection measures, the regulation of flow and sediment regime and intensive land use in the catchments have created ecological problems. A sustainable, catchment-wide management of riverine landscapes is needed and stated by water right acts, e.g. the European Water Framework and Floods Directive. This interdisciplinary approach needs the integration of natural riverine processes, flood protection, resource management, landscape planning, and social and political aspects to achieve a sustainable development. Therefore the model shows the effects of different management strategies concerning flood protection, restoration measures and land use. The model illustrates the wide range of ecosystem services of riverine landscapes that contribute to human well-being such as water supply, hydropower generation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities. The effects of different land use strategies in the catchment are highlighted by means of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The model is used to support activities of students at the University as well as at High School within the DynaLearn Software to promote scientific culture in the secondary education system. Model fragments allow learners to re-use parts of the existing model at different levels of complexity. But learners can also construct their own conceptual system knowledge, either individually or in a collaborative setting, and using the model as a reference for comparisons of their own understanding. Of special interest for the DynaLearn project is the intended development of interdisciplinary and social skills like cooperative working, cross-linked thinking, problem solving, decision-making, and the identification of the conflicts between environment, economy, legislation, science, technology, and society. A comprehensive evaluation of the DynaLearn software is part of the project. To be effective, science education should focus on understanding scientific concepts and on application of scientific knowledge to everyday life. Conceptual knowledge of systems behaviour is crucial for society to understand and successfully interact w

Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

2010-05-01

320

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

321

[Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].  

PubMed

This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. PMID:23138331

Thoma, Samuel

2012-11-01

322

Qualitative model-based diagnosis using possibility theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.

Joslyn, Cliff

1994-01-01

323

Bistatic clutter phenomenological measurement/model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program examines the scattering phenomenology of low grazing angle bistatic clutter, as well as specifies the required measurement techniques and instrumentation for its calibrated measurements. Clutter models are proposed for measurement validation techniques.

Hightower, Charles H.; Maeschen, David M.; Sanders-Foster, Catherine A.

1988-05-01

324

Bistatic clutter phenomenological measurement\\/model development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program examines the scattering phenomenology of low grazing angle bistatic clutter, as well as specifies the required measurement techniques and instrumentation for its calibrated measurements. Clutter models are proposed for measurement validation techniques.

Charles H. Hightower; David M. Maeschen; Catherine A. Sanders-Foster

1988-01-01

325

The politics of phenomenological concepts in nursing.  

PubMed

This paper challenges those nurses who champion Heideggerian phenomenology, by outlining some of the possible political consequences of that philosophy. Some relationships between phenomenology and fascism are discussed, with special reference to anti-humanism and authenticity. Heidegger's commitment to Nazism is affirmed and, following the lead of other recent contributions to the debate, it is suggested that this was the likely, if not inevitable, result of his phenomenological philosophy. It is concluded that, because of its immanent fascism, Heideggerian phenomenology is at odds with the general value orientation publicly espoused by the nursing profession, and that this may render it not only unsuitable as a means of understanding and elaborating nursing knowledge, but also actively counter-productive to the conventional aspirations of nurses. PMID:8876419

Holmes, C A

1996-09-01

326

Aspects of grand unified and string phenomenology  

E-print Network

Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary...

Walker, Joel Wesley

2005-11-01

327

String Phenomenology in the Era of LHC  

E-print Network

The low-energy supersymmetry phenomenology for specific classes of string compactifications is investigated given that the low-energy physics may provide a clue as to the structure of the fundamental theory at high energy scales. The one...

Maxin, James A.

2010-10-12

328

Phenomenology of lepton-nucleus DIS  

E-print Network

The results of recent phenomenological studies of unpolarized nuclear deep-inelastic scattering are discussed and applied to calculate neutrino charged-current structure functions and cross sections for a number of nuclei.

S. A. Kulagin; R. Petti

2006-02-10

329

Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.  

PubMed

The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative. PMID:12728513

Doerr-Zegers, Otto

2003-01-01

330

Schizophrenia: from phenomenology to neurobiology.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating illness, characterized by chronic psychotic symptoms and psychosocial impairment that exact considerable human and economic costs. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, treatment, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Although studied extensively from a clinical, psychological, biological and genetic perspective, our expanding knowledge of schizophrenia provides only an incomplete understanding of this complex disorder. Recent advances in neuroscience have allowed the confirmation or refutation of earlier findings in schizophrenia, and permit useful comparisons between the different levels of organization from which the illness has been studied. Schizophrenia is defined as a clinical syndrome that may include a collection of diseases that share a common presentation. Genetic factors are the most important in the etiology of the disease, with unknown environmental factors potentially modulating the expression of symptoms. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder in which many genes may be implicated, with the possibility of gene-gene interactions and a diversity of genetic causes in different families or populations. A neurodevelopmental rather than degenerative process has received more empirical support as a general explanation of the pathophysiology, although simple dichotomies are not particularly helpful in such a complicated disease. Structural brain changes are present in vivo and post-mortem, with both histopathological and imaging studies in overall agreement that the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the most affected. Functional imaging, neuropsychological testing and clinical observation are also generally consistent in demonstrating deficits in cognitive ability that correlate with abnormalities in the areas of the brain with structural abnormalities. The dopamine and other neurotransmitter systems are certainly involved in the treatment or modulation of psychotic symptoms. These broad findings represent the distillation of a large body of disparate data, but firm and specific findings are sparse, and much about schizophrenia remains unknown. PMID:12788337

Wong, Albert Hung Choy; Van Tol, Hubert H M

2003-05-01

331

Phenomenology from relativistic Levy-Schroedinger equations: Application to neutrinos  

E-print Network

In continuation of a previous paper a close connection between Feynman propagators and a particular L\\'evy stochastic process is established. The approach can be easily applied to the Standard Model SU_C(3)xSU_L(2)xU(1) providing qualitative interesting results. Quantitative results, compatible with experimental data, are obtained in the case of neutrinos.

Nicola Cufaro Petroni; Modesto Pusterla

2012-09-27

332

Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

2006-01-01

333

A Framework for Supporting the Application of Qualitative Spatiotemporal Reasoning  

E-print Network

temperature, and (c) if I place the coffee pot on the stove, the water will heat up and eventually boil temperature should I set the stove to, so that the water will boil?". More specialised qualitative approaches of qualitative values that describe the interesting or relevant possible water temperatures: room temperature

Amor, Robert

334

Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

Green, Jill

2015-01-01

335

The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

Maxwell, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

336

Enhancing pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's health in the infertility clinic and beyond: a phenomenological investigation of caring behaviour  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women's perceptions of the essence of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers who they encountered in the clinic environment. Background Despite the ever increasing use of donor oocytes to treat infertility worldwide, little is known about the caring behaviour of nurses and other health-care providers that support and enhance the health of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Design Qualitative, descriptive interviews. Method A Husserlian phenomenological approach. Results Eight women participated in a larger phenomenological study that examined the lived experience of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. Five components of caring behaviour among nurses and other healthcare providers emerged from the in-depth interviews with the women and were: being available, providing communication, exhibiting compassion, demonstrating competency and promoting empowerment. Being available was described when the participants had ongoing access to or were humanly present with nurses. The ability of nurses to provide communication and education about complex information was perceived as supportive. Nurses exhibited compassion through words and behaviours that expressed empathy and a deep understanding of the women's experience. Competency was demonstrated when a healthy pregnancy was achieved and maintained and through behaviours where a high level of technical and ethical knowledge and skill was observed. Empowerment occurred when nurses encouraged the women to engage in aspects of decision making and when a sense of control over infertility treatment and obstetrical care was promoted. Conclusions For donor oocyte recipient women, caring behaviour in the clinic environment consists of five essential components. The findings support a link between empowerment and the concept of caring. Relevance to clinical practice The dense empirical description of the women's perceptions of caring behaviour are directly applicable to clinical practice, delineating areas for improvement and providing specific data driven interventions including the development of a ‘hope box’. PMID:19034991

Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

2010-01-01

337

Analyzing qualitative data with computer software.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide health services researchers with an overview of the qualitative data analysis process and the role of software within it; to provide a principled approach to choosing among software packages to support qualitative data analysis; to alert researchers to the potential benefits and limitations of such software; and to provide an overview of the developments to be expected in the field in the near future. DATA SOURCES, STUDY DESIGN, METHODS: This article does not include reports of empirical research. CONCLUSIONS: Software for qualitative data analysis can benefit the researcher in terms of speed, consistency, rigor, and access to analytic methods not available by hand. Software, however, is not a replacement for methodological training. PMID:10591282

Weitzman, E A

1999-01-01

338

Understanding and Evaluating Qualitative Research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research aims to address questions concerned with developing an understanding of the meaning and experience dimensions of humans’ lives and social worlds. Central to good qualitative research is whether the research participants’ subjective meanings, actions and social contexts, as understood by them, are illuminated. This paper aims to provide beginning researchers, and those unfamiliar with qualitative research, with an

Ellie Fossey; Carol Harvey; Fiona Mcdermott; Larry Davidson

2002-01-01

339

The phenomenology of intense electromagnetic wave interactions with systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in laboratory high power microwave (HPM) source capabilities have raised concerns regarding the survivability of US systems if HPM weapon systems using such sources are deployed in the battlefield. In this paper an overview of recent US achievements in HPM sources is given. Upper bounds to future HPM threats on targets from first principles are derived. Again using a simplified first principles approach, the phenomenology of HPM interaction with targets is examined and scaling laws for the target response with frequency, pulse width, and fluence are derived.

Cabayan, H.S.

1986-03-12

340

What lies within: phenomenology and intuitive self-knowledge.  

PubMed

This article discusses the significance of intuitiveness as a component of phenomenological knowing and demonstrates how this way of knowing may exist independently of or coexist collaboratively with rationality and evidence-based practice. By using a holistic approach to knowing, nurses use clinical reasoning skills to prevent adverse patient outcomes from failure to diagnose problems, to establish appropriate treatments, and/or to deal with complications. As the complexity of health care escalates, health care providers must strive to think holistically to advance knowledge and contribute to their discipline. The discipline of nursing requires holistic thought and innovative interventions. PMID:24730189

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

2014-01-01

341

A phenomenological ?-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order ?2log? using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic ?N scattering length ah?-p=0.0870(5)m?-1 is deduced leading to a ?NN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4?)=14.04(17).

Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

2004-07-01

342

Phenomenology of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes  

SciTech Connect

Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3 {le} {omega}/{omega}{sub ci} {le} 1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y-K.M. Peng, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7 < n < 9. The polarization of the modes, measured using an array of four Mirnov coils, is found to be compressional. The frequency scaling of the modes agrees with the predictions of a numerical 2-D code, but the detailed structure of the spectrum is not captured with the simple model. The fast ion distribution function, as calculated with the beam deposition code in TRANSP [R.V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)], is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.

E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov; J. Menard

2004-05-13

343

A Method of Spatial Reasoning Based on Qualitative Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Due to the lack of exact quantitative information or the difficulty associated with obtaining or processing such information, qualitative spatial knowledge representation and reasoning often become an essential means for solving spatial constraint problems as found in science and engineering. This paper presents a computational approach to representing and reasoning about spatial constraints in two-dimensional Euclidean space, where the a priori spatial information is not precisely expressed in quantitative terms. The spatial quantities considered in this work are qualitative distances and qualitative orientation angles. Here, we explicitly define the semantics of these quantities and thereafter formulate a representation of qualitative trigonometry (QTRIG). The resulting QTRIG formalism provides the necessary inference rules for qualitative spatial reasoning. In the paper, we illustrate how the QTRIG relationships can be employed in generating qualitative spatial descriptions in two...

Jiming Liu

1997-01-01

344

Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

Raffington Ameir, Caroline

2012-01-01

345

Experiences of New Information Technology Managers: A Qualitative Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of IT Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitioning from a technical role to a managerial role has many challenges, particularly in information technology (IT) (Lester & Parnell, 2006). These challenges include people or soft skills, language skills, knowledge, intuition, mentoring, and delegation (Brokett, 2007; Feyerherm & Rice, 2002; Lester & Parnell, 2006). The IT…

Snyder, Walter Wesley, V.

2012-01-01

346

Collecting Their Thoughts: Qualitative Evaluation of Campus Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of campus activities is essential if the programs are to be justified, credited, or improved. Formal qualitative evaluations can provide a wealth of information beyond what could be obtained from traditional quantitive approaches. (Author/MLW)

Paradise, Louis V.; Papa-Lewis, Rosemary

1986-01-01

347

Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

Herring, J. R.

1973-01-01

348

A comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the public, and political pressures all affect the manner in which risk assessments are carried out. This paper surveys some risk matrix techniques, examining the uses and applicability for each. Limitations and problems for each technique are presented and compared to the others. Risk matrix approaches vary from purely qualitative axis descriptions of accident frequency vs consequences, to fully quantitative axis definitions using multi-attribute utility theory to equate different types of risk from the same operation.

Altenbach, T.J.

1995-02-13

349

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

350

MOND and the Universal Rotation Curve: Similar Phenomenologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) and the universal rotation curve (URC) are two ways to describe the general properties of rotation curves that have very different approaches concerning dark matter and gravity. Phenomenological similarities between the two approaches are studied by looking for properties predicted in one framework that are also reproducible in the other one. First, we looked for the analog of the URC within the MOND framework. Modifying in an observationally based way the baryonic contribution, Vbar, to the rotation curve predicted by the URC, and then applying the MOND formulas to this Vbar, leads to a ``MOND URC'' whose properties are remarkably similar to the URC. Second, we show that the URC predicts a tight mass discrepancy-acceleration relation, which is a natural outcome of MOND. With the choice of Vbar that minimizes the differences between the URC and the ``MOND URC,'' the relation is almost identical to the observational one. This similarity between the observational properties of MOND and the URC has no implications about the validity of MOND as a theory of gravity, but it shows that MOND can reproduce in detail the phenomenology of disk galaxies' rotation curves, as described by the URC. MOND and the URC, even though they are based on totally different assumptions, are found to have very similar behaviors and to be able to reproduce each other's properties fairly well, even with the simple assumptions made regarding the luminosity dependence of the baryonic contribution to the rotation curve.

Gentile, Gianfranco

2008-09-01

351

Phenomenologic analysis of healthcare worker perceptions of intensive care unit diaries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies have reported associations between diaries kept for intensive care unit (ICU) patients and long-term quality-of-life and psychological outcomes in patients and their relatives. Little was known about perceptions of healthcare workers reading and writing in the diaries. We investigated healthcare worker perceptions the better to understand their opinions and responses to reading and writing in the diaries. Methods We used a phenomenologic approach to conduct a qualitative study of 36 semistructured interviews in a medical-surgical ICU in a 460-bed tertiary hospital. Results Two domains of perception were assessed: reading and writing in the diaries. These two domains led to four main themes in the ICU workers' perceptions: suffering of the families; using the diary as a source of information for families but also as generating difficulties in writing bad news; determining the optimal interpersonal distance with the patient and relatives; and using the diary as a tool for constructing a narrative of the patient's ICU stay. Conclusions The ICU workers thought that the diary was beneficial in communicating the suffering of families while providing comfort and helping to build the patient's ICU narrative. They reported strong emotions related to the diaries and a perception of intruding into the patients' and families' privacy when reading the diaries. Fear of strong emotional investment may adversely affect the ability of ICU workers to perform their duties optimally. ICU workers are in favor of ICU diaries, but activation by the diaries of emotions among younger ICU workers may require specific support. PMID:23336394

2013-01-01

352

TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Background The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and auditing of standards for IPC provision and practice, adequate TB training for both staff and patients, and the establishment of a cross-cultural communication strategy, including rapid access to interpreters. PMID:21518434

2011-01-01

353

Nursing students' perceptions toward the nursing profession from clinical practicum in a baccalaureate nursing program-a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore senior nursing students' perceptions toward the nursing profession and their experiences in clinical practicum in Taiwan. This study used semistructured interview guides and unstructured face-to-face dialogue with the participants based on a qualitative method. A purposive sample with a snowball method from a baccalaureate nursing program in Southern Taiwan was used to recruit participants. A total of 30 senior nursing students participated in this study. Data were collected from February to May 2011. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and data were analyzed based on the phenomenological approach of qualitative methodology. Data were categorized into three major themes: in-depth recognition of nursing, recognition of the meaning and value of life, and decision conflicts for being a nurse. The findings of the study not only help nursing educators further understand the educational effects of clinical practicum, but also provide information for managers of medical organizations to recruit and train newly graduated nurses. PMID:23465420

Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Weng, Wei-Che

2013-03-01

354

Ayahuasca in Adolescence: Qualitative Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research was conducted in Brazil among 28 ayahuasca-consuming adolescents members of the Uni?o do Vegetal Church, and 28 adolescents who never used ayahuasca. They were compared on a number of qualitative variables, including vignettes measuring moral and ethical concerns. Psychocultural studies utilizing co-occurences of variables in the realm of qualitative studies are useful in understanding and complementing quantitative studies

Marlene Dobkin de Rios; Charles S. Grob; Enrique Lopez; Dartiu Xavier da Silviera; Luisa K. Alonso; Evelyn Doering-Silveira

2005-01-01

355

Transition from Higher Education to National Health Service for Visually Impaired Physiotherapists: An Interpretative Phenomenological Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This idiographic study aims to hear the voices of a small group of visually impaired physiotherapists to explore their lived experience of transition from higher education (HE) into employment. The findings are based on six semi-structured interviews analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Participants were visually impaired…

Atkinson, Karen; Hutchinson, Jane Owen

2013-01-01

356

Investigating Cognitive Processes within a Practical Art Context: A Phenomenological Case Study Focusing on Three Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phenomenological approach was employed in order to record and present the lived experiences of three students during a five-hour art-making activity. Theoretical definitions of cognitive processes pertinent to art and design were compared with the descriptions gathered from the students. The research was intended to portray as accurately as…

Hickman, Richard; Kiss, Lauren

2013-01-01

357

Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model  

SciTech Connect

We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

2009-04-30

358

Professor Ninian Smart, Phenomenology and Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I reply to L. Philip Barnes' assessment of the contributions of Ninian Smart and phenomenology to religious education. My argument is that Barnes first misconceives and then underestimates Smart's legacy. I sketch Smart's relevance to some current issues in religious education, suggesting that his thought helps us to avoid potentially damaging…

O'Grady, Kevin

2005-01-01

359

Pion to upsilon from ?-deformed Poincaré phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the extreme rarity of meaningful results for four dimensional physics produced from the mathematically very well developed theory of quantum groups, we present a phenomenological fit to the rotational and radial excitations of mesons with very few parameters. From pion to upsilon, the heavy and light mesons are fitted with the same degree of precision.

Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Leal Ferreira, Paulo; Tomio, Lauro

1996-02-01

360

Phenomenology of the little flavon model  

E-print Network

The phenomenology of the little-flavon model is discussed. Flavor changing neutral current and lepto-quark compositeness set the most stringent bounds to the lowest possible value for the scale at which the flavons arise as pseudo-Goldstone bosons.

Federica Bazzocchi

2004-01-14

361

Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

Randles, Clint

2012-01-01

362

Aspects of M Theory and Phenomenology  

E-print Network

A brief review is presented of selected topics, including a world-sheet formulation of M theory, couplings and scales in M phenomenology, the perils of baryon decay and the possible elevation of free-fermion models to true M- or F-theory compactifications.

John Ellis

1998-04-28

363

Phenomenological studies in the matrix models  

E-print Network

Matrix models are a promising candidate for a nonperturbative formulation of the superstring theory. It is possible to study how the standard model and other phenomenological models appear from the matrix model, and estimate the probability distribution of their appearance. This article mainly addresses studies in toroidal compactifications with magnetic fluxes.

Hajime Aoki

2014-05-01

364

An Historical Phenomenology of Mean and Median  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Freudenthal's method of historical phenomenology, the history of statistics was investigated as a source of inspiration for instructional design. Based on systematically selected historical examples, hypotheses were formulated about how students could be supported in learning to reason with particular statistical concepts and graphs. Such a…

Bakker, Arthur; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.

2006-01-01

365

Surveying the Phenomenology of General Gauge Mediation  

E-print Network

I explore the phenomenology, constraints and tuning for several weakly coupled implementations of multi-parameter gauge mediation and compare to minimal gauge mediation. The low energy spectra are distinct from that of minimal gauge mediation, a wide range of NLSPs is found and spectra are significantly compressed thus tunings may be generically reduced to a part in 10 to a part in 20.

Linda M. Carpenter

2008-12-11

366

The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

Pacherie, Elisabeth

2008-01-01

367

Phenomenology of the Littlest Higgs model  

E-print Network

The little Higgs idea is a new way to solve the little hierarchy problem by protecting the Higgs mass from quadratically divergent one-loop corrections. In this talk I describe the phenomenology of one particular realization of the little Higgs idea: the "Littlest Higgs" model.

Heather E. Logan

2003-07-28

368

Between Technological Flesh and the Technological Field: A phenomenology of the domestic interior.  

E-print Network

??Swift and radical technological change necessitates a re-appraisal of the phenomenology of the house. Canonical phenomenology often has been technologically averse and the phenomenological appraisal… (more)

Patterson, Duncan

2010-01-01

369

Phenomenological implications of string-motivated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TeV scale softly broken supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the best-motivated candidates for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The phenomenology of supersymmetric theories depends in detail on how supersymmetry is broken, since exact supersymmetry is known not to exist in nature. It is thus of crucial importance to build theoretical models of supersymmetry breaking and examine their implications for collider tests of SUSY theories. In this dissertation, we study a recently proposed supersymmetry breaking model known as deflected mirage mediation and compare it to two other benchmark scenarios: mirage mediation and minimal supergravity. In the first half of this dissertation, we compare the collider phenomenology of these two scenarios. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alter the low energy spectrum from that of pure mirage mediation models, resulting in some cases in a squeezed gaugino spectrum and a gluino that is much lighter than other colored superpartners. We provide several benchmark deflected mirage mediation models and construct model lines as a function of the gauge mediation contributions, and discuss their discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the second half, we switch to another method known as a "landscape" study, where we study the pattern of supersymmetric particle mass hierarchies for the lightest four new states in the MSSM for two models of the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters: (I) minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), and (II) deflected mirage mediation. In deflected mirage mediation, there is a wide variety of phenomenologically preferred models with light charginos, including novel patterns in which the heavy Higgs particles are lighter than the lightest superpartner. The approaches used in both of these studies set the stage for generalized studies of TeV-scale supersymmetry at the LHC.

Rao, Yongyan

2011-12-01

370

The Consequences of Spasmodic Dysphonia on Communication-Related Quality of Life: A Qualitative Study of the Insider's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model…

Baylor, C.R.; Yorkston, K.M.; Eadie, T.L.

2005-01-01

371

Collaborative Data-Driven Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Primary Grade Classroom Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the lived experiences of primary classroom teachers participating in collaborative data-driven decision making. Hermeneutic phenomenology served as the theoretical framework. Data were collected by conducting interviews with thirteen classroom teachers who taught in grades kindergarten through…

Ralston, Christine R.

2012-01-01

372

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics  

E-print Network

Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

James D. Wells

2000-12-14

373

Phenomenology of FourthPhenomenology of Fourth Generation NeutrinosGeneration Neutrinos  

E-print Network

Phenomenology of FourthPhenomenology of Fourth Generation NeutrinosGeneration Neutrinos LindaVGeV mdmd>268>268 GeVGeV LEP neutrinos 101, 102, 90LEP neutrinos 101, 102, 90 GeVGeV in e mu tau channel for Dirac neutrinosin e mu tau channel for Dirac neutrinos 90.7, 89.5, 80.590.7, 89.5, 80.5 GeVGeV forfor

California at Santa Cruz, University of

374

RESEARCH Open Access The gray zone of the qualitative assessment of  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access The gray zone of the qualitative assessment of respiratory changes in inferior, the routinely used qualitative (visual) approach had not been assessed before the present study. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative assessments of the dIVC were compared in a prospective, observational study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

Tierney, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

376

Supersymmetric Phenomenology in the mSUGRA Parameter Space  

E-print Network

In this master thesis the possible supersymmetric phenomenologies associated with low-mass mSUGRA are investigated. The main characteristics of the supersymmetric mass spectrum are explained and a systematic method is presented to predict phenomenology directly from the mass spectrum. The resulting phenomenologies are compared to the current ATLAS benchmark points. It is found that some phenomenological scenarios are not covered by these benchmark points.

Irene Niessen

2008-09-10

377

Feminist Phenomenology and the Woman in the Running Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern phenomenology, with its roots in Husserlian philosophy, has been taken up and utilised in a myriad of ways within different disciplines, but until recently has remained relatively underused within sports studies. A corpus of sociological-phenomenological work is now beginning to develop in this domain, alongside a longer-standing literature in feminist phenomenology. These specific social-phenomenological forms explore the situatedness of

Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson

2011-01-01

378

The experience of watching dance: phenomenological–neuroscience duets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses possible correspondences between neuroscientific findings and phenomenologically informed methodologies\\u000a in the investigation of kinesthetic empathy in watching dance. Interest in phenomenology has recently increased in cognitive\\u000a science (Gallagher and Zahavi 2008) and dance scholars have recently contributed important new insights into the use of phenomenology in dance studies (e.g.\\u000a Legrand and Ravn (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

Corinne Jola; Shantel Ehrenberg; Dee Reynolds

379

Qualitative Science in Experimental Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the "state of qualitative inquiry" in the sense of how that inquiry is being positioned in the current construction of a US national policy agenda for "scientifically based" education research. In the author's view, qualitative inquiry is being drowned out in the national agenda despite its ability to provide the kinds of…

Eisenhart, Margaret

2006-01-01

380

Using Numbers in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

Maxwell, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

381

Effect Sizes in Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Psychological Association Task Force recommended that researchers always report and interpret effect sizes for quantitative data. However, no such recommendation was made for qualitative data. The first objective of this paper is to provide a rationale for reporting and interpreting effect sizes in qualitative research. Arguments are…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

382

APPEALING SAP TERMINATION QUALITATIVE MEASURE  

E-print Network

APPEALING SAP TERMINATION QUALITATIVE MEASURE How to Provide Proof of Additional Units Earned for August 24, 2012. How to Appeal for Failure to Meet the Qualitative SAP Measure: If you had extenuating circumstances leading to your failure to earn at least 75% of your attempted units, you may file an appeal

de Lijser, Peter

383

On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology  

E-print Network

On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology L. Clavelli Department of Physics noticeable tension between string theory and phenomenology in particle physics. It is interesting to muse theory and phenomenology is more easily understandable than that of the early days. Today it is primarily

Clavelli, Louis J.

384

Exploring possible causes of fatal burns in 2007 using Haddon’s Matrix: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Burns are a major factor in injury mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the possible causes of fatal burns using Haddon’s Matrix. Methods: This is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. We collected elicitation interview data using nine corroborators who were the most knowledgeable about the index burn event. Immediately after recording, the data was verbatim. Each event was analyzed using Haddon’s Matrix. Results: Interviewees provided detailed information about 11 burn cases. Overall, 202 burn-related factors were extracted. Using Haddon’s Matrix, 43 risk factors were identified. The most common included the lack of basic knowledge of burn care, the use of unsafe appliances including kerosene heaters and stoves in hazardous environments such kitchens and bathrooms, poor burn care delivery system in hospitals, poor and unsafe living conditions, financial issues, and other factors detailed in the article. Conclusions: Our findings suggest burn related prevention efforts should focus on improving human living conditions, promoting the use of safe heating appliances, providing public burn-safety precautions education, and improving the quality of care in burn centers and hospitals. The use of Haddon’s Matrix in future injury research is discussed. PMID:24879079

Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Arshi, Shahnam; Mohammad Hosseini, Mirkazem; Samadirad, Bahram; Nadir Mohammadi, Mehryar; Daemi, Amin; Mohammadi, Reza

2015-01-01

385

Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1) sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2) Impacts of RA, and 3) Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA. PMID:20950461

2010-01-01

386

Proceedings, phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomenology and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1991, was sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Materials Science, the Advanced Studies Program on High Temperature Superconductivity Theory (ASP), and the Exploratory Research and Development Center. This is the second symposium in the series. High Temperature Superconductivity, The Los Alamos Symposium: 1989, also published by Addison Wesley, focused on the cutting-edge theoretical and experimental issues in high temperature superconductors. This symposium, with its focus on the phenomenology and applications of high temperature superconductors, gives a complementary review of the aspects of the field closely related to the impact of high temperature superconductors on technology. The objective of ASP is to advance the field on a broad front with no specific point of view by bringing a team of leading academic theorists into a joint effort with the theoretical and experimental scientists of a major DOE national laboratory. The ASP consisted of fellows led by Robert Schrieffer (UCSB and now FSU) joined by David Pines (University of Illinois), Elihu Abrahams (Rutgers), Sebastian Doniach (Stanford), and Maurice Rice (ETH, Zurich) and theoretical and experimental staff of Los Alamos National Laboratory. This synergism of academic, laboratory, theoretical, and experimental research produced a level of interaction and excitement that would not be possible otherwise. This publication and the previous one in the series are just examples of how this approach to advancing science can achieve significant contributions.

Bedell, K. S.

387

Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Approach . Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Setting . Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Participants . Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Method . Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. Results . The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. Conclusion . These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination. PMID:25162326

Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

2014-08-27

388

Depression and embodiment: phenomenological reflections on motility, affectivity, and transcendence.  

PubMed

This paper integrates personal narratives with the methods of phenomenology in order to draw some general conclusions about 'what it means' and 'what it feels like' to be depressed. The analysis has three parts. First, it explores the ways in which depression disrupts everyday experiences of spatial orientation and motility. This disruption makes it difficult for the person to move and perform basic functional tasks, resulting in a collapse or contraction of the life-world. Second, it illustrates how depression creates a situational atmosphere of emotional indifference that reduces the person's ability to qualitatively distinguish what matters in his or her life because nothing stands out as significant or important anymore. In this regard, depression is distinct from other feelings because it is not directed towards particular objects or situations but to the world as a whole. Finally, the paper examines how depression diminishes the possibility for 'self-creation' or 'self-making'. Restricted by the illness, depression becomes something of a destiny, preventing the person from being open and free to access a range of alternative self-interpretations, identities, and possible ways of being-in-the-world. PMID:23378190

Aho, Kevin A

2013-11-01

389

Undergraduate female science-related career choices: A phenomenological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative phenomenological study used a modified Groenewald's five steps method with semi-structured, recorded, and transcribed interviews to focus on the underrepresentation of females in science-related careers. The study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 25 senior female college students attending a college in Macon, Georgia. Ten major themes emerged from the research study that included (a) journey to a science-related career; (b) realization of career interest; (c) family support (d) society's role; (e) professors' treatment of students; (f) lack of mentors and models; (g) gender and career success; (h) females and other disadvantages in science-related careers; (i) rewards of the journey; and (j) advice for the journey. The three minor themes identified were (a) decision-making; (b) career awareness; and (c) guidance. The key findings revealed that females pursuing a science degree or subsequent science-related career, shared their experience with other females interested in science as a career choice, dealt with barriers standing in the way of their personal goals, lack role models, and received little or no support from family and friends. The study findings may offer information to female college students interested in pursuing science-related careers and further foundational research on gender disparities in career choice.

Curry, Kathy S.

390

Qualitative research: adding drive and dimension to clinical research.  

PubMed

Qualitative research and its methods stem from the social sciences and can be used to describe and interpret complex phenomena that involve individuals' views, beliefs, preferences, and subjective responses to places and people. Thus, qualitative research explores the many subjective factors that may influence patient outcomes, staff well-being, and healthcare quality, yet fail to lend themselves to the hypothesis-testing approach that characterizes quantitative research. Qualitative research is valuable in the intensive care unit to explore organizational and cultural issues and to gain insight into social interactions, healthcare delivery processes, and communication. Qualitative research generates explanatory models and theories, which can then serve to devise interventions, whose efficacy can be studied quantitatively. Thus, qualitative research works synergistically with quantitative research, providing new impetus to the research process and a new dimension to research findings. Qualitative research starts with conceptualizing the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, and designing the study; rigorous methods specifically designed for qualitative research are then used to conduct the study, analyze the data, and verify the findings. The researcher is the data-collecting instrument, and the data are the participants' words and behaviors. Data coding methods are used to describe experiences, discover themes, and build theories. In this review, we outline the rationale and methods for conducting qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of available qualitative methods and explain how they can work in close synergy with quantitative methods. To illustrate the effectiveness of combining different research methods, we will refer to recent qualitative studies conducted in the intensive care unit. PMID:19104214

Rusinová, Kater?na; Pochard, Frédéric; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Azoulay, Elie

2009-01-01

391

Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use. PMID:24769596

Cope, Diane G

2014-05-01

392

Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students’ study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies\\u000a used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study\\u000a at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from\\u000a November 2007 to December 2008. We

Hanan M. F. Al Kadri; Mohamed S. Al-Moamary; Margaret Elzubair; Mohi Eldien Magzoub; Abdulrahman AlMutairi; Christopher Roberts; Cees van der Vleuten

2011-01-01

393

Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

Kazansky, Alexander B.

2004-08-01

394

Spin Hall phenomenology of magnetic dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the role of spin-orbit interactions in the coupled magnetoelectric dynamics of a ferromagnetic film coated with an electrical conductor. While the main thrust of this work is phenomenological, several popular simple models are considered microscopically in some detail, including Rashba and Dirac two-dimensional electron gases coupled to a magnetic insulator, as well as a diffusive spin Hall system. We focus on the long-wavelength magnetic dynamics that experiences current-induced torques and produces fictitious electromotive forces. Our phenomenology provides a suitable framework for analyzing experiments on current-induced magnetic dynamics and reciprocal charge pumping, including the effects of magnetoresistance and Gilbert-damping anisotropies, without a need to resort to any microscopic considerations or modeling. Finally, some remarks are made regarding the interplay of spin-orbit interactions and magnetic textures.

Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bender, Scott A.

2014-07-01

395

A perspective on Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

I give a brief overview of some Quantum-Gravity-Phenomenology research lines, focusing on studies of cosmic rays and gamma-ray bursts that concern the fate of Lorentz symmetry in quantum spacetime. I also stress that the most valuable phenomenological analyses should not mix too many conjectured new features of quantum spacetime, and from this perspective it appears that it should be difficult to obtain reliable guidance on the quantum-gravity problem from the analysis of synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula and from the analysis of phase coherence of light from extragalactic sources. Forthcoming observatories of ultra-high-energy neutrinos should provide several opportunities for clean tests of some simple hypothesis for the short-distance structure of spacetime. In particular, these neutrino studies, and some related cosmic-ray studies, should provide access to the regime $E>\\sqrt{m E_p}$.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2004-02-02

396

Di-Higgs phenomenology: The forgotten channel  

E-print Network

Searches for multi-Higgs final states allow to constrain parameters of the SM (or extensions thereof) that directly relate to the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. Multi-Higgs production cross sections, however, are small and the phenomenologically accessible final states are challenging to isolate in the busy multi-jet hadron collider environment of the LHC run 2. This makes the necessity to extend the list of potentially observable production mechanisms obvious. Most of the phenomenological analyses in the past have focused on $gg\\to hh+jets$; in this paper we study $pp\\to t\\bar t hh$ at LHC run 2 and find that this channel for $h\\to b\\bar b$ and semi-leptonic and hadronic top decays has the potential to provide an additional handle to constrain the Higgs trilinear coupling in a global fit at the end of run 2.

Christoph Englert; Frank Krauss; Michael Spannowsky; Jennifer Thompson

2014-09-29

397

Phenomenology of microwave coupling, part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity like objects, or the so called back door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry. Coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. The initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz) are summarized.

King, R. J.; Breakall, J. K.; Hudson, H. G.; Morrison, J. J.; McGevna, V. G.; Kunz, K. S.; Ludwigsen, A. P.; Gnade, D. K.

1984-11-01

398

Quantum Foam and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

Spacetime undergoes quantum fluctuations, giving rise to spacetime foam, a.k.a. quantum foam. We discuss some properties of spacetime foam, and point out the conceptual interconnections in the physics of quantum foam, black holes, and quantum computation. We also discuss the phenomenology of quantum foam, and conclude that it may be difficult, but by no means impossible, to detect its tiny effects in the not-too-distant future.

Y. Jack Ng

2004-05-14

399

High- Tc superconductivity: phenomenology and microscopics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Luttinger-Wart sum rule is used as the start-point of a consistent semi-phenomenological description of the one-electron spectrum in solids. For normal metals it is essentially the Fermi-liquid theory but the effects of the Coulomb correlations are explicitly included. It is shown that the BCS theory can be formulated for strongly correlated metals, although the accuracy of this description decreases along with enhancement of Tc.

Eliashberg, G. M.

1993-11-01

400

A phenomenological model of protein folding  

E-print Network

We construct a phenomenological effective field theory model that describes the universality class of biologically active single-strand proteins. The model allows both for an explicit construction of native state protein conformations, and a dynamical description of protein folding and unfolding processes. The model reveals a connection between homochirality and protein collapse, and enables the theoretical investigation of various other aspects of protein folding even in the case of very long polypeptide chains where other methods are not available.

Danielsson, Ulf H; Niemi, Antti J

2009-01-01

401

TASI Lectures on M Theory Phenomenology  

E-print Network

These lectures discuss some of the general issues in developing a phenomenology for Superstring Theory/M Theory. The focus is on the question: how might one obtain robust, generic predictions. For example, does the theory predict low energy supersymmetry breaking? In the course of these explorations, basics of supersymmetry and supersymmetry breaking, string moduli, cosmological issues, and other questions are addressed. The notion of approximate moduli and their possible role plays a central role in the discussion.

Michael Dine

2000-03-20

402

Phenomenology of SUSY with intermediate scale physics  

E-print Network

The presence of fields at an intermediate scale between the Electroweak and the Grand Unification scale modifies the evolution of the gauge couplings and consequently the running of other parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, such as gauginos and scalar masses. The net effect is a modification of the low energy spectrum which affects both the collider phenomenology and the dark matter relic density.

C. Biggio

2012-06-01

403

Phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers  

E-print Network

The properties of cosmic rays with energies above 1PeV have to be deduced from the spacetime structure and particle content of the air showers which they initiate. In this review, a summary of the phenomenology of these giant air showers is presented. We describe the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from collider data to ultra high energies, an also the main electromagnetic processes that govern the longitudinal shower evolution as well as the lateral spread of particles.

M. T. Dova

2005-05-30

404

Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

2001-01-01

405

Skin Picking Phenomenology and Severity Comparison  

PubMed Central

Objective: Despite the substantial distress and impairment often associated with skin picking, there currently is only limited research examining various phenomenological aspects of this behavior. The present research contributes to the existing literature by investigating phenomenological variables related to skin picking, such as family involvement, anxiety, depression, and the emotional consequences of skin picking. Moreover, on the basis of symptom severity level, differences were explored between individuals with skin picking who were from a psychiatric population. Method: Forty individuals with various clinician-ascertained DSM-IV diagnoses in addition to skin picking symptomatology participated in the present study, which was conducted from September 2002 through January 2003. Participants were administered a self-report questionnaire (which assessed demographic, symptom, and past diagnostic information) as well as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-Injury Interview. Results: Phenomenological data on various aspects of individuals with skin picking are presented. Individuals with mild skin picking and individuals with severe skin picking were compared and found to differ in the level of distress they experienced (t = ?2.35, p = .05) and the amount of damage caused by their picking behavior (t = ?3.06, p = .01). Conclusion: Overall, skin picking represents a behavior with its own unique characteristics and accompanying levels of distress and impairment that warrants specific attention by clinicians. PMID:18787665

Neziroglu, Fugen; Rabinowitz, Dena; Breytman, Anna; Jacofsky, Matthew

2008-01-01

406

Intentions in wishes to die: analysis and a typology – A report of 30 qualitative case studies of terminally ill cancer patients in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the variations in and intentions of wishes to die (WTD) of palliative care cancer patients. Methods Thirty terminally ill cancer patients, their caregivers and relatives in a hospice, an oncology palliative care ward of a general hospital, and an outpatient palliative care service. 116 semistructured qualitative interviews analyzed by a combined approach using Grounded Theory and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Results A WTD is dynamic and interactive. Its subjective phenomenology can be described by three aspects: intentions, motivations, and interactions. In this article, we present a typology of the possible intentions. We identified nine different (ideal) types of intentions that WTD statements might have, other than wishing to live and accepting death. Many WTD statements do not imply a desire to hasten death. The intentions of statements differ according to whether a WTD is related to as imaginary or as an action. Often WTD statements contain several partial wishes, which can be in tension with each other and form a dynamic, sometimes unstable equilibrium. Conclusions Terminally ill persons' WTD statements differ in their intention, and deeper knowledge about these differences is ethically relevant. PMID:24706488

Ohnsorge, K; Gudat, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

2014-01-01

407

Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.  

PubMed

Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry. PMID:23718744

Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

2013-07-01

408

An affirmation of the phenomenological psychological descriptive method: A response to Rennie (2012).  

PubMed

Rennie (2012) made the claim that, despite their diversity, all qualitative methods are essentially hermeneutical, and he attempted to back up that claim by demonstrating that certain core steps that he called hermeneutical are contained in all of the other methods despite their self-interpretation. In this article, I demonstrate that the method I developed based upon Husserlian phenomenology cannot be so interpreted despite Rennie's effort to do so. I claim that the undertaking of a psychological investigation at large can be considered interpretive but that when the phenomenological method based upon Husserl is employed, it is descriptive. I also object to the attempt to reduce varied theoretical perspectives to the methodical steps of one of the competing theories. Reducing theoretical perspectives to core steps distorts the full value of the theoretical perspective. The last point is demonstrated by showing how the essence of the descriptive phenomenological method is missed if one follows Rennie's core steps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773359

Giorgi, Amedeo

2014-12-01

409

Kinetic dielectric decrement revisited: phenomenology of finite ion concentrations  

E-print Network

With the help of a recently developed non-equilibrium approach, we investigate the ionic strength dependence of the Hubbard--Onsager dielectric decrement. We compute the depolarization of water molecules caused by the motion of ions in sodium chloride solutions from the dilute regime (0.035 M) up close to the saturation concentration (4.24 M), and find that the kinetic decrement displays a strong nonmonotonic behavior, in contrast to the prediction of available models. We introduce a phenomenological modification of the Hubbard--Onsager continuum theory, that takes into account the screening due to the ionic cloud at mean field level, and, is able to describe the kinetic decrement at high concentrations including the presence of a pronounced minimum.

Marcello Sega; Sofia Kantorovich; Axel Arnold

2014-04-03

410

Kinetic dielectric decrement revisited: phenomenology of finite ion concentrations.  

PubMed

With the help of a recently developed non-equilibrium approach, we investigate the ionic strength dependence of the Hubbard-Onsager dielectric decrement. We compute the depolarization of water molecules caused by the motion of ions in sodium chloride solutions from the dilute regime (0.035 M) up close to the saturation concentration (4.24 M), and find that the kinetic decrement displays a strong non-monotonic behavior, in contrast to the prediction of available models. We introduce a phenomenological modification of the Hubbard-Onsager continuum theory, which takes into account the screening due to the ionic cloud at the mean-field level and, which is able to describe the kinetic decrement at high concentrations including the presence of a pronounced minimum. PMID:25408084

Sega, Marcello; Kantorovich, Sofia; Arnold, Axel

2014-12-01

411

School of Education Qualitative Software  

E-print Network

& Transferring Classroom Video Data: From f4 to MAXQDA." Amanda Barany & Jilana Boston (Games + Learning:15-3:15 Session 2a (Teacher Education, Room 215) "Beyond Text: The Qualitative Analysis of Video, Audio, and Still

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

412

Pattern-Forming Instabilities: A Phenomenological Approach through Simple Examples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the streets of clouds to the submarine sand ripples or the striations on the coats of some animals, nature offers many examples of spontaneous patterned structures originating from various instabilities. These patterns can in turn destabilize and show a rich, complex dynamics and possibly end up in disordered behaviours. For over 20 years,…

Brunet, Philippe

2007-01-01

413

What Determines the Nature of Gravity? A Phenomenological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational field can only be explored through the motion of test objects. To achieve this one first has to set up the correct equations of motion. Initially these equations are based on Newton’s laws. Corresponding experiments that support Newton’s laws are described. Furthermore, the basic characteristics of the motion of test objects in gravitational fields are described. This leads to the notion of Einstein’s Equivalence Principle which has as consequence a metric theory of gravity. One particular metric theory is General Relativity based on Einstein’s field equations with its particular predictions for effects like periastron advance, light deflection, etc. An overview over the experimental confirmation of General Relativity, in particular those presented at this workshop, is given. This workshop summary ends with open problems. We also describe some of the strategies for the experimental search for a quantum gravity theory.

Lämmerzahl, Claus

2009-12-01

414

Calligraphic video: a phenomenological approach to dense visual interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

No matter what how the image is computationally produced, screen-based graphics are still typically presented on a two-dimensional surface like a screen, wall, or electronic paper. The limit of manipulating objects in a two-dimensional graphical display is where each pixel is an independent object. These two observations motivate the development of calligraphic video, textures that can be manipulated by the

Xin Wei Sha; Michael Fortin; Jean-sébastien Rousseau

2009-01-01

415

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

416

Qualitative, semiqualitative and interval algebras, and their  

E-print Network

are generated. This tendency towards overabstraction has prompted research into ways of making qualitative-1- Qualitative, semiqualitative and interval algebras, and their application to engineering of complex physical systems. Semiqualitative modelling is a generalisation of qualitative modelling which

Parsons, Simon

417

Comparative Analysis and Qualitative Integral Representations \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Intelligence Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin. Research of the Qualitative Reasoning GroupComparative Analysis and Qualitative Integral Representations \\Lambda Charles Chiu y Benjamin Kuipers z December, 1991 Abstract Comparative analysis is applied to a qualitative behavior

Kuipers, Benjamin

418

Advanced Qualitative Methods Spring 2012 Syllabus  

E-print Network

: Annenberg room 303 This course in advanced qualitative research is designed for students who have taken an introductory graduate course in qualitative research as data and other materials from researchers' and students' qualitative studies

Bustamante, Fabián E.

419

A Qualitative Assessment of Program Characteristics for Preventing Secondary Conditions in Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. Methods This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Results Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Conclusions Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted. PMID:25032710

Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C.; Chin, Nancy P.

2014-01-01

420

Dark matter complementarity in the phenomenological MSSM  

SciTech Connect

The lightest neutralino of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with R-parity conservation is one of the most well-studied dark matter (DM) candidates. Using a set of models in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), we examine the abilities of XENON100/1T, LUX-ZEPLIN, Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and the LHC to study neutralino dark matter. We find that direct detection, indirect detection, neutrino telescope, and collider searches for minimal supersymmetry often fulfill concomitant roles.

Ismail, Ahmed [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Road, Argonne, IL 60439 and University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2014-06-24

421

Stau LSP and comparison with H^+(-) phenomenology  

E-print Network

In supersymmetric models with explicit breaking of R-parity the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) may be the lightest stau, $\\stau_1$. Such a scenario would provide a clear sign of R-parity violating SUSY, although its phenomenology may resemble that of a charged Higgs boson, $H^\\pm$. We discuss various ways of distinguishing a LSP $\\stau_1$ from $H^\\pm$ at future colliders, and address the case of $\\stau_1$ mimicking the signal for $H^\\pm$. As an example we suggest that the recent L3 signal for $H^+H^-\\to qq'qq'$ and $H^+H^-\\to qq'\\tau\

A. G. Akeroyd; Chun Liu; Jeonghyeon Song

2001-09-15

422

Phenomenology of the Deuteron Electromagnetic Form Factors  

E-print Network

A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm^-1. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data.

TheJLAB t20 collaboration; D. Abbott

2000-02-04

423

Quantum Geometry Phenomenology: Angle and Semiclassical States  

E-print Network

The phenomenology for the deep spatial geometry of loop quantum gravity is discussed. In the context of a simple model of an atom of space, it is shown how purely combinatorial structures can affect observations. The angle operator is used to develop a model of angular corrections to local, continuum flat-space 3-geometries. The physical effects involve neither breaking of local Lorentz invariance nor Planck scale suppression, but rather reply on only the combinatorics of SU(2) recouping theory. Bhabha scattering is discussed as an example of how the effects might be observationally accessible.

Seth A. Major

2011-12-19

424

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

425

Phenomenology of MOND and gravitational polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenology of MOND (flat rotation curves of galaxies, baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, etc.) is a basic set of phenomena relevant to galaxy dynamics and dark matter distribution at galaxy scales. Still unexplained today, it enjoys a remarkable property, known as the dielectric analogy, which could have far-reaching implications. In the present paper we discuss this analogy in the framework of simple non-relativistic models. We show how a specific form of dark matter, made of two different species of particles coupled to different Newtonian gravitational potentials, could permit to interpret in the most natural way the dielectric analogy of MOND by a mechanism of gravitational polarization.

Blanchet, Luc; Bernard, Laura

2014-05-01

426

Phenomenology of a SU(2) triplet Higgs.  

E-print Network

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 03 07 04 5v 1 3 Ju l 2 00 3 PHENOMENOLOGY OF A SU(2) TRIPLET HIGGS ? AGUST?´N SABIO VERA Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HE, Cambridge, U.K. We study the Renormalization Group (RG) evolution... of the couplings in a model with a real SU(2) triplet in the Higgs sector. Insisting that the model remain valid up to 1 TeV we show that it is possible for there to be no light Higgs bosons without any otherwise dramatic deviation from the physics of the Standard...

Sabio Vera, Agustin

427

A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed. PMID:24010560

Matteo, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

428

Phenomenology of Bilinear Broken R-parity  

E-print Network

The straightforward supersymmetrization of the Standard Model (SM) results in a phenomenologically inconsistent theory in which Baryon number ($B$) and Lepton number ($L$) are violated by dimension 4 operators, inducing fast proton decay. Proton stability allows only for separate $L$ or $B$ violation and, if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles, $L$ violating terms must be present. In this thesis I will study a Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM) realization with $B$ conservation and minimal $L$ violation. In this framework $L$ is mildly violated only by super-renormalizable terms, allowing for small neutrino Majorana masses. This model is more predictive than the Baryon-Parity SSM. The induced dimension 4 $L$ violating couplings are not arbitrary, and automatically satisfy all experimental constraints. After introducing the theoretical framework for supersymmetric models without Lepton number, I will discuss the phenomenology of the (unstable) lightest neutralino and of the lightest stop. I will show that the leptonic decays of the stop can be related to the neutrino parameters, and in particular their measurement can indirectly probe the size of the solar neutrinos mixing angle.

Diego Restrepo

2001-11-15

429

Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology  

E-print Network

So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness problem" and "universality issue".

Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

2005-11-18

430

From qualitative assessment to qualitative accreditation with cognitive agents  

E-print Network

based on qualitative simulation supplies a wide variety of parameters as the base for pedagogical powerful training tools which allow to reach a very high degree of realism (perception of the simulator as a real aircraft by trainee). However, several problems may appear. One of the most critical problems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

Tavakol M. Training medical teachers in using qualitative research methods. Training Medical Teachers in Using Qualitative Research Methods  

E-print Network

Studies addressing medical education have rarely used qualitative research methods to contribute knowledge about the phenomenon under investigation. There are two possible reasons for this. First, in the past, the qualitative works were rejected due to a lack of objective evidence, considered to be “unscientific ” and “anecdotal. ” Second, medical educators have failed to communicate the methods, canons and utilization of qualitative inquiry approaches to professional colleagues or undergraduate medical students. 2,3 It seems that the latter point is most pertinent here. In Iran, there are few studies which are grounded in qualitative research methods, and doctors tend to scrutinize quantitative research designs in order to glean empirical data, which is rooted in objective reality. This may be attributed to the fact that medical schools in Iran equip doctors with the skills to analyze epidemiologic studies. Based upon such arguments, Tehran Medical Education Development Centre with

Mohsen Tavakol Phd

432

Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.

Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.

2003-01-01

433

On the foundations of qualitative decision theory  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the foundation of maximin, one of the central qualitative decision criteria, using the approach taken by Savage to investigate the foundation and rationality of classical decision theory. This approach asks {open_quotes}which behaviors could result from the use of a particular decision procedure?{close_quotes} The answer to this question provides two important insights: (1) under what conditions can we employ a particular agent model, and (2) how rational is a particular decision procedure. Our main result is a constructive representation theorem in the spirit of Savage`s result for expected utility maximization, which uses two choice axioms to characterize the maximin criterion. These axioms characterize agent behaviors that can be modeled compactly using the maximin model, and, with some reservations, indicate that maximin is a reasonable decision criterion.

Brafman, R.I. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Tennenholtz, M. [Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

1996-12-31

434

On the Phenomenological Modeling of Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Fluid Preyield Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenological constitutive models for electrorheological and magneto-rheological fluids and devices in the literature have used various approaches for the representation of the preyield regime. These include modeling the preyield regime using an elastic spring, a viscous dashpot, a Kelvin–Voigt solid, a Maxwell fluid, a three-element (Zener) solid, and a three-element fluid. This paper reviews the behavioral attributes associated with each

Farhan Gandhi; William A. Bullough

2005-01-01

435

Qualitative Evaluation for Program Improvement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Action research consists of a family of research methodologies which pursue action and research outcomes at the same time. This is a resource file which supports the regular public program "areol" (action research and evaluation on line). Using an evaluation process in the general style of action research, it illustrates some points about qualitative research and evaluation.

436

Consensual Qualitative Research: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitative research (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in terms of the consensus

Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox; Barbara J. Thompson; Elizabeth Nutt Williams; Shirley A. Hess; Nicholas Ladany

2005-01-01

437

Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

Watras, Joseph

2009-01-01

438

Purposive and qualitative active vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of the problem of computer vision as a recovery problem is questioned, and the paradigm of purposive-qualitative vision is offered as an alternative. This paradigm considers vision as a general recognition problem (recognition of objects, patterns or situations). To demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, the design of the Medusa of CVL is described. It is noted

J. Aloimonos

1990-01-01

439

Qualitative Evaluation Audits in Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field experiences with external (qualitative) evaluation audits based on the work of E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln (1981, 1985) are detailed, including evaluation contexts and purposes, procedures, and findings. Such audits represent a viable meta-evaluative tool for assessing the quality of naturalistic evaluation results. (SLD)

Greene, Jennifer C.; And Others

1988-01-01

440

Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

2012-01-01

441

Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

Stake, Robert; Munson, April

2008-01-01

442

The promises of qualitative inquiry.  

PubMed

We address the significance and implications of the formal entry of qualitative inquiry into the American Psychological Association. In our view, the discipline is enriched in new and important ways. Most prominently, the qualitative movement brings with it a pluralist orientation to knowledge and to practices of inquiry. Adding to the traditional view of knowledge as empirically supported theory are research practices congenial with varying accounts of knowledge, including, for example, knowledge as hermeneutic understanding, social construction, and practice-based experience. Added to the goal of prediction are investments in increasing cultural understanding, challenging cultural conventions, and directly fostering social change. The qualitative movement also enriches the discipline as a whole through the special ways in which it inspires new ranges of theory, fosters minority inclusion, and invites interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, the movement holds promise in terms of the discipline's contribution to society at large. Here we focus on the advantages of knowing with others in addition to about them, and on ways in which qualitative work enhances communication with the society and the world. Realizing these potentials will depend on developments in responsible research and reporting, academic and journal policies, along with the discipline's capacities for appreciating a more comprehensive orientation to inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25581004

Gergen, Kenneth J; Josselson, Ruthellen; Freeman, Mark

2015-01-01

443

The Perceptions of African American Middle School Students about Participation in Gifted Programs: A Qualitative Study to Promote Social Justice in Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American students have been historically underrepresented in gifted programs throughout the United States. Research about retaining identified African American students in gifted programs is limited. This qualitative phenomenological study examined the perceptions of a purposeful sample of seven identified talented and potentially talented…

Nisly, Jenelle Susan

2010-01-01

444

Phenomenological calculations of shielding spallation neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level of radiation generated by a spallation source requires the design of an appropriate shielding to surround the source in order to fulfill radiation protection standards. A calculation of the spallation neutron attenuation is presented for various shielding materials, using a phenomenological model, based on the Moyer model. In the first step of the calculation, the interaction length of neutrons for each neutron energy and shielding material was estimated using inelastic cross-sections. In the second step the calculation deals with the attenuation of the neutron flux applying the Moyer model, for each material and neutron energy region. The transmission factors were calculated and compared with experimental data collected from the "Gamma-2" and the "E+T" projects running in JINR (Dubna, Russia). The results of the present work were also compared to the data obtained by different Monte Carlo codes such as MORSE, MCNPX, MARS14 and LAHET.

Fragopoulou, M.; Zamani, M.

2013-06-01

445

Hitchin's Equations and M-Theory Phenomenology  

E-print Network

Phenomenological compactifications of M-theory involve 7-manifolds with G_2 holonomy and various singularities. Here we study local geometries with such singularities, by thinking of them as compactifications of 7d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a three-manifold Q_3. We give a general discussion of compactifications of 7d Yang-Mills theory in terms of Higgs bundles on Q_3. We show they can be constructed using spectral covers, which are Lagrangian branes with a flat connection in the cotangent bundle T^*Q_3. We explain the dictionary with ALE fibrations over Q_3 and conjecture that these configurations have G_2 holonomy. We further develop tools to study the low energy effective theory of such a model. We show that the naive massless spectrum is corrected by instanton effects. Taking the instanton effects into account, we find that the massless spectrum and many of the interactions can be computed with Morse theoretic methods.

Tony Pantev; Martijn Wijnholt

2009-05-13

446

Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

1984-01-01

447

Phenomenology of Strongly Coupled Heterotic String Theory  

E-print Network

This is the text of a talk given at the Inaugural Conference of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul, Korea, June 9, 1996. If nature is described by string theory, and if the compactification radius is large (as suggested by the unification of couplings), then the theory is in a regime best described by the low energy limit of $M$-theory. We discuss some phenomenological aspects of this view. The scale at which conventional quantum field theory breaks down is of order the unification scale and consequently (approximate) discrete symmetries are essential to prevent proton decay. There are one or more light axions, one of which solves the strong CP problem. Modular cosmology is still problematic but much more complex than in perturbative string vacua.

T. Banks; M. Dine

1996-09-05

448

Phenomenology of Gamma-Ray Jets  

E-print Network

We discuss some phenomenological aspects of $\\gamma$-ray emitting jets. In particular, we present calculations of the $\\gamma$-sphere and $\\pi$-sphere for various target photon fields, and employ them to demonstrate how $\\gamma$-ray observations at very high energies can be used to constraint the Doppler factor of the emitting plasma and the production of VHE neutrinos. We also consider the implications of the rapid TeV variability observed in M87 and the TeV blazars, and propose a model for the very rapid TeV flares observed with HESS and MAGIC in some blazars,that accommodates the relatively small Doppler factors inferred from radio observations. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for detecting VHE neutrinos from relativistic jets.

Amir Levinson

2007-09-10

449

Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one to verify sea breeze forecasts, and three were capable of verifying several phenomena. The AMU also determined the feasibility of transitioning each technique into operations and rated the operational capability of each technique on a subjective 1-10 scale: (1) 1 indicates that the technique is only in the initial stages of development, (2) 2-5 indicates that the technique is still undergoing modifications and is not ready for operations, (3) 6-8 indicates a higher probability of integrating the technique into AWIPS with code modifications, and (4) 9-10 indicates that the technique was created for AWIPS and is ready for implementation. Eight of the techniques were assigned a rating of 5 or below. The other two received ratings of 6 and 7, and none of the techniques a rating of 9-10. At the current time, there are no phenomenological model verification techniques ready for operational use. However, several of the techniques described in this report may become viable techniques in the future and should be monitored for updates in the literature. The desire to use a phenomenological verification technique is widespread in the modeling community, and it is likely that other techniques besides those described herein are being developed, but the work has not yet been published. Therefore, the AMIU recommends that the literature continue to be monitored for updates to the techniques described in this report and for new techniques being developed whose results have not yet been published. 111

Lambert, Winifred

2006-01-01

450

Conflict Experience: A Phenomenological Study among Young People in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate how young people in Sweden experience conflicts. The study is phenomenological, which means that the focus is on the essence of the investigated experience. Data have been collected by self-reports and analyzed with the help of an empirical phenomenological method. The research process has resulted in…

Szklarski, Andrzej

2007-01-01

451

Forward physics hard processes and saturation: theory and phenomenology review  

E-print Network

Selected aspects of the theory and phenomenology of production of forward jets at the LHC and RHIC are overviewed. In the theory part we discuss basics of frameworks originating from the BFKL dynamics while in the phenomenology part we present results for forward-central jet correlations at the LHC and forward di-jet production at RHIC.

Krzysztof Kutak

2011-12-19

452

The Phenomenology of Gravitino Dark Matter Scenarios in Supergravity Models  

E-print Network

We review the phenomenology of gravitino dark matter within supergravity framework. Gravitino can be dark matter if it is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which is stable if R-parity is conserved. There are several distinct scenarios depending on what the next to lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) is. We discuss the constraints and summarize the phenomenology of neutralino, stau, stop and sneutrino NLSPs.

Yudi Santoso

2009-03-16

453

Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study  

PubMed Central

Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a participatory action KT (PAKT) model. Conclusion Study findings suggest the relevance of principles and foci from the field of process evaluation related to intervention implementation, further illuminating KT as a structuration process facilitated by evolving transformative leadership in an active and integrated context. The model provides guidance for proactively constructing a 'fit' between content, context, and facilitation in the translation of evidence informing professional craft knowledge. PMID:19442294

McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly

2009-01-01

454

Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.  

PubMed

Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science. PMID:20077388

Skaftnesmo, Trond

2009-01-01

455

Understanding Undergraduate Research Experiences from the Student Perspective: A Phenomenological Study of a Summer Student Research Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate research programs are becoming more prevalent, but research on the processes and outcomes is limited and deals largely with perceptions of student learning gains. This paper adds to the literature by describing undergraduate research activities from the student perspective. A phenomenological approach was used to analyze journals…

Falconer, John; Holcomb, Dianne

2008-01-01

456

The Lived Experiences of L2 Chinese Graduate Students in American Higher Education: A Phenomenological Narrative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dilemmas, struggles, and conflicts of international students are ongoing research topics across disciplines. Utilizing a small culture approach that understands the "making and remaking" process (Holliday, 1999, p.247) of second language users/learners, this phenomenological narrative study explores the experiences of five L2 Chinese graduate…

Zhou, Yalun

2010-01-01

457

Qualitative Research: An Essential Part of Statistical Cognition Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…

Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff

2010-01-01

458

A Method of Spatial Reasoning Based on Qualitative Trigonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lack of exact quantitative information or the difficulty associated with obtaining or processing such information, qualitative spatial knowledge representation and reasoning often become an essential means for solving spatial constraint problems as found in science and engineering. This paper presents a computational approach to representing and reasoning about spatial constraints in two-dimensional Euclidean space, where the a

Jiming Liu

1998-01-01

459

Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

460

College Housing Dissertations: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine dissertations that were published in the U.S. during the past 5 years that related to collegiate housing. The dissertations were examined using a bounded qualitative meta-analysis approach. Each dissertation was examined using three questions: What were the methods/attributes of the research? What were the…

Banning, James H.; Kuk, Linda

2011-01-01

461

Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

1987-01-01

462

How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

463

Database Organization for Qualitative Analysis: The NUDIST System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative data analysis is an approach to the use of unstructured data that is widely practised (and studied) in the social sciences, history and literary studies. It is used in many areas derivative from social sciences, such as market analysis, legal evidence analysis, health and demographic studies, education, journalism, etc. It is also coming to be recognised as significant in

Tom Richards; Lyn Richards

1991-01-01

464

CAQDAS: a supplementary tool for qualitative market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The

Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye

2008-01-01

465

Literature as Qualitative Inquiry: The Novelist as Researcher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been a literary turn in parts of the social sciences. Attention has been given to social science writings as literature. In this article, the author approaches the issue from the opposite direction by engaging with literature as qualitative social inquiry. He does so through a reading of the French novelist Michel…

Brinkmann, Svend

2009-01-01

466

Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy. PMID:24512619

Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

2014-01-01

467

Simultaneous Measurement of Tracer and Interdiffusion Coefficients: An Isotopic Phenomenological Diffusion Formalism for the Binary Alloy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.

Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

2013-01-01

468

Kaonic atoms and in-medium K-N amplitudes II: interplay between theory and phenomenology  

E-print Network

A microscopic kaonic-atom optical potential $V^{(1)}_{K^-}$ is constructed, using the Ikeda-Hyodo-Weise NLO chiral $K^-N$ subthreshold scattering amplitudes constrained by the kaonic hydrogen SIDDHARTA measurement, and incorporating Pauli correlations within the Waas-Rho-Weise generalization of the Ericson-Ericson multiple-scattering approach. Good fits to kaonic atom data over the entire periodic table require additionally sizable $K^-NN$--motivated absorptive and dispersive phenomenological terms, in agreement with our former analysis based on a post-SIDDHARTA in-medium chirally-inspired NLO separable model by Ciepl\\'{y} and Smejkal. Such terms are included by introducing a phenomenological potential $V^{(2)}_{K^-}$ and coupling it self consistently to $V^{(1)}_{K^-}$. Properties of resulting kaonic atom potentials are discussed with special attention paid to the role of $K^-$-nuclear absorption and to the extraction of density-dependent amplitudes representing $K^-$ multi-nucleon processes.

E. Friedman; A. Gal

2012-11-27

469

How older people with incurable cancer experience daily living: A qualitative study from Norway.  

PubMed

Objective: An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. Method: We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. Results: The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Significance of results: Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources. PMID:25159499

Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie

2014-08-27

470

Qualitative mechanism models and the rationalization of procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A qualitative, cluster-based approach to the representation of hydraulic systems is described and its potential for generating and explaining procedures is demonstrated. Many ideas are formalized and implemented as part of an interactive, computer-based system. The system allows for designing, displaying, and reasoning about hydraulic systems. The interactive system has an interface consisting of three windows: a design/control window, a cluster window, and a diagnosis/plan window. A qualitative mechanism model for the ORS (Orbital Refueling System) is presented to coordinate with ongoing research on this system being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center.

Farley, Arthur M.

1989-01-01

471

Honeymoon with IWBs: A Qualitative Insight in Primary Students' Views on Instruction with Interactive Whiteboard  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the views of primary students about interactive whiteboard [IWB] use in their classes from attitudinal and pedagogical perspectives. Research was designed as an empirical approach to "phenomenology." Data was collected from fifty primary students (fourth to eighth) through focus group interviews.…

Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Ozhan, Ugur

2012-01-01

472

Women in Transition: A Qualitative Analysis of Definitions of Poverty and Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phenomenological approach examined the stories of ten women transitioning from childhood poverty to adult life. Women were chosen from a pool of participants in an Upward Bound program designed to assist low-income and/or first-generation college students in the Midwestern United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

Marsh-McDonald, Crystale M.; Schroeder, Sybil

2012-01-01

473

Portfolio Selection with Qualitative Input Anant Chiarawongsea  

E-print Network

Portfolio Selection with Qualitative Input Anant Chiarawongsea , Seksan Kiatsupaibulb, , Sunti and Accountancy, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand c Department of Management Science problem that accommo- dates qualitative input about expected returns and provide an algorithm that solves

Van Roy, Ben

474

The Case for Fiction as Qualitative Research: Towards a Non-Referential Ground for Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…

Mus, Stijn

2012-01-01

475

A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.  

PubMed

Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2) ?=?0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. PMID:23647360

Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah

2014-01-01

476

Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology  

E-print Network

One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomenological obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become a focus of recent research efforts. This presentation provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.

Ralf Lehnert

2011-02-17

477

Phenomenological QCD equation of state for massive neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct an equation of state for massive neutron stars based on quantum chromodynamics phenomenology. Our primary purpose is to delineate the relevant ingredients of equations of state that simultaneously have the required stiffness and satisfy constraints from thermodynamics and causality. These ingredients are (i) a repulsive density-density interaction, universal for all flavors, (ii) the color-magnetic interaction active from low to high densities, (iii) confining effects, which become increasingly important as the baryon density decreases, and (iv) nonperturbative gluons, which are not very sensitive to changes of the quark density. We use the following "3-window" description: At baryon densities below about twice normal nuclear density, 2 n0, we use the Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall (APR) equation of state, and at high densities, ?(4 -7 )n0 , we use the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model supplemented by vector and diquark interactions. In the transition density region, we smoothly interpolate the hadronic and quark equations of state in the chemical potential-pressure plane. Requiring that the equation of state approach APR at low densities, we find that the quark pressure in nonconfining models can be larger than the hadronic pressure, unlike in conventional equations of state. We show that consistent equations of state of stiffness sufficient to allow massive neutron stars are reasonably tightly constrained, suggesting that gluon dynamics remains nonperturbative even at baryon densities ˜10 n0 .

Kojo, Toru; Powell, Philip D.; Song, Yifan; Baym, Gordon

2015-02-01

478

Notes on several phenomenological laws of quantum gravity  

E-print Network

Phenomenological approaches to quantum gravity try to infer model-independent laws by analyzing thought experiments and combining both quantum, relativistic, and gravitational ingredients. We first review these ingredients -three basic inequalities- and discuss their relationships with the nature of fundamental constants. In particular, we argue for a covariant mass bound conjecture: in a spacetime free of horizon, the mass inside a surface $A$ cannot exceed $16 \\pi G^2 m^2m_p$ (5) There exists a mass dependent maximal force and power (6) There exists a maximal energy density and pressure (7) Physical systems must obey the Holographic Principle (8) Holographic bounds can only be saturated by systems with $m>m_p$; systems lying on the ``Compton line'' $l \\sim 1/m$ are fundamental objects without substructures (9) We speculate on a new bound from above for the action. In passing, we note that the maximal acceleration is of the order of Milgrom's acceleration $a_0$ for ultra-light particles ($m\\sim H_0)$ that co...

Bruneton, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

479

The impact of adopting person-centred care approach for people with Alzheimer's on professional caregivers' burden: an interventional study.  

PubMed

This study described the impact of adopting person-centred care approach for people with Alzheimer's disease on professional caregivers' burden. The participants were subjected to a 4-week structured training programme about person-centred care. The programme's effectiveness was proven by using the Global Behavior Scale. Then a qualitative descriptive phenomenological approach was used to explore the impact of applying this programme on professional caregivers' burden. Data were collected from a sample of 10 professional caregivers using semi-structured interviews. A total of three themes were identified: acceptance of disease-related behaviours of people with Alzheimer's, therapeutic understanding of people with Alzheimer's feelings (empathy) and enhanced caregivers' adaptation to people with Alzheimer's demands (resiliency). Findings suggested that adopting person-centred care approach for people with Alzheimer's disease reduces professional caregivers' burden. PMID:25039325

Hayajneh, Ferial A; Shehadeh, Anas

2014-08-01

480

Constituent Quark Model Description of Charmonium Phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review how quark models are able to describe the phenomenology of the charm meson sector. The spectroscopy and decays of charmonium and open charm mesons are described in a particular quark model and compared with the data and the results of other existing models in the literature. A quite reasonable global description of the heavy meson spectra is reached. A new assignment of the ?(4415) resonance as a 3D state leaving aside the 4S state to the X(4360) is tested through the analysis of the resonance structure in e+e- exclusive reactions around the ?(4415) energy region. We make tentative assignments of some of the XYZ mesons. To elucidate the structure of the 1+cs states, i.e., Ds1(2460) and Ds1(2536), we study the strong decay properties of the Ds1(2536) meson. We also perform a calculation of the branching fractions for the semileptonic decays of B and Bs mesons into final states containing orbitally excited charmed and charmed-strange mesons, which have become a very important source of information about the structure of heavy mesons. Analysis of the nonleptonic B-meson decays into D(*)DsJ are also included.

Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.; Hernandez, E.

2013-10-01

481

Phenomenological model for H-mode  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological model has been developed to clarify the role of the boundary configuration in the heat transport of the H-mode regime. We assume that the dominant mechanism of heat loss at the edge of the plasma is convection and that the diffusion coefficient (D/sub edge/) at the edge of the plasma increases rapidly with plasma pressure, but drops to a low value when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold value. When particle refueling takes place without time delay, as in the case of a limiter discharge, the unfavorable temperature dependence of the D/sub edge/ prohibits even a modest rise of the edge temperature. In a divertor discharge, the particles lost from the closed surface are kept away from the edge region for a time comparable to or longer than the energy transport time in the edge region. Thus, rapid increase in the heat flux allows an excursion of the edge temperature to a higher value thereby reaching the threshold value of the H-transition.

Ohyabu, N.

1985-08-01

482

Bi-galileon theory II: phenomenology  

E-print Network

We continue to introduce bi-galileon theory, the generalisation of the single galileon model introduced by Nicolis et al. The theory contains two coupled scalar fields and is described by a Lagrangian that is invariant under Galilean shifts in those fields. This paper is the second of two, and focuses on the phenomenology of the theory. We are particularly interesting in models that admit solutions that are asymptotically self accelerating or asymptotically self tuning. In contrast to the single galileon theories, we find examples of self accelerating models that are simultaneously free from ghosts, tachyons and tadpoles, able to pass solar system constraints through Vainshtein screening, and do not suffer from problems with superluminality, Cerenkov emission or strong coupling. We also find self tuning models and discuss how Weinberg's no go theorem is evaded by breaking Poincar\\'e invariance in the scalar sector. Whereas the galileon description is valid all the way down to solar system scales for the self-accelerating models, unfortunately the same cannot be said for self tuning models owing to the scalars backreacting strongly on to the geometry.

Antonio Padilla; Paul M. Saffin; Shuang-Yong Zhou

2010-08-19

483

A Simple Statistical Model for QGP Phenomenology  

E-print Network

We propose a simple statistical model for the density of states for quarks and gluons in a QGP droplet, making the Thomas-Fermi model of the atom and the Bethe-model for the nucleons as templates for constructing the density of states for the quarks and gluons with due modifications for the `hot' relativistic QGP state as against the `cold' non-relativistic atom and nucleons, which were the subject of the earlier `forebears' of the present proposal.We introduce `flow-parameters' $\\gamma_{q,g}$ for the quarks and the gluons to take care of the hydrodynamical (plasma) flows in the QGP system as was done earlier by Peshier in his thermal potential for the QGP. By varying $\\gamma_{g}$ about the `Peshier-Value' of $\\gamma_{q} = 1/6$, we find that the model allows a window in the parametric space in the range $8\\gamma_{q} \\leq \\gamma_{g} \\leq 12\\gamma_{q}$, with $\\gamma_{q} =1/6$ (Peshier-Value), when stable QGP droplets of radii $\\sim$ $6 fm$ appear at transition temperatures $100 MeV \\leq T \\leq 250 MeV$. The smooth cut at the phase boundary of the Free energy vs. droplet radius suggests a First - Order phase transition .On the whole the model offers a robust tool for studying QGP phenomenology as and when data from various ongoing experiments are available .

R. Ramanathan; Y. K. Mathur; K. K. Gupta; Agam K. Jha

2004-02-26

484

A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.

Zhou, YE

1995-01-01

485

Introduction to Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology  

E-print Network

After a brief review of the first phase of development of Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology, I argue that this research line is now ready to enter a more advanced phase: while at first it was legitimate to resort to heuristic order-of-magnitude estimates, which were sufficient to establish that sensitivity to Planck-scale effects can be achieved, we should now rely on detailed analyses of some reference test theories. I illustrate this point in the specific example of studies of Planck-scale modifications of the energy/momentum dispersion relation, for which I consider two test theories. Both the photon-stability analyses and the Crab-nebula synchrotron-radiation analyses, which had raised high hopes of ``beyond-Plankian'' experimental bounds, turn out to be rather ineffective in constraining the two test theories. Examples of analyses which can provide constraints of rather wide applicability are the so-called ``time-of-flight analyses'', in the context of observations of gamma-ray bursts, and the analyses of the cosmic-ray spectrum near the GZK scale.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2004-12-30

486

New Dimensions for Randall-Sundrum Phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We consider a 6D extension of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, RS6, where the Standard Model (SM) gauge fields are allowed to propagate in an additional dimension, compactified on S{sup 1} or S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}. In a minimal scenario, fermions propagate in the 5D RS subspace and their localization provides a model of flavor. New Kaluza-Klein (KK) states, corresponding to excitations of the gauge fields along the 6th dimension, appear near the TeV scale. The new gauge KK modes behave differently from those in the 5D warped models. These RS6 states have couplings with strong dependence on 5D field localization and, within the SM, only interact with heavy fermions and the Higgs sector, to a very good approximation. Thus, the collider phenomenology of the new gauge KK states sensitively depends on the 5D fermion geography. We briefly discuss inclusion of SM fermions in all 6 dimensions, as well as the possibility of going beyond 6D.

Davoudiasl, Hooman; Rizzo, Thomas G.

2008-09-30

487

Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

Ellis, John; /CERN /King's Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2011-08-12

488

Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.

Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

2000-01-01

489

Quantum corrected spherical collapse: A phenomenological framework  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological framework is presented for incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections into the dynamics of spherically symmetric collapse. The effective equations are derived from a variational principle that guarantees energy conservation and the existence of a Birkhoff theorem. The gravitational potential can be chosen as a function of the areal radius to yield specific nonsingular static spherically symmetric solutions that generically have two horizons. For a specific choice of potential, the effective stress energy tensor violates only the dominant energy condition. The violations are maximum near the inner horizon and die off rapidly. A numerical study of the quantum corrected collapse of a spherically symmetric scalar field in this case reveals that the modified gravitational potential prevents the formation of a central singularity and ultimately yields a static, mostly vacuum, spacetime with two horizons. The matter 'piles up' on the inner horizon giving rise to mass inflation at late times. The Cauchy horizon is transformed into a null, weak singularity, but in contrast to Einstein gravity, the absence of a central singularity renders this null singularity stable.

Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor [Perimeter Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9 (Canada)

2010-08-15

490

Little Higgs Models and Their Phenomenology  

E-print Network

This article reviews the Little Higgs models of electroweak symmetry breaking and their phenomenology. Little Higgs models incorporate a light composite Higgs boson and remain perturbative until a scale of order 10 TeV, as required by precision electroweak data. The collective symmetry breaking mechanism, which forms the basis of Little Higgs models, is introduced. An explicit, fully realistic implementation of this mechanism, the Littlest Higgs model, is then discussed in some detail. Several other implementations, including simple group models and models with T parity, are also reviewed. Precision electroweak constraints on a variety of Little Higgs models are summarized. If a Little Higgs model is realized in nature, the predicted new particles should be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The expected signatures, as well as the experimental sensitivities and the possible strategies for confirming the Little Higgs origin of new particles, are discussed. Finally, several other related topics are briefly reviewed, including the ultraviolet completions of Little Higgs models, as well as the implications of these models for flavor physics and cosmology.

Maxim Perelstein

2005-12-09

491

Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

492

Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to charact