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Sample records for qualitative phenomenological approach

  1. Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2013-01-01

    A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice. PMID:23606810

  2. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to


  3. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  4. Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia.

  5. Factors influencing the development and implementation of advanced radiographer practice in Australia – a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Page, Barbara A; Bernoth, Maree; Davidson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the implementation or the lack of implementation of advanced practitioner role in Australia. Methods This study uses an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the in-depth real life issues, which surround the advanced practitioner as a solution to radiologist workforce shortages in Australia. Research participants are radiographers, radiation therapists and health managers registered with the Australian Institute of Radiography (AIR) and holding senior professional and AIR Board positions with knowledge of current advanced practice. Results In total, seven interviews were conducted revealing education, governance, technical, people issues, change management, government, costs and timing as critical factors influencing advanced practice in Australia. Conclusions Seven participants in this study perceived an advanced practice role might have major benefits and a positive impact on the immediate and long-term management of patients. Another finding is the greater respect and appreciation of each other's roles and expertise within the multidisciplinary healthcare team. Engagement is required of the critical stakeholders that have been identified as ‘blockers’ (radiologists, health departments) as well as identified allies (e.g. emergency clinicians, supportive radiologists, patient advocacy groups). The research supports that the AIR has a role to play for the professional identity of radiographers and shaping the advanced practice role in Australia. PMID:26229650

  6. Teachers' Interactive Whiteboard Training in Title I Mathematics Classrooms: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of teachers at an urban Title 1 elementary school regarding the training, beliefs and use of interactive whiteboards as a resource to raise student mathematical achievement levels. The problem addressed in this qualitative phenomenological study was the…

  7. Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    This paper explores the variety of qualitative methods available, in the context of a larger quantitative-qualitative debate in the field of educational evaluation. Each approach is reviewed in terms of the work of its major proponents. The dominant forms of qualitative evaluation include: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic…

  8. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course


  9. Phenomenological approach to mechanical damage growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola; Bosia, Federico; Gliozzi, Antonio S; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The problem of characterizing damage evolution in a generic material is addressed with the aim of tracing it back to existing growth models in other fields of research. Based on energetic considerations, a system evolution equation is derived for a generic damage indicator describing a material system subjected to an increasing external stress. The latter is found to fit into the framework of a recently developed phenomenological universality (PUN) approach and, more specifically, the so-called U2 class. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a fiber-bundle model and statistically assigned local strengths at the microscale. The fits with numerical data prove, with an excellent degree of reliability, that the typical evolution of the damage indicator belongs to the aforementioned PUN class. Applications of this result are briefly discussed and suggested. PMID:18999489

  10. Qualitative Phenomenological Examination of IT Project Management in Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what caused IT projects to fail at a high rate in the pharmaceutical industry. IT projects failures delayed development of new drugs that can help save lives. It was imperative to evaluate what caused project failures because the collateral damage was delay in drug development. This qualitative…

  11. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  12. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  13. An Exploration of How Foster Parents Educationally Assist Foster Children: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Foster children are academically at risk as a result of abuse, neglect and family disruptions. Findings from previous studies have underscored the critical role played by foster parents in monitoring the academic progress of the children placed in the home. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to identify the skill…

  14. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19


  15. A Qualitative Narrative Phenomenological Study: Parental Perceptions in Choosing Online Educational Classes for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Kirsten L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of parents of gifted student children who live in the United States, who have gone through the process of locating and selecting an online class, and who have worked with the online educational environment offering the class. Parents often select online…

  16. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  17. [MENTORING IN NURSING, A PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; González Rendón, M C E Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The essay explains that mentoring, originally established to improve student trajectories, reflects a deeper improvement of the people involved in the process. The method used is the analysis of the mentoring experience from participant observation and phenomenology of lived processes. The results reveal that the early analysis of risk factors present in academics--socio-psychological, family and institutional matters, that may affect the student experience in its passage through the academic unit--, requires the intervention of a preventive nature and monitoring operating variables. In addition, tutoring is a teaching experience which is consolidated with the daily life from the human relationship established between the mentor and the mentee, from the position of the older adult and experience is a state meet demand related care. However, in the tutorial process face to face, usually with academic aspects, therefore, the teaching function is fulfilled but operated in particular. By helping to find meaning to knowledge not understood, this function is still performed if tutors pairs learn to know each other that occasionally is the mirror which reflects the own story. While they are recognizing the problems of the mentee, the mentor will exorcise his ghosts. Therefore, we argue that, although originally born tutoring to abate dropout rates, failure and increase retention and degree, over time, has become a process of improving people. PMID:26118209

  18. Expression of Emotions through Art: A Phenomenological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasson, Cheryl G.

    This paper examines phenomenological approaches to studying expressions of emotions through art. The author begins her discussion by defining the terms in the title. Expressions are controlled, deliberate gestures. Emotions are sensations which involve appraisals of something. Art is something consciously controlled by the artist. The creation of…

  19. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  20. A qualitative approach to teaching capacitive circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David P.; Kampen, Paul van

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated students' qualitative understanding of dc circuits containing resistors and a capacitor. We found that a year after traditional lecture instruction as part of an introductory physics course, most students were unable to predict the behavior of a series circuit consisting of a battery, a bulb, and a capacitor. Among the difficulties identified we found that almost half of the students implicitly abandoned the idea that a complete circuit is necessary for a bulb to light when a capacitor is introduced into the circuit. We have developed curriculum that enables students to construct a phenomenological model in which they liken the behavior of a capacitor to that of a wire, a switch, and a battery; this allows them to qualitatively describe circuits with batteries, bulbs, and capacitors. We have also developed curriculum on the determination of RC times. Post-test results show a significant increase in understanding of capacitive circuits.

  1. Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C H; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; LarĂži, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) "front-loading" research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  2. Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Phenomenology of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Bernini, Marco; Callard, Felicity; Alderson-Day, Ben; Badcock, Johanna C.; Bell, Vaughan; Cook, Chris C. H.; Csordas, Thomas; Humpston, Clara; Krueger, Joel; LarĂži, Frank; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Moseley, Peter; Powell, Hilary; Raballo, Andrea; Smailes, David; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of scientific, clinical, and narrative accounts of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), the phenomenology of voice hearing remains opaque and undertheorized. In this article, we outline an interdisciplinary approach to understanding hallucinatory experiences which seeks to demonstrate the value of the humanities and social sciences to advancing knowledge in clinical research and practice. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH utilizes rigorous and context-appropriate methodologies to analyze a wider range of first-person accounts of AVH at 3 contextual levels: (1) cultural, social, and historical; (2) experiential; and (3) biographical. We go on to show that there are significant potential benefits for voice hearers, clinicians, and researchers. These include (1) informing the development and refinement of subtypes of hallucinations within and across diagnostic categories; (2) “front-loading” research in cognitive neuroscience; and (3) suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, we argue that an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenology of AVH can nourish the ethical core of scientific enquiry by challenging its interpretive paradigms, and offer voice hearers richer, potentially more empowering ways to make sense of their experiences. PMID:24903416

  3. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.

    2006-01-01

    This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

  4. Qualitative approaches to understanding patient preferences.

    PubMed

    Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Achieving patient-centered care depends on a thorough understanding of patient preferences at all stages of their journeys through healthcare. Qualitative research methods provide the means to systematically collect and analyze these preferences. Qualitative approaches to research are diverse in character, but many such approaches have a long history and strong disciplinary roots. Despite variation, most qualitative approaches work inductively from the 'ground up', and seek to build knowledge and understanding rather than test hypotheses. Their use to explore patient pathways through care has offered insight into reasons why people become patients in the first instance, their preferences for treatment options and degree of involvement in decisions, and their preferences for healthcare delivery. Qualitative approaches are sometimes used alongside 'quantitative' in mixed methods designs, requiring solid expertise and resourcing. Expertise is also crucial in the assessment of quality in qualitative research, and efforts to develop checklists to assess quality are challenged by evidence about the importance of expertise-based judgments. Recent developments in health research include an upsurge in patient involvement activities in design of research and healthcare services; these may seem similar to qualitative research, but are in fact very different. While an important part of the research landscape, patient involvement activities are not intended to provide robust research-based evidence about patients' preferences or experiences. There is pressing need to bridge the gap between qualitative research evidence and patient involvement in the design of research and services. Participatory research methods that harness qualitative approaches may be a way to achieve this. PMID:23006055

  5. Why Students Procrastinate: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Grund, Axel; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we adopted an impartial view on academic procrastination in order to gain new insights for the development of intervention programs. Following a qualitative approach, we thereby explored antecedents of procrastination by attending to the actual voices and experiences of 29 students. Students' subjective theories were in line…

  6. A phenomenological density-scaling approach to lamellipodial actin dynamics(†).

    PubMed

    Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Wilson, Kerry; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2014-12-01

    The integration of protein function studied in vitro in a dynamic system like the cell lamellipodium remains a significant challenge. One reason is the apparent contradictory effect that perturbations of some proteins can have on the overall lamellipodium dynamics, depending on exact conditions. Theoretical modelling offers one approach for understanding the balance between the mechanisms that drive and regulate actin network growth and decay. Most models use a 'bottom-up' approach, involving explicitly assembling biochemical components to simulate observable behaviour. Their correctness therefore relies on both the accurate characterization of all the components and the completeness of the relevant processes involved. To avoid potential pitfalls due to this uncertainty, we used an alternative 'top-down' approach, in which measurable features of lamellipodium behaviour, here observed in two different cell types (HL60 and B16-F1), directly inform the development of a simple phenomenological model of lamellipodium dynamics. We show that the kinetics of F-actin association and dissociation scales with the local F-actin density, with no explicit location dependence. This justifies the use of a simplified kinetic model of lamellipodium dynamics that yields predictions testable by pharmacological or genetic intervention. A length-scale parameter (the lamellipodium width) emerges from this analysis as an experimentally accessible probe of network regulatory processes. PMID:25485077

  7. Towards a New Approach to Dual Resonance Model Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    We have taken steps toward finding a dual-resonance (DR) model appropriate for phenomenological fits that can be built from an DR operator formalism which is attractive for its projective group gauge symmetries and factorization properties. This is done by attempting to generalize an approach [Szczepaniak, Adam, and Pennington, M.R., Application of the Veneziano Model in Charmonium Dalitz Plot Analysis, arXiv:1403.5782] of isolating DR poles by making all but one of the residues of on infinite sum of modified beta functions vanish. This leaves a closed-form amplitude that has a finite set of adjustable parameters and with only one ad hoc modification necessary for maintaining Regge asymptotic behavior. We have generalized this approach to double and single Regge limits of the DR five-point function with a pending application to p?* -->K+K- p . Generalizations for (N - 3) -tuple Regge limits for N-point amplitudes can be gleaned from this work but a more rigorous treatment has been considered. Preliminary results suggest that these amplitudes may take the form of an expectation value of an infinite sum of an alternating product of vertex operators and Gervais-Neveu propagators. We have taken steps toward finding a dual-resonance (DR) model appropriate for phenomenological fits that can be built from an DR operator formalism which is attractive for its projective group gauge symmetries and factorization properties. This is done by attempting to generalize an approach [Szczepaniak, Adam, and Pennington, M.R., Application of the Veneziano Model in Charmonium Dalitz Plot Analysis, arXiv:1403.5782] of isolating DR poles by making all but one of the residues of on infinite sum of modified beta functions vanish. This leaves a closed-form amplitude that has a finite set of adjustable parameters and with only one ad hoc modification necessary for maintaining Regge asymptotic behavior. We have generalized this approach to double and single Regge limits of the DR five-point function with a pending application to p?* -->K+K- p . Generalizations for (N - 3) -tuple Regge limits for N-point amplitudes can be gleaned from this work but a more rigorous treatment has been considered. Preliminary results suggest that these amplitudes may take the form of an expectation value of an infinite sum of an alternating product of vertex operators and Gervais-Neveu propagators. This research was poossible with the support of the IU Physics REU Program.

  8. A qualitative, phenomenological study on the lived experiences of science teachers in The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklewhite, Thalia Vionne

    This phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences and perceptions of secondary science teachers in the archipelagic country of The Bahamas and how these teachers make meaning of the secondary science program in The Bahamas through the lens of life in a democratic society. The study's purpose was to answer the question: What are the lived experiences of secondary science teachers in The Bahamas in terms of their working conditions'? Using principles of phenomenological research to approach meaning, in-depth interviewing was conducted with six secondary science teachers on four islands of The Bahamas, including the capital of New Providence. The participants and the selected islands are representative of the diversity of teachers, the population, and school climates and structures throughout the country. Narratives were obtained via three ninety-minute interviews with each participant; and thematic analysis was the instrument by which three central themes emerged. Analysis of narratives reveals that lived experience of secondary science teachers revolve around themes of: (1) The Professional Self, (2) Curriculum Leadership, and (3) Curriculum. Most participants are in the career of secondary science education as second choice but are still committed to the profession. Participants overwhelmingly commented that there was a lack of supportive frameworks for critical elements of their daily work, and a need for clear, visionary and decisive curriculum leadership by The Ministry of Education and private School Boards. Participants also desired more appropriate and alternative science curricula that would meet the need of non-academically inclined Bahamian students. Antecedent to their calls was a pressing recognition that they lacked participatory democratic voice in national secondary science education evidenced by years of unrecognized and unattended suggestions sent to those in authority. As a result of these findings, the researcher was propelled towards the need for a civic association of secondary science educators that could provide voice and recognition for secondary science educators, and founded an association named Bahamas Association of Science Educators (BASE). Further, the study findings highlight the need for the crafting of a national policy in science education which would address many of the concerns of participant secondary science teachers.

  9. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Shannon, Sarah E

    2005-11-01

    Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care. PMID:16204405

  10. The Phenomenology of Hair Pulling Urges in Trichotillomania: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Madjar, Shai; Sripada, Chandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by recurrent urges to pull out one's hair, but the experiential characteristics of hair pulling urges are poorly understood. This study used a comparative approach to understand the subjective phenomenology of hair pulling: participants with trichotillomania symptoms were asked about their hair pulling urges as well as their urges to eat unhealthy foods. Participants who reported experiencing problematic unhealthy food urges were identified and asked to compare the phenomenological characteristics of their hair pulling and unhealthy food urges across a variety of dimensions. Results revealed significant differences for only some urge properties measured, and differences that existed were small to moderate in magnitude. Qualitative comparisons of the two urges revealed situational characteristics of hair pulling that could explain these small to moderate differences between the two urges. We conclude that hair pulling urges may be more comparable to ordinary urges such as unhealthy food urges than one might expect, but that hair pulling urges may nevertheless be rated as slightly more severe due to situational characteristics of these urges. This conception may improve clinician and lay understanding of the condition, assist with destigmatization efforts, and facilitate the development of treatment strategies. PMID:26925017

  11. The Phenomenology of Hair Pulling Urges in Trichotillomania: A Comparative Approach.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Shai; Sripada, Chandra S

    2016-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by recurrent urges to pull out one's hair, but the experiential characteristics of hair pulling urges are poorly understood. This study used a comparative approach to understand the subjective phenomenology of hair pulling: participants with trichotillomania symptoms were asked about their hair pulling urges as well as their urges to eat unhealthy foods. Participants who reported experiencing problematic unhealthy food urges were identified and asked to compare the phenomenological characteristics of their hair pulling and unhealthy food urges across a variety of dimensions. Results revealed significant differences for only some urge properties measured, and differences that existed were small to moderate in magnitude. Qualitative comparisons of the two urges revealed situational characteristics of hair pulling that could explain these small to moderate differences between the two urges. We conclude that hair pulling urges may be more comparable to ordinary urges such as unhealthy food urges than one might expect, but that hair pulling urges may nevertheless be rated as slightly more severe due to situational characteristics of these urges. This conception may improve clinician and lay understanding of the condition, assist with destigmatization efforts, and facilitate the development of treatment strategies. PMID:26925017

  12. The sociopolitical importance of genetic, phenomenological approaches to science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science education. Roth's phenomenological approach exposes several important social, political, and cultural questions for science education. Drawing from Edmund Husserl's philosophy, social theorists, and science education literature, this article discusses some of these important concerns with the goal of highlighting the productive power of a phenomenological approach to science pedagogies.

  13. Electrostatics on particles: Phenomenological and orientational density functional theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HaDuong, Tap; Phan, Sebastien; Marchi, Massimo; Borgis, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe efficiently the solvation of complex solutes in computer simulations, we introduce several simple particle-based models with the requirement that they yield, on average, either an exact or approximate representation of the macroscopic laws of electrostatics. First, in a phenomenological approach, electrostatics of continuous media is formulated in terms of a polarization density free energy functional, which is projected on randomly distributed discrete Lennard-Jones pseudoparticles. The resulting model is that a polarizable fluid, in which the induced dipoles describe both orientational and electronic polarization. The problem of the connection between the macroscopic dielectric constant and the pseudoparticles polarizability is examined and important deviations with respect to the commonly accepted Clausius-Mossotti relation are found. Dipolar saturation effects can also be added to the model to yield a "nonlocal Langevin solvent model" and an approximate, numerically very efficient, "local Langevin solvent model." The two models are implemented in molecular dynamics simulations and their solvation properties are compared to continuous electrostatics for simple solutes such as spherical ions or ion pairs. Their computational efficiency is also discussed and compared to explicit microscopic solvent models. Then a statistical mechanics approach based on orientational density functional theory ideas is presented. Starting from a microscopic Hamiltonian describing a polar solvent, and for a given position of all the solvent molecules, a preliminary thermodynamic average over all the possible orientations of the molecules is performed. This can done by defining an orientational free-energy functional which, at a formal stage, is perfectly well-defined and exact. Minimization of the functional with respect the angular degrees of freedom yields an effective Hamiltonian acting on the translational degrees of freedom only which can be explored via molecular dynamics simulations. The simplest approximation for the orientational functional yields a version of the nonlocal Langevin solvent model mentioned above. More general approximations are suggested.

  14. Purposive recognition: an active and qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivlin, Ehud; Aloimonos, Yiannis; Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1992-04-01

    We propose an alternative way to study the problem of visual recognition which is closer to the spirit emerging from Brooks' work on building robots than to Marr's reconstructive approach. Our theory is purposive in the sense that recognition is considered in the context of an agent performing it in an environment, along with the agent's intentions that translate into a set of behaviors; it is qualitative in the sense that only partial recovery is needed; it is active in the sense that various partial recovery tasks need for recognition are achieved through active vision; and it is opportunistic in the sense that every available cue is used.

  15. High School Teachers' Experience of Student Behavior Problems: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Gillet, Kyle S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the findings of a qualitative study exploring high school teachers' perceptions of student behavior problems. Four focus groups, each including four to eight teachers, were conducted through major school districts in two Southwestern states (Texas and Arizona). Descriptive phenomenology was used to identify patterns and


  16. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked to tape…

  17. Inquiring into the Real: A Realist Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Hill, Heather; Shannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    The need for postpositivist or antipositivist methods in the social sciences, including library and information science, is well documented. A promising alternative synthesizes critical realism and phenomenology. This method embraces ontological reality in all things, including human and social action. The ontology underlying the realist…

  18. Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.

    1985-11-01

    A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.

  19. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  20. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of


  1. The Sociopolitical Importance of Genetic, Phenomenological Approaches to Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science…

  2. The Sociopolitical Importance of Genetic, Phenomenological Approaches to Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Wolff-Michael Roth's theoretical framework for a phenomenological, genetic approach to science teaching and learning based on the work of Edmund Husserl. This approach advocates the inclusion of student lifeworlds in science education and underlines the importance of thinking about subjectivity in both science and science


  3. A Novel Approach for Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophadt, Charles E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a freshman chemistry laboratory program involving nontraditional qualitative investigations of metal ion properties is explained. Experiments are discussed which focus on synthesis of a metal salt, properties of metal ions and their separations, and oxidation states of metals. (DT)

  4. Appraising Qualitative Research Reports: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the development of an appraisal instrument designed for evaluating submissions to "The Qualitative Report"--the TQR Rubric. Following a description of the context of TQR, she explains what led to the development of the TQR Rubric and describes its components. She concludes by presenting the plan of…

  5. Phenomenological explanation of an experiential curriculum in medical education: A feministic approach

    PubMed Central

    Keshtiaray, Narges; Vajargah, Kourosh Fathi; Zimitat, Craig; Foroughi, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study addresses the design and validation of the experiential curriculum model for medical education using a Feministic approach. Method: The present study was conducted on two non separable planes. On the first plan, the model was designed based on the Feministic approach using the theoretical study method and emphasizing the perspectives ascribed to Nell Noddings, Madeline Grumet and Janette Miller. Results: The levels of this model include Expected Curriculum, Imaginal Curriculum, Concealed curriculum, Interactive curriculum (Manifest Curriculum, Latent Curriculum, Look the parenting), Transferential Curriculum and Self Determination. On the second plane, to validate the combined model, a phenomenologically qualitative study was conducted. In this study, using goal-oriented sampling, undergraduate and graduate (Master's degree) students majoring in Dentistry, Nursing at Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan as well as those at at Esfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected. Deep interview was used to collect data. The findings were analyzed using Van Manen's six-stage model. To determine the reliability of the findings, reliability of reality reconstruction were used. Conclusion: The results obtained suggested that: Education is in need of some conceptual reconstruction. On this way, women's perceptions and experience of education and of the interior epistemological and curricular system which shape the discourse and performance of education must be addressed. Serving as a research model offering the various planes of the experiential curriculum and focusing more sharply on the dimensions of curriculum than the formal plane, the present study is recommended to the decision-makers of higher education curricular system. PMID:23555111

  6. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  7. A Heideggerian Phenomenology Approach to Higher Education as Workplace: A Consideration of Academic Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heidegger's early works provide his most important contribution to our understanding of being, while his discussion of the effects of technology on that being in his later works is one of his best known contributions. I use his phenomenological approach to understanding the workplace and then, from a range of potential applications, choose to…

  8. Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

  9. A Heideggerian Phenomenology Approach to Higher Education as Workplace: A Consideration of Academic Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heidegger's early works provide his most important contribution to our understanding of being, while his discussion of the effects of technology on that being in his later works is one of his best known contributions. I use his phenomenological approach to understanding the workplace and then, from a range of potential applications, choose to


  10. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  11. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The University Student's Studies within the Lifeworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greasley, Kay; Ashworth, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The "Approaches to Studying Inventory" (ASI) was based on qualitative research by Marton and Saljo, which established "surface" and "deep" approaches to study. This article attempts a new qualitative explication of the meanings of study. A heuristic due to Husserl is employed which distinguishes between the "noema", the "subjective object" of…

  12. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The University Student's Studies within the Lifeworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greasley, Kay; Ashworth, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The "Approaches to Studying Inventory" (ASI) was based on qualitative research by Marton and Saljo, which established "surface" and "deep" approaches to study. This article attempts a new qualitative explication of the meanings of study. A heuristic due to Husserl is employed which distinguishes between the "noema", the "subjective object" of


  13. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  14. The Phenomenology of "Approach to Studying": The Idiographic Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Peter; Greasley, Kay

    2009-01-01

    "Approach to studying" research focuses on the "manner" (deep, surface, etc.) in which studying is grasped. This is the Husserlian "noesis", the mental orientation, to studying. In this article, it is argued that attention must also be given to the subjective meaning of studying and of what is studied--the Husserlian "noema". However, the…

  15. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive


  16. The Self-Evolving Cosmos: A Phenomenological Approach to Nature's Unity-in-Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    ch. 1. Introduction: individuation and the quest for unity -- ch. 2. The obstacle to unification in modern physics. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Does contemporary mathematical physics actually depart from the classical formulation? -- ch. 3. The phenomenological challenge to the classical formula -- ch. 4. Topological phenomenology. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Phenomenological intuition, topology, and the Klein bottle. 4.3. The physical significance of the Klein bottle -- ch. 5. The dimensional family of topological spinors. 5.1. Generalization of intuitive topology. 5.2. Topodimensional spin matrix -- ch. 6. Basic principles of dimensional transformation. 6.1. Synsymmetry and the self-transformation of space. 6.2. From symmetry breaking to dimensional generation. 6.3. The three basic stages of dimensional generation. 6.4. Kleinian topogeny -- ch. 7. Waves carrying waves: the co-evolution of lifeworlds -- ch. 8. The forces of nature. 8.1. The phenomenon of light. 8.2. Phenomenological Kaluza-Klein theory. 8.3. Summary comparison of conventional and topo-phenomenological approaches to Kaluza-Klein theory -- ch. 9. Cosmogony, symmetry, and phenomenological intuition. 9.1. Conventional view of the evolving cosmos. 9.2. The problem of symmetry. 9.3. A new kind of clarity -- ch. 10. The self-evolving cosmos. 10.1. Introduction to the cosmogonic matrix. 10.2. Overview of cosmic evolution. 10.3. The role of the fermions in dimensional generation. 10.4. Projective stages of cosmogony: dimensional divergence. 10.5. Proprioceptive stages of cosmogony: dimensional convergence. 10.6. Conclusion: wider horizons of cosmic evolution -- ch. 11. The psychophysics of cosmogony. 11.1. Psychical aspects of the fundamental particles. 11.2. Toward a reflexive physics. 11.3. Concretization of the self-evolving cosmos.

  17. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the


  18. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

  19. Estimating Sampling Selection Bias in Human Genetics: A Phenomenological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide; Taglioli, Luca; De Iasio, Sergio; Gueresi, Paola; Alfani, Guido; Nelli, Sergio; Rossi, Paolo; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This research is the first empirical attempt to calculate the various components of the hidden bias associated with the sampling strategies routinely-used in human genetics, with special reference to surname-based strategies. We reconstructed surname distributions of 26 Italian communities with different demographic features across the last six centuries (years 1447–2001). The degree of overlapping between "reference founding core" distributions and the distributions obtained from sampling the present day communities by probabilistic and selective methods was quantified under different conditions and models. When taking into account only one individual per surname (low kinship model), the average discrepancy was 59.5%, with a peak of 84% by random sampling. When multiple individuals per surname were considered (high kinship model), the discrepancy decreased by 8–30% at the cost of a larger variance. Criteria aimed at maximizing locally-spread patrilineages and long-term residency appeared to be affected by recent gene flows much more than expected. Selection of the more frequent family names following low kinship criteria proved to be a suitable approach only for historically stable communities. In any other case true random sampling, despite its high variance, did not return more biased estimates than other selective methods. Our results indicate that the sampling of individuals bearing historically documented surnames (founders' method) should be applied, especially when studying the male-specific genome, to prevent an over-stratification of ancient and recent genetic components that heavily biases inferences and statistics. PMID:26452043

  20. Experimental and phenomenological approaches to the structure of exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Zamfir, N.V. ||

    1995-07-01

    The structure of exotic nuclei that will become accessible with radioactive beams, especially in extremely neutron-rich nuclei where there is a large ``lever arm`` from the valley of stability, is likely to be quite different from anything we have yet encountered. There have been suggestions of radically-different shell structure due, for example, to more-rounded shell potentials (no ``l{sup 2}`` term in the Nilsson potential) or to weaker l{center_dot}s interactions. Also, the weak binding of the outermost nucleons, the coupling to the continuum, changes in residual p-n and pairing interactions, will all contribute to new types of structure and collectivity. Among other effects, magic numbers are likely to lose their robustness; sequences of shell model orbits might be altered in major ways; the onset, manifestations, and evolution of collectivity could be different; unique parity orbits may revert to their parent shells. Radioactive beams will provide the opportunity to study these exotic nuclei, but, at the same time, the amount of data obtainable win be much less than we are accustomed to. Hence, it will be necessary to develop highly-efficient experimental approaches on the one hand, and new signatures of structure, based on the simplest-to-obtain data, on the other. Recently, progress has been made in both areas, and this work is discussed below.

  1. Phenomenological Approach to Cellular Pattern Formed during Directional Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolczy?Ski, W.; Kloch, J.

    1997-10-01

    The approach to the solid/liquid (s/l) interface geometry for a 1D experiment of cellular growth is presented. It is based on a periodical function which comprises fundamental undulation of the planar s/l interface and some disfigurements of this undulation. Four regions of the cellular structure formation are distinguished versus growth rate: finite cells, doublets, deep cells and gothic cells (predendritic region). The fundamental undulation is expressed by the same formula within all the regions and the intercellular spacing is treated as equal to the wavelength of undulation. The differentiation among the regions is expressed by some terms responsible for the disfigurements of undulation. The fitting of the presented equations to the observed cellular morphology is the subject of the method. The selection of the intercellular spacing with the use of the criterion of minimum entropy production is suggested. However, only the formal calculation of the undulation amplitude is presented. L'approche de géométrie de l'interface cellulaire pour l'observation unidimensionelle est montrée. Elle est basée sur une fonction périodique qui comprend les deux: l'ondulation fondamentale du front plan et certaines déformations de cet ondulation. Quatre régions de la formation des structures cellulaires ont été différenciées en fonction de vitesse de croissance: des cellules finies, des cellules profondes, doubletons et des cellules gothiques (la région prédendritique). L'ondulation fondamentale est exprimée par le même terme dans toutes les régions et la taille cellulaire est traitée comme equivalent à la longueur d'onde de l'ondulation. La différenciation parmis les régions est exprimée par les termes responsables de déformations de l'ondulation. L'ajustement des équations proposées à la morphologie cellulaire observée est le sujet du procédé. La sélection de la taille cellulaire à l'aide d'un critère de production d'entropie minimum est proposée. Cependant, seulement un calcul formel de l'amplitude d'ondulation est presenté.

  2. Self-Disturbance in Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological Approach to Better Understand Our Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rob; Postmes, Lot; Goedhart, Saskia; Sno, Herman N.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological approach explains the apparently unintelligible experiences of patients with schizophrenia as a disruption of the normal self-perception. Patients with schizophrenia suffer from a decline of “me,” the background core of their experiences. Normally tacit experiences intrude into the forefront of their attention, and the sense that inner-world experiences are private diminishes. These patients lose the sense that they are the origin of their thoughts and actions; their self-evident network of meanings and a solid foundation of life disintegrate. Subsequently, their experiential world is transformed, alienated, intruded, and fragmented. In this article, a phenomenological investigation of the self-experiences and actions of 4 patients with schizophrenia is presented. PMID:23724352

  3. Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation: A Regional Conference-Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, Grant; Cayago-Gicain, Ma. Socorro

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a conference held at the Leyte Institute of Technology, Tacloban City, The Philippines. Entitled: Qualitative Approaches to Educational Evaluation, it was a cooperative venture between the College of Arts and Sciences at the Leyte Institute of Technology and the School of Education at Flinders University. A central purpose of


  4. Understanding the Coping Strategies of International Students: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international


  5. A phenomenological approach to multisource data integration: Analysing infrared and visible data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for combining multisensory data for remote sensing applications. The approach uses phenomenological models which allow the specification of discriminatory features that are based on intrinsic physical properties of imaged surfaces. Thermal and visual images of scenes are analyzed to estimate surface heat fluxes. Such analysis makes available a discriminatory feature that is closely related to the thermal capacitance of the imaged objects. This feature provides a method for labelling image regions based on physical properties of imaged objects. This approach is different from existing approaches which use the signal intensities in each channel (or an arbitrary linear or nonlinear combination of signal intensities) as features - which are then classified by a statistical or evident approach.

  6. Excessive exercise: from quantitative categorisation to a qualitative continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Olwyn; Reilly, Jackie; Kremer, John

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have yet to reach a consensus on the definition of excessive exercise, and many questions remain about the relationship between excessive exercise and eating disorders. Understanding of excessive exercise may be furthered by adoption of a broader, dimensional perspective. The current qualitative (grounded theory) study explored the continuum of women's exercise experiences, ranging from casual to more extreme regimens. Thirty-two women were interviewed, aged 16-77. Participants described stages in a continuum of exercise experiences. Overlaps were described between participant perceptions of 'normal' exercise, excessive exercise and exercise addiction. Excessive exercise and disturbed eating were described as arising from common concerns about the need to control the body, with exercise viewed as a more acceptable alternative to disturbed eating. The results provide support for a continuum approach to the understanding of excessive exercise, and highlight the utility of qualitative methods in this area. PMID:21584916

  7. Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins via a disordered high-density state: Phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weichun; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2005-05-01

    Nucleation of ordered solid phases of proteins triggers numerous phenomena in laboratory, industry, and in healthy and sick organisms. Recent simulations and experiments with protein crystals suggest that the formation of an ordered crystalline nucleus is preceded by a disordered high-density cluster, akin to a droplet of high-density liquid that has been observed with some proteins; this mechanism allowed a qualitative explanation of recorded complex nucleation kinetics curves. Here, we present a simple phenomenological theory that takes into account intermediate high-density metastable states in the nucleation process. Nucleation rate data at varying temperature and protein concentration are reproduced with high fidelity using literature values of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the system. Our calculations show that the growth rate of the near-critical and supercritical ordered clusters within the dense intermediate is a major factor for the overall nucleation rate. This highlights the role of viscosity within the dense intermediate for the formation of the ordered nucleus. The model provides an understanding of the action of additives that delay or accelerate nucleation and presents a framework within which the nucleation of other ordered protein solid phases, e.g., the sickle cell hemoglobin polymers, can be analyzed.

  8. [Understanding the meaning of leadership to the undergraduate nursing student: a phenomenological approach].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Karina Juliana; Spiri, Wilza Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the meaning of leadership to undergraduate nursing students and the expectation related to their professional practice. Phenomenology was used as theoretical framework. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students were recruited as subjects and answered the following question: "What do you understand by leadership, and how can it be applied in your professional practice?" The topics which were revealed and analyzed, Leadership Styles and Leadership Exercise, enabled us to understand that the meaning attributed to leadership is unveiled as a dynamic process, and the style adopted is the form to lead a team; therefore, an ideal leadership style does not exist. In teaching, the leadership style began to be discussed when the participant forms of personnel management were approached. In leadership practice, the dissociation between leadership theory and practice is emphasized, pointing out that integration with practice is relevant for leadership learning. PMID:23887790

  9. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  10. Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duobliene, Lilija

    2013-01-01

    The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

  11. [Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, Săo Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos S; Oliveira, Patrícia C P

    2002-01-01

    This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, Săo Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level) of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs. PMID:12244350

  12. Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan

    2010-01-21

    Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

  13. Nurses' experiences of recruitment and migration from developing countries: a phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Paul H; Wyness, Laura A; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2007-01-01

    Background There is growing concern globally at the current flows of nurse migration, particularly from low-income to middle and high-income countries. Recruitment practices of many countries such as Ireland are thought to be fuelling this rate of migration. This paper aims to establish the perceptions and opinions of those involved in the recruitment process on their role in recruitment and the effects recruitment has on both source and destination countries. Methods A purposive sample of 12 directors of nursing, from major academic teaching hospitals in Dublin and hospitals in South Africa and the Philippines were recruited. Ten overseas nurses were also recruited. A phenomenological approach was used with semi-structured interviews as the data collection method. Results There were pronounced differences in opinions between the Irish and the overseas directors on recruitment and its effects on the health systems of the source countries. Difficulties in the retention of staff were highlighted by both groups of directors. Other findings included the language and cultural differences experienced by the overseas nurses. Conclusion Recruitment of overseas nurses should not be left to the individual employer even in the presence of government guidelines. An international effort from all the involved parties is required to formulate a solution to this complex issue in order to protect both the health systems of individual countries and the nurse's right to migrate. PMID:17555575

  14. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all three groups. PMID:26163035

  15. Gauge approach to the ‘pseudogap’ phenomenology of the spectral weight in high Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, P. A.; Gambaccini, M.

    2012-11-01

    We assume the t-t?-J model to describe the CuO2 planes of hole-doped cuprates and we adapt the spin-charge gauge approach, previously developed for the t-J model, to describe the holes in terms of a spinless fermion carrying the charge (holon) and a neutral boson carrying spin 1/2 (spinon), coupled by a slave-particle gauge field. In this framework we consider the effects of a finite density of incoherent holon pairs in the normal state. Below a crossover temperature, identified as the experimental ‘upper pseudogap’, the scattering of the ‘quanta’ of the phase of the holon-pair field against holons reproduces the phenomenology of nodal Fermi arcs coexisting with a gap in the antinodal region. We thus obtain a microscopic derivation of the main features of the hole spectra due to the pseudogap. This result is obtained through a holon Green function which follows naturally from the formalism and analytically interpolates between a Fermi liquid-like and a d-wave superconductor behaviour as the coherence length of the holon-pair order parameter increases. By inserting the gauge coupling with the spinon we construct explicitly the hole Green function and calculate its spectral weight and the corresponding density of states. So we prove that the formation of holon pairs induces a depletion of states on the hole Fermi surface. We compare our results with ARPES and tunnelling experimental data. In our approach the hole preserves a finite Fermi surface until the superconducting transition, where it reduces to four nodes. Therefore we propose that the gap seen in the normal phase of cuprates is due to the thermal broadening of the SC-like peaks masking the Fermi-liquid peak in the spectral weight. The Fermi arcs then correspond to the region of the Fermi surface where the Fermi-liquid peak is unmasked.

  16. The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13


  17. The Development and Manifestation of Altruistic Caring: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, Edward H., III

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, phenomenological research provides rich information about the constructive, life span perspectives of the manifestation and development of altruism. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, this study investigated "altruism" as described by 34 older persons in a continuing care retirement community. The findings identified 13…

  18. A Phenomenological Approach to Uncovering the Essence of Grieving Experiences of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergene, Lisa Beth

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that during their time on campus, as many as half of all undergraduates will experience the death of a loved one (Balk, 2001; Balk, Walker, & Baker, 2010; Holland & Neimeyer, 2010). The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological method to uncover a thick, rich description of the lived experience of…

  19. A Computational Approach to Qualitative Analysis in Large Textual Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern. PMID:24498398

  20. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

  1. Barriers to Low Vision Rehabilitation: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southall, Kenneth; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to describe and better understand barriers to accessing low vision rehabilitation services. Methods: A qualitative description research paradigm was employed. Focus group participants were recruited through their involvement in the Montreal Barriers Study in Montreal, Canada. Six focus groups (n = 21 participants)…

  2. Resolving the Quantitative-Qualitative Dilemma: A Critical Realist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2007-01-01

    The philosophical issues underpinning the quantitative-qualitative divide in educational research are examined. Three types of argument which support a resolution are considered: pragmatism, false duality and warranty through triangulation. In addition a number of proposed strategies--alignment, sequencing, translation and triangulation--are…

  3. A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

  4. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use


  5. Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

  6. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  7. Data driven approaches vs. qualitative approaches in climate change impact and vulnerability assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebisch, Marc; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Petitta, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade the scope of climate change science has broadened significantly. 15 years ago the focus was mainly on understanding climate change, providing climate change scenarios and giving ideas about potential climate change impacts. Today, adaptation to climate change has become an increasingly important field of politics and one role of science is to inform and consult this process. Therefore, climate change science is not anymore focusing on data driven approaches only (such as climate or climate impact models) but is progressively applying and relying on qualitative approaches including opinion and expertise acquired through interactive processes with local stakeholders and decision maker. Furthermore, climate change science is facing the challenge of normative questions, such us 'how important is a decrease of yield in a developed country where agriculture only represents 3% of the GDP and the supply with agricultural products is strongly linked to global markets and less depending on local production?'. In this talk we will present examples from various applied research and consultancy projects on climate change vulnerabilities including data driven methods (e.g. remote sensing and modelling) to semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches. Furthermore, we will discuss bottlenecks, pitfalls and opportunities in transferring climate change science to policy and decision maker oriented climate services.

  8. An overview of three different approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. Part 2: Practical illustrations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Leslie; Priest, Helena; Roberts, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This paper continues the discussion of the essential features and methods inherent within three approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data presented in Part 1 (Priest et al 2002). Leslie Woods, Helena Priest and Paula Roberts explore the use of grounded theory, qualitative content analysis and narrative analysis through the use of an illustrative example. PMID:12405005

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  10. To Learn More about Learning: The Value-Added Role of Qualitative Approaches to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    As we face increasing accountability in higher education, how we measure student learning should exceed the calls for an account of learning that places students at the center. Qualitative approaches to assessment and theoretical underpinnings gleaned from the qualitative research tradition may provide a way that we can support a more holistic


  11. Psychosocial aspects of Taiwanese postpartum depression phenomenological approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Wu, H Y; Tseng, Y F; Chou, F H; Wang, S Y

    1999-01-01

    To understand how Taiwanese women experience postpartum depression, a phenomenological study was conducted. A purposive sample of six mothers participated in the present study. All the subjects' interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed. The transcription of each subject's oral description of postpartum depression experience was analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological methodology. Three categories, with ten themes, were derived from the analysis. The first category is unbalanced role-enacting. It includes these four themes: (1) the discrepancies in the husband-wife relationship; (2) the shadowy position of a daughter-in-law; (3) the incompetence as a mother; and (4) the dilemma of a woman's identity. The second category is fragmented time-space representation. The themes included are: (5) cultural bondage; (6) loss of ideals; and (7) reinterpretation of family history. The third category is the uneasy self. It contains the themes of: (8) psychological disability; (9) sense of self-dissatisfaction; and (10) the notion or behavior of destruction. PMID:10063795

  12. Skepticism and Qualitative Research: A View from Inside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the tendency to formalize qualitative research methodologies in order to clarify basic issues inherent in contemplating ethnographic research. Presents a critique of social phenomenological positions in educational research and suggests two alternative qualitative approaches, one conceived by A.W. Imershein and the other by J.W. Knight.…

  13. [Parent-doctor relations in oncology: a qualitative approach].

    PubMed

    Grau, C; Rubio, Claudia Grau; Espada, M C; Barón, Ma Carmen Espada; Fortes, M C; Fortes del Valle, Ma Carmen

    2010-01-01

    We want to learn how parents of children with cancer perceive their relationship with hospital staff, especially with doctors. We used group-based qualitative methodology. The sample is composed of 14 mothers/fathers whose children contracted the disease more than two years previously. All parents want information that is both intelligible and detailed. The word cancer has a strong social stigma and is avoided when giving information to parents and to children. Communication between doctors and parents can lead to situations of tension during diagnosis and relapses. Parents trust the professionalism of doctors. Parents also want doctors to be competent and to have human qualities. The preparation of reports by physicians is the task most criticized by parents. PMID:21233863

  14. Dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling in fluxonium qubits: a phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilla, Samuele; Hassler, Fabian; Napoli, Anna; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2015-06-01

    The fluxonium qubit has arisen as one of the most promising candidate devices for implementing quantum information in superconducting devices, since it is both insensitive to charge noise (like flux qubits) and insensitive to flux noise (like charge qubits). Here, we investigate the stability of the quantum information to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. Microscopically, this dephasing is due to the dependence of the quasiparticle transmission probability on the qubit state. We argue that on a phenomenological level the dephasing mechanism can be understood as originating from heat currents, which are flowing in the device due to possible effective temperature gradients, and their sensitivity to the qubit state. The emerging dephasing time is found to be insensitive to the number of junctions with which the superinductance of the fluxonium qubit is realized. Furthermore, we find that the dephasing time increases quadratically with the shunt-inductance of the circuit which highlights the stability of the device to this dephasing mechanism.

  15. An overview of three different approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. Part 1: Theoretical issues.

    PubMed

    Priest, Helena; Roberts, Paula; Woods, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first of two, Helena Priest, Paula Roberts and Leslie Woods discuss the essential features and methods inherent within three approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. An overview of three methodologies commonly used in nursing and healthcare research is presented: grounded theory, qualitative content analysis and narrative analysis. The paper considers the philosophical bases of the three methods and the principles inherent within each analytical approach. Key stages and steps are presented and described. PMID:12405004

  16. Exploring why girls smoke in Malaysia--a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Binns, Colin W

    2008-10-01

    The fast increase in the rate of uptake of smoking amongst adolescent girls in Malaysia is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influenced the initiation of smoking and the effects of advertisement on consolidating the smoking habit among teenage girls in the urban city of Kuala Lumpur. Qualitative research was conducted using both interviews and focus group discussions with groups of adolescent girls. Data collected was analysed using grounded thematic theory methodology and validated using methodological triangulation. The reasons for initiating smoking elicited from the study can be grouped into 4 general themes; influence by peers, influence of seeing parents smoking, misguided belief that it could alleviate stress and finally that it would impress others. Smoking imageries in media and advertisements were not primary influencing factors in the initiation of smoking but it encouraged them to progress to become regulars. Ways should be sought to empower girls to feel more confident about resisting pressures to initiate smoking. This could be done through activities such as positive peer sports, education on how to alleviate stress and curbing of smoking imageries in the media. PMID:19533855

  17. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  18. Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in


  19. A team-based approach to qualitative inquiry: the collaborative retreat.

    PubMed

    Lordly, Daphne; Maclellan, Debbie; Gingras, Jacqui; Brady, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A team of researchers undertook a collaborative qualitative study to explore beginning dietitians' life experiences and the meaning ascribed to those experiences in the context of dietetic practice. Data were collected using Seidman's three-step in-depth phenomenological interviewing method with 12 beginning dietitians who were graduates of the three participating dietetic programs. We outline the collaborative research process and highlight a writing and data analysis technique described as the collaborative retreat, a face-to-face, two-day gathering that facilitated the researchers' collective decision-making and organization, discussion, and analysis of this complex qualitative data set. Use of a listening guide aided researchers' understanding and interpretation of participant voices. Researchers concluded that the overall collaborative qualitative research process was positive and self-fulfilling, and that it resulted in multiple benefits for them individually and the research project collectively. Researchers were able to work through methodological and theoretical issues as these arose, with the assistance of technology, writing, listening, and dialogue. Relationship building and relationship maintenance emerged as factors critical to the success of the research process. Collaborative research teams that are committed to listening, writing, and dialogue will find that the collaborative retreat can be a productive site of knowledge generation and mentorship. PMID:22668845

  20. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning. PMID:23054668

  1. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  2. Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the…

  3. Learning from Tutorials: A Qualitative Study of Approaches to Learning and Perceptions of Tutorial Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This study examines differences in university students' approaches to learning when attending tutorials as well as variation in students' perceptions of tutorials as an educational arena. In-depth qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with undergraduates showed how surface and deep approaches to learning were revealed in the


  4. Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in…

  5. Different Approaches to Understanding Patients in General Practice in Denmark: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) treat more than 90% of common mental disorders. Their approaches to psychological interventions have been little studied and their process of understanding patients remains unexplored. This qualitative interview and observation study aimed to explore Danish GPs' approaches to emotional problems and mental disorders in


  6. A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

  7. The changing face of phenomenological research: traditional and American phenomenology in nursing.

    PubMed

    Caelli, K

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, phenomenological researchers in nursing have become concerned about the differences between traditional European phenomenology and the way phenomenology is frequently conducted in nursing. Indeed, Crotty asserts that much of the phenomenology conducted by nurses cannot be phenomenology because it does not espouse the constructionist epistemological position regarded by Husserl as essential to phenomenology. This article explores the differences between traditional European and American phenomenology and argues that the latter approach extends the phenomenological project in valuable and meaningful ways that are particularly appropriate for the health sciences. PMID:10947482

  8. Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

    2013-09-22

    Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one's belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24255875

  9. Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George; Lykouras, Lefteris; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24255875

  10. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential


  11. Linking Gambling and Trauma: A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Case Study Using Almaas' Transformation of Narcissism Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Solowoniuk, Jason; Boni, Lauren Julia; Kalischuk, Ruth Grant

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of pathological gambling and addiction from the perspective of writer and teacher A.H Almaas. By drawing on his Diamond Mind approach we trace the origin of addictive behaviors and pathological gambling to narcissistic wounding, which constitutes the loss of connection with the Essential…

  12. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of


  13. Criteria of Career Success among Chinese Employees: Developing a Multidimensional Scale with Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenxia; Sun, Jianmin; Guan, Yanjun; Li, Yuhui; Pan, Jingzhou

    2013-01-01

    The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure on the criteria of career success in a Chinese context. Items on the criteria of career success were obtained using a qualitative approach among 30 Chinese employees; exploratory factor analysis was conducted to select items and determine the factor structure among a new sample of


  14. Criteria of Career Success among Chinese Employees: Developing a Multidimensional Scale with Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenxia; Sun, Jianmin; Guan, Yanjun; Li, Yuhui; Pan, Jingzhou

    2013-01-01

    The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure on the criteria of career success in a Chinese context. Items on the criteria of career success were obtained using a qualitative approach among 30 Chinese employees; exploratory factor analysis was conducted to select items and determine the factor structure among a new sample of…

  15. Arts and Humanities General Education Assessment: A Qualitative Approach to Developing Program Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Jilliam N.; Harmes, J. Christine; Barry, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    A critical stage of the assessment process is the development of learning objectives. In this study, learning outcomes for general education in the arts and humanities were identified through content analysis with thematic networks. The findings provide additional support for qualitative approaches in developing program-level learning objectives.…

  16. Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitanova, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

  17. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  18. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a


  19. An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

  20. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent–professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals’ knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and “obligated” partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers’ lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families. PMID:26202906

  1. The meaning of early intervention: A parent's experience and reflection on interactions with professionals using a phenomenological ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how a parent's partnership with professionals progresses and evolves throughout the service provisioning process. Using a phenomenological ethnographic approach, the lived reality of a family is depicted as the parent walks through different stages of the Individualized Family Service Plan process over a 6-month period. Data concerning parent-professional interactions were obtained via observation notes and document reviews whereas data regarding parent perceptions were collected through multiple individual interviews. Overall, the parent conveyed her satisfaction with actual services especially regarding the professionals' knowledge and parental advocacy. However, the parent also indicated frustration with the early intervention planning process and "obligated" partnerships with providers. In particular, the providers' lack of sensitivity was noted, and greater emotional and psychological support was suggested. The overall process of developing partnerships with professionals can be excessively intrusive to the family's lives. Future research directions are offered as a contribution for the development of improved policies for early intervention programs regarding family-centered practice, utilizing the perspectives of families. PMID:26202906

  2. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  3. Phenomenological study of the Bc→BP, BV decays with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Chang, Qin; Lu, Gongru

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by the recent LHCb measurements and forthcoming great potential on Bc meson, we study the exclusive Bc→BqP, BqV decays with the perturbative QCD approach, where q =u, d, s and P and V denote the lightest pseudoscalar and vector SU(3) nonet meson, respectively. By retaining the quark transverse momentum, employing the Sudakov factors, and choosing the typical scale as the maximum virtualities of the internal particles, we calculate the Bc→B transition from factors, and our results show that about 90% of the contribution to form factors comes from the αs/π <0.3 region. The contributions of penguin and annihilation to branching ratios are very small due to the serious suppression by the CKM factors. There are some hierarchy relations among the Bc→BP, BV decays. The branching ratios for Bc→Bd ,sπ, Bd ,sρ, BsK are large and could be measured by the running LHCb.

  4. Meaning of well-being among Iranian women: A phenomenological descriptive approach

    PubMed Central

    Dalvandi, Asghar; Rohani, Camelia; Mosallanejad, Zahra; Hesamzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Well-being is a subjective concept and means different things to various people. Most of the research investigating the experience has concentrated on its problematic and pathological aspects. The aim of this research was to enhance the understanding of the contextual meaning of well-being based on personal life experiences of the participants. This will be of help to experts in the field of health for monitoring, diagnosis, nursing, treatment, and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by utilizing the Husserlian approach which involves direct exploration analysis and the description of a particular phenomenon. Data were collected by conducting unstructured, in-depth interviews of 20 Iranian young and middle-aged women. Analysis was conducted using the Colaizzi's methodology. Results: The general meaning of the phenomenon, well-being, is understood as having the feeling of peace in life by the participants in this study. Well-being was identified by six major themes, including enjoying and being satisfied with life, the feeling of belonging together (or relating to others), the feeling of being healthy, the feeling of a relationship with God, to be able to afford what one needs to buy, and life as a whole (interconnection between different aspects of a person's life). Conclusions: Well-being as a feeling of peace in life can originate from both hedonic and eudemonic perspectives. A person's state of satisfaction in different aspects of her life can lead to the experience of well-being. All these aspects should be taken into account when health practitioners plan to promote the state of well-being among people. PMID:25709686

  5. Qualitative Approach to Attempted Suicide by Adolescents and Young Adults: The (Neglected) Role of Revenge

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Paduanello, Matteo; Lachal, Jonathan; Falissard, Bruno; Sibeoni, Jordan; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide by adolescents and young adults is a major public health concern, and repetition of self-harm is an important risk factor for future suicide attempts. Objective Our purpose is to explore the perspective of adolescents directly involved in suicidal acts. Methods Qualitative study involving 16 purposively selected adolescents (sex ratio1?1) from 3 different centers. Half had been involved in repeated suicidal acts, and the other half only one. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results We found five main themes, organized in two superordinate themes. The first theme (individual dimensions of the suicide attempt) describes the issues and explanations that the adolescents saw as related to themselves; it includes the subthemes: (1) negative emotions toward the self and individual impasse, and (2) the need for some control over their lives. The second main theme (relational dimensions of attempted suicide) describes issues that adolescents mentioned that were related to others and includes three subthemes: (3) perceived impasse in interpersonal relationships, (4) communication, and (5) revenge. Conclusions Adolescents involved in suicidal behavior are stuck in both an individual and a relational impasse from which there is no exit and no apparent way to reach the other. Revenge can bridge this gap and thus transforms personal distress into a relational matter. This powerful emotion has been neglected by both clinicians and researchers. PMID:24802777

  6. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. PMID:23932101

  7. Generational Differences and Participant Experiences in Leadership Development: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedies, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examines generational cohort perceptions as they apply to civilian leadership training within the DOD. Zenger, Ulrich and Smallwood (2000) describe that a new approach for developing future leaders is necessary. Identifying whether generational perceptions of ELDP members positively or negatively impact DOD


  8. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  9. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, PĂĄdraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one


  10. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative


  11. Gifted Dropouts: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabloski, James

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of the life experiences of seven rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school investigated whether they shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that no one had asked them to share their stories prior to this study. By searching for meaning in their


  12. A Phenomenological Exploration of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore, Diana L.; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explored children's and adults' experiences with adoption. We used phenomenological methodology and individually interviewed 25 participants and included adoptive mothers and fathers, and their children, each adopted before 18 months of age. Two research questions guided the data analysis: (a) What are children's and…

  13. Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions. PMID:22953194

  14. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well. PMID:21992627

  15. Evaluation models and Brazilian health reform: a qualitative-participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhăes; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach. PMID:20549023

  16. A Phenomenological, Evaluative Approach to Developing Ecology Virtual Field Trips for Undergraduate, Non-Major College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, James A., II

    2011-12-01

    Field trips are an important source of support for the ecology curriculum. Virtual field trips (VFTs) may provide a similar experience, but limited research existed on the specific format of a VFT that would support its use to replace the actual ecology field trip (PFT). In attempting to delineate potential design considerations for the VFT, this study employed a phenomenological approach to elicit participant input on design considerations for the ecology VFT. The study focused on narration, text, still and video images, and instructor participation in the VFT. Undergraduate, non-major biology students comprised the study population. Two surveys instruments were used to gather information on VFT design from participants: an initial attitudinal survey and an expanded survey. The initial participant group of 30 individuals viewed ecology VFTs designed for the study and completed the initial survey, after which a focus group was formed to complete the expanded survey. Using information contained in the surveys, 18 unique themes were then developed from the perspectives and narratives provided by participants. Initial themes that emerged during analysis suggested that the VFT be instructor designed and that the instructor should actively participate in the VFT media. It was found that having the instructor participate in the VFT, both in the design and in the media presentation itself, was considered essential by the students. Participant developed themes suggested emphasizing the perceived strengths of the individual media components by combining media components to increases the effectiveness of the VFT and remediate individual component weaknesses. Each individual component was seen to provide a specific cognitive function within the VFT and all were seen as necessary to include in the VFT. However, the studied components increased the effectiveness of the VFT only if used with reference to those specific design considerations suggested by participant input. The results of this study found that incorporating these themes into ecology VFTs would increase the effectiveness of this teaching modality. Future inquiry should be directed toward defining those instructor attributes that are essential to their successful participation in the VFT and researching potential expansion of this model to other subject areas.

  17. Capturing the experiences of patients across multiple complex interventions: a meta-qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Fiona; Christian, Jennifer; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Hawker, Gillian; Levinson, Wendy; Naglie, Gary; Pham, Thuy-Nga; Rose, Louise; Schull, Michael; Sinha, Samir; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Upshur, Ross; Wilson, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The perspectives, needs and preferences of individuals with complex health and social needs can be overlooked in the design of healthcare interventions. This study was designed to provide new insights on patient perspectives drawing from the qualitative evaluation of 5 complex healthcare interventions. Setting Patients and their caregivers were recruited from 5 interventions based in primary, hospital and community care in Ontario, Canada. Participants We included 62 interviews from 44 patients and 18 non-clinical caregivers. Intervention Our team analysed the transcripts from 5 distinct projects. This approach to qualitative meta-evaluation identifies common issues described by a diverse group of patients, therefore providing potential insights into systems issues. Outcome measures This study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data; therefore, no outcome measures were identified. Results We identified 5 broad themes that capture the patients’ experience and highlight issues that might not be adequately addressed in complex interventions. In our study, we found that: (1) the emergency department is the unavoidable point of care; (2) patients and caregivers are part of complex and variable family systems; (3) non-medical issues mediate patients’ experiences of health and healthcare delivery; (4) the unanticipated consequences of complex healthcare interventions are often the most valuable; and (5) patient experiences are shaped by the healthcare discourses on medically complex patients. Conclusions Our findings suggest that key assumptions about patients that inform intervention design need to be made explicit in order to build capacity to better understand and support patients with multiple chronic diseases. Across many health systems internationally, multiple models are being implemented simultaneously that may have shared features and target similar patients, and a qualitative meta-evaluation approach, thus offers an opportunity for cumulative learning at a system level in addition to informing intervention design and modification. PMID:26351182

  18. Action Research as a Qualitative Research Approach in Inter-Professional Education: The QUIPPED Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education…

  19. Phenomenology of TMDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of current Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) phenomenology focusing our attention on the unpolarized TMD parton distribution function and the Sivers function. The paper introduces and comments about the new Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) TMD evolution formalism [1]. We make use of a selection of results obtained by several groups to illustrate the achievements and the failures of the simple Gaussian approach and the TMD CSS evolution formalism.

  20. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    2008-06-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.

  2. Qualitative evaluation: a critical and interpretative complementary approach to improve health programs and services.

    PubMed

    Tayabas, Luz María Tejada; León, Teresita Castillo; Espino, Joel Monarrez

    2014-01-01

    This short essay aims at commenting on the origin, development, rationale, and main characteristics of qualitative evaluation (QE), emphasizing the value of this methodological tool to evaluate health programs and services. During the past decades, different approaches have come to light proposing complementary alternatives to appraise the performance of public health programs, mainly focusing on the implementation process involved rather than on measuring the impact of such actions. QE is an alternative tool that can be used to illustrate and understand the process faced when executing health programs. It can also lead to useful suggestions to modify its implementation from the stakeholders' perspectives, as it uses a qualitative approach that considers participants as reflective subjects, generators of meanings. This implies that beneficiaries become involved in an active manner in the evaluated phenomena with the aim of improving the health programs or services that they receive. With this work we want to encourage evaluators in the field of public health to consider the use of QE as a complementary tool for program evaluation to be able to identify areas of opportunity to improve programs' implementation processes from the perspective of intended beneficiaries. PMID:25152220

  3. An Examination of Teachers' Integration of Web 2.0 Technologies in Secondary Classrooms: A Phenomenological Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boksz, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the process teachers used to change their pedagogy to deliver effective instruction using Web 2.0 tools. A phenomenological approach examined the "lived experiences" of seven secondary teachers through in-depth interviews giving this study an in-depth qualitative analysis of teachers and technology. The widening


  4. An Examination of Teachers' Integration of Web 2.0 Technologies in Secondary Classrooms: A Phenomenological Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boksz, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the process teachers used to change their pedagogy to deliver effective instruction using Web 2.0 tools. A phenomenological approach examined the "lived experiences" of seven secondary teachers through in-depth interviews giving this study an in-depth qualitative analysis of teachers and technology. The widening…

  5. Phenomenological models.

    PubMed

    Braby, L A

    1991-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. PMID:1811477

  6. Qualitative Investigations into Schools and Schooling. Volume 11, Readings on Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Qualitative approaches in educational research are challenging traditional postivistic, psychometric paradigms by emphasizing: (1) close contact over detachment; (2) multiple techniques in obtaining data; (3) bottom-up inductive frameworks; and (4) phenomenological approaches. Section 1, "Ethnographic Investigations into High Schools," includes…

  7. Qualitative Investigations into Schools and Schooling. Volume 11, Readings on Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele, Ed.

    Qualitative approaches in educational research are challenging traditional postivistic, psychometric paradigms by emphasizing: (1) close contact over detachment; (2) multiple techniques in obtaining data; (3) bottom-up inductive frameworks; and (4) phenomenological approaches. Section 1, "Ethnographic Investigations into High Schools," includes


  8. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to reconstruct guidelines that may govern community patterns. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive phenomenological approach. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive phenomenological approach. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497

  10. Clients' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients' experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients' experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in "A sense of being in communion with self and others" theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients' ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265

  11. Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (BPR) is person-centered and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Nevertheless, the person-centered approach is lacking firm evidence regarding outcomes, and empirical studies regarding clients’ experiences of this particular model are needed. A qualitative content analysis of 10 transcribed semistructured individual interviews was used to describe and explore clients’ experiences of the BPR during an implementation project in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in “A sense of being in communion with self and others” theme, consisting of three categories: increased self-understanding, getting new perspectives, and being in a trusting relationship. The results showed that clients do not always recognize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. The guidelines of the approach are intended to support the clients’ ability to participate in decision making regarding their own care. More research about efficacy of different rehabilitation approaches and exploration of fidelity to guidelines of rehabilitation programs are required. PMID:24717265

  12. The teaching-learning approach and critical thinking development: a qualitative exploration of Taiwanese nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chih; Han, Chin-Yen; Pan, I-Ju; Chen, Li-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. This study uses a qualitative approach to explore how teaching strategy affects the development of critical thinking (CT) among Taiwanese baccalaureate-level nursing students. Data collected from 109 students' reflection reports were analyzed using content analysis. Three categories generated by the analysis were the teaching-learning strategy, enhancing CT, and transiting into a different learning style. The teaching-learning strategy consisted of concept mapping, question and answer, and real-life case studies. CT was enhanced alternately by self-directed learning, the realization of the gap between known and unknown, and connecting the gap between theoretical nursing knowledge and clinical practice. The study results emphasize participants' perceptions of becoming a critical thinker, turning into an active learner, and eventually achieving self-confidence. These learning effects invest the wisdom of teaching-learning with a far-reaching significance. PMID:25839955

  13. The relationship between marriage and family therapists and complementary and alternative medicine approaches: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Becvar, Dorothy S; Caldwell, Karen L; Winek, Jon L

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we delineate the qualitative phase of a mixed-method research study focused on understanding the relationship between Clinical Members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) and complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Based on an analysis of the data derived from telephone interviews with 54 respondents, we describe four themes: definitional issues, depth of awareness of CAM, fit with MFT, and ethical considerations. Our discussion focuses on the findings of this phase, considerations from the quantitative phase, and reflections on the research study as a whole. While acknowledging the limitations of the study, we conclude that the growing awareness of and involvement with CAM approaches and practitioners among MFTs suggest a need for further education for both professionals and clients. We also note the importance of additional research support for the use of CAM practices. PMID:16468685

  14. A Mother’s Heart is Weighed Down with Stones: A Phenomenological Approach to the Experience of Transnational Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere “gender false consciousness.” This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers’ undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family. PMID:19101786

  15. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594925

  16. Relatives' experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives' experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives' experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme "To meet the clients' needs" consisting of three categories: "Dependence on staffs' competence," "Responsibility for user involvement," and "The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers." The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients' needs related to outcome of care. Relatives' perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives' role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives. PMID:24717266

  17. Relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation (BPR) approach is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual's unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client's possibilities for recovery by their everyday relationship. Relatives have, however, traditionally had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an important aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was thus to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR approach. Ten relatives of clients in mental health services taking part in the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence on staffs’ competence,” “Responsibility for user involvement,” and “The necessity for coordination between authorities and caregivers.” The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in future development of BPR. Further research about the relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies that compare different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives. PMID:24717266

  18. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    PubMed

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. PMID:26196088

  19. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature (T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours (t sun), and wind speed (U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  20. Evaluating the Process of Online Health Information Searching: A Qualitative Approach to Exploring Consumer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiksdal, Alexander S; Kumbamu, Ashok; Jadhav, Ashutosh S; Cocos, Cristian; Nelsen, Laurie A; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is a common resource that patients and consumers use to access health-related information. Multiple practical, cultural, and socioeconomic factors influence why, when, and how people utilize this tool. Improving the delivery of health-related information necessitates a thorough understanding of users’ searching-related needs, preferences, and experiences. Although a wide body of quantitative research examining search behavior exists, qualitative approaches have been under-utilized and provide unique perspectives that may prove useful in improving the delivery of health information over the Internet. Objective We conducted this study to gain a deeper understanding of online health-searching behavior in order to inform future developments of personalizing information searching and content delivery. Methods We completed three focus groups with adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, which explored perceptions of online health information searching. Participants were recruited through flyers and classifieds advertisements posted throughout the community. We audio-recorded and transcribed all focus groups, and analyzed data using standard qualitative methods. Results Almost all participants reported using the Internet to gather health information. They described a common experience of searching, filtering, and comparing results in order to obtain information relevant to their intended search target. Information saturation and fatigue were cited as main reasons for terminating searching. This information was often used as a resource to enhance their interactions with health care providers. Conclusions Many participants viewed the Internet as a valuable tool for finding health information in order to support their existing health care resources. Although the Internet is a preferred source of health information, challenges persist in streamlining the search process. Content providers should continue to develop new strategies and technologies aimed at accommodating diverse populations, vocabularies, and health information needs. PMID:25348028

  1. A Qualitative Study of Parenting Stress, Coping, and Discipline Approaches among Low-Income Traumatized Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kistin, Caroline J; Radesky, Jenny; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Tompson, Martha C; O’Connor, Erin; Silverstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of harsh discipline is a risk factor for child maltreatment and is more common among families in which mothers have previously experienced trauma. We sought to understand the stressors experienced by low-income traumatized mothers and the perceived impact of those stressors on their discipline approaches. Methods We conducted 30 in-depth qualitative interviews with low-income mothers with a history of trauma. We triangulated the results with experts in behavioral health, and with a subset of the informants themselves, to ensure data reliability. Results We identified the following themes: 1. Repetitive child behaviors are the most stressful. 2. Mothers commonly cope by taking time away; this can result in prolonged unsupervised periods for children. 3. Harsh discipline is used deliberately to prevent future behavior problems. 4. Mothers relate their children’s negative behaviors to their own past experiences; in particular, those who have suffered domestic violence fear that their children will be violent adults. Conclusions Our findings suggest that trauma-informed interventions to promote positive discipline and prevent child maltreatment should help mothers predict and plan for stressful parent-child interactions; identify supports that will allow them to cope with stress without leaving their children for prolonged periods; and explicitly address long-term goals for their children and the impact of different discipline approaches. PMID:24633062

  2. Treatment decision-making among Canadian youth with severe haemophilia: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Lane, S J; Walker, I; Chan, A K; Heddle, N M; Poon, M-C; Minuk, L; Jardine, L; Arnold, E; Sholapur, N; Webert, K E

    2015-03-01

    The first generation of young men using primary prophylaxis is coming of age. Important questions regarding the management of severe haemophilia with prophylaxis persist: Can prophylaxis be stopped? At what age? To what effect? Can the regimen be individualized? The reasons why some individuals discontinue or poorly comply with prophylaxis are not well understood. These issues have been explored using predominantly quantitative research approaches, yielding little insight into treatment decision-making from the perspectives of persons with haemophilia (PWH). Positioning the PWH as a source of expertise about their condition and its management, we undertook a qualitative study: (i) to explore and understand the lived experience of young men with severe haemophilia A or B and (ii) to identify the factors and inter-relationships between factors that affect young men's treatment decision-making. This manuscript reports primarily on the second objective. A modified Straussian, grounded theory methodology was used for data collection (interviews) and preliminary analysis. The study sample, youth aged 15-29, with severe haemophilia A or B, was chosen selectively and recruited through three Canadian Haemophilia Treatment Centres. We found treatment decision-making to be multi-factorial and used the Framework method to analyze the inter-relationships between factors. A typology of four distinct approaches to treatment was identified: lifestyle routine prophylaxis, situational prophylaxis, strict routine prophylaxis and no prophylaxis. Standardized treatment definitions (i.e.: 'primary' and 'secondary', 'prophylaxis') do not adequately describe the ways participants treat. Naming the variation of approaches documented in this study can improve PWH/provider communication, treatment planning and education. PMID:25296666

  3. Decoding the integrated approach to yoga therapy: Qualitative evidence based conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Villacres, Maria Del Carmen; Jagannathan, Aarti; Nagarathna, R; Ramakrsihna, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define, decode, and append to the conceptual frame-work of the integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT). Materials and Methods: Four stakeholders who followed two in-patients with depression over a period of 2 weeks in the residential center Arogyadhama (of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samsthana, Bangalore, India) were interviewed before the start of the IAYT treatment and prior to discharge of the patient. The patients were also interviewed pre and post and were observed once during their session. The data from the audio recordings from eight in-depth interviews were transcribed manually and qualitative analysis was conducted. Results: The conceptual frame-work of IAYT depicts that patient related factors (“co-operation of patient”, “patients awareness of his/her condition”), therapist related factors (“ability to guide”, “the assistance to the patients”, “explanation of the exercises”) and treatment related factors (“combination of psychiatric or Ayurvedic medication with yoga”, “counseling during the IAYT treatment”, duration of treatment), play an integrated role in reaching the “aim of IAYT” and experiencing “improvements and changes”. Conclusion: The IAYT is a holistic program and the ability of the patient to cooperate with and integrate the available factors (therapist related and treatment related) could enable best results. PMID:25035604

  4. Perception and awareness of patients regarding ovarian cysts in Peshawar, Pakistan: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Almas, Iffat; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Azhar, Saira; Ismail, Mohammad; Hussain, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Women health is one of the key issues in developing countries including Pakistan. To improve the women's quality of life, awareness about health is necessary. The objective of this study is to evaluate the patient's perception regarding ovarian cyst and the awareness of the patients about the symptoms and health management in ovarian cyst. Material and methods A qualitative approach was used to conduct this study. An interview guide was prepared for the data collection. The interview guide had 29 questions which were asked from the patients. The duration of each interview was about 15–20 minutes and conducted in native language (Urdu) which was then translated to English language for the purpose of documentation. Snowball technique was adopted and the sample size was estimated from the point of saturation. Results All the interviews were conducted in the Gynecology ward of Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, Pakistan. Results were thematically analyzed. Thematic content analysis yielded 5 major themes: 1) Irregular menstrual cycle, 2) nausea and vomiting, 3) difficulty in emptying urinary bladder completely, 4) emergency due to severe pain, and 5) Physical works. Conclusions There is a need of time that patients should be counseled at the time of discharge of the patient from the hospital. This is the right of the patient that they know about their disease and benefits of the successful treatment outcomes. Compliance can only be achieved through the counseling of the patients, resulting good quality of life and less economic burden over the patients. PMID:26843848

  5. Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries in Peru: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of interventions on road traffic injuries (RTI) going beyond the assessment of impact to include factors underlying success or failure is an important complement to standard impact evaluations. We report here how we used a qualitative approach to assess current interventions implemented to reduce RTIs in Peru. Methods We performed in-depth interviews with policymakers and technical officers involved in the implementation of RTI interventions to get their insight on design, implementation and evaluation aspects. We then conducted a workshop with key stakeholders to analyze the results of in-depth interviews, and to further discuss and identify key programmatic considerations when designing and implementing RTI interventions. We finally performed brainstorming sessions to assess potential system-wide effects of a selected intervention (Zero Tolerance), and to identify adaptation and redesign needs for this intervention. Results Key programmatic components were consistently identified that should be considered when designing and implementing RTI interventions. They include effective and sustained political commitment and planning; sufficient and sustained budget allocation; training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of implemented policies; multisectoral participation; and strong governance and accountability. Brainstorming sessions revealed major negative effects of the selected intervention on various system building blocks. Conclusions Our approach revealed substantial caveats in current RTI interventions in Peru, and fundamental negative effects on several components of the sectors and systems involved. It also highlighted programmatic issues that should be applied to guarantee an effective implementation and evaluation of these policies. The findings from this study were discussed with key stakeholders for consideration in further designing and planning RTI control interventions in Peru. PMID:22269578

  6. A simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, M.-P. J.; Mortensen, L. E.; Veihe, A.; Jensen, N. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are highly susceptible to landslides. Following recent landslide incidents, Jarðfeingi (Faroese Earth and Energy Directorate) has pointed out, that the risk of human lives or of property being lost or affected by landslides may be increasing. This paper aims at presenting and testing a simple qualitative approach for mapping regional landslide susceptibility in the Faroe Islands, using few key parameters. The susceptibility model holds information about both landslide initiation areas and runout zones. Landslide initiation areas are determined from slope angle thresholds (25°-40°) and soil cover data, while runout zones are delineated using the angle of reach approach taking into account the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path, which has not been considered in earlier studies. Data input is obtained from a landslide database containing 67 debris flows throughout the Faroe Islands. Angle of reach values differ significantly with the presence/absence of geological benches in the runout path. Two values of angle of reach, 21.5° and 27.6°, are used for calculating runout zones. The landslide susceptibility model is tested in a study area at the town of KlaksvĂ­k in the northern part of the Faroe Islands. A map validation comparing predicted susceptibility zones with a validation-dataset of 87 actual landslides in the study area reveal that 69% and 92%, respectively, of actual landslide initiation areas and runout zones are correctly predicted. Moreover 87% of the actual landslides are included in the overall predicted landslide susceptibility areas.

  7. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

  8. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and


  9. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective and sustainable adaptation measures for Hanoi City as well as for Vietnam as a whole. PMID:25511880

  10. The Case Study as a Research Methodology: Difficulties and Advantages of Integrating the Positivistic, Phenomenological and Grounded Theory Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, V. K.

    Discussion of different types of methodological approaches, and description of the research methods used to study an innovative secondary school in England, make clear why the case study was chosen as the method to employ. The methodological approaches considered included the positivist or scientific method, involving external observation and the…

  11. Qualitative mathematical modelling of coupled coast and estuary morphodynamics: a modified Boolean network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2011-12-01

    A major challenge in coastal geomorphology is the prediction of morphological change at a meso-scale (10 to 100 km; 10 to 100 yr). This scale sits awkwardly between understanding of geomorphological processes at the micro-scale, and broader aspects of coastal evolution informed by the Holocene stratigraphic record. In this paper, we explore the potential of a new kind of qualitative mathematical model implemented at a system level. Qualitative models derive predictions from the structure of the system rather from the detailed physics of the underlying processes. Although systems thinking is well established in geomorphology methodologies for converting system diagrams into simulation tools have not been widely investigated. In a recent Defra-funded project in the UK, a Boolean network approach was piloted and applied to the simulation of generic aspects of estuary response to environmental and anthropogenic forcing. We build on this to present a generic approach to the construction of system diagrams for estuaries and adjacent open coasts and their conversion into a network graph. In a Boolean model, each node of this graph is assigned a binary value, the state of which is determined by a logical function that specifies the combined influence of other nodes to which it is connected. System evolution is simulated by specifying a set of initial conditions and repeatedly evaluating the logical functions until an equilibrium condition is reached (either a steady state or a cyclical sequence between two end states). In our enhanced Boolean scheme, changes in morphology are allowed to feed back into intrinsic process variables (e.g. estuary waves or tidal prism), although some processes are externally imposed (e.g. sea-level rise). Arbitrary time lags condition the response of morphology to a change in process, such that some landforms adjust more rapidly than others. We also present a simulator architecture based around a solver and externally specified model components. Model logic (i.e. the formalisation of the geomorphological knowledge) is encapsulated in a set of external functions that are defined by the user. The system components and the interactions between them can thus be altered without any modification to the solver. Evaluation of the model against selected real estuaries reveals broadly plausible behaviour. However, customisation of the generic functions is required to resolve detailed aspects of imposed geology, physical process regime and management history. Formalisation of geomorphological knowledge into consistent systems diagrams and Boolean logical functions can be extremely difficult. The functions chosen must be complex enough to accommodate a useful range of system behaviour, but must also be consistent such that the predicted behaviour constitutes an emergent property of the system rather than a consequence of logical inconsistency in its definition. A trade-off exists between the number of components used to define the system and the tractability of obtaining a logically consistent set of model functions. Further experimentation is needed to find this optimum.

  12. When expressions make impressions—Nurses’ narratives about meeting severely ill patients in home nursing care: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to understanding

    PubMed Central

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Enmarker, Ingela; Hellzen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) working in homecare encounter severely ill and palliative patients whose expressions may cause ethical challenges and influence their daily work. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate and interpret the meaning of nurses’ lived experiences when meeting these patients. Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 RNs working in home nursing care. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim to a text and interpreted by a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The meaning of the RNs’ lived experience of patients’ expressions was formulated into four themes. The first theme, Being open for the presence of the Other, includes two subthemes: “Sensing vulnerability” and “Empathizing with.” The second theme, Being satisfied, entails the subthemes, “Feeling exceptional” and “Being trusted.” The third theme, Being frustrated, contains the subthemes, “Being disappointed” and “Being angry.” The fourth and final theme, Being ambivalent, includes one subtheme: “Being generous or reserved.” Patients’ expressions that make impressions on nurses create emotional waves. Expressions leave impressions that call upon the nurse, and confront her with taking the risk of letting intuition and pre-reflexive feelings gain entry to her care. Allowing for the Other's presence is seen as a precondition, which means facing humanity and sensing a vulnerability in herself as well as in the Other. Understanding and balancing this emotional dimension in care seems to cause confusion and distress within the nurses. Realizing how their feelings may lead to either generosity or aloofness towards the patient is upsetting. Our interpretation suggests that these impressions echo confusion according to the role of being a professional nurse. There is a need to pay more attention to how the emotional dimension in care is understood and impacts the way nurses perform their professional role. PMID:24138930

  13. Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005 in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify barriers of reduce the cesarean section rate in Iran, as perceived by obstetricians and midwives as the main behavioral change target groups. Methods A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis. Results After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable. Conclusion Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package. PMID:21729279

  14. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. PMID:25492274

  15. Can An American Do Semiotic Phenomenology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Divided into three sections, this paper explores semiotic phenomenology as a paradigm for communicology (a translation for the new French "comunicologie" and the "German Kommunikationgemeinschaft," which are used increasingly to suggest a qualitative and human signification as opposed to the quantitative and technological reference of…

  16. A Phenomenological Study on Lack of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research and Reviews, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out the underlying reasons about the lack of motivation at academic activities concerning Attribution Theory. Attribution Theory trys to understand how the people answer "why" question and how they do casual explanations. This research is a qualitative based research. It used the phenomenological…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Financial Knowledge Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduku, Enita Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the influence of financial knowledge application and financial debts or freedom of traditional Texas college students. The study identified how financial knowledge application influenced whether traditional Texas college students do or do not accumulate debt. The study…

  18. Skyrmion phenomenology in the standard electroweak model

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.G.; Tye, S.H.

    1986-03-01

    If the Higgs-boson mass in the standard electroweak model is large, the Higgs sector has a Skyrmionlike soliton solution. Its properties are studied here. Also resonances in the WW channel are studied in a phenomenological approach.

  19. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity. PMID:23035337

  20. Learning through the Arts in Denmark: A Positive Psychology Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This article disseminates the results of a qualitative, case-based study carried on in Danish schools in 2008-2011. Results show that learning outputs can be seen as more than academic achievement, and the arts' contribution to learning can be viewed as more than the ancillary support of academic performance. Learning within an artful mindset


  1. The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban…

  2. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  3. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  4. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57


  5. The Department-Wide Approach to Improving Faculty Instruction in Higher Education: A Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1995-01-01

    A Tel Aviv University (Israel) study applied qualitative methods to evaluate a model for improvement of university teaching. A departmental instruction specialist treats instructional quality issues comprehensively within a department. Two years of implementation in the physics department have resulted in increased instructional quality, faculty…

  6. The Relationship between Health Professionals and the Elderly Patient Facing Drug Prescription: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, Fernando; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Lefevre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo; Spinola, Aracy Witt de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at identifying the relationship between the elderly patient facing drug prescription and health professionals, an exploratory and descriptive study of a qualitative cut was carried out using semi-structured interviews. To this end, the Collective Subject Discourse analysis technique was employed. Thirty elderly patients living in the urban


  7. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Audience's Perceptions of Creativity in Online Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McStay, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I seek to inquire upon audience's perceptions of creativity in online advertising--a heretofore poorly understood area. This paper initially outlines current academic understanding of creativity in online advertising, mainly derived from quantitative assessments. It then advances a qualitative methodology including diary-interviews


  8. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making


  9. Oxygen distribution in tumors: A qualitative analysis and modeling study providing a novel Monte Carlo approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To construct a Monte Carlo (MC)-based simulation model for analyzing the dependence of tumor oxygen distribution on different variables related to tumor vasculature [blood velocity, vessel-to-vessel proximity (vessel proximity), and inflowing oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2})]. Methods: A voxel-based tissue model containing parallel capillaries with square cross-sections (sides of 10 ÎŒm) was constructed. Green's function was used for diffusion calculations and Michaelis-Menten's kinetics to manage oxygen consumption. The model was tuned to approximately reproduce the oxygenational status of a renal carcinoma; the depth oxygenation curves (DOC) were fitted with an analytical expression to facilitate rapid MC simulations of tumor oxygen distribution. DOCs were simulated with three variables at three settings each (blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO{sub 2}), which resulted in 27 combinations of conditions. To create a model that simulated variable oxygen distributions, the oxygen tension at a specific point was randomly sampled with trilinear interpolation in the dataset from the first simulation. Six correlations between blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO{sub 2} were hypothesized. Variable models with correlated parameters were compared to each other and to a nonvariable, DOC-based model to evaluate the differences in simulated oxygen distributions and tumor radiosensitivities for different tumor sizes. Results: For tumors with radii ranging from 5 to 30 mm, the nonvariable DOC model tended to generate normal or log-normal oxygen distributions, with a cut-off at zero. The pO{sub 2} distributions simulated with the six-variable DOC models were quite different from the distributions generated with the nonvariable DOC model; in the former case the variable models simulated oxygen distributions that were more similar to in vivo results found in the literature. For larger tumors, the oxygen distributions became truncated in the lower end, due to anoxia, but smaller tumors showed undisturbed oxygen distributions. The six different models with correlated parameters generated three classes of oxygen distributions. The first was a hypothetical, negative covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO-C scenario); the second was a hypothetical positive covariance between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (VPO+C scenario); and the third was the hypothesis of no correlation between vessel proximity and pO{sub 2} (UP scenario). The VPO-C scenario produced a distinctly different oxygen distribution than the two other scenarios. The shape of the VPO-C scenario was similar to that of the nonvariable DOC model, and the larger the tumor, the greater the similarity between the two models. For all simulations, the mean oxygen tension decreased and the hypoxic fraction increased with tumor size. The absorbed dose required for definitive tumor control was highest for the VPO+C scenario, followed by the UP and VPO-C scenarios. Conclusions: A novel MC algorithm was presented which simulated oxygen distributions and radiation response for various biological parameter values. The analysis showed that the VPO-C scenario generated a clearly different oxygen distribution from the VPO+C scenario; the former exhibited a lower hypoxic fraction and higher radiosensitivity. In future studies, this modeling approach might be valuable for qualitative analyses of factors that affect oxygen distribution as well as analyses of specific experimental and clinical situations.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Fitness Instructors' Experiences Leading an Exercise Program for Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzal, Carolyn E.; Wright, F. Virginia; Stephens, Samantha; Schneiderman-Walker, Jane; Feldman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Children with arthritis face challenges when they try to increase their physical activity. The study's objective was to identify elements of a successful community-based exercise program for children with arthritis by investigating the perspectives of fitness instructors who led the program. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach

  11. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  12. The population health approach: A qualitative study of conceptual and operational definitions for leaders in Canadian healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Huynh, Tai; Sebold, Anne; Harvey, Jean; Neudorf, Cory; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The population health approach is increasingly recognized for its role in health system reform; however, its broad scope and definition have been criticized for being a barrier to clear communication. This qualitative study examined the way senior healthcare leaders in Canada conceptualize and operationalize the population health approach in planning and decision-making. Findings: Core elements of the population health approach included focusing on health and wellness rather than illness, taking a population rather than individual orientation, understanding needs and solutions through community outreach, addressing health disparities/health in vulnerable groups, addressing the social determinants of health and inter-sectoral action and partnerships. Conclusion: The population health approach is increasingly recognized for its role in reducing healthcare demand and contributing to health system sustainability. This study demonstrated the growing need to clarify terminology among multiform partners to establish a foundation for future healthcare integration and inter-sectoral action. PMID:26770704

  13. Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.

    Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…

  14. Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Ed

    In this paper the role of qualitative research in special education is examined. The implications of an earlier naturalistic study are cited, an important one being the tendency in the literature to oversimplify the naturalistic paradigm; and the case is made that implementing such a paradigm is a "labor intensive" approach to research in which no…

  15. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  16. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  17. [Helpful factors in day treatment for alcohol dependent patients--a qualitative narrative interview approach].

    PubMed

    Wahl, Sonja; Brockhaus, Bettina; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Röhrig, Jeanette; Berner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Day treatment for alcohol dependent patients is still uncommon in Germany. The presented study aims to answer the question how patients experience this kind of treatment and which factors they perceive as important for their treatment success.7 interviews with alcohol-dependent patients were conducted. Data were analysed with qualitative methods and the help of a computer-supported coding system.We found several factors that are relevant for patients, especially important are factors concerning the therapeutical relationship as well as factors that are specific for day treatment.We can conclude that day treatment is seen as helpful to improve dependency symptoms by the patients. PMID:22407527

  18. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    PubMed

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It is a conception developed by Merleau-Ponty, especially in his later ontology of nature, and one that is shared by American pragmatist philosopher of science, C.S. Peirce (1839-1914). For both philosophers, meaning must be understood in terms of an ontology which is relational rather than atomistic, and dynamic or processual rather than static and substance-based. For Merleau-Ponty this is an experientially-derived ontology; for Peirce it is a more conceptually-based one. In this paper, I explore this connection between these two philosophers in two stages. The first is by reference to Peirce's theory of signs or semiotics. More specifically, I look at the application of this theory to the study of biological processes as developed in Peirce-inspired biosemiotics. In the light of this, I suggest that Merleau-Ponty's account of intentional relations in nature might be articulated as semiotic relations, and can serve as a philosophical basis for a non-reductive biological science. I then turn to questions relating to the ontology of nature. I explore Merleau-Ponty's experientially-based "ontology of flesh" and Peirce's distinctive form of naturalism to show affinities at this ontological level. These affinities consist in commitments to a reality that includes possibility, meaning, temporality, and final causation - that is, an ontology which is far more inclusive than that of conventional positivistic science. Peirce's broader scientific metaphysics enables us to extend Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological naturalism beyond the biological to the physical sciences. Whilst Merleau-Ponty's ontology of nature provides the experiential basis necessary for a critique of scientism, Peirce establishes the relevance of that ontology for a re-conceived empirical science. PMID:26272798

  19. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among a purposive sample of 50 current adult users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. Results Several important themes emerged. Although most users started with “closed system” products, the majority switched from that type of e-cigarette to “open system” devices. Responses were diverse on preferred flavors, although mixing flavors was a common practice. Many users had difficulty estimating the total amount of e-liquid they used within a given period and described an iterative process in which they experimented with different nicotine levels to determine their preferred concentration. Reported frequency of use and puffing behaviors varied greatly between users and also differed from the way traditional cigarettes are smoked. Conclusion Results from this study have implications for developing appropriate survey metrics for e-cigarette surveillance, the regulation of flavorings, and reporting of e-cigarette product constituents. PMID:26766848

  20. A qualitative study of the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches in overweight/obese Australian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dieting has historically been the main behavioural treatment paradigm for overweight/obesity, although a non-dieting paradigm has more recently emerged based on the criticisms of the original dieting approach. There is a dearth of research contrasting why these approaches are adopted. To address this, we conducted a qualitative investigation into the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese Australian adults. Methods Grounded theory was used inductively to generate a model of themes contrasting the determinants of dieting and non-dieting approaches based on the perspectives of 21 overweight/obese adults. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Results Several categories emerged which distinguished between the adoption of a dieting or non-dieting approach. These categories included the focus of each approach (weight/image or lifestyle/health behaviours); internal or external attributions about dieting failure; attitudes towards established diets, and personal autonomy. Personal autonomy was also influenced by another category; the perceived knowledge and self-efficacy about each approach, with adults more likely to choose an approach they knew more about and were confident in implementing. The time perspective of change (short or long-term) and the perceived identity of the person (fat/dieter or healthy person) also emerged as determinants of dieting or non-dieting approaches respectively. Conclusions The model of determinants elicited from this study assists in understanding why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted, from the perspectives and experiences of overweight/obese adults. Understanding this decision-making process can assist clinicians and public health researchers to design and tailor dieting and non-dieting interventions to population subgroups that have preferences and characteristics suitable for each approach. PMID:23249115

  1. Medicine and the individual: is phenomenology the answer?

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania L

    2012-10-01

    The issue of how to incorporate the individual's first-hand experience of illness into broader medical understanding is a major question in medical theory and practice. In a philosophical context, phenomenology, with its emphasis on the subject's perception of phenomena as the basis for knowledge and its questioning of naturalism, seems an obvious candidate for addressing these issues. This is a review of current phenomenological approaches to medicine, looking at what has motivated this philosophical approach, the main problems it faces and suggesting how it might become a useful philosophical tool within medicine, with its own individual, but interrelated, contribution to make to current medical debates. After the general background, there is a brief summary of phenomenological ideas and their current usage in a medical context. Next is a critique of four key claims within current phenomenological medical works, concerning both the role phenomenology plays and the supposedly clear divide between phenomenology and other approaches. There are significant problems within these claims, largely because they overlook the complexity of the questions they consider. Finally, there is some more in-depth examination of phenomenology itself and the true complexity of phenomenological debate concerning subjectivity. The aim is to show that it will be both more productive and truer to phenomenology itself, if we use phenomenology as a philosophical method for explicating and gaining deeper understanding of complex and fundamental problems, which are central to medicine, rather than as providing simple, but flawed solutions. PMID:22995017

  2. Adolescent and young adult perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Bunting, H; Baggett, A; Grigor, J

    2013-06-01

    Understanding consumer attitudes towards foods remains critically important for manufacturers, retailers and governing bodies. Regulation within the food industry should therefore support food choice whilst protecting members of society. There have been concerns regarding beverages marketed as 'energy drinks' and the levels of caffeine in these drinks. Focus groups were used to assess participants' perceptions and understandings of caffeinated energy drinks across three demographic age groups: 16-21, 22-28 and 29-35 year olds with the narrow age range providing a focused investigation of the demographic group specifically targeted by industry. Thematic analysis revealed a number of differences in participants' perceptions of energy drinks between age groups in relation to themes of advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy seeking, gender, sugar, peer influence, product attributes, safety and taste. Future implications for the use of qualitative research within the health promotion industry are discussed. PMID:23419966

  3. Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking. PMID:20181322

  4. Learning Processes and Trajectories for the Reduction of Antibiotic Use in Pig Farming: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fortané, Nicolas; Bonnet-Beaugrand, Florence; Hémonic, Anne; Samedi, Carole; Savy, Arnaud; Belloc, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011, French public policy has been encouraging a reduction in the use of antibiotics in animal farming. The aim of this article is to look at how some farms have already managed to lower their consumption of antibiotics, and to highlight the levers of change in farming health practices. Our research uses a qualitative study based on 21 semi-structured interviews with farmers and veterinarians in the French pig-farming sector. We use the notion of “trajectory of change” to examine, over time, the intersection of the technical, economic, social and organisational determinants which affect the reduced use of antibiotics. The “learning process” concept makes it possible to take account of the way in which the actors assimilate, appropriate and implement new health practices. We have identified three interdependent levels of learning: technical learning, cognitive learning and organisational learning.

  5. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members, donations from neighbors and the community, and additional benefits from employers. However, insured households overall had positive perceptions of insurance. PMID:25308817

  6. Ethics Review for Qualitative Inquiry: Adopting a Values-Based, Facilitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Kate; Reid, Adela

    2007-01-01

    In many institutions, the institutional review board/research ethics board (IRB/REB) uses the traditional audit approach that emerged from the biomedical community (e.g., Nuremburg Code, Belmont Report) to review the ethical acceptability of research using humans as participants. This approach is guided by participant protection and risk…

  7. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant.

    PubMed

    Beatty, William S; Kesler, Dylan C; Webb, Elisabeth B; Raedeke, Andrew H; Naylor, Luke W; Humburg, Dale D

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted conservation plans can be developed to support planning for habitat management and evaluation of long-term climate effects. PMID:24130732

  8. When nightclub security agents assault clients more insight through a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; De Puy, Jacqueline; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, aggressions by security agents of nightclubs on clients increased from 6% to 10% among community violence situations encountered at the Violence Medical Unit (VMU) at the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. Most victims were young men who had been drinking alcohol before the assault. About one quarter (25.7%) presented with one or several fractures, all of them in the head area. (For more details, refer to the previous article "When nightclub security agents assault clients" published in 2012(1).) Following this first study, we performed a second qualitative study in order to bring more information about the context and highlight victims' behaviors and experiences. Four themes emerged: how the assault began; the assault itself; third-party involvement; and the psychological state of victims when they consulted the VMU. The findings of this second study complemented the statistical results of the first study by showing under what circumstances security agents of nightclubs respond with physical violence to situations they consider a threat to security. Furthermore, the study described consequences for the victims that could be quite serious. Our findings support the need for nightclubs to improve selection and training of security staff. PMID:25066172

  9. Factors underlying diagnostic delay in tuberculosis patients in a rural area in Tanzania: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays. PMID:20878458

  10. Understanding Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation in Rural Communities: A Combined Qualitative/Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Kori B.; Willoughby, Michael; Cadigan, R. Jean; Perrin, Eliana M.; Randolph, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with breastfeeding in rural communities. Methods We combined qualitative and quantitative data from the Family Life Project, consisting of: (1) a longitudinal cohort study (N = 1292) of infants born September 2003–2004 and (2) a parallel ethnographic study (N = 30 families). Demographic characteristics, maternal and infant health factors, and health services were used to predict breastfeeding initiation and discontinuation using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. Ethnographic interviews identified additional reasons for not initiating or continuing breastfeeding. Results Fifty-five percent of women initiated breastfeeding and 18% continued for at least 6 months. Maternal employment at 2 months and receiving WIC were associated with decreased breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Ethnographic data suggested that many women had never even considered breastfeeding and often discontinued breastfeeding due to discomfort, embarrassment, and lack of assistance. Conclusions Breastfeeding rates in these rural communities lag behind national averages. Opportunities for increasing breastfeeding in rural communities include enhancing workplace support, maximizing the role of WIC, increasing hospital breastfeeding assistance, and creating a social environment in which breastfeeding is normative. PMID:17636458

  11. A new mathematical approach for qualitative modeling of the insulin-TOR-MAPK network

    PubMed Central

    Nijhout, H. Frederik; Callier, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a novel mathematical model of the insulin-TOR-MAPK signaling network that controls growth. Most data on the properties of the insulin and MAPK signaling networks are static and the responses to experimental interventions, such as knockouts, overexpression, and hormonal input are typically reported as scaled quantities. The modeling paradigm we develop here uses scaled variables and is ideally suited to simulate systems in which much of the available data are scaled. Our mathematical representation of signaling networks provides a way to reconcile theory and experiments, thus leading to a better understanding of the properties and function of these signaling networks. We test the performance of the model against a broad diversity of experimental data. The model correctly reproduces experimental insulin dose-response relationships. We study the interaction between insulin and MAPK signaling in the control of protein synthesis, and the interactions between amino acids, insulin and TOR signaling. We study the effects of variation in FOXO expression on protein synthesis and glucose transport capacity, and show that a FOXO knockout can partially rescue protein synthesis capacity of an insulin receptor (INR) knockout. We conclude that the modeling paradigm we develop provides a simple tool to investigate the qualitative properties of signaling networks. PMID:24062690

  12. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity in Rural Midwestern Adults: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Ginger; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research can be used to examine multiple factors associated with physical activity and help practitioners identify language used by the rural adult population when discussing this behavior. Three focus groups were conducted among 19 residents of multiple towns in a rural Midwestern county to examine the language and influences on rural physical activity. Focus group members were asked to define physical activity, exercise, community, and neighborhood. They were asked about the activities they engaged in and facilitators and barriers to those activities. A guidebook was developed to capture major themes and common patterns that emerged in the responses to the topics discussed. The data were reviewed for repeated statements and points that were agreed on by multiple participants. Important factors associated with physical activity include the importance of social support and modeling physical activity behavior. Also, the influence of pets and children was important for engaging these adults in physical activity. The focus group members engaged in walking and bicycling in their neighborhood streets and community trails, and desired to see community buildings be open to the public for exercise. This study revealed contextual issues and culturally relevant language for practitioners to use in tailoring physical activity measurement tools or designing interventions for a rural adult population. Social support (specifically, seeing others being active and using pets as motivators for being active) and policy attitudes may be targeted for interventions to increase physical activity in rural adults. PMID:24662894

  13. Understanding factors influencing Latina women’s screening behavior: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Essie; Erwin, Deborah O.; Trevińo, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand influential factors associated with decisions to obtain breast or cervical cancer screening by diverse Latinas after attending a community-based educational program. Forty-five interviews were conducted in Arkansas, New York City and Buffalo, New York. Thematic data analyses were conducted to understand influential factors following from the intervention. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: Social Capital, Screening Utilization, Health Care Provider (HCP) Communication and Social Networks. Social Capital included resources, access or screening knowledge women had prior to participation in the program and new resources and contacts gained through the program that influenced care seeking. Screening Utilization factors included past health experiences and participation in the program. HCP Communication included perceptions of quality of care and communication issues with HCPs that positively and negatively impacted screening. Social Networks included women’s networks regarding emotional support, encouragement to discuss health issues, overall family network and how these may influence health-seeking behaviors. These findings suggest that participating in group-based health outreach programs empowered women by increasing their knowledge and awareness about the health care system and enabled them, with the tools provided, to become proactive in their health care-seeking behaviors. PMID:23131588

  14. Fatigue and sleep disturbance in HIV-positive women: a qualitative and biomedical approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Lee, Shih-Yu; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane M; Pan, Chengen; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives This study explores how sleep and energy levels were affected in Chinese women diagnosed with HIV in China employing the Actiwatch actigraphy system to collect data on the women’s sleep characteristics. Background The worldwide AIDS pandemic, a major impetus behind the recent focus on global aspects of health, is one area in which the behavioural and biomedical expertise of nursing science is sorely needed. In particular, few studies of HIV+ women have examined the association of HIV-related stress with sleep disturbance and fatigue. Especially, fatigue and sleep disturbances are a common complaint among people with HIV. Design A qualitative study with actigraphy device used. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 HIV+ women in Shanghai, China, from December 2009–March 2010 and within this group, nine of the women agreed to wear an Actiwatch actigraphy device for 72 hours. Results Two major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews are as follows: sleep disturbance and fatigue. Participants presented varying amounts of sleeplessness, and fatigue resulting from nightmares, worrying about whether to disclose their diagnosis, and whether they might transmit the disease to their partners or children. Among the nine Actiwatch study participants, data shown that those who experienced fragmented sleep also slept more during the daytime. Conclusions In this study, Chinese HIV+ women described how stress had caused them to become sleepless. The objective data collected via Actiwatch showed that these women required longer nap times, which indicates they did not have refreshing nocturnal sleep. Designing a culturally acceptable stress management intervention for these women is urgently needed. Relevance to clinical practice Sleep and fatigue level should be evaluated in each visit with HIV care. Nurses need to be trained in evaluating the HIV+ patients’ sleep and fatigue status and refer them to psychologist and/or relaxation technique accordingly. Self-management intervention for HIV+ individuals should also include the sleep hygiene into consideration. PMID:23279292

  15. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-03-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5ÎŒgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100ÎŒgkg(-1), resulting in a 10ÎŒgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples. PMID:26717834

  16. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been


  18. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods


  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  20. From model conception to verification and validation, a global approach to multiphase Navier-Stoke models with an emphasis on volcanic explosive phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Dartevelle, Sebastian

    2007-10-01

    Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key

  1. Doctors’ approaches to PSA testing and overdiagnosis in primary healthcare: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To explain general practitioners’ (GPs’) approaches to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and overdiagnosis; (2) to explain how GPs reason about their PSA testing routines and (3) to explain how these routines influence GPs’ personal experience as clinicians. Setting Primary care practices in Australia including men's health clinics and rural practices with variable access to urology services. Participants 32 urban and rural GPs within Australia. We included GPs of varying ages, gender (11 female), clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Primary and secondary outcome measure(s) Data were analysed using grounded theory methods to determine how and why GPs provide (or do not provide) PSA testing to their asymptomatic male patients. Results We observed patterned variation in GP practice, and identified four heuristics to describe GP preference for, and approaches to, PSA testing and overdiagnosis: (1) GPs who prioritised avoiding underdiagnosis, (2) GPs who weighed underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis case by case, (3) GPs who prioritised avoiding overdiagnosis and (4) GPs who did not engage with overdiagnosis at all. The heuristics guided GPs’ Routine Practice (usual testing, communication and responses to patient request). The heuristics also reflected GPs’ different Practice Rationales (drawing on experience, medicolegal obligations, guidelines and evidence) and produced different Practice Outcomes (GPs’ experiences of the consequences of their PSA testing decisions). Some of these heuristics were more responsive to patient preferences than others. Conclusions Variation in GPs’ PSA testing practices is strongly related to their approach to overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer. Men receive very different care depending on their GP's reasoning and practice preferences. Future policy to address overdiagnosis will be more likely to succeed if it responds to these patterned variations. PMID:25783420

  2. [Phenomenologic study about experiences when living the death in the neonatal critical care unit].

    PubMed

    Silva, Laureana Cartaxo Salgado Pereira; Valença, Cecília Nogueira; Germano, Raimunda Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed at describing the care experiences of neonatal critical care nurses when facing the death and to understand their feelings before the death of the newborn. Qualitative research with a phenomenological approach, with the guiding question: How do you feel about the death of the newborn ICU where you work? Attended the interview 12 nurses and ICU nursing. Emerging feelings such as guilt, failure and denial. Understanding the phenomenon being studied, we affirm that the death of the newborn within the ICU is an experience of conflicting feelings, sometimes painful for the nurses. PMID:21103770

  3. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies. PMID:26064687

  4. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and 'cognitive participation' appeared to be crucial drivers in the initial stage of the process. Conclusions Stepped care for depression is received positively in primary care. While it is difficult for the implementation of a full stepped-care approach to occur within a short time frame, clinicians can make progress towards achieving a stepped-care approach, particularly within the context of a QIC. Creating a shared understanding within multidisciplinary teams of what constitutes depression, reaching a consensus about the content of depression care, and the division of tasks are important when addressing the implementation process. PMID:22293362

  5. Phenomenology and connectionism.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  6. Phenomenology and Connectionism

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the “open dynamics” of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a “supervenience function” linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development. PMID:22121354

  7. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  8. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). PMID:26143599

  9. Who is in control? Clinicians’ view on their role in self-management approaches: a qualitative metasynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola; McPherson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician perceptions of involvement in delivery of self-management approaches. Setting All healthcare settings. Design EBSCO, Scopus and AMED databases were searched, in July 2013, for peer-reviewed studies in English reporting original qualitative data concerning perceptions of clinicians regarding their involvement in or integration of a self-management approach. Of 1930 studies identified, 1889 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Full text of 41 studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers; 14 papers were included for metasynthesis. Findings and discussion sections were imported into Nvivo-10 and coded line-by-line. Codes were organised into descriptive themes and cross-checked against original sources to check interpretation, and refined iteratively until findings represented an agreed understanding. Studies were appraised for quality. Results Delivering self-management in practice appeared to be a complex process for many clinicians. The issue of ‘control’ arose in all studies, both in the qualitative data and authors’ interpretations. The first theme: Who is in control?—represented ways clinicians talked of exercising control over patients and the control they expected patients to have over their condition. The second theme: Changing clinician views—reflected what appeared to be an essential transformation of practice experienced by some clinicians in the process of integrating self-management approaches into the practice. A range of challenges associated with shifting towards a self-management approach were reflected in the third theme, Overcoming challenges to change. Tensions appeared to exist around forming partnerships with patients. Strategies found helpful in the process of change included: dedicating time to practice reciprocity in communication style, peer support and self-reflection. Conclusions A consistent finding across studies is that ‘control’ is a key feature of how self-management is viewed by clinicians. They described challenges associated with the paradigm shift required to share or let go of control. Future research should identify whether strategies described by clinicians are key to successful self-management. PMID:25943372

  10. Scoring of sperm chromosomal abnormalities by manual and automated approaches: qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G; Cheng, Siu Yan; Gillott, David J; Handyside, Alan H; Thornhill, Alan R; Griffin, Darren K

    2010-03-01

    It is now well known that levels of sperm disomy correlate to levels of infertility (as well as other factors). The risk of perpetuating aneuploidy to the offspring of infertile males undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a hotly debated issue in assisted reproduction; however, there remain barriers to the practical implementation of offering sperm disomy screening in a clinical setting. The major barrier is the operator time taken to analyze a statistically meaningful (sufficient) number of cells. The introduction of automated 'spot counting' software-hardware combinations presents a potential solution to this problem. In this preliminary validation study, we analyzed 10 patients, both manually and using a commercially available spot counter. Results show a statistically significant correlation between both approaches for scoring of sperm disomy, but no correlation is found when scoring for diploid sperm. The most likely explanation for the latter is an apparent overscoring of two closely associated sperm heads as a single diploid cell. These results, and similar further studies that will ensue, help to inform cost-benefit analyses that individual clinics need to carry out in order to decide whether to adopt sperm aneuploidy screening as a routine tool for the assessment of sperm from men requiring ICSI treatment. PMID:20037599

  11. Tools, strategies and qualitative approach in relation to suicidal attempts and ideation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fåtima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; de Sousa, Girliani Silva; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Moura, Rosylaine; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Grubits, Sonia; Conte, Marta; Cavalcante, Ana Célia Sousa; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; Fachola, María Cristina Heuguerot; Izquierdo, Giovane Mendieta

    2015-06-01

    The article analyses the quality and consistency of a comprehensive interview guide, adapted to study attempted suicide and its ideation among the elderly, and imparts the method followed in applying this tool. The objective is to show how the use of a semi-structured interview and the organization and data analysis set-up were tested and perfected by a network of researchers from twelve universities or research centers in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. The method involved application and evaluation of the tool and joint production of an instruction manual on data collection, systematization and analysis. The methodology was followed in 67 interviews with elderly people of 60 or older and in 34 interviews with health professionals in thirteen Brazilian municipalities and in Montevideo and BogotĂĄ, allowing the consistency of the tool and the applicability of the method to be checked, during the process and at the end. The enhanced guide and the instructions for reproducing it are presented herein. The results indicate the suitability and credibility of this methodological approach, tested and certified in interdisciplinary and interinstitutional terms. PMID:26060945

  12. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  13. Transversity: Theory and phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alesio, Umberto

    2013-04-15

    The distribution of transversely polarized quarks inside a transversely polarized nucleon, known as transversity, encodes a basic piece of information on the nucleon structure, sharing the same status with the more familiar unpolarized and helicity distributions. I will review its properties and discuss different ways to access it, with highlights and limitations. Recent phenomenological extractions and perspectives are also presented.

  14. Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno

    2008-05-05

    We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Putting phenomenology in its place: some limits of a phenomenology of medicine.

    PubMed

    Sholl, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Several philosophers have recently argued that phenomenology is well-suited to help understand the concepts of health, disease, and illness. The general claim is that by better analysing how illness appears to or is experienced by ill individuals-incorporating the first-person perspective-some limitations of what is seen as the currently dominant third-person or 'naturalistic' approaches to understand health and disease can be overcome. In this article, after discussing some of the main insights and benefits of the phenomenological approach, I develop three general critiques of it. First, I show that what is often referred to as naturalism tends to be misunderstood and/or misrepresented, resulting in straw-man arguments. Second, the concept of normality is often problematically employed such that some aspects of naturalism are actually presupposed by many phenomenologists of medicine. Third, several of the key phenomenological insights and concepts, e.g. having vs. being a body, the alienation of illness, the epistemic role of the first-person perspective, and the idea of health within illness, each bring with them new problems that limit their utility. While acknowledging the possible contributions of phenomenology, these criticisms point to some severe limitations of bringing phenomenological insights to bear on the problems facing philosophy of medicine that should be addressed if phenomenology is to add anything substantially new to its debates. PMID:26576964

  16. The ACCE method: an approach for obtaining quantitative or qualitative estimates of residual confounding that includes unmeasured confounding

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors.  Method:  A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of  “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors.  Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s) that substantially predicts treatment exposure.  Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s) and outcome. Results:  Several hypothetical examples are provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met.  Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding. Limitations:  Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1) predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2) minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3) adjusting for the association of the introduced variable(s) with outcome, and 4) deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach). Conclusions:  To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method's basic approach is straightforward.  The method's routine usefulness, however, has not yet been established, nor has the method been fully validated. Rapid further investigation of this novel method is clearly indicated, given the potential value of its quantitative or qualitative output. PMID:25580226

  17. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  18. Training Online Faculty: A Phenomenology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun

    2012-01-01

    Literature on training faculty to teach online still dwells on the issues explored a decade ago. To make a substantial move in this area, it is necessary to re-evaluate the essence of training in the context of producing qualified online faculty to teach quality online courses. Employing a phenomenological approach, this study examines seven…

  19. The Phenomenology of Pedagogic Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Max

    1979-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to begin a reflective discussion of the phenomenology of pedagogic observation. In doing this it borrows extensively from Beets and draws attention to one aspect of phenomenological method: the function of "example" in phenomenological inquiry. (Author/SJL)

  20. Phenomenology as a resource for patients.

    PubMed

    Carel, Havi

    2012-04-01

    Patient support tools have drawn on a variety of disciplines, including psychotherapy, social psychology, and social care. One discipline that has not so far been used to support patients is philosophy. This paper proposes that a particular philosophical approach, phenomenology, could prove useful for patients, giving them tools to reflect on and expand their understanding of their illness. I present a framework for a resource that could help patients to philosophically examine their illness, its impact on their life, and its meaning. I explain the need for such a resource, provide philosophical grounding for it, and outline the epistemic and existential gains philosophy offers. Illness often begins as an intrusion on one's life but with time becomes a way of being. I argue that this transition impacts on core human features such as the experience of space and time, human abilities, and adaptability. It therefore requires philosophical analysis and response. The paper uses ideas from Husserl and Merleau-Ponty to present such a response in the form of a phenomenological toolkit for patients. The toolkit includes viewing illness as a form of phenomenological reduction, thematizing illness, and examining illness as altering the ill person's being in the world. I suggest that this toolkit could be offered to patients as a workshop, using phenomenological concepts, texts, and film clips to reflect on illness. I conclude by arguing that examining illness as a limit case of embodied existence deepens our understanding of phenomenology. PMID:22474139

  1. Approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in the NICU: a qualitative study in three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Forcella, Emanuela; Blondel, BĂ©atrice; Draper, Elizabeth S; Agostino, Rocco; Cuttini, Marina; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore differences in approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 3 European regions. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study carried out by means of face-to-face semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and supplemented by data-driven concepts and codes. Setting 4 purposively selected NICUs in each of 3 European regions in 2010 (Ile-de-France in France, Lazio in Italy, and the former Trent region in the UK). Participants NICU staff members (n=22). Results Policies and practices for managing mother's own milk for very preterm babies differed between regions, and were much more complex in Ile-de-France than in the Trent or Lazio regions. Staff approaches to mothers to initiate lactation differed by region, with an emphasis on the nutritional and immunological value of human milk in the Trent region and on the ‘normalising’ effect of breastfeeding on the mother-child relationship in Lazio. French and English staff expressed conflicting opinions about the use of bottles, which was routine in Italy. Italian informants stressed the importance of early maternal milk expression and feeding, but also mentioned discharging infants home before feeding at the breast was established. In Ile-de-France and Trent, successful feeding from the breast was achieved before discharge, although this was seen as a factor that could prolong hospitalisation and discourage continued breastfeeding for some women. Conclusions Targeted health promotion policies in the NICU are necessary to increase the number of infants receiving their mother's milk and to support mothers with transfer of the infant to the breast. Integrating knowledge about the different approaches to lactation and breastfeeding in European NICUs could improve the relevance of recommendations in multiple cultural settings. PMID:26129632

  2. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative


  3. Inquiry Skills: A Phenomenological Study on the Perceptions of First-Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the specific factors associated with inquiry skills as a component of success with college level coursework. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted to gain an understanding based on interview responses to questions about learning experiences as perceived…

  4. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews…

  5. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Sense-Making by Department of Defense Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of Department of Defense (DOD) civilian employees to identify how their personal sense-making affects their coaching of adult students. The author used an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method involving personal interviews


  6. Assistant Principals' Lived Experiences with Managerial Skills Needed for Promotion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Melnice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of assistant principals in what they deem to be the needed managerial skills for promotion to campus principal. The sample for the study included 20 assistant principals in an urban school district located in Texas. The process of phenomenological enquiry…

  7. Assistant Principals' Lived Experiences with Managerial Skills Needed for Promotion: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Melnice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of assistant principals in what they deem to be the needed managerial skills for promotion to campus principal. The sample for the study included 20 assistant principals in an urban school district located in Texas. The process of phenomenological enquiry


  8. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused problems in dikes and landfills producing even their collapses in some places. Overflows, which were less significant than erosions, were not occasioned by large rising of water level. They occurred in accused meanders, ancient occupied channels and where flood was obstructed by obstacles. It is important to remark the importance of the 1956 aerial pictures and ancient maps to identify the ancient morphology and also of field work to predict the hazard prone areas. All the effects derive from the same problem: channel reduction and occupation. This reduction aggravates the erosion tendency of the Garona River (see Victoriano-Lamariano et al., also presented in EGU 2015) and thus the damages. Summarizing, comparing the 1956 aerial pictures with the 2013 flood effects, the main affected areas are those with a residual hazard that could have been predicted by identifying the sectors in which land uses and river management changed. If new anthropic interventions decreasing the channel section are done, most likely the Garona River will recover its ancient path in future floods. Therefore, a qualitative assessment to the residual hazard can be performed. As a consequence, the new defence measures should consider the above findings to increase effectiveness.

  9. Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Alderson-Day, Ben; Callard, Felicity; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory hallucinations—or voices—are a common feature of many psychiatric disorders and are also experienced by individuals with no psychiatric history. Understanding of the variation in subjective experiences of hallucination is central to psychiatry, yet systematic empirical research on the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations remains scarce. We aimed to record a detailed and diverse collection of experiences, in the words of the people who hear voices themselves. Methods We made a 13 item questionnaire available online for 3 months. To elicit phenomenologically rich data, we designed a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions, which drew on service-user perspectives and approaches from phenomenological psychiatry, psychology, and medical humanities. We invited people aged 16–84 years with experience of voice-hearing to take part via an advertisement circulated through clinical networks, hearing voices groups, and other mental health forums. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and used inductive thematic analysis to code the data and χ2 tests to test additional associations of selected codes. Findings Between Sept 9 and Nov 29, 2013, 153 participants completed the study. Most participants described hearing multiple voices (124 [81%] of 153 individuals) with characterful qualities (106 [69%] individuals). Less than half of the participants reported hearing literally auditory voices—70 (46%) individuals reported either thought-like or mixed experiences. 101 (66%) participants reported bodily sensations while they heard voices, and these sensations were significantly associated with experiences of abusive or violent voices (p=0·024). Although fear, anxiety, depression, and stress were often associated with voices, 48 (31%) participants reported positive emotions and 49 (32%) reported neutral emotions. Our statistical analysis showed that mixed voices were more likely to have changed over time (p=0·030), be internally located (p=0·010), and be conversational in nature (p=0·010). Interpretation This study is, to our knowledge, the largest mixed-methods investigation of auditory hallucination phenomenology so far. Our survey was completed by a diverse sample of people who hear voices with various diagnoses and clinical histories. Our findings both overlap with past large-sample investigations of auditory hallucination and suggest potentially important new findings about the association between acoustic perception and thought, somatic and multisensorial features of auditory hallucinations, and the link between auditory hallucinations and characterological entities. Funding Wellcome Trust. PMID:26360085

  10. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Ringsberg, Karin C.; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB) policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) to ensure treatment adherence. Objective This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA). Design Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. PMID:22902052

  11. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making. PMID:25876262

  12. Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigrams after maximal coronary artery vasodilation with intravenous dipyridamole: comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, D.A.; Collins, S.M.; Go, R.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Van Kirk, O.C.; Marcus, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    Eighty-six patients had thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigrams after intense coronary artery dilation with i.v. dipyridamole. Tomographic and planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were obtained in each patient. Tomographic scintigrams were interpreted using quantitative or visual criteria; planar scintigrams were assessed using visual criteria only. When visual criteria were used, interobserver variability was 40% for tomographic scintigrams and 44% for planar scintigrams. In the 24 patients with normal or nonsignificant CAD, quantitative analysis of the tomograms (range approach) indicated that one of 24 (4%) had a positive image (specificity 96%%); in contrast, when visual criteria were used to interpret the tomographic or planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, eight of 24 (33%) had positive scintigrams (specificity 67%). In the 51 abnormal patients, the sensitivity of detecting CAD was 46 of 51 (90%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted quantitatively, 39 of 51 (76%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted visually and 41 of 51 (80%) for planar scintigrams assessed visually. The tomographic imaging procedure (quantitative interpretation) also demonstrated a high sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%) in 28 patients (10 normal and 18 CAD), with a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris. Overall, the predictive accuracy of an abnormal scintigram with quantitative tomographic imaging (98%) was significantly better (p<0.05) than either qualitative planar or pinhole imaging. (JMT)

  13. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic


  14. Toward an Understanding of Jewish Identity: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Michelle L.; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Blustein, David L.

    2005-01-01

    To begin mapping the landscape of contemporary Jewish identity from a phenomenological perspective, the authors conducted a qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews of 10 Jewish adults in the northeastern United States. Coding resulted in 6 universal themes (dynamic nature of self-identification, early formative experiences, desire to…

  15. Phenomenological Analysis of Rationale for School Transfer Credit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Amye M.

    2012-01-01

    Students face challenges when attempting to transfer college credits; sometimes, the process results in having to retake classes already completed at another institution. A qualitative phenomenological study, grounded in an advocacy/participatory worldview, was used to explore how leaders of higher learning institutions determined reasons academic…

  16. A Phenomenological Exploration of Faculty Experiences Using Lecture Capture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Voort, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to describe the perceived experiences of faculty who use lecture capture systems in face-to-face class meetings at small and medium-sized, four-year, highly residential, undergraduate colleges and universities with enrollments between 1,000 and 9,999 students. Through audio-recorded…

  17. Gifted Dropouts: Phenomenological Case Studies of Rural Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabloski, Jim; Milacci, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative phenomenological study, we sought to explore the life experiences of 7 rural gifted individuals who dropped out of school. In addition, we investigated whether participants shared commonalities that might have led to the phenomenon of dropping out. The problem was that a paucity of research exists about gifted dropouts;


  18. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…

  19. Standardized Patients in Art Therapy Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy


  20. Experience of fibromyalgia. Qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analysis. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. The analysis strategy used a phenomenologic approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. MAIN FINDINGS: Themes that emerged from the interpretive analysis depict patients' journeys along a continuum from experiencing symptoms, through seeking a diagnosis, to coping with the illness. Experiencing symptoms was composed of four subcategories: pain, a precipitating event, associated symptoms, and modulating factors. Seeking a diagnosis entailed frustration and social isolation. Confirmation of diagnosis brought relief as well as anxiety about the future. After diagnosis, several steps led to creation of adaptive coping strategies, which were influenced by several factors. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the conventional medical model fails to address the complex experience of fibromyalgia. Adopting a patient-centred approach is important for helping patients cope with this disease. PMID:10845136

  1. "If You Weren't Researching Me and a Friend . . ." The Mobius of Friendship and Mentorship as Methodological Approaches to Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Kelly; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the affordances and risks of practicing friendship and mentorship as methodological approaches in two qualitative studies: (a) the mentor's study in a diverse 9th grade classroom and (b) the protege's subsequent study of teacher professional development in the same school. Friendship methodology, as theorized by Tillmann and


  2. "If You Weren't Researching Me and a Friend . . ." The Mobius of Friendship and Mentorship as Methodological Approaches to Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Kelly; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the affordances and risks of practicing friendship and mentorship as methodological approaches in two qualitative studies: (a) the mentor's study in a diverse 9th grade classroom and (b) the protege's subsequent study of teacher professional development in the same school. Friendship methodology, as theorized by Tillmann and…

  3. A complexity basis for phenomenology: How information states at criticality offer a new approach to understanding experience of self, being and time.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2015-12-01

    In the late 19th century Husserl studied our internal sense of time passing, maintaining that its deep connections into experience represent prima facie evidence for it as the basis for all investigations in the sciences: Phenomenology was born. Merleau-Ponty focused on perception pointing out that any theory of experience must accord with established aspects of biology i.e. be embodied. Recent analyses suggest that theories of experience require non-reductive, integrative information, together with a specific property connecting them to experience. Here we elucidate a new class of information states with just such properties found at the loci of control of complex biological systems, including nervous systems. Complexity biology concerns states satisfying self-organized criticality. Such states are located at critical instabilities, commonly observed in biological systems, and thought to maximize information diversity and processing, and hence to optimize regulation. Major results for biology follow: why organisms have unusually low entropies; and why they are not merely mechanical. Criticality states form singular self-observing systems, which reduce wave packets by processes of perfect self-observation associated with feedback gain g = 1. Analysis of their information properties leads to identification of a new kind of information state with high levels of internal coherence, and feedback loops integrated into their structure. The major idea presented here is that the integrated feedback loops are responsible for our 'sense of self', and also the feeling of continuity in our sense of time passing. Long-range internal correlations guarantee a unique kind of non-reductive, integrative information structure enabling such states to naturally support phenomenal experience. Being founded in complexity biology, they are 'embodied'; they also fulfill the statement that 'The self is a process', a singular process. High internal correlations and René Thom-style catastrophes support non-digital forms of information, gestalt cognition, and information transfer via quantum teleportation. Criticality in complexity biology can 'embody' cognitive states supporting gestalts, and phenomenology's senses of 'self,' time passing, existence and being. PMID:26254044

  4. Compatibility of phenomenological dipole cross sections with the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Danieel; Utermann, Andre; Wessels, Erik

    2007-05-01

    Phenomenological models of the dipole cross section that enters in the description of for instance deep inelastic scattering at very high energies have had considerable success in describing the available small-x data in both the saturation region and the so-called extended geometric scaling (EGS) region. We investigate to what extent such models are compatible with the numerical solutions of the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation which is expected to describe the nonlinear evolution in x of the dipole cross section in these momentum regions. We find that in the EGS region the BK equation yields results that are qualitatively different from those of phenomenological studies. In particular, geometric scaling around the saturation scale is only obtained at asymptotic rapidities. We find that in this limit the anomalous dimension {gamma}(r,x) of phenomenological models approaches a limiting function that is universal for a large range of initial conditions. At the saturation scale, this function equals approximately 0.44, in contrast to the value 0.628 commonly used in the models. We further investigate the dependence of these results on the starting distribution, the small-r limit of the anomalous dimension for fixed rapidities and the x-dependence of the saturation scale.

  5. Developing patient-centered treatment protocols in brain stimulation: a rationale for combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rosedale, Mary; Malaspina, Dolores; Malamud, Daniel; Strauss, Shiela M; Horne, Jaclyn D; Abouzied, Salman; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Knotkova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and discusses how quantitative (physiological and behavioral) and qualitative methods are being combined in an open-label pilot feasibility study. The study evaluates safety, tolerability, and acceptability of a protocol to treat depression in HIV-infected individuals, using a 2-week block of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second most prevalent psychiatric disorder after substance abuse among HIV-positive adults, and novel antidepressant treatments are needed for this vulnerable population. The authors describe the challenges and contributions derived from different research perspectives and methodological approaches and provide a philosophical framework for combining quantitative and qualitative measurements for a fuller examination of the disorder. Four methodological points are presented: (1) the value of combining quantitative and qualitative approaches; (2) the need for context-specific measures when studying patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities; (3) the importance of research designs that integrate physiological, behavioral, and qualitative approaches when evaluating novel treatments; and (4) the need to explore the relationships between biomarkers, clinical symptom assessments, patient self-evaluations, and patient experiences when developing new, patient-centered protocols. The authors conclude that the complexity of studying novel treatments in complex and new patient populations requires complex research designs to capture the richness of data that inform translational research. PMID:22412085

  6. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. PMID:25808423

  7. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  8. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  9. Phenomenology and the Writing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Joyce Armstrong

    The change of emphasis from the written product to writing as a process manifests another important change--one from logical to phenomenological consciousness. Phenomenologically speaking, writing is both "immanent" in the writer and "transcendent" outside the writer. It is thinking of general concepts that actually occurred and writing about…

  10. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by


  11. Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…

  12. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

  13. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author


  14. A Clarification of Heidegger's Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. This article calls for clarifications regarding its characterization of Heideggerian phenomenology. Kendler drew on his admittedly "limited understanding" (p. 322) of Heidegger and rested his critique upon a critical confusion that pervaded his


  15. Acute peritraumatic dissociation: in favor of a phenomenological inquiry.

    PubMed

    Ataria, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of trauma--among them dissociation during trauma, which is considered one of the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder-are not fully understood. This article argues that the application of the phenomenological structure of time and the phenomenological description of the self (minimal self, sense of ownership, sense of agency, sense of self) to dissociation during trauma can improve our understanding of this phenomenon-at its occurrence and during any possible ensuing symptoms. In addition, it is argued that the phenomenological approach, as a method that focuses on the bodily level of experience, in particular the body as it is experienced from within, enables us to penetrate the traumatic experience. Thus, by applying the phenomenological approach we may be able to improve our understanding of the traumatic experience and enable the development of better treatment. PMID:24228843

  16. Qualitative Phenomenological Examination of IT Project Management in Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what caused IT projects to fail at a high rate in the pharmaceutical industry. IT projects failures delayed development of new drugs that can help save lives. It was imperative to evaluate what caused project failures because the collateral damage was delay in drug development. This qualitative


  17. "What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

    2010-01-01

    Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

  19. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key


  20. Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and


  1. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  2. Effective Quality Management Requires a Systematic Approach and a Flexible Organisational Culture: A Qualitative Study among Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the similarities and differences between three teaching departments within Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in the Netherlands that provide effective and three that provide less effective quality management. What are staff members' conceptions and perceptions of quality, quality management and…

  3. Some phenomenology of intersecting D-brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Lykken, Joseph D.; Wang, Ting T.; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2004-11-01

    We present some phenomenology of a new class of intersecting D-brane models. Soft SUSY breaking terms for these models are calculated in the complex structure (u)-moduli dominant SUSY breaking approach (in type IIA). In this case, the dependence of the soft terms on the Yukawas and Wilson lines drops out. These soft terms have a different pattern compared to the usual heterotic string models. Phenomenological implications for dark matter are discussed.

  4. HEMP internal coupling phenomenology study

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, K.S.; Hudson, H.G.; Breakall, J.K.; King, R.J.; Ziolkowski, R.; Madsen, N.; Peterson, J.; Pennock, S.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a task sponsored by DNA to unravel the electromagnetic coupling problem associated with the interaction of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse HEMP) with typical aerospace systems. A bottom up approach to this task has been selected. In this approach, tools are developed for measuring and predicting the responses of simple test systems; from these measurements and predictions phenomenological understanding of the coupling mechanisms may be obtained and the tools may be verified. The construction and the experimental characterization of a test system embodying the fundamental features of an interior coupling problem, is discussed. Experimental, computational and analytical tools has been applied to this test system. Experimental measurements have revealed a pronounced modal interior response which has been closely replicated with the time domain three dimensional finite difference code G3DXL3. The persistence of these modes has been established analytically with an N-series analysis. Focusing and reflection effects as well as hot spot formation have been examined with the N-series analysis and with a time domain two-dimensional finite element code GEM2D.

  5. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in occupational health for a better understanding of the impact of work-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D

    1999-01-01

    Over the past years, the work situation has experienced important transformations, notably, the technological revolution and globalization, the influx of women into the labor market, an increased dependence on chemical substances, and a transfer of production and many hazardous procedures from North to South. These changes have important repercussions on the nature and type of occupational exposures, as well as on the labor force, affecting the relation between work and health. While quantitative studies have dominated occupational health research over the past half century, qualitative methods can serve to ground quantitative data with regard to defining the research questions, providing further information on the impact of work conditions on health and well-being, and reducing errors in exposure and health outcomes. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a complementary fashion can lead to a better understanding of the rapidly changing work environment and labor situation and a means for developing appropriate strategies for preventive intervention. PMID:10628442

  6. Cyclotide Structure–Activity Relationships: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Linking Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity to the Clustering of Physicochemical Forces

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungkyu; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Göransson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity. PMID:24682019

  7. QUALITATIVE GENETICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative genetics, also known as Mendelian genetics or transmission genetics refers to those genetic traits that have a distinct phenotype, and are controlled by one or several genes. More than 300 qualitative genetic traits are known and are maintained in the USDA soybean Genetic Type Collectio...

  8. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  9. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  10. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  11. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  12. Experiencing virtual patients in clinical learning: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Edelbring, Samuel; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Hult, Hćkan; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2011-08-01

    Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students' experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students' experience as a point of departure. Thirty-one students used VPs as a mandatory part of an early clinical rotation in rheumatology. Using the qualitative approach of phenomenology, we interviewed these students and then analysed data regarding their experiences of VPs as a learning activity. The result shows that students perceived VP activities in relation to actual patients, the clinical context and other learning activities. The VPs represented typical clinical cases which encouraged clinical reasoning and allowed for decision making. The students experienced the activities as integrating biomedical knowledge and clinical experience, providing structure that prepared for the unstructured clinical environment and patient encounters under unstressful conditions. However, the VPs were experienced as lacking the emotional interactivity and complexity of actual patients. Theoretical frameworks of clinical reasoning and experiential learning are suggested as foundations for further educational integration of VPs in the clinical environment. VP activities during clinical rotations provide experiences of clinical reality and allow students to solve problems actively. These features are dependent on VP technology but are also contingent on the surrounding environment. PMID:21656337

  13. Micromechanics based phenomenological damage modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Muju, S.; Anderson, P.M.; Popelar, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    A model is developed for the study of process zone effects on dominant cracks. The model proposed here is intended to bridge the gap between the micromechanics based and the phenomenological models for the class of problems involving microcracking, transforming inclusions etc. It is based on representation of localized eigenstrains using dislocation dipoles. The eigenstrain (fitting strain) is represented as the strength (Burgers vector) of the dipole which obeys a certain phenomenological constitutive relation.

  14. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now. PMID:24096395

  15. What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    PrĂŒfer, Franziska; Miksch, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial. PMID:23986779

  16. Physical therapy rehabilitation strategies for dancers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Megin

    2013-01-01

    This was a qualitative study utilizing a phenomenological approach. The purpose was to determine what rehabilitation strategies physical therapists use with dancers and to discuss techniques for implementing these strategies from both the dancer's and the physical therapist's perspectives. Self-administered questionnaires were sent via email to dancers and physical therapists. Purposeful sampling was done through use of a criterion sampling method that required participants to have experienced dancer rehabilitation. Data were correlated to find common strategies and to encourage modification of current approaches. Physical therapists returned 29 surveys, while dancers returned eight. Five themes were identified in the areas of: 1. evaluation, 2. dance modification, 3. interventions, 4. education, and 5. communication. The conclusion of this study was that successful rehabilitative strategies involve ongoing evaluation that incorporates knowledge of dance technique and performance, dance-centered movement modification that is clearly defined, and an understanding of dance lingo. PMID:23498352

  17. The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic disparities in park access. They revealed trends that may not have been otherwise detectable, such as the spatially inconsistent relationship between physical activity site density and socio-demographics. In order to establish a more stable global model, a number of additional factors, variables, and methods might be used to quantify park accessibility, such as network analysis of proximity, perception of accessibility and usability, and additional park quality characteristics. Accurate measurement of park accessibility can therefore be important in showing the links between opportunities for active behavior and beneficial health outcomes. PMID:19545430

  18. Employees' views on outsourcing and its impact on employee turnover: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybelinski, Steven A.

    Increasing use of outsourcing gives employees concern about personal job security. Using a modified van Kaam approach, this qualitative phenomenological study examined perceptions and experiences of 12 employees' on the influence outsourcing had on employee turnover. Five themes describing employee perceptions emerged: (a) preparation---education gives job security, (b) plausibility---all believed job loss plausible, (c) emotional influence---feelings of stress, threat, betrayal, and not being valued, (d) environment---value of communication and interaction with leaders, and (e) confidence---gained from increased education, skills, and knowledge protected from outsourcing. Significance of this study to leadership is the identification of employee perceptions of outsourcing and motivating factors influencing employee turnover during times of outsourcing. Findings might present new information and assist leaders with employee retention concerns for future outsourcing activities.

  19. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    SanchĂłn-Macias, M VisitaciĂłn; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, MarĂ­a; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health. PMID:25808761

  20. The importance of reciprocity for female caregivers in a super-aged society: a qualitative journalistic approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Strömberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As Japan is facing a super-aged society, Japanese women find themselves on the front line as traditional family caregivers. Our aim was to describe the observations and thoughts of one Japanese woman's experience of living with her elderly parents in the suburbs of Tokyo. One open-ended interview was performed and analyzed using content analysis with a methodological departure in qualitative journalistic interviewing. The case was a single woman in her late 40s living with her aged parents. Reciprocity was identified as the glue holding the joy and burdens of the role of caregiving for elderly parents. Moreover, gender was identified as a motivator for reciprocity from a macro to a micro level in a super-aged society. PMID:25365632

  1. Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152

  2. Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence. Methods Qualitative design using focus groups (N?=?11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods. Results Five themes emerged that describe users’ perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence. PMID:23497603

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors on Child Passenger Safety among Expectant Mothers and Parents of Newborns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregnant women were also interviewed to learn about their views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data collected. Results Of a total of 242 parents of newborns recruited in the quantitative survey, 202 (83.5%) parents had heard of child safety seats and 149 (61.6%) parents reported they would use child safety seats for their babies. Parents’ knowledge, car ownership, occupation, and income were significantly associated with their decision regarding use of child safety seats. Three themes were identified from the qualitative interview of 30 pregnant women: (1) the pregnant women perceived child passenger safety as important; (2) the car ownership and price and quality of child safety seats were major influencing factors of their decisions on use of child safety seats; and (3) lack of awareness and lack of laws requiring use were perceived to contribute to low use of child safety seats in China. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and awareness on child passenger safety were found to be two most important factors associated with low use of child safety seats. Effective interventions are urgently needed to improve parents’ knowledge before laws are enacted and implemented. PMID:26735974

  4. Teaching and Learning about Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Experiential Learning Approach Amongst Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.

    2004-01-01

    There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…

  5. Towards a nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Dienes, Keith R.; Mavroudi, Eirini

    2015-06-01

    Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to studying the rich and diverse phenomenologies of heterotic strings exhibiting spacetime supersymmetry. Unfortunately, during this same period, there has been relatively little work studying the phenomenologies associated with their nonsupersymmetric counterparts. The primary reason for this relative lack of attention is the fact that strings without spacetime supersymmetry are generally unstable, exhibiting large one-loop dilaton tadpoles. In this paper, we demonstrate that this hurdle can be overcome in a class of tachyon-free four-dimensional string models realized through coordinate-dependent compactifications. Moreover, as we shall see, it is possible to construct models in this class whose low-lying states resemble the Standard Model (or even potential unified extensions thereof)—all without any light superpartners, and indeed without supersymmetry at any energy scale. The existence of such models thus opens the door to general studies of nonsupersymmetric string phenomenology, and in this paper we proceed to discuss a variety of theoretical and phenomenological issues associated with such nonsupersymmetric strings. On the theoretical side, we discuss the finiteness properties of such strings, the general characteristics of their mass spectra, the magnitude and behavior of their one-loop cosmological constants, and their interpolation properties. By contrast, on the phenomenological side, the properties we discuss are more model-specific and include their construction techniques, their natural energy scales, their particle and charge assignments, and the magnitudes of their associated Yukawa couplings and scalar masses.

  6. Lorentz symmetry breaking: phenomenology and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberati, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    In this talk I shall review several motivations for considering departures from exact Lorentz invariance and the different theoretical frameworks adopted to describe these departures. Among these, I shall focus on an effective field theory approach and discuss the phenomenology and constraints of Lorentz symmetry breaking in the Standard Model as well as in Gravity. In particular I will focus on current constraints on UV breaking inspired by quantum gravity scenarios and briefly discuss the open issues and future perspectives for this field of research.

  7. Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    In a recent paper [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015)] a general mechanism for the emergence of cosmological spacetime geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and a departure from standard dispersion relations for an elementary particle was predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenario showing that spacetime will have to be classical to a very high degree by now in order to be consistent with current observations.

  8. Phenomenologies of ferromagnetism in metals (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrott, A. S.; Heinrich, B.

    1988-11-01

    Magnetism remains mysterious 100 years after Ewing made his initial models of interacting compasses. Many aspects are seen clearly, but at each step from the spinning electron to the rotor of a motor complexity obscures. At the macroscopic level the difficulties in ferromagnetism start with magnetostatics, which in principle calls for the evaluation of sixfold integrals. At the quantum level one needs fully relativistic spin-polarized calculations that remain beyond the current state of the art in order to have a full description of the ground state of a homogeneous piece of material with periodic boundary conditions. While it is known in principle how to carry out such calculations, in practice an experimentalist relies on phenomenology for the interpretation of data. The role of phenomenology is to create molds into which the experimental data is pressed. Theoretical analyses of critical phenomena are among the triumphs of modern magnetism. The picture is beautiful as long as one ignores anisotropies, dipole-dipole interactions, magnetostriction, and dynamic effects, all of which are the heart of micromagnetics, not to mention imperfections, inhomogeneities, and surface effects. Studies of the response, static and dynamic, of nearly perfect single crystals of Fe, grown from the decomposition of FeCl2 in the form of whiskers, provide examples where the experiments attempt to approach the neatness of the theories. Interpretation of data requires understanding of the dominant magnetostatics, the underlying micromagnetics and the resulting magnetization patterns, and the major role of eddy currents in obscuring intrinsic loss effects. One combines these aspects of Maxwell's equations with parametric formulations of the equation of state and the Landau-Lifshitz equations of motion to extract magnetizations, susceptibilities, anisotropies, and damping parameters as functions of internal fields and frequency. The micromagnetics of the ideally soft ferromagnetic material serves as a foundation for the phenomenology. Fifty years of progress in understanding of phase transitions provides the critical phenomenology. The Landau-Lifshitz equations of motion developed for feromagnetism also describe the dynamic response in the transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism when allowance is made for the frequency, field, and temperature dependence of the damping. When the phenomenology and the data are not in full accord it is difficult to assign the source of the misfit. Yet one rejoices in the fact that they fit, sort of.

  9. The Family Challenge of Caring for the Chronically Mentally Ill: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Farshid; Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Esmaeilli, Ravanbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Family caregiving for patients with chronic mental illness is influenced by various factors such as political, socioeconomic, and cultural contexts as well as related policies and health services. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges with which the family caregivers of patients with chronic mental illness have to contend. Materials and Methods: The research design was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The research population consisted of 16 long-term carers expressing interest in participating in the project. The carers were the family members of mentally ill relatives who collected their monthly medications at Farshchian Psychiatry Hospital in Hamadan in 2012. Purposive sampling was used to draw the sample. Data were collected by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were tape-recorded and analyzed via Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Rigor was assessed regarding credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability. Results: Our findings highlighted 4 main themes, namely stress and emotional distress, need for education and information, socioeconomic effects and support, and physical strain. Conclusions: Families experience frustrations when providing support and care to their mentally ill relatives. They, therefore, need appropriate support and intervention by mental health services. PMID:26576169

  10. Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families

    PubMed Central

    Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

  11. Contrasting approaches to ‘doing’ family meals: a qualitative study of how parents frame children’s food preferences

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children’s food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children’s food preferences in relation to family meal practices. A qualitative study was conducted with residents of Sandwell, UK. The results presented here are based on the responses of nine key participants and their families. Photo elicitation methods generated participant food photo diaries that were used to inform subsequent interviews. A thematic analysis revealed two contrasting ways of incorporating children’s tastes into family meal routines: (1) ‘what we fancy’ and (2) ‘regulated’. The former entails repeatedly consulting and negotiating with children over what to cook for each meal. It is supported by the practical strategies of multiple and individually modified meals. The latter relies upon parents developing a repertoire of meals that ‘work’ for the family. This repertoire is performed as a series of ‘set meals’ in which any requests for variation are strongly resisted. Our findings add to the small body of literature on household food provisioning and suggest that achieving the idealised ritual of the family meal is underpinned by a range of values and strategies, some of which may run counter to health messages about nutrition.

  12. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization. PMID:22506011

  13. Understanding Mothers' Experiences of Infant Daycare: A New Approach Using Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne; And Others

    This paper reports on a small-scale introductory study of Australian mothers' experiences of infant day care. Ten employed, middle- and lower-socioeconomic status women with an infant in center-based day care were interviewed. Brief narrative examples from the mothers' accounts are presented. Discussion then concentrates on a new approach to


  14. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  15. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article


  16. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst common issues were identified through the two research approaches, key differences also emerged. The classical, more quantitative approach provided objective measurement of problem frequency, which was compared with owners' perceptions of importance. The qualitative participatory approach provided greater opportunity for researchers to gain detailed understanding of local issues and appreciate how owners defined and prioritised problems affecting them and their animals. Both approaches provided valuable and complementary information that can be used to inform interventions aimed at providing sustainable improvements in the health and wellbeing of working animals and their owners. It is recommended that both quantitative and qualitative approaches are employed as part of detailed needs assessment work prior to defining and prioritising the charity's future interventions. PMID:23419786

  17. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for


  18. Applications of Phenomenology in Transpersonal, Person-Centered, and Existential Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Katherine Zimmer; Do, Vinh The

    This article explains that the phenomenological approach in counseling began as a movement to counterbalance the influence of psychoanalysis in psychotherapy and counseling. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the world as we immediately experience it, pre-reflectively rather than as we conceptualize, categorize, or reflect on it. Through


  19. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia SĂĄ; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, DĂłra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de SĂĄ Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  20. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union’s perspective. PMID:25942432

  1. Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.

  2. Individualised Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses student evaluation in relation to adult and continuing education programs offered by the Department of Adult Education, University College, Cork. He highlights the need for a more individualized and interactive approach to evaluation, allowing the student to benefit from qualitative feedback in the process of being evaluated.…

  3. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  4. General Practitioners Views of Implementing a Stratified Treatment Approach for Low Back Pain in Germany: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Karstens, Sven; Joos, Stefanie; Hill, Jonathan C.; Krug, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; SteinhÀuser, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The STarT Back stratified primary care approach has demonstrated clinical and cost effectiveness in the UK, and is commonly used by General Practitioners (GPs). However, it remains unknown how this approach could be implemented into the German healthcare system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the views and perceptions of German GPs in respect to using a stratified primary care for low back pain (LBP). Methods A 90-minute think-tank workshop was conducted with 14 male and five female GPs, during which the STarT-Back-Screening-Tool (SBST) and related research evidence was presented. This was followed by two focus groups, based on a semi-structured interview guideline to identify potential implementation barriers and opportunities. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach. Results For the three deductively developed main themes, 15 subthemes emerged: (1) application of the SBST, with the following subthemes: which health profession should administer it, patients known to the GP practice, the reason for the GP consultation, scoring the tool, the tool format, and the anticipated impact on GP practice; (2) psychologically informed physiotherapy, with subthemes including: provision by a physiotherapist, anticipated impact, the skills of physiotherapists, management of patients with severe psychosocial problems, referral and remuneration; (3) the management of low-risk patients, with subthemes including: concern about the appropriate advising health professional, information and media, length of consultation, and local exercise venues. Conclusions The attitudes of GPs towards stratified primary care for LBP indicated positive support for pilot-testing in Germany. However, there were mixed reactions to the ability of German physiotherapists to manage high-risk patients and handle their complex clinical needs. GPs also mentioned practical difficulties in providing extended advice to low-risk patients, which nevertheless could be addressed by involvement of specifically trained medical assistants. PMID:26322985

  5. Team-level approaches to addressing disordered eating: a qualitative study of two female collegiate cross country running teams.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Goldman, Roberta E; Kubzansky, Laura D; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider strategies used by two similarly competitive female collegiate cross country running teams to address teammate eating behaviors perceived to be unhealthy and problematic. Data were obtained through semi-structured individual interviews with team members (n?=?35). Teams differed in how they addressed problematic eating behaviors: members of one team described a collaborative, positive, team-focused and direct approach, while the most commonly described strategy for the other team was to do nothing. Possible contextual and compositional reasons for between-team differences and implications for prevention and detection of disordered eating among female athletes are discussed. PMID:24392949

  6. A qualitative geographical information systems approach to explore how older people over 70 years interact with and define their neighbourhood environment.

    PubMed

    Milton, Sarah; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Nanchahal, Kiran; Grundy, Chris; Amuzu, Antoinette; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Lock, Karen

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being potentially more vulnerable to barriers in their surrounding social and physical environment. A qualitative geographical information systems (QGIS) approach was taken to facilitate the understanding of how older people over 70 in 5 UK towns interact with their local neighbourhood. The concept of neighbourhood changed seasonally and over the lifecourse, and was associated with social factors such as friends, family, or community activities, rather than places. Spaces stretched further than the local, which is problematic for older people who rely on variable public transport provision. QGIS techniques prompted rich discussions on interactions with and the meanings of 'place' in older people. PMID:26513597

  7. A qualitative geographical information systems approach to explore how older people over 70 years interact with and define their neighbourhood environment

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Sarah; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Nanchahal, Kiran; Grundy, Chris; Amuzu, Antoinette; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being potentially more vulnerable to barriers in their surrounding social and physical environment. A qualitative geographical information systems (QGIS) approach was taken to facilitate the understanding of how older people over 70 in 5 UK towns interact with their local neighbourhood. The concept of neighbourhood changed seasonally and over the lifecourse, and was associated with social factors such as friends, family, or community activities, rather than places. Spaces stretched further than the local, which is problematic for older people who rely on variable public transport provision. QGIS techniques prompted rich discussions on interactions with and the meanings of ‘place’ in older people. PMID:26513597

  8. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience


  9. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

  10. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and


  11. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  12. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.

  13. Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.

    2011-10-01

    We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.

  14. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508

  15. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Bryan C; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved. PMID:26293508

  16. The Effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Generating Students' Learning Motivation towards the Subject of Physics: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the BBTA (brain-based teaching approach) in dealing with issues related to the learning motivation towards the subject of physics amongst secondary school students in Malaysia. This research sample constitutes 100 Form Four science stream students from two science secondary school in the…

  17. Some Surprises and Paradoxes Revealed by Inverse Problem Approach and Notion about Qualitative Solutions of SCHRÖDINGER Equations “IN MIND”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhariev, B. N.; Chabanov, V. M.

    It was an important examination to give a review talk at the previous Conference on Inverse Quantum Scattering (1996, Lake Balaton) about computer visualization of this science in front of its fathers — creators, B. M. Levitan and V. A. Marchenko. We have achieved a new understanding that the discovered main rules of transformations of a single wave function bump, e.g., for the ground bound states of one dimensional quantum systems are applicable to any state of any potential with arbitrary number of bumps from finite to unlimited ones as scattering states and bound states embedded into continuum. It appeared that we need only to repeat the rule mentally the necessary number of times. That uttermost simplification and unification of physical notion of spectral, scattering and decay control for any potential have got an obligatory praise from B. M. Levitan at the conference and was a mighty stimulus for our further research After that we have written both Russian (2002) and improved English editions of “Submissive Quantum Mechanics. New Status of the Theory in Inverse Problem Approach”1 (appeared at the very end of 2007). This book was written for correction of the present defect in quantum education throughout the world. Recently the quantum IP intuition helped us to discover a new concept of permanent wave resonance with potential spatial oscillations.2 This means the constant wave swinging frequency on the whole energy intervals of spectral forbidden zones destroying physical solutions and deepening the theory of waves in periodic potentials. It also shows the other side of strengthening the fundamentally important magic structures. A ‘new language’ of wave bending will be presented to enrich our quantum intuition, e.g., the paradoxical effective attraction of barriers and repulsion of wells in multichannel systems, etc.

  18. Use of intuition by critical care nurses: a phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Parkhide; Abdi, Alireza; Jalali, Rostam; Salari, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Intuition is defined as an irrational unconscious type of knowing. This concept was incorporated into nursing discipline for 3 decades, but nowadays its application is uncertain and ignored by educational institutions. Therefore, this study aimed to explore critical care nurses’ understanding of the use of intuition in clinical practice. Materials and methods In a descriptive phenomenological study, 12 nurses employed in critical care units of the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, were recruited to a study using purposive, semistructured interviews, which were then written down verbatim. The data were managed by MaxQDA 10 software and analyzed as qualitative, with Colaizzi’s seven-stage approach. Results Of the 12 nurses who participated in the study, seven (58.3%) were female and married, 88.3% (ten) had a Bachelor of Nursing (BSc) degree, and the means ± SD of age, job experience, and critical care experience were 36.66±7.01, 13.75±6.82, and 7.66±3.36 years, respectively. We extracted three main themes, namely “patient conditions”, “nurse readiness”, and “outcome”, and seven subthemes – including “clinical signs”, “patient behaviors”, “prognosis”, “being sensitive”, “desire to act”, “prediction”, and “satisfaction” – integral to understanding the use of intuition in clinical practice by critical care nurses. Conclusion The findings showed that some nurses were attracted by the patients’ conditions and were more intuitive about them, and following their intuition prepared the nurses to under-take more appropriate measures. The positive results that the majority of the nurses experienced convinced them to follow their intuitions more often. PMID:26929677

  19. Phenomenology from 100 large lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, T.; Gupta, R.

    1995-02-01

    The authors present a status report on simulations being done on 32{sup 3} x 64 lattices at {beta} = 6.0 using quenched Wilson fermions. Phenomenologically relevant results for the spectrum, decay constants, the kaon B-parameter B{sub K}, B{sub 7}, B{sub s}, semi-leptonic and B {yields} K{sup *}{gamma} form factors are given based on a statistical sample of 100 configurations.

  20. Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

    2006-10-01

    In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

  1. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as an authoritative expert who determine goals, intervention planning and evaluation. Conclusions Different paradigms of health and disability lead to different approaches to physiotherapy which influence the whole intervention process regarding strategies for the assessment and treatment, all of which influence Family-Centred Service and the child’s motor learning strategies. The results may deepen physiotherapists’ understanding of how different paradigms of health influence the way in which various physiotherapy approaches in research seek to solve the challenge of CP. PMID:22747596

  2. Mechanisms that Trigger a Good Health-Care Response to Intimate Partner Violence in Spain. Combining Realist Evaluation and Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Marchal, Bruno; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Otero-GarcĂ­a, Laura; GarcĂ­a-Quinto, Marta; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, especially those working in primary health-care services, can play a key role in preventing and responding to intimate partner violence. However, there are huge variations in the way health care professionals and primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence. In this study we tested a previously developed programme theory on 15 primary health care center teams located in four different Spanish regions: Murcia, C Valenciana, Castilla-León and Cantabria. The aim was to identify the key combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that trigger a good primary health care center team response to intimate partner violence. Methods A multiple case-study design was used. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from each of the 15 centers (cases). In order to handle the large amount of information without losing familiarity with each case, qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. Conditions (context and mechanisms) and outcomes, were identified and assessed for each of the 15 cases, and solution formulae were calculated using qualitative comparative analysis software. Results The emerging programme theory highlighted the importance of the combination of each team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and women-centredness in generating a good team response to intimate partner violence. The use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care were the most relevant contextual/intervention conditions to trigger a good response. However in order to achieve this, they must be combined with other conditions, such as an enabling team climate, having a champion social worker and having staff with training in intimate partner violence. Conclusions Interventions to improve primary health care teams’ response to intimate partner violence should focus on strengthening team’s self-efficacy, perceived preparation and the implementation of a woman-centred approach. The use of the protocol combined with a large working experience in primary health care, and other factors such as training, a good team climate, and having a champion social worker on the team, also played a key role. Measures to sustain such interventions and promote these contextual factors should be encouraged. PMID:26270816

  3. The Influence of the Social Network: A Phenomenological Study of Early Adopter Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrange Coston, Rita Louise

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 early adopter consumers, who used social networks in their decision-making process to purchase a component or complete high-technology home entertainment system. Four core themes of communication, convenience, cost, and technology emerged. Subthemes encompassed…

  4. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

  5. Bridging the Gap between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Learning Process: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the learning process for adult learners, resulting in a higher dropout rate than for students who have not experienced similar stress (Kerka, 2002; Smyth, Hockemeyer, Heron, Wonderlich, & Pennebaker, 2008). The purpose of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to identify, explore, and


  6. Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion


  7. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  8. A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Eid

    2010-01-01

    In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the


  9. Phenomenological Study: How Organizational Structures and Change Processes Influence Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte Clay

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions create organizational structures for younger students with limited work experience. New generations of adult students require different organizational structures to improve success. The current phenomenological qualitative study addressed the lack of consensus of what types of organizational structures in higher education


  10. A Phenomenological Study of Urban School Counselors' Perceptions of Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.; Grothaus, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores urban school counselors' perceptions of low-income families in their schools. Ten school counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews and answered two emailed reflective questions. Six themes emerged from the data: (a) perceptions of family characteristics and environment,


  11. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.


  12. The High School Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Students: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Chelsey N.

    2012-01-01

    Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ) students in public education are challenged with the detrimental effects of homophobic harassment. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions and lived experiences of former GLBTQ high school students and their experiences with school…

  13. The Experiences of Multiple Deployments on Military Families: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threatts, Shanida Ann

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current qualitative phenomenological research study was to gain a deeper understanding of military families with young children from preschool to elementary school-age during deployments of a family member. The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 military parents concerning multiple or…

  14. A Phenomenological Study of African American Males Persisting in Community College Health and Public Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Byrd, Love

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of persisting as described by ten African American men in persisting in a community college program. The primary research question was: "How do African American males describe their lived experiences of persisting in community college health and public programs?" African…

  15. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the


  16. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership


  17. How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLurkin, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to


  18. Information Technology Certifier Perspectives on Areas Affecting Certification Assessments: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Steven Russell

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) certifiers evaluate risk and develop mitigations ensuring IT infrastructures remain protected within acceptable levels of operation, which if not properly maintained can potentially result in loss of life within Department of Defense (DoD) and federal environments. This qualitative phenomenological exploratory study


  19. Phenomenological Study of Business Models Used to Scale Online Enrollment at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore factors for selecting a business model for scaling online enrollment by institutions of higher education. The goal was to explore the lived experiences of academic industry experts involved in the selection process. The research question for this study was: What were the lived


  20. Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Sheila C.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…

  1. History and Social Science Teachers' Perceptions of Their Profession: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrana, Carlos Munoz

    2007-01-01

    In Chile, teaching is in a period of transition between occupation and profession. To examine teachers' perceptions of their profession, the author conducted a qualitative, phenomenological investigation. He interviewed twenty-seven history and social science teachers employed at urban secondary schools in Chile. He found that teachers believe


  2. Phenomenological Study of Business Models Used to Scale Online Enrollment at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore factors for selecting a business model for scaling online enrollment by institutions of higher education. The goal was to explore the lived experiences of academic industry experts involved in the selection process. The research question for this study was: What were the lived…

  3. Dynamics of Positive Interactions between General Education Students and Students with Special Needs: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the dynamics of positive interactions between general education students and students with special needs in elementary inclusion-based physical education settings. More specifically, this qualitative study used a phenomenological research methodology aimed to examine the multiple factors contributing to general education


  4. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  5. The Perceptions Head Start Teachers Have of Instructional Behaviors for School Readiness: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elinor N.

    2011-01-01

    The school readiness of Head Start students has become a major concern in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore Head Start teachers' lived experiences and perceptions of the instructional behaviors necessary for preparing students for kindergarten. The study sample consisted of a purposive…

  6. The Meaning and Use of Intuition in Novice Nurses: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A.; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to determine the meaning and use of intuition in novice nurses with an above-average self-perception of intuitiveness in their 1st year of practice. Sixteen novice nurses from a variety of hospitals and specialty areas were interviewed to discover the meaning of intuitive knowing and to…

  7. Phenomenological Study: How Organizational Structures and Change Processes Influence Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte Clay

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions create organizational structures for younger students with limited work experience. New generations of adult students require different organizational structures to improve success. The current phenomenological qualitative study addressed the lack of consensus of what types of organizational structures in higher education…

  8. How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLurkin, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to…

  9. The Lived Experiences of Faculty Who Use Instructional Technology: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Heath V.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of university faculty who adopt technology for teaching and learning purposes and to determine if adoption affected the way a person taught, worked, and lived. A review of the literature found a gap in the understanding of the lived…

  10. Dynamics of Positive Interactions between General Education Students and Students with Special Needs: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the dynamics of positive interactions between general education students and students with special needs in elementary inclusion-based physical education settings. More specifically, this qualitative study used a phenomenological research methodology aimed to examine the multiple factors contributing to general education…

  11. Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in a Rural School District: A Phenomenological Study of Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Laura U.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological research study was to explore the effectiveness of programs and strategies used to recruit and retain highly qualified teachers in accordance with the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) from the perspective of highly qualified teachers in a rural school district in Central Virginia. The data…

  12. The Experiences of Multiple Deployments on Military Families: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threatts, Shanida Ann

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current qualitative phenomenological research study was to gain a deeper understanding of military families with young children from preschool to elementary school-age during deployments of a family member. The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 military parents concerning multiple or


  13. A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Eid

    2010-01-01

    In spite of enormous investment and remarkable advancement in information system technology (IST) corporations, human integration remains the dominant factor in their success. While 10% of the failure can be attributed to technique failures, 90% are due to human issues. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to capture the…

  14. A Phenomenological Case Study: Teacher Bias Effects on Early Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological case study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 20 current and past early education teachers who have experience in assessing children through observational assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if bias affects the documentation of observational assessment and the implementation…

  15. The Influence of the Social Network: A Phenomenological Study of Early Adopter Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrange Coston, Rita Louise

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 early adopter consumers, who used social networks in their decision-making process to purchase a component or complete high-technology home entertainment system. Four core themes of communication, convenience, cost, and technology emerged. Subthemes encompassed


  16. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  17. Information Technology Certifier Perspectives on Areas Affecting Certification Assessments: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Steven Russell

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) certifiers evaluate risk and develop mitigations ensuring IT infrastructures remain protected within acceptable levels of operation, which if not properly maintained can potentially result in loss of life within Department of Defense (DoD) and federal environments. This qualitative phenomenological exploratory study…

  18. A Phenomenological Study: Why African American Males Decline to Enroll in Graduate Level Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kimanya Darsel

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the barriers discouraging African American males from enrolling in graduate programs in one public university in Texas. The purposive sample consisted of 16 African American male college juniors and seniors between the ages of 20 and 25 enrolled at the targeted university. Questionnaires were used…

  19. Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Sheila C.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets


  20. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from


  1. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from…

  2. A Phenomenological Case Study: Teacher Bias Effects on Early Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Rebecca Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological case study explored the lived experiences of a purposive sample of 20 current and past early education teachers who have experience in assessing children through observational assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if bias affects the documentation of observational assessment and the implementation


  3. Phenomenological Dimensions of Sensory Gating

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, William P.; Smith, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating–like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating–like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating–like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described. PMID:20525773

  4. Community-based maternity care from the view of Iranian midwives: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Sayyedi, Marziyeh; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery cares take place in diverse communities with different ethnics groups. Therefore, midwifery cares could be planned wisely and principally based on women's and their families’ changeable demands which focus on social and cultural issues. This qualitative study explored the midwives’ experiences of care in the community. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by descriptive phenomenological approach. The subjects, selected by purposive sampling, comprised 13 midwives employed in Isfahan, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and simultaneously analyzed through Colaizzi's method. Results: With descriptive analysis of participants’ experiences, three main themes were explored (personal characteristics of the community midwife, social determinants of women's health, and achieving community-based midwifery skills). Conclusions: Knowledge of women's social status, gender inequality in health, and existence of social health risk factors for women in their community helps midwives to provide reproductive health care based on clients’ needs and demands. Therefore, midwives should enhance the quality of their care through integrating professional skills with a full understanding of the social context. PMID:25709700

  5. A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

  6. Participation in church or religious groups and its association with health. Part 2: a qualitative, Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Robinson, Peter; Cameron, Linda

    2015-06-01

    As part of a mixed-methods study, this qualitative inquiry determined how adolescent participation in church or religious groups related to their health. We used grounded theory with a phenomenological approach to inquiry. Consistent with the quantitative findings, children (n = 12) involved in religious groups reported lower participation in risk behaviors, higher pro-social behaviors, but poorer levels of emotional well-being and physical health. Findings raise theological and practical questions about the practices and teaching of the church with respect to children's ministry. They suggest an emphasis on teaching about behaviors and morality rather than a more integrative message involving the whole of life. PMID:25385319

  7. Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE

    1989-01-01

    A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.

  8. A Qualitative Approach to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Hermann

    In the teaching of physics, the study of electricity and magnetism typically follows the introduction of the basic concepts of mechanics. However, there are some new concepts associated with electromagnetic fields that seem at first to the student to be unrelated to, or even incompatible with, Newton's third law as learned in mechanics.


  9. Microemulsions: A qualitative thermodynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.; Busse, G. )

    1990-05-17

    Microemulsions, that is, stable colloidal dispersions of water and nonpolar solvents stabilized by amphiphiles, are of growing interest in research and industry. The phase behavior of the multicomponent mixture is essentially determined by the features of corresponding binary mixtures. The efficiency of an amphiphile in solubilizing the solvents reaches its maximum in the temperature interval in which the mixture separates into three coexisting liquid phases. The domain size of the dispersion is determined by the interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase in the presence of a saturated monolayer. Because the interfacial tension reaches its minimum in the three-phase interval and, furthermore, decreases with increasing amphiphilicity, the transition from weakly structured solutions to microemulsions is gradual. It is, therefore, suggested that microemulsions be defined as stable colloidal dispersions of domains sufficiently large for the dispersed solvent to exhibit the properties as, e.g., the dielectric number of a bulk phase.

  10. Phenomenological Mechanochemical of Damage and Radial Cracking in Brittle Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinfeld, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright (2002, 2004.) To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov (1976.) Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.

  11. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  12. On the phenomenology of tilted domains in lamellar eutectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, B.; Caroli, C.; Fauve, S.

    1992-03-01

    We show that, due to the coupling between tilt (amplitude of the antisymmetric part of the font profile) and phase dynamics, the phenomenology of tilt domains of finite width proposed by Coullet et al. within the assumption of a subcritical homogeneous tilt bifurcation retains the same qualitative features when this bifurcation is direct, as is the case for lamellar eutectics. Nous montrons que, du fait du couplage entre les dynamiques d'inclinaison (amplitude de la partie impaire du profil de front) et de phase, la phénoménologie des domaines d'inclinaison de largeur finie proposée par Coullet et al. pour le cas d'une bifurcation d'inclinaison homogène sous critique garde les mêmes caractéristiques qualitatives quand cette bifurcation est directe, comme c'est le cas pour la croissance eutectique lamellaire.

  13. Applying qualitative data derived from a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) approach to develop a community-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watthayu, Nantiya; Wenzel, Jennifer; Panchareounworakul, Kobkul

    2015-01-01

    HIV education programs are needed to address risk-taking behavior for adolescents. The purpose of our study was to use the World Health Organization's Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) method to design a community-based, cultural- and age-appropriate HIV prevention program for adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent single-gender-specific focus groups (n = 3; 28 participants) were used to gather reactions/ideas about program topics/approaches. An adult, mixed-gender group was held to review information identified by adolescents. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Themes regarding HIV content and the process of implementation emerged from a qualitative content analysis of the data. Community representatives recommended incorporation of HIV information and risk-prevention skills. Information delivery suggestions included small group discussions, interactive games/role-playing, program materials/terminology, and HIV-infected program facilitators. Community members provided critical input toward an HIV prevention program tailored to meet adolescents' unique needs/interests. The RAR model provides opportunities to engage communities in developing health-related interventions. PMID:26279387

  14. Qualitative estimation of the single-electron transfer step energetics mediated by samarium(II) complexes: a "SOMO-LUMO gap" approach.

    PubMed

    Kefalidis, Christos E; Essafi, Stéphanie; Perrin, Lionel; Maron, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    Lanthanide II organometallic complexes usually initiate reactions via a single-electron transfer (SET) from the metal to a bonded substrate. Extensive mechanistic studies were carried out for lanthanide III complexes in which no change of oxidation state is involved. Some case-dependent strategies were reported by our group in order to account for a SET event in organometallic computed studies. In the present study, we show that analysis of DFT orbital spectra allows differentiating between exothermic and endothermic electron transfer. This methodology appears to be general; it allows differentiating between lanthanide centers and substituent effects on metallocenes. For that purpose, we considered mainly various samarocene adducts as well as a SmI2 complex explicitly solvated by THF. Comparison between DFT methods and ab initio (CAS-SCF and HF) computational level revealed that the SOMO-LUMO gap computed at the DFT B3PW91 level, in combination with small-core RECPs and standard basis sets, offers a qualitative estimation of the energetics of the SET that is in line with both CAS-SCF calculations and experimental results when available. This orbital-based approach, based on DFT calculation, affords a fast and efficient methodology for pioneer exploration of the reactivity of lanthanide(II) mediated by SET. PMID:24620762

  15. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  16. Phenomenological implementations of TMD evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Although the theoretical set-up of TMD evolution appears to be well established, its phenomenological implementations still require special attention, particularly as far as the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions is concerned. These issues have been extensively studied in Drell-Yan processes, where they seem to be reasonably under control. Instead, applying the same prescriptions and methodologies to Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic (SIDIS) processes is, at present, far from obvious. Some of the controversies related to the applications of TMD Evolution to SIDIS processes will be discussed with practical examples, exploring different kinematical configurations of SIDIS experiments.

  17. Z' Phenomenology and the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-10-17

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z{prime} gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z{prime} properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z{prime} nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z{prime} studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z{prime}.

  18. Perturbative -supersymmetry and small -phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sibo

    2015-05-01

    For minimal -supersymmetry, the theory stays perturbative to the GUT scale for . This upper bound is relaxed when one either takes the criterion that all couplings are close to 4 for non-perturbation or one allows for new fields at the intermediate scale between the weak and GUT scale. We show that a hidden gauge sector with spontaneously broken scale 10 TeV improves this bound as instead. This may induce significant effects on the Higgs physics, such as decreasing fine tuning involving the Higgs scalar mass, as well as on the small -phenomenology.

  19. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  20. Assisting role redesign: a qualitative evaluation of the implementation of a podiatry assistant role to a community health setting utilising a traineeship approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing demands for podiatry combined with workforce shortages due to attrition, part-time working practices and rural healthcare shortages means that in some geographic areas in Australia there are insufficient professionals to meet service demand. Although podiatry assistants have been introduced to help relieve workforce shortages there has been little evaluation of their impact on patient, staff and/or service outcomes. This research explores the processes and outcomes of a ‘trainee’ approach to introducing a podiatry assistant (PA) role to a community setting in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government Health Service Directorate. Method A qualitative methodology was employed involving interviews and focus groups with service managers, qualified practitioners, the assistant, service users and consumer representatives. Perspectives of the implementation process; the traineeship approach; the underlying mechanisms that help or hinder the implementation process; and the perceived impact of the role were explored. Data were analysed using the Richie and Spencer Framework approach. Results Although the impact of the PA role had not been measured at the time of the evaluation, the implementation of the PA traineeship was considered a success in terms of enabling the transfer of a basic foot-care service from nursing back to podiatry; releasing Enrolled Nurses (ENs) from foot-care duties; an increase in the number of treatments delivered by the podiatry service; and high levels of stakeholder satisfaction with the role. It was perceived that the transfer of the basic foot-care role from nursing to podiatry through the use of a PA impacted on communication and feedback loops between the PA and the podiatry service; the nursing-podiatry relationship; clinical governance around the foot-care service; and continuity of care for clients through the podiatry service. The traineeship was considered successful in terms of producing a PA whose skills were shaped by and directly met the needs of the practitioners with whom they worked. However, the resource intensiveness of the traineeship model was acknowledged by most who participated in the programme. Conclusions This research has demonstrated that the implementation of a PA using a traineeship approach requires good coordination and communication with a number of agencies and staff and substantial resources to support training and supervision. There are added benefits of the new role to the podiatry service in terms of regaining control over podiatric services which was perceived to improve clinical governance and patient pathways. PMID:23181834

  1. Handheld polarimeter for phenomenology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Lompado, Arthur; Cabot, Elizabeth R.; Fetrow, Matthew P.

    2004-07-01

    Development of reliable imaging polarimeters and the models that predict their performance is dependent on the ability to assess their accuracy. Field tests frequently result in contradictory data and laboratory measurements are often not representative of materials in the field. To address these concerns, we have built a device with which the calibration of imaging polarimeters (both stationary and moving) can be verified and the polarimetric properties of materials in the field can be measured with accuracy. The device is a handheld, non-imaging polarimeter that is capable of highly calibrated phenomenology measurements in both the lab and field. Multiple optical heads enable monitoring of samples from a variety of angles in order to characterize polarimetric signatures as a function of source, sample, and sensor geometry. The device may also be used in unattended diurnal monitoring of polarimetric signatures of the sky, backgrounds, and targets of interest, providing a correlation between observed polarization phenomenology and weather conditions. The handheld device and the associated data acquisition system is small and portable enough that it can be taken to the field readily and is simple enough that calibration and system performance is predictable and verifiable. In this paper, we describe the design and performance of the non-imaging handheld polarimeter, performance specifications, and measurement results to date.

  2. C P -violating phenomenological MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Joshua; Cahill-Rowley, Matthew W.; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the next generation of flavor-based low-energy experiments to probe the supersymmetric parameter space in the context of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and examine the complementarity with direct searches for supersymmetry at the 13 TeV LHC in a quantitative manner. To this end, we enlarge the previously studied phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model parameter space to include all physical nonzero C P -violating phases, namely those associated with the gaugino mass parameters; Higgsino mass parameter and the trilinear couplings of the top quark, bottom quark, and tau lepton. We find that future electric dipole moment and flavor measurements can have a strong impact on the viability of these models even if the sparticle spectrum is out of reach of the 13 TeV LHC. In particular, the lack of positive signals in future low-energy probes would exclude values of the phases between O (1 0-2) and O (1 0-1). We also find regions of parameter space where large phases remain allowed due to cancellations. Most interestingly, in some rare processes, such as BR (Bs→Ό+ÎŒ-) , we find that contributions arising from C P -violating phases can bring the potentially large supersymmetry contributions into better agreement with experiment and Standard Model predictions.

  3. Cell phenomenology: The first phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Pattee, H H

    2015-12-01

    As a broad academic discipline phenomenology may be summarized as the study from a first person point of view of what appears to subjective human conscious experience. As a historical philosophical movement phenomenology was often motivated by the belief that subjective human experience is the proper foundation of all philosophy. I explore phenomena from a broader evolutionary and physical point of view. I consider a phenomenon as the subjective consequence of a physical interaction with an individual organism. In physical terms, a phenomenon requires some form of detection or measurement. What is detected is determined by the organism, and is potentially functional for the organism as a self or subject. The concept of function has meaning only for living organisms. The classical human mind-body problem is an ill-defined complicated case of the more general epistemic subject-object problem, which at the origin of life I reduce to the primitive symbol-matter problem. I argue that the first memory-based self-replicating unit, like a cell, is the most primitive case of a necessary symbol-matter distinction. The first phenomena, which include all forms or sensing, detection, and measurement, require a subject-object distinction, called the epistemic cut. It is only because of such a subject-object distinction that populations of individual subjects can selectively adapt to their environment by heritable variations. This basic evolutionary process requires distinguishing the individual's subjective phenomena from the objective events of inexorable physical laws. PMID:26140998

  4. Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  5. Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  6. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research


  7. Spiritual Dynamics Involved with Overseas Student Teaching: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a qualitative, phenomenological research study that explored the spiritual dynamics of 13 overseas student teachers. Overall, participants in our sample described spiritual growth on two levels. First, they related that spiritual development often followed an inside-out pattern. In explaining this phenomenon, students…

  8. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  9. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for


  10. Career Placement Concerns of International Graduate Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yih-Jiun; Herr, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the career placement concerns of international graduate students returning to their home countries, heading to other countries, or remaining in the United States after their education. Using a phenomenological framework, structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants (i.e., 18 international students,…

  11. Experiences of physical activity: A phenomenological study of individuals with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Street, Rachael; Mercer, Jenny; Mills-Bennett, Rebekah; O'Leary, Catherine; Thirlaway, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Although extensive research has investigated the benefits of physical activity in cystic fibrosis, minimal exploration of the experiences for individuals from a qualitative, phenomenological perspective has been carried out. The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experiences of physical activity for individuals with cystic fibrosis. The health-care team, at an Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit in the United Kingdom, recruited 12 participants to take part. Interview data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. A central theme of 'self-monitoring' emerged from the accounts and was embedded in the three super-ordinate themes. PMID:24687037

  12. Equation of State of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. This theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids, like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: the elastic modules become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.

  13. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Results: Analysis of the participants’ experiences led to five main concepts: “Disturbed in femininity-body image,” “discouragement of sexual relations,” “sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant,” “confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment,” and “striving to protect their marriage.” Conclusions: Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples. PMID:25709688

  14. Feeling an outsider left in uncertainty - a phenomenological study on the experiences of older hospital patients.

    PubMed

    van der Meide, Hanneke; Olthuis, Gert; Leget, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    This paper starts from a care ethical perspective on care and reports on a phenomenological study into older patients' experiences of hospitalisation. Although hospital care for older patients is at the centre of attention, questions what is at stake and what defines quality of care are rarely discussed with a view to the perspective of older patients themselves. The qualitative observational method of shadowing was used. Ten patients of 75 years old or older were shadowed from admission until discharge. The reflective lifeworld approach, based on phenomenological philosophy, was used to analyse the collected data. For the older patients included in the study, the essential meaning of hospitalisation can be described as feeling an outsider left in uncertainty. The word 'left' reveals how hospitalisation is experienced as a solitary struggle with various uncertainties that are related both to the hospital environment and to the patient's personal situation. The essential meaning is composed of the following three constituents: (i) staying in an inhospitable place, (ii) feeling constrained and (iii) experiencing disruption. The busy walking back and forth of care professionals and the functional character of involvement, restrain older patients from participating and make them feel abandoned. Feeling constrained reveals the feelings brought on by the ageing body which are emphasised by hospitalisation but often neglected by hospital staff. The failure of healthcare professionals to recognise and respond to who older patients are aside from their illness exacerbate the experience of disruptions. To improve care, hospital staff must be more sensitive to older patients' uncertainties. Also, hospital staff should provide older patients with understandable information and explanation which besides offering patients the possibility to feel involved, meets their need for recognition. PMID:25376968

  15. Drinking resumption: problematic alcohol use relapse after rehabilitation. A phenomenological hermeneutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kvamme, Brita Odland; Asplund, Kenneth; Bjerke, Trond Nergaard

    2015-12-01

    The majority of patients being treated for alcohol abuse disorders experience one or more relapses after treatment. The fact that people use this inebriant in a way leading to so much harm and suffering might seem a conundrum. Therapists, family and others might find the person's relapse to be dramatic and upsetting, and one might question whether the person has the sufficient will or motivation to change. However, few previous studies have explored relapse from the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to illuminate the patient's lived experience of relapse and to develop a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. The study consisted of qualitative interviews using a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Three main themes emerged from the analyses: 'craving', 'self-image' and 'time'. The findings were discussed in the context of phenomenological literature. Cravings could occur unpredictably; nevertheless, craving was a common experience for the patients and signified a risk of relapse. Bodily experiences of craving were frequently mentioned, and alcohol addiction could be understood as to be a disease or a learned habit. Self-image was, at times, adversely affected by relapse episodes. Therefore, feelings of shame, self-respect and recognition were significant concepts. This study found that the perception of time as past, present and future greatly influenced the participants' experiences of relapse and rehabilitation. Thus, relapse was an upsetting and dramatic experience that could cause great discomfort and sometimes life-threatening situations. However, relapse could also be viewed as a planned event. This study highlights important truth and reality about alcoholism and relapse grounded in people's lived experience. PMID:25851272

  16. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.


  17. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  18. Observation and phenomenology of glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental evidence and the relevant phenomenology of glueballs are reviewed. The opinion is expressed that the glueball resonance explanation is the only viable one for the data on g/sub T/, g/sub T/sup 1//, and g/sub T/sup 11//. It is shown that alternative explanations are either incorrect, or do not fit the data, or both, leading to the conclusion that these states are probably produced by glueballs. The OZI rule is explained. Glueball masses and width are considered. Some conclusions are drawn regarding an OZI suppressed reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. Glueball candidates from the J/psi radiative decay are discussed. 44 refs., 16 figs. (LEW)

  19. Conformality Emergent In String Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2005-12-02

    Use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to arrive at phenomenological gauge field theories is discussed, focusing on the orbifolded case without supersymmetry. An abelian orbifold with the finite group Zp can give rise to a G = U(N)p gauge group with chiral fermions and complex scalars in different bi-fundamental representations of G. The naturalness issue is discussed, particularly the absence of quadratic divergences in the scalar propagator at one loop. This requires that the scalars all be in bi-fundamentals with no adjoints, coincident with the necessary and sufficient condition for presence of chiral fermions. Speculations are made concerning new gauge and matter particles expected soon to be pursued experimentally at the LHC.

  20. Phenomenological order parameter and local parameters fluctuation far beyond the critical region of the continuous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    In the framework of an extended phenomenological approach to phase transitions, we show that existing nonlinear relation between local critical atomic parameters and phenomenological order parameter induces the corresponding nonlinear temperature scaling transformation, and find the explicit form for such a transformation. The theoretically predicted uniform function reproduces well the experimentally observed behavior of order parameters in different systems.

  1. Ab Initio and Phenomenological Modeling of the Phonon Spectrum of Superhard cp-BC2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basalaev, Yu. M.; Kopytov, A. V.; Pavlova, T. Yu.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The phonon spectrum of hypothetical superhard cp-BC2N is calculated based on ab initio method of density functional in the center of the Brillouin zone and interpolated over the entire Brillouin zone using the Keating phenomenological model. The interaction parameters are determined by optimization of the IR- and Ramanactive frequencies for a phenomenological model by their comparison with the results of ab initio calculations. Numerical values of short-range interaction constants and charges are in agreement with the characteristics of the chemical bond calculated ab initio. These parameters have transparent physical meaning and chemical nature and can further be used for both qualitative estimations of any physical and physico-chemical quantities and quantitative calculations of the phonon spectra of a number of isostructural compounds. The Keating phenomenological model is used to study the genesis of the phonon spectrum from the spectra of sublattices.

  2. The anatomy of sorrow: a spiritual, phenomenological, and neurological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pies, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable controversy, both within and outside the field of psychiatry, regarding the boundaries of normal sadness and clinical depression. Furthermore, while there are frequent calls for a "pluralistic", comprehensive approach to understanding depression, few writers have tried to integrate insights from the spiritual, philosophical, and neurobiological literature. The author proposes that such a synthesis is possible, and that our understanding of ordinary sorrow and clinical depression is enriched by drawing from these disparate sources. In particular, a phenomenological analysis of sorrow and depression reveals two overlapping but distinct "lifeworlds". These differ in the relational, temporal, dialectical, and intentional realms. Recent brain imaging studies are also beginning to reveal the neurobiological correlates of sorrow and depression. As we come to understand the neurobiology of these states, we may be able to correlate specific alterations in "neurocircuitry" with their phenomenological expressions. PMID:18559111

  3. [Dealing with the phenomenological interview with prostitutes: experience report].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel Cristina Cavalcante Carvalho; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at describing our experience in obtaining statements using the phenomenological interview. Eleven prostitutes were interviewed in Teresina, PI. Along this journey we have had several remarkable moments such as: the strategy of approaching the interviewee, the site of the interviews and the own emotional narration of the prostitutes. This process has showed us that one needs to be familiar and empathic with the research subjects. We have also learned that there is not a specific formula of conducting the interview, but it is the role of the researcher to identify the difficulties and propose strategies to obtain the statements. Thus, the empathic relationship that we have experienced in obtaining the statements from these women through the phenomenological interview was essential to understand the contact with violence throughout the prostitution daily life. PMID:20552844

  4. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  5. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  6. Comments on Mohammed Abouelleil Rashed's "A critical perspective on second-order empathy in understanding psychopathology: phenomenology and ethics".

    PubMed

    Schlimme, Jann E; Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mental life of persons with psychosis/schizophrenia has been the crucial challenge of psychiatry since its origins, both for scientific models as well as for every therapeutic encounter between persons with and without psychosis/schizophrenia. Nonetheless, a preliminary understanding is always the first step of phenomenological as well as other qualitative research methods addressing persons with psychotic experiences in their life-world. In contrast to Rashed's assertions, in order to achieve such understanding, phenomenological psychopathologists need not necessarily adopt the transcendental-phenomenological attitude, which, however, is often required if performing phenomenological philosophy. Additionally, in the course of these (non-philosophical) scientific endeavors, differences between persons with psychosis/schizophrenia and so-called normal people seem to have a methodological function and value driving the scientist in her enterprise. Yet, these differences do not extend to ethical dimensions, and therefore, do not by any means touch ethical equality. PMID:25820145

  7. Phenomenology of self-restraint.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis; Hall, Scott; Arron, Kate; Leggett, Janice

    2003-03-01

    Self-restraint is often reported in individuals with mental retardation who show self-injurious behavior (SIB). In this study, the phenomenology and prevalence of self-restraint in individuals showing self-injury and wearing protective devices and those showing self-injury but not wearing protective devices were compared. A high prevalence of self-restraint in the whole sample of individuals showing self-injury was identified (67/88, 76.1%), and self-restraint was more prevalent in a group showing self-injury but not wearing protective devices (43/47, 91.5%) than in a group showing self-injury and wearing protective devices (24/41, 58.5%). Individuals not wearing protective devices showed a greater number of topographies of self-restraint than those who did wear them. Results are discussed with reference to the purely topographical definition of self-restraint employed and the potential equivalence of protective devices and self-restraint. PMID:12564940

  8. LHC phenomenology of the ??SSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, A.; Hirsch, M.; Liebler, S.; Porod, W.; Vicente, A.

    2009-05-01

    The ??SSM has been proposed to solve simultaneously the ?-problem of the MSSM and explain current neutrino data. The model breaks lepton number as well as R-parity. In this paper we study the phenomenology of this proposal concentrating on neutrino masses and the decay of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). At first we investigate in detail the ??SSM with one generation of singlets, which can explain all neutrino data, once 1-loop corrections are taken into account. Then we study variations of the model with more singlets, which can generate all neutrino masses and mixings at tree-level. We calculate the decay properties of the lightest supersymmetric particle, assumed to be the lightest neutralino, taking into account all possible final states. The parameter regions where the LSP decays within the LHC detectors but with a length large enough to show a displaced vertex are identified. Decay branching ratios of certain final states show characteristic correlations with the measured neutrino angles, allowing to test the model at the LHC. Finally we briefly discuss possible signatures, which allow to distinguish between different R-parity breaking models.

  9. Deflected mirage mediation: a phenomenological framework for generalized supersymmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Everett, Lisa L; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2008-09-01

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a "deflected" scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. PMID:18851205

  10. Deflected Mirage Mediation: A Phenomenological Framework for Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Ouyang, Peter; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-09-05

    We present a general phenomenological framework for dialing between gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. The approach is motivated from recent developments in moduli stabilization, which suggest that gravity mediated terms can be effectively loop suppressed and thus comparable to gauge and anomaly mediated terms. The gauginos exhibit a mirage unification behavior at a ''deflected'' scale, and gluinos are often the lightest colored sparticles. The approach provides a rich setting in which to explore generalized supersymmetry breaking at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  11. Knowing and doing phenomenology: the implications of the critique of 'nursing phenomenology' for a phenomenological inquiry: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S

    2005-08-01

    Phenomenological research in nursing has come under sustained attack in recent years with some nurse researchers accused of betraying the fundamental tenets of phenomenology and of misconstruing its key concepts. This paper aims to show how a study informed by the critique of 'nursing phenomenology' was designed and conducted. In particular, the implications of the key phenomenological concepts of intentionality and bracketing for data collection, data analysis and the presentation of findings are explored in relation to an investigation of the concept of the Clinical Placement Coordinator (CPC), an innovative student support role in Irish nursing education. The paper shows how an understanding of the key phenomenological notions of bracketing and intentionality, and careful consideration of their implications for research design and conduct, can enrich nursing research by retaining the objectivity and critique central to the phenomenological method. The illumination and clarification of contested and complex concepts can be achieved by encouraging both researcher and co-researchers to get 'back to the things themselves' by taking a fresh unprejudiced look at the necessary and sufficient elements of phenomena of interest to nursing as they appear to those who experience them. PMID:15982467

  12. Qualitative research: comments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Schutz, R W

    1989-03-01

    Larry Locke's timely and well-written introduction to qualitative research procedures will undoubtedly serve its purpose. It makes us reassess our traditional beliefs and practices, educates us on the rudiments of qualitative methodology, and, hopefully, makes us more tolerant and appreciative of alternate ways of conducting research. Although Locke focuses his paper on pedagogical research issues, it is important to realize that many other sub-disciplines within the general field of physical education also utilize qualitative procedures. For example, 10 years ago Martens (1979) called for a paradigm shift in sport psychology by appealing to researchers to abandon their labs and to embark on naturalistic field studies. While North American sport psychologists, and psychologists in general, have been slow to formalize qualitative techniques, the European psychology community has been much more active (e.g., Ashworth, Giorgi, & de Koning, 1986). Perhaps Locke's article will encourage researchers in all our sub-disciplines to consider the utility of qualitative research. Hopefully, readers will treat Locke's article as an introduction to the broad area of qualitative research and not as a rigorous set of procedures for conducting participant observation research in school physical education studies. Additionally, it must be recognized that there are other approaches and other applications, that the area has its critics and its unresolved methodological problems, and that qualitative research does not necessarily exclude the application of formalized data analyses. Keeping these issues in mind, the addition of qualitative approaches to our repetoire of research methodologies can only enhance the quality of research in physical education and exercise and sport science. PMID:2489822

  13. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    PubMed

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. PMID:23138331

  14. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Emma P; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole - showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  15. Harnessing psychoanalytical methods for a phenomenological neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalysis proffers a wealth of phenomenological tools to advance the study of consciousness. Techniques for elucidating the structures of subjective life are sorely lacking in the cognitive sciences; as such, experiential reporting techniques must rise to meet both complex theories of brain function and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies. Analysis may offer valuable methods for bridging the gap between first-person and third-person accounts of the mind. Using both systematic observational approaches alongside unstructured narrative interactions, psychoanalysts help patients articulate their experience and bring unconscious mental contents into awareness. Similar to seasoned meditators or phenomenologists, individuals who have undergone analysis are experts in discerning and describing their subjective experience, thus making them ideal candidates for neurophenomenology. Moreover, analytic techniques may provide a means of guiding untrained experimental participants to greater awareness of their mental continuum, as well as gathering subjective reports about fundamental yet elusive aspects of experience including selfhood, temporality, and inter-subjectivity. Mining psychoanalysis for its methodological innovations provides a fresh turn for the neuropsychoanalysis movement and cognitive science as a whole – showcasing the integrity of analysis alongside the irreducibility of human experience. PMID:24808869

  16. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  17. A Phenomenological Exploration of Nurses' Perceptions of the Effect of Electronic Documentation on Healing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Sharon Lee

    2011-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study was an exploration of nurses' perceptions of the effect of information technology on healing relationships between nurses and patients. Extensive advancements in health care information technology have developed over the last decade, and have affected the health care environment. The increased time and…

  18. A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Susan Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants, nine teachers and three administrators, volunteered for this six-week study at a private, K3-12 school in Broward County, Florida. The


  19. "I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  1. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Former Foster Youth Attending a Four-Year College in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dora Yiu Lam

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experience of eight individuals attending a four-year college who were all part of a campus support program for former foster youth. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand and explore the lived experiences of these unique college students that have gone through the foster care system.…

  2. A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experience of Teen Mothers Who Graduated from High School and Attended or Completed College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroble, Christine Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to (1) explore the lived experience of teen mothers who graduated from high school and attended or completed college and (2) discover the school factors that contributed to their academic success. The goal was that in discovering the "essence" of participants' experience,…

  3. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  4. Making the Change: From a Teacher-Centered to a Learner-Centered Environment--A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, Patty L.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education is calling for transformation in teaching practices which includes learner-centered environments. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore 15 nursing faculty life experiences as they relate to the choice of a learning environment. Participants expressed their life experiences through interview…

  5. Implementation of Apple's iPad as an Instructional Tool in the Elementary Language Arts Classroom: A Phenomenological Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolarcik, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how elementary educators implement iPad devices as instructional tools to enhance their language arts instruction. The study used a phenomenological qualitative design with a single-subject case study design coupled with an embedded rubric component. The researcher conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews, classroom…

  6. "I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this


  7. A Phenomenological Study of Teacher and Administrator Experiences in the Analysis and Interpretation of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Matthew William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative empirical phenomenological study was to examine the experience of analyzing and interpreting student assessment data from the perspective of both teachers and administrators in order to identify: (a) those aspects of the experiences which are similar or dissimilar among the two groups, (b) the priorities and…

  8. Is there nursing phenomenology after Paley? Essay on rigorous reading.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the bedside, nurses are expected to be precise when they read indications on screens and on the bodies of patients and decide on the meaning of words framed by the context of acute care. In academia, although there is no incident report to fill when we misread or misrepresent complex philosophical ideas, the consequences of inaccurate reading include misplaced epistemological claims and poor scholarship. A long and broad convention of nursing phenomenological research, in its various forms, claims a philosophical grounding in the ideas of Husserl, Heidegger, and other thinkers. But for nearly two decades, nurse phenomenologists' knowledge claims have been challenged by well-informed criticisms, most notably by John Paley. At the heart of criticism lies an observation that Continental phenomenological thought is misrepresented in many nursing sources and that nursing phenomenology, both descriptive and interpretive, cannot appeal to the authority of either Husserl or Heidegger. Taking these criticisms seriously, I am asking, Is phenomenology after Paley possible? If misreading seems to be an issue, how can - or should - we read rigorously? My thinking through these questions is influenced by the ideas of Jacques Derrida. Under a condition of a play of language, of Derridian différance, when meaning is never self-identical and never fully arrives, I suggest that one has to negotiate meanings through reading for differences. I develop this idea in relation to the methodological conventions of phenomenological nursing research and argue for a careful rereading of the whole field of phenomenological nursing research. Such rereading presupposes and necessitates interdisciplinary engagement between nursing and the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Greater familiarity with research practices of those disciplines that stress theoretical and writing rigour might make visible the limits of nursing research approaches and their quality criteria. An understanding of philosophical and theoretical works - a condition of quality scholarship - depends on our reading of both originary texts and contemporary literature from the humanities and the social sciences. This understanding, far from obliging researchers to always trace (often erroneously) their work to its philosophical roots, opens other, often more sound, methodological possibilities. PMID:24320982

  9. The politics of phenomenological concepts in nursing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, C A

    1996-09-01

    This paper challenges those nurses who champion Heideggerian phenomenology, by outlining some of the possible political consequences of that philosophy. Some relationships between phenomenology and fascism are discussed, with special reference to anti-humanism and authenticity. Heidegger's commitment to Nazism is affirmed and, following the lead of other recent contributions to the debate, it is suggested that this was the likely, if not inevitable, result of his phenomenological philosophy. It is concluded that, because of its immanent fascism, Heideggerian phenomenology is at odds with the general value orientation publicly espoused by the nursing profession, and that this may render it not only unsuitable as a means of understanding and elaborating nursing knowledge, but also actively counter-productive to the conventional aspirations of nurses. PMID:8876419

  10. The phenomenology of action: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-04-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of the phenomenology of agency, of how they are related and of their possible sources. The key assumption guiding this attempt is that the processes through which the phenomenology of action is generated and the processes involved in the specification and control of action are strongly interconnected. I argue in favor of a three-tiered dynamic model of intention, link it to an expanded version of the internal model theory of action control and specification, and use this theoretical framework to guide an analysis of the contents, possible sources and temporal course of complementary aspects of the phenomenology of action. PMID:17950720

  11. The working experiences of novice psychiatric nurses in Taiwanese culture: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Hung, B J; Huang, X Y; Cheng, J F; Wei, S J; Lin, M J

    2014-08-01

    Novice psychiatric nurses experience heavy workloads, insufficient training and support in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to understand the working experiences of novice psychiatric nurses during their first year in a clinical setting. A qualitative phenomenological approach, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Narratives were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven-step method. Data saturation was reached after interviews were conducted with 15 nurses based on the purposive sampling. Four themes and eight sub-themes were identified: struggling (lacking a sense of security and competency), emulating (learning the process of interaction with clients and families, learning an appropriate role from nursing staff), prevailing (developing core competency, creating a therapeutic environment) and belonging (coping with the job, becoming a part of the psychiatric nursing staff). The findings from this study demonstrate that nurses are often inadequately prepared for psychiatric nursing. They have little understanding of mental illness, are unable to communicate appropriately with clients and struggle to cope with the conditions. Our study supports the importance for helping nurses to improve their essential knowledge and skills for coping with the job and providing good quality care, particularly in the first year. PMID:24612192

  12. Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Doerr-Zegers, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative. PMID:12728513

  13. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication, (3) incorporation of culturally specific HIV/STI and drug use content, (4) incorporation of interactive aspects in the app to engage youth, and (5) perspectives on the appearance of the app. Conclusions There is a dearth of mHealth HIV/STI and drug abuse preventive interventions for primary care. Incorporating the principles of CBPR in conjunction with agile software development and NIDA-recommended core prevention principles may be helpful in developing culturally specific mHealth interventions. An important next step in this program of research is to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of S4E on adolescent sexual risk and drug use behaviors, and HIV/STI testing. Implications for prevention research and primary care practice are discussed in the context of the Affordable Care Act and technological advances. PMID:26685288

  14. Using Risk Group Profiles as a Lightweight Qualitative Approach for Intervention Development: An Example of Prevention of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Velsen, Lex; van Gemert - Pijnen, Julia EWC; Maat, Angelique; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Crutzen, Rik

    2013-01-01

    Background Many public health campaigns use a one-size-fits-all strategy to achieve their desired effect. Public health campaigns for tick bites and Lyme disease (LD) in many countries convey all relevant preventive measures to all members of the public. Although preventing tick bites (eg, by wearing protective clothing or using repellants) and checking for tick bites after visiting a risk area are effective and cost-efficient methods to prevent an individual from contracting a tick-borne disease, public compliance to these methods is low. Objective We aimed to identify the group of individuals within the general Dutch population that are at high risk of being bitten by a tick or developing LD and to describe their characteristics, knowledge, and perceptions. The incidence of patients visiting their general practitioner for tick bites and erythema migrans (the first sign of LD) has increased tremendously in the last decades in the Netherlands and other European countries; therefore, our efforts can be used to counter this troubling trend. Methods We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews to identify individuals belonging to the average risk group. Participants were recruited in two ways. Patients who visited two municipal health services travel health clinics (one in a high-endemic area and one in a low-endemic area) were asked to participate. This resulted in 18 interviews. Further, parents were recruited using the convenience sampling method, which resulted in 7 interviews. We discontinued interviewing when the point of data saturation was reached. We analyzed the results immediately after each interview to identify the point of data saturation. Data saturation is when the new interviews provided no new information compared to the previous interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results We identified four groups at risk of being bitten by ticks and developing LD among the general Dutch population. The groups were as follows: (1) outdoor people that check for tick bites, (2) outdoor people that do not check for tick bites, (3) parents that check their children for tick bites, and (4) parents that do not check their children for tick bites. Previous experience with ticks or LD was the main denominator between the groups. Checking for tick bites is a more easily adopted measure than preventing tick bites. Therefore, for all groups, public health efforts in the future should primarily emphasize on the importance of checking for tick bites. Conclusions The lightweight qualitative approach presented in this paper is highly relevant in tailoring public health efforts toward specific groups. The profiles of members in each risk group and the motivations underlying the behaviors of the members in each risk group can be used to determine the features and content of a targeted communication strategy about ticks and LD. PMID:24172875

  15. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  16. Bridging distance and culture with a cyberspace method of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Liu, Huaping; Nishimura, Chie; Summers, Linda C

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research method that weds the cyberspace technology of e-mail with a phenomenological research approach. Examples are provided from 2 separate data sets. One data set explored the meaning of health for Japanese elders; the second explored Chinese nurses' experience of taking care of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lessons learned while using the cyberspace method are discussed, including guidance for organizing a long-distance research team, the central place of trust, and the time when e-mail communication demands to be supplemented with face-to-face interaction. The potential for bridging distance and culture with this cyberspace method is introduced for consideration and critique. PMID:15455580

  17. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  18. Collider Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-10

    In recent years there has been much interest in the possibility that there exist more spacetime dimensions than the usual four. Models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model that incorporate these extra dimensions can solve the gauge hierarchy problem and explain why the fermion masses a spread over many orders of magnitude. In this thesis we explore several possibilities for models with extra dimensions. First we examine constraints on the proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Schmaltz that the Standard Model fermions are localized to different positions in an extra dimension, thereby generating the hierarchy in fermion masses. We find strong constraints on the compactification scale of such models arising from flavor-changing neutral currents. Next we investigate the phenomenology of the Randall-Sundrum model, where the hierarchy between the electroweak and Planck scales is generated by the warping in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In particular, we investigate the ''Higgsless'' model of electroweak symmetry breaking due to Csaki et. al., where the Higgs has been decoupled from the spectrum by taking its vacuum expectation value to infinity. We find that this model produces many distinctive features at the LHC. However, we also find that it is strongly constrained by precision electroweak observables and the requirement that gauge-boson scattering be perturbative. We then examine the model with a finite vacuum expectation value, and find that there are observable shifts to the Higgs scalar properties. Finally, in the original large extra dimension scenario of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali, the hierarchy problem is solved by allowing gravity to propagate in a large extra dimensional volume, while the Standard Model fields are confined to 4 dimensions. We consider the case where there are a large number of extra dimensions (n {approx} 20). This model can solve the hierarchy problem without introducing a exponentially large radii for the extra dimensions, and represents a scenario that is difficult to obtain in string theory. We show that, if this scenario holds, the number of dimensions can be constrained to be larger than the number predicted by critical string theory. Searching for signals of many dimensions is then an important test of whether string theory is a good description of quantum gravity.

  19. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamics—to first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear bird’s-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation.

    See Letter re: this article.

  20. Theory and phenomenology of sparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drees, M.; Godbole, Rohini M.; Roy, Probir

    ch. 1. Supersymmetry: why and how. 1.1. History and motivation. 1.2. Quadratic divergence and unnaturalness. 1.3. Naturalness, nonrenormalization, supersymmetry -- ch. 2. Preliminaries. 2.1. Grassmann elements and variables. 2.2. Supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. 2.3. Glimpse of superspace. 2.4. Supersymmetry and spacetime transformations -- ch. 3. Algebraic aspects. 3.1. Supersymmetry algebra. 3.2. Two component notation. 3.3. Particle supermultiplets -- ch. 4. Free superfields in superspace. 4.1. General superfield in superspace. 4.2. Chiral covariant derivatives. 4.3. Left and right chiral superfields. 4.4. Vector superfields. 4.5. Matter parity and R-parity -- ch. 5. Interacting superfields. 5.1. System of interacting chiral superfields. 5.2. Abelian gauge interactions. 5.3. Supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED). 5.4. Nonabelian gauge interactions. 5.5. Supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SQCD). 5.6. Supersymmetric chiral gauge theory (S[symbol]GT) -- ch. 6. Superspace perturbation theory and supergraphs. 6.1. Nonrenormalization of superpotential terms. 6.2. Functional methods in superspace. 6.3. Functional formulation of superfield theory. 6.4. GRS Feynman rules for the Wess-Zumino model. 6.5. Feynman rules for nonabelian supergauge theories. 6.6. Sample one loop supergraph calculations. 6.7. The nonrenormalization theorem. 6.8. One loop infinities and [symbol]-functions. 6.9. Renormalization group evolution -- ch. 7. General aspects of supersymmetry breaking. 7.1. Initial remarks. 7.2. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking: some generalities. 7.3. The goldstino. 7.4. Model of F-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.5. Model of D-type supersymmetry breaking. 7.6. Dynamical model of supersymmetry breaking. 7.7. Soft explicit supersymmetry breaking. 7.8. The general mass sum rule -- ch. 8. Basic structure of the MSSM. 8.1. Brief review of the Standard Model. 8.2. Superfields of the MSSM. 8.3. Supersymmetric part of the MSSM. 8.4. Some non-Higgs vertices of the MSSM -- ch. 9. Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM. 9.1. The content of [symbol]SOFT. 9.2. Electroweak gauginos and higgsinos. 9.3. Chargino and neutralino interactions with gauge bosons. 9.4. Masses and mixing patterns of sfermions. 9.5. The flavor problem in supersymmetry. 9.6. Interactions of sfermions with gauge bosons. 9.7. Fermion-sfermion-gaugino/higgsino interactions. 9.8. Quartic sfermion vertices -- ch. 10. Higgs bosons in the MSSM. 10.1. Higgs potential in the MSSM. 10.2. Spontaneous breakdown and VEVs. 10.3. Higgs masses at the tree level. 10.4. Higgs-particle vertices. 10.5. Higgs-sparticle vertices. 10.6. Radiative effects on MSSM Higgs particles -- ch. 11. Evolution from very high energies. 11.1. The need for a high scale. 11.2. The running of gauge couplings in the SM and the MSSM. 11.3. Derivation of the remaining RGE equations. 11.4. Application to the MSSM -- ch. 12. Gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. 12.1. General remarks. 12.2. N=l supergravity broken in the hidden sector. 12.3. mSUGRA and its parameters. 12.4. Phenomenology with mSUGRA. 12.5. Beyond mSUGRA. 12.6. Quantum effects and extra dimensions. 12.7. Annex to Ch.12: A brief discussion of N=1 supergravity theory -- ch. 13. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. 13.1. The basic ingredients. 13.2. The minimal model mGMSB. 13.3. Nonminimal messenger sector. 13.4. The [symbol] and B[symbol] problems. 13.5. Direct messenger-matter coupling. 13.6. Flavor symmetries for the GMSB scenario -- ch. 14. Beyond the MSSM. 14.1. Motivation and outline. 14.2. The next-to-the-minimal supersymmetric standard model. 14.3. Introduction to imparity violation. 14.4. Phenomenological limits on trilinear [symbol] couplings. 14.5. Bilinear [symbol] violation. 14.6. Neutrino masses in supersymmetric theories -- ch. 15. Supersymmetry at colliders. 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Signals of charginos and neutralinos. 15.3. Signals of sleptons. 15.4. Signals of gluinos and squarks. 15.5. The quest for supersymmetric Higgs bosons. 15.6. Collider signals in the presence of [symbol] violation -- ch. 16. Supers

  1. Phenomenological modelling of eclipsing system light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuláơek, Zdeněk

    2015-12-01

    Context. The observed light curves of most eclipsing binaries and stars with transiting planets can be described well and interpreted by current advanced physical models that also allow for determining many of the physical parameters of eclipsing systems. However, for several common practical tasks, there is no need to know the detailed physics of a variable star, but only the shapes of their light curves or other phase curves. Aims: We present a set of phenomenological models for the light curves of eclipsing systems. Methods: We express the observed light curves of eclipsing binaries and stars, which are transited by their exoplanets orbiting in circular trajectories, by a sum of special, analytical, few-parameter functions that enable fitting their light curves with an accuracy of better than 1%. The proposed set of phenomenological models of eclipsing variable light curves were then tested on several real systems. For XY Bootis, we also give a detailed comparison of the results obtained using our phenomenological modelling with those found using available physical models. Results: We demonstrate that the proposed phenomenological models of transiting exoplanet and eclipsing binary light curves applied to ground-based photometric observations yield results compatible with those obtained by applying more complex physical models. Conclusions: The suggested phenomenological modelling appears useful for solving a number of common tasks in the field of eclipsing variable research.

  2. The phenomenology of intense electromagnetic wave interactions with systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1986-03-12

    Recent advances in laboratory high power microwave (HPM) source capabilities have raised concerns regarding the survivability of US systems if HPM weapon systems using such sources are deployed in the battlefield. In this paper an overview of recent US achievements in HPM sources is given. Upper bounds to future HPM threats on targets from first principles are derived. Again using a simplified first principles approach, the phenomenology of HPM interaction with targets is examined and scaling laws for the target response with frequency, pulse width, and fluence are derived.

  3. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause. PMID:26735699

  4. A phenomenological π-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2004-07-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length ah extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order α2logα using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic πN scattering length ahπ-p=0.0870(5)mπ-1 is deduced leading to a πNN coupling constant from the GMO relation gc2/(4π)=14.04(17).

  5. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system issues in the real world and the virtual world: combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter J; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E

    2007-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that transit providers accommodate passengers who use "common wheelchairs" when traveling in a motor vehicle. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems are commonly used to secure wheelchairs and restrain occupants in fixed-route and demand route transit vehicles. Throughout the 17 years since the Americans with Disabilities Act has been in effect, transit providers have complained about the usability of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems, and improper securement has been linked to injuries among wheelchair users during "nonimpact incidents." This research study explored the use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems in actual practice and the potential risks of misuse to wheelchair-seated individuals. The qualitative research conducted in this study revealed that improper wheelchair securement (i.e. using less than four tiedown straps) can be fairly common practice in fixed-route transit. In addition, preliminary computer simulations show that improper wheelchair securement in emergency driving conditions may place wheelchair occupants at a greater risk of injury. It should be noted, however, that this is a pilot study and has its limitations. For example, qualitative data were gathered from one metropolitan area transit provider across a limited range of vehicle and wheelchair types. Additionally, the computer simulation model used in this study was originally validated for impact situations. PMID:18335708

  6. The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.

    PubMed

    Abettan, Camille

    2015-11-01

    A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. PMID:25952098

  7. Qualitative Assessment: An Institutional Reality Check.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittler, Mary L.; Bers, Trudy H.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three qualitative research approaches used at Oakton Community College to provide insights into student experience as well as college assessment and promotion activities. Indicates that, when used with quantitative research, qualitative research results in a more comprehensive and realistic appraisal of student outcomes and institutional…

  8. Linking Research and Teaching in Qualitative Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    This paper presents an approach to the improvement of qualitative research courses in graduate schools, based on the case study of a graduate class. The study sought to link research to teaching through a qualitative research workshop. The course was developed to promote two goals: (1) community-building among graduate researchers, and (2)


  9. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and


  10. Understanding & Conducting Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan; Stainback, William

    In this book, which applies the state of the art in qualitative research to special education, qualitative research is used as a generic term for investigative methodologies described variously as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field research, or participant-observer research. Chapter 1 introduces and defines qualitative research and…

  11. Qualitative Student Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    The concept of a qualitative model is used as the focus of this review of qualitative student models in order to compare alternative computational models and to contrast domain requirements. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) Origins and Goals (adaptive instruction, qualitative models of processes, components of an artificial…

  12. Phenomenology of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov; J. Menard

    2004-05-13

    Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3 {le} {omega}/{omega}{sub ci} {le} 1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y-K.M. Peng, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7 < n < 9. The polarization of the modes, measured using an array of four Mirnov coils, is found to be compressional. The frequency scaling of the modes agrees with the predictions of a numerical 2-D code, but the detailed structure of the spectrum is not captured with the simple model. The fast ion distribution function, as calculated with the beam deposition code in TRANSP [R.V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)], is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.

  13. Iranian Kurdish women's experiences of childbirth: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahoei, Roonak; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh; Hasheminasab, Lila; Ranaei, Fariba; Hesame, Kajal; Shahoei, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background: The experience of labor and birth, referred to as childbirth, is complex, multidimensional, and subjective, relating to both the outcome and the process that is experienced by an individual woman. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of childbirth among Kurdish women giving birth at Besat Hospital in Sanandaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using phenomenological approach. Women eligible for the study were recruited from the postpartum ward. Inclusion criteria were being an Iranian Kurdish woman, being nulliparous, and having vaginal childbirth. Data collection was performed between 2010 and 2011. Women were interviewed by the first researcher 6–12 weeks after they had given birth to their first child. Results: All participants had spontaneous vaginal births without their husbands present. None of them received any analgesia or anesthesia during labor and birth. The findings are described under the following four themes: Feeling empowered, changing life, importance of being supported during labor, and the spiritual dimensions of giving birth. Conclusions: Women communicate through telling stories and create meaning as they articulate their feelings about pivotal life events such as childbirth. The findings of this study provide a useful first step toward the identification of aspects of Kurdish women's experience of giving birth. The women in this study identified that the presence or absence of effective support had a significant effect on their experience of labor and birth. It is important for midwives and other professionals to understand the benefits of support given for women during childbirth. PMID:25949245

  14. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  15. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  16. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  17. The perception of intuition in clinical practice by Iranian critical care nurses: a phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Parkhide; Abdi, Alireza; Jalali, Rostam; Salari, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Intuition as a way of learning in nursing is applied to decision making and judgment in complicated clinical situations. Several studies have been conducted on intuition in clinical settings, but comprehension of this concept is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about intuition in critical care nurses caring for more seriously ill patients. This study aimed to explore Iranian critical care nurses’ understanding of intuition in clinical practice. Methods In a descriptive–phenomenological study, 12 nurses employed in critical care units of the hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were purposively recruited to the study. A semistructured interview was administered, and then written verbatim. The data were managed by MAXQDA 10 software, and qualitative analysis was undertaken using the seven-stage approach of Colaizzi. Results Of the 12 nurses who participated in the study, 7 (58.3%) were female and married, and 10 (88.3%) held a bachelor’s degree in nursing. The mean and standard deviations of participants’ age, job experience, and critical care experience were 36.66±7.01, 13.75±6.82, and 7.66±3.36 years, respectively. Four main themes and eleven sub-themes were elicited from the qualitative analysis; the main themes including “Understanding intuition as a feeling”, “Understanding intuition as a thought”, “Understanding intuition as receiving signs”, and “Understanding intuition as an alarm”. Because they have trust in their own intuition, the nurses made further assessments and paid more attention to patients. They were also better prepared after receiving intuition alarms to perform the appropriate responses, and acting upon the alarms reduced the nurses’ physical and psychological signs. Conclusion The findings showed how intuition was understood by the critical care nurses; therefore, these results can be considered to form a theoretical basis for designing other studies. Because of the significant role of intuition in enhancing the nursing care of critically ill patients, it is suggested that more qualitative, quantitative, and trials studies be performed to reinforce intuition in nursing; moreover, to incorporate intuition into nursing curriculums, it should be debated in academic settings.

  18. A phenomenological modeling of critical condensate saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, F.; Firoozabadi, A.; Abbaszadeh, M.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a phenomenological model for critical condensate saturation. This model reveals that critical condensate saturation is a function of surface tension and contact angle hysteresis. On the other hand, residual oil saturation does not have such a dependency. Consequently, the selection of fluids in laboratory measurements for gas condensate systems should be made with care.

  19. The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

  20. An Historical Phenomenology of Mean and Median

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arthur; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Using Freudenthal's method of historical phenomenology, the history of statistics was investigated as a source of inspiration for instructional design. Based on systematically selected historical examples, hypotheses were formulated about how students could be supported in learning to reason with particular statistical concepts and graphs. Such a…

  1. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  2. F-theory: From Geometry to Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2014-12-01

    We give a lightning overview of recent progress in F-theory model building. After a review of the basic paradigm of geometric engineering of grand unified theories by elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfolds, we explain the connection to local models, construction of fluxes, phenomenological implications as well as the recent advances in building global models with U(1) symmetries.

  3. A Phenomenological Analysis of the Invisibility Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Tovar-Murray, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 African American men's perceptions of invisibility. Participants perceived invisibility as an extra unwarranted burden that is accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, and anger. Participants also coped with invisibility by finding safe havens within the Black community.…

  4. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  5. Professor Ninian Smart, Phenomenology and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    I reply to L. Philip Barnes' assessment of the contributions of Ninian Smart and phenomenology to religious education. My argument is that Barnes first misconceives and then underestimates Smart's legacy. I sketch Smart's relevance to some current issues in religious education, suggesting that his thought helps us to avoid potentially damaging…

  6. Superstring phenomenology present-and-future perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of superstring phenomenology is to develop the models and methodology needed to connect quantitatively between Planck scale and electroweak scale experimental data. I review the present status of this endeavor with a focus on the three generation free fermionic models.

  7. Phenomenology of n - n Ż oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-22

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-nŻ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-nŻ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  8. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  9. A Phenomenological Study of School Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitta, Keith; Holley, Marc; Wrobel, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This phenomenological study of school consolidation is an investigation of how education policy that dictates the reorganization of schools and districts impacts educational choices, learning environments, and school culture. Although quality studies of optimal school size for promoting student achievement and cutting costs have emerged in the


  10. Exploring Relationships in Education: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Research that seeks to understand the lived experience of the teacher-student relationship is not prevalent. This article reports on a phenomenological inquiry which explored the nature of this relationship in the context of teacher education. Participant's lived experiences were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of


  11. Mikhail Bakhtin: Between Phenomenology and Marxism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Examines the growing influence of Mikhail Bakhtin in a variety of fields. Describes two dominant strains that permeate Bakhtin's philosophical project: phenomenology and Marxism. Argues that the ambivalence displayed between these two poles in Bakhtin's work suggests an ambivalence in the larger arena of literary studies. (HB)

  12. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis - a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records

    PubMed Central

    Lastein, Dorte B; Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers) to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1) 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2) 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores) and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation) and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias). The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population). Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of veterinarians' different perceptions of and motivations for decision making. Acknowledgement of these findings by researchers, educational institutions and veterinarians in practice may stimulate an effort to improve the quality of field data, as well as raise awareness about the importance of including knowledge about human perceptions when interpreting studies based on field data. Both recognitions may increase the usefulness of both within-herd and between-herd epidemiological analyses. PMID:19715614

  13. The Concept of Care Complexity: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto; Motta, Paolo Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice. Significance for public health In recent years, reference to the concept of complexity has become increasingly frequent in the management of healthcare systems. This interpretation of reality and of knowledge reflects the increasing use of a multi-disciplinary approach, in both clinical and research fields, that re-evaluates the importance of the environment and the preferences of the individual. The influence of the epistemological theory of complexity in healthcare can also be identified in discussions on the role and methods of epidemiology and public health; in breaking the walls between the exact sciences and the humanities; in the appreciation of qualitative methods of research and the Bayesian approach to biostatistics. PMID:26753161

  14. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  15. Pediatric bipolar disorder: validity, phenomenology, and recommendations for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find, review, and critically evaluate evidence pertaining to the phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder and its validity as a diagnosis. Methods The present qualitative review summarizes and synthesizes available evidence about the phenomenology of bipolar disorder (BD) in youths, including description of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of symptoms, clarification about rates of cycling and mixed states, and discussion about chronic versus episodic presentations of mood dysregulation. The validity of the diagnosis of BD in youths is also evaluated based on traditional criteria including associated demographic characteristics, family environmental features, genetic bases, longitudinal studies of youths at risk of developing BD as well as youths already manifesting symptoms on the bipolar spectrum, treatment studies and pharmacologic dissection, neurobiological findings (including morphological and functional data), and other related laboratory findings. Additional sections review impairment and quality of life, personality and temperamental correlates, the clinical utility of a bipolar diagnosis in youths, and the dimensional versus categorical distinction as it applies to mood disorder in youths. Results A schema for diagnosis of BD in youths is developed, including a review of different operational definitions of `bipolar not otherwise specified.' Principal areas of disagreement appear to include the relative role of elated versus irritable mood in assessment, and also the limits of the extent of the bipolar spectrum – when do definitions become so broad that they are no longer describing `bipolar' cases? Conclusions In spite of these areas of disagreement, considerable evidence has amassed supporting the validity of the bipolar diagnosis in children and adolescents. PMID:18199237

  16. A Phenomenological Exploration of Resilience in Cheyenne and Arapaho University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the experience of transitioning from common education to higher education for a group of Cheyenne and Arapaho students. Additional features of resilience were examined as well, which included their persistence in pursuit of a baccalaureate degree. A phenomenological approach was used in order to explore the lived experiences of…

  17. Investigating Cognitive Processes within a Practical Art Context: A Phenomenological Case Study Focusing on Three Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Richard; Kiss, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was employed in order to record and present the lived experiences of three students during a five-hour art-making activity. Theoretical definitions of cognitive processes pertinent to art and design were compared with the descriptions gathered from the students. The research was intended to portray as accurately as…

  18. Recovery Experiences of Taiwanese Women after Terminating Abusive Relationships: A Phenomenology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the recovery experiences of women who had suffered intimate partner violence in Taiwan. A phenomenological study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample of eight women. Colaizzi's approach to narrative analysis was applied. Findings indicate that "reconstructing the self"


  19. Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based phenomenological approach to bringing rapid simulation…

  20. White Counseling Supervisees' Experiences Working with Latino Youth: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Havlik, Stacey; Palacios, Lyda Holguín; Contrisciane Lewis, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of White counseling students who facilitated a group intervention with Latino adolescents. A phenomenological approach revealed several challenges experienced by the counselors in working across race and culture. Two major themes that emerged from the analysis included counselors' lack…