Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods Â§ to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…
Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.
Reviews the literature on qualitative methods in information retrieval research. Qualitative research is shown to be noncontrolling, holistic and case oriented, about processes, open and flexible, diverse in methods, humanistic, inductive, and scientific. Relevance to library and information science and sources of information on qualitative…
As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind
Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research studies the meaning of actions that occur, both in face-to-face interactions and in the wider society surrounding the immediate scene of action. To conduct interpretive research on teaching, intense and long-term participant observation in an educational setting is required, followed by deliberate and long-term reflection on what was observed. Questions regarding the observer's point of view, previously learned formal theories, cultural conditioning, and personal values must be considered. Attitudes toward teaching and learning as well as measures of effectiveness are also worth examining. This paper argues that such detailed scrutiny of everyday teaching routines is a route to improving educational practice, as performed by university researchers as well as practicing teachers.
Public Health 439 (section 20) Qualitative Research Methods Spring 2012 1 PUB HLTH 439 (section 20) Qualitative Research Methods Spring 2011 Day/Time: Tuesdays, 6:00 Â 9:00 PM Classroom Location: McGaw 2 research deals with words, spoken and written. This course will focus on qualitative research methods
Chisholm, Rex L.
QUALITATIVE METHODS IN TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH By Kelly J. Clifton Graduate Program in Urban-10, 2001 #12;2 QUALITATIVE METHODS IN TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH ABSTRACT This purpose of this paper is to both demonstrate the importance of qualitative methods in travel behaviour research and explore
Handy, Susan L.
Studies addressing medical education have rarely used qualitative research methods to contribute knowledge about the phenomenon under investigation. There are two possible reasons for this. First, in the past, the qualitative works were rejected due to a lack of objective evidence, considered to be “unscientific ” and “anecdotal. ” Second, medical educators have failed to communicate the methods, canons and utilization of qualitative inquiry approaches to professional colleagues or undergraduate medical students. 2,3 It seems that the latter point is most pertinent here. In Iran, there are few studies which are grounded in qualitative research methods, and doctors tend to scrutinize quantitative research designs in order to glean empirical data, which is rooted in objective reality. This may be attributed to the fact that medical schools in Iran equip doctors with the skills to analyze epidemiologic studies. Based upon such arguments, Tehran Medical Education Development Centre with
Mohsen Tavakol Phd
The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade
WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE
There has been growing interest in qualitative research methods and their application to information systems in recent years. Since 1990 panels and/or workshops on qualitative research methods have become a regular feature of ICIS. Prominent among the variety of research strategies which have been suggested in the research literature are case studies, grounded theory, ethnography (Harvey and Myers 1995; Wynn 1991), phenomenology, semiotics (Klein and Truex 1995), hermeneutics, critical hermeneutics (Myers 1994) and critical theory approaches. However, in this discussion there has been little consideration given to the differences between and respective merits of these research methods. While all of the above methods are often labeled “qualitative, ” they are significantly different and are, in some ways, opposed. Some of the methods have different underlying philosophical assumptions, espouse competing values (ethics of research), and advocate different quality criteria. The purpose of the panel is to compare and critique three qualitative approaches to information systems research with regard to their underlying assumptions and quality criteria or ethics of research. The three that will be discussed are ethnography,
Michael Myers; Heinz Klein; Duane Truex; Eleanor Wynn; Michael D. Myers
There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. PMID:24768353
Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C
Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979
Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik
Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…
Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth
One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based…
Leko, Melinda M.
This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitative research methods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles the…
Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.
Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain
Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea
This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid
Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and cooperative grouping techniques using the triangulation method.
Allen, Deedee; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria
Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research. PMID:20675353
Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.
There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…
This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…
In a study of the relationship between moral reasoning and teenage drug use, problems arose in an attempt to reduce qualitative data to a quantitative format: (1) making analytic sense of singular and universal responses; (2) the mistaken logical inference that each pattern of judgment should have behavioral indicators; and (3) construction and…
Buchanan, David R.
Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities. PMID:25203930
As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a
Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…
Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.
Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…
Palladino, John M.
This article explores epistemological awareness and instantiation of methods, as well as uninformed ambiguity, in qualitative methodological decision making and research reporting. The authors argue that efforts should be made to make the research process, epistemologies, values, methodological decision points, and argumentative logic open,…
Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Smith, Jason Jude; Hayes, Sharon B.
Although distance education courses have become commonplace in most colleges and universities, the introduction of online research methods courses in the preparation of doctoral students has been slow in developing. This qualitative study explores the online learning experiences of doctoral students who have taken 1 or more of their research…
Lim, Jae Hoon; Dannels, Sharon A.; Watkins, Ryan
Qualitative methodology, the traditional mainstay of social science and historical research, is currently gaining increased respectability as both an alternative and a companion to quantitative methods in intercultural communication research. Because data collection and compilation techniques are often highly personal, situation-specific,…
Blackman, Bernard I.; Provencher, David
Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…
Contemporary aspects of research methods in sport and exercise psychology are discussed in this wide-ranging review. After an introduction centred on trends in sport and exercise psychology methods, the review is organized around the major themes of quantitative and qualitative research. Our aim is to highlight areas that may be problematic or controversial (e.g. stepwise statistical procedures), underused (e.g. discriminant
Stuart J. H. Biddle; David Markland; David Gilbourne; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Andrew C. Sparkes
Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
Cox, Rebecca D.
A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other
Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…
Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara
This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitative methods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduded data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.
This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…
Sethna, Bishar M.
Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…
The Mixed-Method Library: Qualitative Research and the Future of Assessment in Higher Education. Dr the broader implications of committing full-time work to qualitative research in a library policy context communication in the 21st century. Qualitative researchers employed in academic libraries are often positioned
I investigated the nature of clinical knowledge in medicine, exposed some of the shortcomings of quantitative research methods, and briefly introduced qualitative methods as an approach for improved understanding. Here, I shall discuss how scientific quality can be maintained when qualitative research methods are applied. I present some overall standards, describe specific challenges met when the medical researcher uses qualitative
Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…
Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.
While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.
On doing qualitative research linked to ethical healthcare Volume 1 Priscilla Alderson Published by The Wellcome Trust, London WC10-2221b/1K/05-2001/JM #12;On doing qualitative research linked to ethical newly established Biomedical Ethics Programme. Both research projects involved using qualitative methods
Qualitative research: a vital resource for ethical healthcare Proceedings of the conference Trust, London WC10-2221a/tbcK/01-2001/JW #12;Qualitative research: a vital resource for ethical newly established Biomedical Ethics Programme. Both research projects involved using qualitative methods
Qualitative research aims to address questions concerned with developing an understanding of the meaning and experience dimensions of humans’ lives and social worlds. Central to good qualitative research is whether the research participants’ subjective meanings, actions and social contexts, as understood by them, are illuminated. This paper aims to provide beginning researchers, and those unfamiliar with qualitative research, with an
Ellie Fossey; Carol Harvey; Fiona Mcdermott; Larry Davidson
Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…
Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael
The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitative research (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in terms of the consensus
Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox; Barbara J. Thompson; Elizabeth Nutt Williams; Shirley A. Hess; Nicholas Ladany
Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam
This article explores the role of qualitative and collaborative methods when undertaking evaluation research into local community safety partnerships and neighbourhood strategies. It draws on recent examples of research and evaluation studies of regeneration and community safety programmes in a number of cities and towns in England. The discussion is set against the background of the major changes in policy
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…
In general, an appreciation of the standards of qualitative research and the types of qualitative data analyses available to researchers have not kept pace with the growing presence of qualitative studies in medical science. To help rectify this problem, the authors clarify qualitative research reliability, validity, sampling, and generalizability. They also provide 3 major theoretical frameworks for data collection and analysis that investigators may consider adopting. These 3 approaches are ethnography, existential phenomenology, and grounded theory. For each, the basic steps of data collection and analysis involved are presented, along with real-life examples of how they can contribute to improving medical care. PMID:18820144
Collingridge, Dave S; Gantt, Edwin E
Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological\\u000a research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative\\u000a approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative\\u000a and qualitative approaches. This article outlines
Omar Gelo; Diana Braakmann; Gerhard Benetka
The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…
Maxwell, Joseph A.
The American Psychological Association Task Force recommended that researchers always report and interpret effect sizes for quantitative data. However, no such recommendation was made for qualitative data. The first objective of this paper is to provide a rationale for reporting and interpreting effect sizes in qualitative research. Arguments are…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
??Qualitative research methodological tools such as focus groups, key informant interviews and community surveys are traditionally used to provide context to larger quantitative research studies.… (more)
Gaffey, Abigail Marie
Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson’s metaphysical work on the ‘ways of knowing’. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions. PMID:20948937
Carroll, Linda J.; Rothe, J. Peter
A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory
Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships. Understanding how to identify and evaluate constructivist lessons is the first step in promoting and improving constructivism in teaching. Chapter 4 summarizes a theoretically-generated series of practical criteria that define constructivism: (1) Eliciting Prior Knowledge, (2) Creating Cognitive Dissonance, (3) Application of New Knowledge with Feedback, and (4) Reflection on Learning, or Metacognition. These criteria can be used by any practitioner to evaluate the level of constructivism used in a given lesson or activity.
Hartle, R. Todd
There seems to be a continuous flow of new and revised books to support the teaching and learning of research methods in education and related fields. At one level, this is to be welcomed in an area such as research methodology where there is no single, widely accepted and coherent overview of the subject. The availability of diverse voices and…
Taber, Keith S.
Qualitative research and its methods stem from the social sciences and can be used to describe and interpret complex phenomena that involve individuals' views, beliefs, preferences, and subjective responses to places and people. Thus, qualitative research explores the many subjective factors that may influence patient outcomes, staff well-being, and healthcare quality, yet fail to lend themselves to the hypothesis-testing approach that characterizes quantitative research. Qualitative research is valuable in the intensive care unit to explore organizational and cultural issues and to gain insight into social interactions, healthcare delivery processes, and communication. Qualitative research generates explanatory models and theories, which can then serve to devise interventions, whose efficacy can be studied quantitatively. Thus, qualitative research works synergistically with quantitative research, providing new impetus to the research process and a new dimension to research findings. Qualitative research starts with conceptualizing the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, and designing the study; rigorous methods specifically designed for qualitative research are then used to conduct the study, analyze the data, and verify the findings. The researcher is the data-collecting instrument, and the data are the participants' words and behaviors. Data coding methods are used to describe experiences, discover themes, and build theories. In this review, we outline the rationale and methods for conducting qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of available qualitative methods and explain how they can work in close synergy with quantitative methods. To illustrate the effectiveness of combining different research methods, we will refer to recent qualitative studies conducted in the intensive care unit. PMID:19104214
Rusinová, Kater?na; Pochard, Frédéric; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Azoulay, Elie
Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method. Discussion Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both "internal", grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible "internal" and "external" research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress. Summary This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the "formal case study", allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity for the practitioner-researcher to contribute to the evidence-base in homeopathy in a systematic fashion. The FCS can also be used to inform the design of clinical trials through holistic study of the "active ingredients" of the therapeutic process and its clinical outcomes. PMID:15018637
Thompson, Trevor DB
Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning. Proceedings of KAMALL 2011: New Directions for Blended Learning in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invi
Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invited conference] 1 Blending research methods Directions for Blended Learning in EFL, Korea, Republic Of (2011)" #12;Alex Boulton. Blending research
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Drawing upon their large three-year mixed-method study comparing four English university sociology departments, the authors demonstrate the benefits to be gained from concisely recording biographical stories on life-grids. They argue that life-grids have key benefits which are important for comparative European educational research. Some of these…
Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul; McLean, Monica
The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…
Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford
The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…
: Annenberg room 303 This course in advanced qualitative research is designed for students who have taken an introductory graduate course in qualitative research as data and other materials from researchers' and students' qualitative studies
Bustamante, FabiÃ¡n E.
Summer Institute in Qualitative Research Putting Theory to Work Monday 18th Â Friday 22nd July 2011 possibilities? Harry Torrance MMU Mixed methods research: what is the role of qualitative methods? Lisa Mazzei Gonzaga University, USA Plugging one text into another: thinking with theory in qualitative research Helen
of research. Along with new research questions, new research methods are needed to study nontechnical aspects of software engineering. In many other disciplines, qualitative research methods have been developed]. Qualitative research methods were designed, mostly by educational researchers and other social scientists [19
This article argues that the introduction of qualitative research methods into the study of leadership may improve this area of research by facilitating the introduction of a wider range of contextual variables into the investigation of leadership styles. It is also contended that such variables have the advantage of being grounded in people's experiences and are therefore more accesible to
Alan Bryman; Michael Bresnen; Alan Beardsworth; Teresa Keil
1 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH What is Considered `Scientific Knowledge documents, observations and transcripts Basic Features of Qualitative Research (2) Research procedures'? Importance of methodology Need for empirical data Procedures and protocols in research Competing sources
The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.
Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative-qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is…
Madill, Anna; Gough, Brendan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…
Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta
Research Ground Floor, Adam Smith Building Office hours: by appointment Course summary Advanced Qualitative qualitative methods and ethnography are likely to be central to their research. Course aims The Advanced to become an adept qualitative researcher, skills that will be developed through exercises during the course
Glasgow, University of
Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…
Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris
Quantitative research dominates published literature in the helping professions. Mixed methods research, which integrates quantitative and qualitative methodologies, has received a lukewarm reception. The authors address the iterative separation that infuses theory, praxis, philosophy, methodology, training, and public perception and propose a…
McLafferty, Charles L., Jr.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
OBJECTIVE: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitative research and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. BACKGROUND: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitative methods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. DESCRIPTION: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. APPLICATIONS: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitative research methods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540
Pitney, William A; Parker, Jenny
Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…
Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff
Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438
This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…
Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.
This article describes a qualitative research methods training project undertaken in a COAMFTE-accredited family therapy master's-level program. Graduate students were trained to collect research data for a qualitative study on the resilience of families displaced to the United States because of war and politically motivated violence in their country of origin. By involving trainees in a research project with refugees, the project was intended to address a gap in clinicians' training, specific to the refugee population (Miller, Muzurovic, Worthington, Tipping, and Goldman, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 2002; 72: 341). However, the training process was also a way to increase the students' skills at interviewing in complex situations, develop their cultural sensitivity beyond awareness, enhance their capacity for routine self-reflection, and introduce them to basic practices of qualitative research methodology. In this article, we focus on the students' experience of the training and discuss the potential implications of their feedback for family therapy training. PMID:24749482
Charlés, Laurie L; Moebus, Paula; Beechinor, Lisa; Pearce, Tyler; Putney, Heather
A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)
Beck, Cheryl Tatano
This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative Inquiry: Meaning…
Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.
This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…
Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.
In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…
This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.
This article presents the argument that combining visual methods with other qualitative research methods enhances the inherent strengths of each methodology and allows new understandings to emerge. These would otherwise remain hidden if only one method were used in isolation. In a qualitative inquiry of an elementary teacher's constructivist…
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…
Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.
Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…
Morrow, Susan L.
This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)
O'Connor, Bridget N.
A qualitative research design can provide unique contributions to research in the intensive care unit. Qualitative research includes the entire process of research: the methodology (conceptualization of the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, designing the protocol), methods (conducting the research using qualitative methods within the chosen qualitative strategy, analysis of the data, verification of the findings), and writing the narrative. The researcher is the instrument and the data are the participants' words and experiences that are collected and coded to present experiences, discover themes, or build theories. A number of strategies are available to conduct qualitative research and include grounded theory, phenomenology, case study, and ethnography. Qualitative methods can be used to understand complex phenomena that do not lend themselves to quantitative methods of formal hypothesis testing. Qualitative research may be used to gain insights about organizational and cultural issues within the intensive care unit and to improve our understanding of social interaction and processes of health care delivery. In this article, we outline the rationale for, and approaches to, using qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of qualitative methods available and how they can be used alone or in concert with quantitative methods. To illustrate how our understanding of social phenomena such as patient safety and behavior change has been enhanced we use recent qualitative studies in acute care medicine. PMID:17548020
Sinuff, Tasnim; Cook, Deborah J; Giacomini, Mita
Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…
Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro
This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…
Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel
This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…
Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.
Using qualitative methods to make and support claims in physics education research Cody Sandifer research. To start the session, we presented a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide editorialized at the end of this paper. Part 1: Overview of Qualitative Research In simplest terms, qualitative
The author of this essay contends that there is a need to expand the use of qualitative research methods to include healing and human restoration for the researcher as well as for the researched. This will require moving away from obsessions with positivistic conceptions of scientific research and exploring and using other possible functions of…
Stanfield, John H., II
This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150676
Levitt, Heidi M
The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…
Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…
The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…
Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair
As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…
Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle
Key aspects of the academic socialization of doctoral students in Britain are described by comparing and contrasting supervisors of Ph.D. candidates in a natural science and a social science discipline. The role of the supervisor in the production of academic elites is highlighted in the two very different academic research traditions. A total of…
Parry, Odette; And Others
In nursing today, it remains unclear what constitutes a good foundation for qualitative scientific inquiry. There is a tendency to define qualitative research as a form of inductive inquiry; deductive practice is seldom discussed, and when it is, this usually occurs in the context of data analysis. We will look at how the terms 'induction' and 'deduction' are used in qualitative nursing science and by qualitative research theorists, and relate these uses to the traditional definitions of these terms by Popper and other philosophers of science. We will also question the assertion that qualitative research is or should be inductive. The position we defend here is that qualitative research should use deductive methods. We also see a need to understand the difference between the creative process needed to create theory and the justification of a theory. Our position is that misunderstandings regarding the philosophy of science and the role of inductive and deductive logic and science are still harming the development of nursing theory and science. The purpose of this article is to discuss and reflect upon inductive and deductive views of science as well as inductive and deductive analyses in qualitative research. We start by describing inductive and deductive methods and logic from a philosophy of science perspective, and we examine how the concepts of induction and deduction are often described and used in qualitative methods and nursing research. Finally, we attempt to provide a theoretical perspective that reconciles the misunderstandings regarding induction and deduction. Our conclusion is that openness towards deductive thinking and testing hypotheses is needed in qualitative nursing research. We must also realize that strict induction will not create theory; to generate theory, a creative leap is needed. PMID:25413613
Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M
This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…
Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro
The relationship between the philosophy, theory, and methods of different research paradigms is explored in this article. Specific theoretical perspectives, critical theory, postmodernism, critical race theory, queer theory, and feminist theory are explored in the context of their political values and implications for qualitative research.…
Broido, Ellen M.; Manning, Kathleen
Interest in how qualitative health research might be used more widely to inform health policy and medical practice is growing. Synthesising findings from individual qualitative studies may be one method but application of conventional systematic review methodology to qualitative research presents significant philosophical and practical challenges. The aim here was to examine the feasibility of synthesising qualitative research using qualitative
Rona Campbell; Pandora Pound; Catherine Pope; Nicky Britten; Roisin Pill; Myfanwy Morgan; Jenny Donovan
The wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data collection and sampling. Selecting data collection and sampling techniques can therefore be somewhat daunting, particularly because, often, there is no single, universally accepted 'correct' option. Appropriate research methods are, however, crucial to ensure high-quality research. This review, the second in the series, provides an overview of the principal techniques of data collection and sampling that may be used for qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics. In addition, it describes a process for choosing appropriate data collection and sampling methods that considers the extent to which they provide data that answers the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Finally, it discusses the central role that the researcher plays in qualitative data collection and encourages researchers to acknowledge and reflect upon their impact on the data. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data analysis and quality assessment of this kind of research, and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. PMID:21091918
Draper, A; Swift, J A
Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…
Farber, Nancy K.
Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using…
Increasingly, qualitative health researchers might consider using social media to facilitate communication with participants. Ambiguity surrounding the potential risks intrinsic to social media could hinder ethical conduct and discourage use of this innovative method. We used some core principles of traditional human research ethics, that is, respect, integrity, and beneficence, to design our photo elicitation research that explored the social influences of drinking alcohol among 34 underage women in metropolitan South Australia. Facebook aided our communication with participants, including correspondence ranging from recruitment to feeding back results and sharing research data. This article outlines the ethical issues we encountered when using Facebook to interact with participants and provides guidance to researchers planning to incorporate social media as a tool in their qualitative studies. In particular, we raise the issues of privacy and confidentiality as contemporary risks associated with research using social media. PMID:25212856
Lunnay, Belinda; Borlagdan, Joseph; McNaughton, Darlene; Ward, Paul
There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or…
The Municipal Health Service for Rotterdam area in the Netherlands has developed a health research strategy with special focus on qualitative methods. This article describes one of the first and most instructive cases in which this strategy has been applied: a local health study in "Feijenoord." The research in Feijenoord was carried out between 1989 and 1990 making it possible to look both at the short-term and long-term effects. Quantitative data were used to describe the neighborhood health situation. Qualitative data were used to expand on this description. The qualitative information was obtained from residents and workers in health care and welfare using focused interviews and nominal group interviews. The results and effects of the research presented were influential. The research started a train of activity that could not have been predicted, and of which the Municipal Health Service had little control at first. An important effect in the short-term was that, as bringer of unpleasant news, the Municipal Health Service was unfavorably regarded. In the long-term, the Municipal Health Service participated significantly in the activities set up within the health framework. After evaluating these effects it was possible to formulate the conditions for an effective use of qualitative methods in public health research. PMID:20841056
Van Gilst, E C; Van Oers, H A; Van Den Bogaard, J H; Hortulanus, R P
This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…
Drisko, James W.
Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made. PMID:15070427
Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary
Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. PMID:21091920
Fade, S A; Swift, J A
In this paper I will examine the boundaries between positivism, interpretivism and pseudoscience, arguing that some qualitative researchers may risk the credibility of nursing research by utilizing concepts from the margins of science. There are two major threats to the perceived rigour and credibility of qualitative research in its many forms. First is a trend in some work towards a mystical view of both the methods and the content of the qualitative enterprise. This can be detected, I will argue, in the work of Rosemary Parse in particular. The second potentially damaging trend is almost its epistemological opposite, towards excessive reliance on precise procedures, strict definitions and verification exemplified by Juliet Corbin and others. I will suggest that this is nothing to fear, but something to be clear about. This is not social constructionism or interpretivism but a 'qualitative' version of positivism. The paper concludes that students and researchers should be cautious in the uncritical acceptance of theories and 'research' which approach the boundaries of pseudoscience on the one hand, and 'hard' science on the other. PMID:10403982
The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the use of a narrative inductive method of
The authors contend that qualitative research should be scrutinized for its usefulness in the discovery of substantive theory. They try to present generic elements of the process of generating substantive theory from qualitative data, and consider how the researcher collects and analyzes qualitative data, max imizes the theory's credibility, puts trust in his theory, and conveys the theory to others.
Barney G. Glaser; Anselm L. Strauss
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to
Discusses a number of important issues pertaining to the domain of qualitative market research. Attempts to define what qualitative research is about and discuss some of the difficulties involved in coming up with a clear definition of the qualitative paradigm. Suggests a number of issues relating to theory and practice that warrant the existence of a new journal devoted specifically
Ko de Ruyter; Norbert Scholl
The traditional quantitative emphasis of health services research obscures the fact that qualitative techniques are the best means of investigating the evaluation of certain health services research problems. Two evaluation studies employing qualitative methods are described to illustrate the appropriateness of such methods for addressing certain research questions. A brief discussion of current opinion concerning reliability and validity issues associated
Myrna Silverman; Edmund M. Ricci; Margaret J. Gunter
RESEARCH Open Access The gray zone of the qualitative assessment of respiratory changes in inferior, the routinely used qualitative (visual) approach had not been assessed before the present study. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative assessments of the dIVC were compared in a prospective, observational study
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.
In this article, the author describes the process she undertook to incorporate Indigenous principles into her doctoral research about the midlife health experiences of elder Aboriginal women in Nova Scotia, Canada. By employing qualitative methods within the context of an Indigenous worldview, she gained knowledge of and developed competence in Aboriginal health research. The emergent partnership among Aboriginal community research facilitators, participating Mi'kmaq women, and the researcher provided many opportunities for the researcher to incorporate the paradigmatic and methodological traditions of Western science and Indigenous cultures. The application of these principles to this study might provide a useful example for other health researchers who are attempting to incorporate diverse methodological principles. PMID:17220397
Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066
Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh
Qualitative research incorporates distinct methods for selecting data for analysis, generalizing results, and making causal claims. Unanswered questions about these methods may constrain researchers more familiar with quantitative methods from participating in or critically engaging with qualitative research. We use results from interviews with physics education researchers, a synthesis of the literature on research methodologies, and published examples of qualitative and quantitative research to answer hard-hitting questions that quantitative researchers may pose.
Robertson, Amy D; Scherr, Rachel E
This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…
Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…
The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…
Maxwell, Joseph A.
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
Haverkamp, Beth E.
Background There is growing recognition of the value of conducting qualitative research with trials in health research. It is timely to reflect on how this qualitative research is presented in grant proposals to identify lessons for researchers and research commissioners. As part of a larger study focusing on how to maximise the value of undertaking qualitative research with trials, we undertook a documentary analysis of proposals of funded studies. Methods Using the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) database we identified trials funded in the United Kingdom, ongoing between 2001 and 2010, and reporting the use of qualitative research. We requested copies of proposals from lead researchers. We extracted data from the proposals using closed and open questions, analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. Results 2% (89/3812) of trials in the mRCT database described the use of qualitative research undertaken with the trial. From these 89 trials, we received copies of 36 full proposals, of which 32 met our inclusion criteria. 25% used less than a single paragraph to describe the qualitative research. The aims of the qualitative research described in these proposals focused mainly on the intervention or trial conduct. Just over half (56%) of the proposals included an explicit rationale for conducting the qualitative research with the trial, the most frequent being to optimise implementation into clinical practice or to interpret trial findings. Key information about methods, expertise and resources was missing in a large minority of proposals, in particular sample size, type of analysis, and non-personnel resources. 28% specifically stated that qualitative researchers would conduct the qualitative research. Conclusions Our review of proposals of successfully funded studies identified good practice but also identified limited space given to describing the qualitative research, with an associated lack of attention to the rationale for doing the qualitative research and important methodological details. Acknowledging the space restrictions faced by researchers writing grant proposals, we suggest a starting point for providing practical guidance to help researchers write proposals and research commissioners assess proposals of qualitative research with trials. PMID:24533771
Qualitative research is well placed to answer complex questions about food-related behaviour because it investigates how and why individuals act in certain ways. The field of qualitative health research is undoubtedly gaining momentum and, increasingly, there is a recognition that it should be a vital part of the decision-making processes that direct the development of health policy and practice. Much of the guidance available, however, is difficult to navigate for those new to 'qualitative research', and there is little discussion of qualitative research issues specifically in relation to nutrition and dietetics. This review, the first in a series, outlines the field of qualitative enquiry, its potential usefulness in nutrition and dietetics, and how to embark upon this type of research. Furthermore, it describes a process to guide high-quality qualitative research in this area that proceeds from the research question(s) and considers the key philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide an overview of the principal techniques of data collection and sampling, data analysis, and quality assessment of qualitative work, and provide some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. PMID:21029212
Swift, J A; Tischler, V
Language and communication are the bedrock of qualitative enquiry. Language is a fundamental tool through which qualitative\\u000a researchers seek to understand human behaviour, social processes and the cultural meanings that inscribe human behaviour.\\u000a However, when conducting cross-cultural research, issues of language and communication become more complex and often require\\u000a the assistance of interpreters\\/translators as “cultural brokers”. Cross-cultural research poses numerous
Monique M. Hennink
The purpose of this article is to explore the recent qualitative research movement in South Korea: its initiation, challenges and ultimate acceptance. Intellectual achievements are reviewed extensively to provide Western readers with a better understanding of Korean scholarship in qualitative studies. To prepare the manuscript, related literature…
Kim, Young Chun; Cho, Jeasik
Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777
Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen
Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in their work and discuss the factors
Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in…
The purpose of this paper is to outline ways in which qualitative research has a contribution to make to research on outcomes in Health, Social Work and Education. It is a methodology paper with a practical purpose. Large tracts of inquiry work (a broad term to cover research, evaluation, policy analysis, and practitioner research) are concerned with questions about the
Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…
Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.
Qualitative Evaluation of a Method for Information Systems Engineering Processes Charlotte Hug presents a qualitative evaluation of a method for building information systems engineering processes information systems engineering processes, called ProMISE : we focus as much on the protocol we developed
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…
Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
Background Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix) through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries. Methods This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase. Results The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education), pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators). This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans. Conclusion Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries that may possibly be useful for prevention or future quantitative research. PMID:22866013
Deljavan, Reza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Fouladi, Nasrin; Arshi, Shahnam; Mohammadi, Reza
This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitative research texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…
Holley, Karri A.; Colyar, Julia
Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The
Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye
As our population is aging, the global prevalence of dementia is rising. Recent extensive reviews of the dementia literature highlight a clear need for additional qualitative research to address the experiences of people with dementia and their carers. To date, the vast majority of published dementia research is quantitative in nature and, perhaps not surprisingly, attracts the bulk of government funding. In contrast, qualitative dementia research is poorly resourced and less frequently published. Although a myriad of factors are responsible for this dichotomy, we propose that inadequate funding represents the "elephant in the room" of dementia research. In this article, we describe and emphasize the need for qualitative dementia research, highlight existing barriers, and outline potential solutions. Examples of barriers are provided and theoretical underpinnings are proposed. PMID:25296651
Carmody, John; Traynor, Victoria; Marchetti, Elena
Background Multisite qualitative studies are challenging in part because decisions regarding within-site and between-site sampling must be made to reduce the complexity of data collection, but these decisions may have serious implications for analyses. There is not yet consensus on how to account for within-site and between-site variations in qualitative perceptions of the organizational context of interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze variation in perceptions among key informants in order to demonstrate the importance of broad sampling for identifying both within-site and between-site implementation themes. Methods Case studies of four sites were compared to identify differences in how Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers implemented a Primary Care/Mental Health Integration (PC/MHI) intervention. Qualitative analyses focused on between-profession variation in reported referral and implementation processes within and between sites. Results Key informants identified co-location, the consultation-liaison service, space, access, and referral processes as important topics. Within-site themes revealed the importance of coordination, communication, and collaboration for implementing PC/MHI. The between-site theme indicated that the preexisting structure of mental healthcare influenced how PC/MHI was implemented at each site and that collaboration among both leaders and providers was critical to overcoming structural barriers. Conclusions Within- and between-site variation in perceptions among key informants within different professions revealed barriers and facilitators to the implementation not available from a single source. Examples provide insight into implementation barriers for PC/MHI. Multisite implementation studies may benefit from intentionally eliciting and analyzing variation within and between sites. Suggestions for implementation research design are presented. PMID:23286552
Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…
Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa
Proposes a conceptualisation of “entrepreneurial marketing” based on the practices of successful entrepreneurs. The methodology took account of specific issues in researching entrepreneurs such as lack of common understanding of management terms, and the influence of ego on participants’ responses. Depth interviews used critical incident technique to elicit accounts from entrepreneurs of their marketing practices. Focus groups supplemented individual interviews
Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191
Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen
Introduction: Recovery from disasters is a critical function of federal, state, and local governments, yet measurable, validated indicators of community recovery remain unidentified. A list of potential recovery indicators was developed by the authors through a literature review, recovery plan review, and case study of two disaster impacted communities. Methods: To validate the indicators, qualitative data was collected from experts on disaster recovery. Twenty-one key informant interviews and two focus groups were conducted between January and April of 2014 to solicit feedback from disaster recovery practitioners and academics. Results: Five major themes emerged from the qualitative data. These included: the flexibility of the indicators to serve multiple purposes for communities and individuals both pre- and post- disaster; the focus areas are comprehensive, but content and organization can be improved; the importance of seeing the indicators as a self-assessment, rather than a tool for comparing communities; the potential challenges of collecting data for some indicators; and the identification of potential measurement issues with the indicators. Discussion: The proposed recovery indicators can be utilized by both practitioners and researchers to effectively track post-disaster recovery. They capture many of the complexities of community disaster recovery and provide potential opportunities for linkages to the development of disaster recovery plans and other activities that could increase community resilience in the future.
Dwyer, Caroline; Horney, Jennifer
Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael
Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…
Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth
The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to…
Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along
David L. Morgan; Margaret T. Spanish
This article discusses how the underlying assumptions and practices of teacher research position it as a distinct form of educational inquiry, and identifies qualitative methodology as a central influence on the work. A discussion of some of the common conceptualizations and processes of PK-12 teacher research, the complex yet continually changing…
In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…
Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to make explicit how qualitative research can enable senior marketers to formulate an internationally focused synthesised marketing strategy. A number of marketing research issues are highlighted including the need to track customer expectations; identify what customer value represents; and explain how scenario analysis and planning can be embraced in order to produce
Peter R. J. Trim; Yang-Im Lee
Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.
This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…
This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. PMID:23506173
Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito
In several research fields, qualitative interviewing (i.e., face-to-face individual interviews and focus groups) is an essential approach to gather high-quality, and deep data about a wide range of subjective experiences. Although being a well-established research method, qualitative interviewing is fraught with various shortcomings such as difficulties in initiating the interview process, in eliciting tacit knowledge and in avoiding information redundancies.
Nicole Bischof; Alice Comi; Martin J. Eppler
The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research (mixed research is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods research. In doing this, we briefly review the paradigm “wars”
R. Burke Johnson; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie
This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…
Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.
In "Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research" (LaRossa, 2012), the author expressed the hope that, by sketching a cognitive map of the writing and reviewing process, authors and reviewers for the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") would be better able to communicate with each other about the…
From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…
Chenail, Ronald J.
This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…
The authors describe two complementary data management techniques-family case summaries and computer generated matrices-and their contribution to the analytic goals of a study offamily response to childhood chronic illness. Family case summaries enabled the investigators to reduce a large qualitative data set in a way that preserved thefamilyfocus of the research. The use of a database management software system contributed
Kathleen A. Knafl; Lioness Ayres
There is an increasingly widespread policy momentum to increase patient-centred care and to improve quality of life outcomes within health services. Qualitative research methods are used to elicit in-depth and detailed insights into people's attitudes, beliefs, emotions and experiences-much of which may remain unspoken during clinical encounters. Questions about patients' beliefs and preferences for treatment can be addressed by qualitative research and inform evidence-based strategies for delivering patient-centred care. Systematic reviews of multiple primary qualitative studies bring together findings from different studies to offer new and more comprehensive understandings of social phenomena across various healthcare contexts and populations and are an emerging methodology in the literature including for care in chronic kidney disease. This article will provide a framework for the systematic review of qualitative research so readers can make sense of these study types and use them in clinical care and policy. PMID:25414375
Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M
Point-of-care (POC) testing in communities, home settings and primary healthcare centers plays an important role in cutting delays in HIV diagnosis and in the uptake of voluntary testing and counseling. Qualitative research methods have important potential to overcome the current challenges in expanding HIV POC testing programs and strategies, by examining the diagnostic processes, complex inter-relationships and patterns involved in making POC diagnostics work in real-world settings. This article reviews existing qualitative studies on POC testing strategies and programs for HIV. Qualitative research on POC diagnostics around the uptake of POC tests, the actual diagnostic and testing processes involved, the influence of POC tests on clinical decision-making, communication of decisions and decisions exercised by patients are limited. Equally limited are studies that explore adaptation of POC programs to various socio-cultural contexts. More qualitative research is needed to inform test developers, funders and policymakers. PMID:25267607
Engel, Nora; Pant Pai, Nitika
In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research…
Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery
Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers. PMID:23632900
Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L.; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Hinds, Pamela S.
Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…
Terrell, Steven R.
Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616
Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.
The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research. PMID:25375998
Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S
Background Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative study. Results Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time; recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients, and analyzing data within and across time. Conclusions As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting conditions. PMID:23388075
Background: Excessive alcohol consumption by underage students is a serious and persistent problem facing most U.S. colleges and universities. Purpose: This qualitative study explores why underage students engage in high-risk drinking and examines motivational cues that may serve as behavioral deterrents. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with…
Dodd, Virginia; Glassman, Tavis; Arthur, Ashley; Webb, Monica; Miller, Maureen
The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & Qualitative Research Conference. It is routine for qualitative researchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…
Biklen, Douglas P.
Two evaluation studies using qualitative methods are described to illustrate the appropriateness of such methods for certain research questions. Ways to enhance reliability and validity are also discussed in the descriptions of the evaluations of 16 emergency medical services and 13 local health departments. (SLD)
Silverman, Myrna; And Others
This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…
Wertz, Frederick J.
and exploitation of DEX models Â· Software Â· Applications #12;What is DEX? Multi-Attribute Model evaluation Decision and utility functions Â· problem decomposition and structuring Â· evaluation and analysis of decision Machine Learning Fuzzy sets Â· verbal measures Â· fuzzy operators #12;#12;DEX Method for qualitative multi
Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628
Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and inequities and is helping to sustain the initial steps taken to establish a local research agenda at Atoifi Hospital. It is our experience that embedding mutuality throughout the research capacity strengthening process has had great benefit and may also benefit researchers from more resourced and less resourced countries wanting to partner in research capacity strengthening activities. PMID:23249439
Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…
Klein, Sheri R., Ed.
Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499
Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi
Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…
Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). CONCLUSION By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitative methods. PMID:20393074
Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice
This article focuses on the linkage between the quantitative and qualitative distance education research methods. The concept that serves as the conceptual link is termed "complementarity." The definition of complementarity emerges through a simulated study of FernUniversitat's mentors. The study shows that in the case of the mentors, educational…
Rothe, J. Peter
This chapter describes the results of an assessment project whose purpose was to improve the faculty-development program for instructors who teach in technology-infused TILE (Transform, Interact, Learn, Engage) classrooms at the University of Iowa. Qualitative research methods were critical for (1) learning about how students and instructors…
Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek; Saichaie, Kem; Jesse, Maggie; Florman, Jean C.; Ingram, Beth F.
Political Science research methods courses face two problems. First is what to cover, as there are too many techniques to explore in any one course. Second is dealing with student anxiety around quantitative material. We explore a novel way to approach these issues. Our students began by writing a qualitative paper. They followed with a term…
Bernstein, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Brooke Thomas
Building an Exploratory Visual Analysis Tool for Qualitative Researchers Tanuka Bhowmick Geo, Vancouver, WA, June 26-28, 2006 #12;Abstract Qualitative research is an integral part of both academic research in various disciplines, newer and more sophisticated exploratory tools that assist qualitative
It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…
This paper explores six phases of a research project designed specifically to engage high school students as co-researchers in a multisite qualitative study exploring perceptions of tobacco use among high school students in four schools. It describes how university researchers collaborated with the high school students and summarizes seven major…
Miller, Dana L.; McVea, Kristine L. S. P.; Creswell, John W.; Harter, Lynn; Mickelson, William; McEntarffer, Rob
In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.
Toro, Javier, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia)] [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain)] [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia)] [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)] [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)
Many researchers lack the resources, time, and/or expertise to include qualitative strategies in their research. In recent years, substantive progress has been made among qualitative methodologists themselves to codify and systematize concept construction and typologies in qualitatively derived theory. These authors discuss the work of Rena Pasick…
Hay, Jennifer L.; Craddock Lee, Simon J.
Over the past decade, pediatric nurse researchers have acknowledged the need to study children's cancer illness experiences within the qualitative research framework. Support for more qualitative research is based on the belief that it will afford researchers the opportunity to get closer to understanding children's perspectives of their cancer experience. A priori theories or generalizations by the researcher are not
Research Methods for CS/IS Prof. Joseph Davis Director, Knowledge Discovery and Management Research > Qualitative/Interpretive Methods #12;Typical Research Methods in CS/IS > Mathematical modelling and proof research directions > Systematic application of one or more research methods #12;Academic Research
Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.
Advances in technology provide researchers with increased opportunities to locate and conduct research with populations that have historically been inaccessible. This manuscript describes the development of private, voluntary web-based groups, and the process for using web cameras to conduct individual web-based interviews as a method of data…
Matthews, John; Cramer, Elizabeth P.
Conducting qualitative research on topics that are emotionally laden can have a powerful impact on the researcher. Recent literature addresses the essential nature of the emotional connection that must be part of the qualitative research process. However, for the most part, it neglects the issue of self-care strategies for the researcher that are…
Rager, Kathleen B.
Doctoral thesis research projects are often limited in their resources and time. Complex research topics and qualitative research designs often, however, call for a large scope. This article explores ways in which fairly large scope qualitative research designs can be made manageable in terms of effort and time, utilizing one PhD thesis methodology as an example.
Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp) Lab on Reengineering http://lore.ua.ac.be/ Zurich Kunsthaus Antwerp Middelheim Research Methods Introduction Â· Origins of Computer Science Â· Research Philosophy Research Methods Â· Feasibility study Â· Pilot
This editorial provides an overview of the ways in which qualitative research can guide games for health research and its potential contributions. It also provides guidelines for conducting qualitative research, such as using open ended, non-leading questions and digitally recording the sessions....
This article presents an overview and discussion of qualitative research in education by analyzing the roles of researchers, the history of the field, its use in policymaking, and its future influence on educational reform. The article begins by describing the unique position that qualitative educational researchers have in higher education, as…
Using the qualitative research process to study children's experiences with cancer is being promoted because it is believed that it will afford researchers the opportunity to access children's perspectives of their cancer experiences. A detailed understanding of children's experiences with cancer will result, including a description of their feelings, wants, needs, and concerns. The information gained from qualitative research will
Qualitative studies in mental health nursing research deploying the 'lived experience' construct are often written on the basis of conventional qualitative inquiry assumptions. These include the presentation of the 'authentic voice' of research participants, related to their 'lived experience' and underpinned by a meta-assumption of the 'metaphysics of presence'. This set of assumptions is critiqued on the basis of contemporary post-structural qualitative scholarship. Implications for mental health nursing qualitative research emerging from this critique are described in relation to illustrative published work, and some benefits and challenges for researchers embracing post-structural sensibilities are outlined. PMID:24118139
Providing personalized treatments designed to maximize benefits and minimizing harms is of tremendous current medical interest. One problem in this area is the evaluation of the interaction between the treatment and other predictor variables. Treatment effects in subgroups having the same direction but different magnitudes are called quantitative interactions, while those having opposite directions in subgroups are called qualitative interactions (QIs). Identifying QIs is challenging since they are rare and usually unknown among many potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, subgroup analysis reduces the power of hypothesis testing and multiple subgroup analyses inflate the type I error rate. We propose a new Bayesian approach to search for QI in a multiple regression setting with adaptive decision rules. We consider various regression models for the outcome. This method is illustrated in two examples of Phase III clinical trials. The algorithm is straightforward and easy to implement using existing software packages. A sample code was provided in the appendix. PMID:22733620
Chen, Wei; Ghosh, Debashis; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Norkin, Maxim; Sargent, Daniel J.; Bepler, Gerold
Background: The field of higher education abounds with qualitative research aimed at highlighting the needs, struggles, strengths, and motivations of academically struggling students. However, because of the small-scale nature of these studies, they rarely enter the public debate or impact institutional policy concerning access, remediation,…
McCormack, Tim; Schnee, Emily; VanOra, Jason
Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...
The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing. PMID:24746247
Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali
Develops Glaser and Strauss' (1967) suggestion that fieldwork techniques may be successfully adapted for content analysis research. Discusses relative advantages of literature and traditional fieldwork sites, and initial stages of doing fieldwork at literature sites; demonstrates method used through an evaluation of the hypothesis that prejudice…
Glassner, Barry; Corzine, Jay
Due to the lack of exact quantitative information or the difficulty associated with obtaining or processing such information, qualitative spatial knowledge representation and reasoning often become an essential means for solving spatial constraint problems as found in science and engineering. This paper presents a computational approach to representing and reasoning about spatial constraints in two-dimensional Euclidean space, where the a priori spatial information is not precisely expressed in quantitative terms. The spatial quantities considered in this work are qualitative distances and qualitative orientation angles. Here, we explicitly define the semantics of these quantities and thereafter formulate a representation of qualitative trigonometry (QTRIG). The resulting QTRIG formalism provides the necessary inference rules for qualitative spatial reasoning. In the paper, we illustrate how the QTRIG relationships can be employed in generating qualitative spatial descriptions in two...
Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. PMID:23983743
Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin
Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Therefore, formulation of specific ethical guidelines in this respect seems to be essential. The present paper aimed to discuss the necessity to develop explicit guidelines for conducting qualitative studies with regard to the researchers’ role. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out in domestic and international databases by related keywords. Health care providers who carry out qualitative research have an immense responsibility. As there is no statistical analysis in qualitative studies, the researcher has to both evaluate what he or she observes and to interpret it. Providing researchers with the necessary skills and applying stringent supervision can lead to better extraction of reliable information from qualitative studies. This article presents a debate in order to illustrate how researchers could cover the ethical challenges of qualitative studies and provide applicable and trustworthy outcomes. Researchers face ethical challenges in all stages of the study, from designing to reporting. These include anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent, researchers’ potential impact on the participants and vice versa. It seems of paramount importance that health care providers, educators and clinicians be well informed of all the different aspects of their roles when acting as qualitative researchers. Hence, these adroit roles need to be well defined, and the use of practical guidelines and protocols in all stages of qualitative studies should be encouraged. PMID:25512833
Sanjari, Mahnaz; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Fomani, Fatemeh Khoshnava; Shoghi, Mahnaz; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali
This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…
Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.
VOL. 6, NO. 1 HVAC&R RESEARCH JANUARY 2000 75 Qualitative Comparison of North American and U ASHRAE Morris G. Davies Philip Haves, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE A qualitative comparison is presented and an understanding of the practical conse- quences of their differences. Research jointly sponsored by ASHRAE
This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…
Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.
Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitative research. We agree that qualitative…
Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Auerbach, Carl F.
Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept
Anne Rouse; Martin Dick
Background: For effectively promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents, it is necessary to identify the determinants of intake. This qualitative research was conducted to explore the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among Tehranian adolescents in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present qualitative study is aimed at identifying the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among Tehranian adolescents in 2012. Male and female students in the middle schools of Tehran, in the age range of 11-14 years, were used as the study population, which was selected by the convenience method. Semi-structured interactional interviews were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method. Results: The availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in home, availability of unhealthy options in the environment, socioeconomic status, advertising about unhealthy options, subjective norms, reinforcement, and modeling were explored as environmental factors in this study. Also, individual factors were extracted as the second category that encompassed the subcategories including; preferences, knowledge, skill in preparing fruits and vegetables, outcome expectations, outcome expectancy, perceived susceptibility, and perceived seriousness. Conclusion: It is recommended that interventions have family-based designs as well as environmental policy-based (especially schools) ones. Meanwhile, families should be educated to adapt their children's sapour with tastes of fruits and vegetables during their childhood. PMID:25197287
Rakhshanderou, Sakineh; Ramezankhani, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Ghaffari, Mohtasham
Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…
Matthews, Sarah H.
Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process
In recent years, there has been a literary turn in parts of the social sciences. Attention has been given to social science writings as literature. In this article, the author approaches the issue from the opposite direction by engaging with literature as qualitative social inquiry. He does so through a reading of the French novelist Michel…
During 1992 a qualitative evaluation of a government health service-run community health worker (CHW) project in South Africa found that project workers were doing good work despite serious structural shortcomings related to lack of community participation and inadequate integration of the project in the health district system. Recommendations were made to develop the project in order to enhance community involvement,
Hester Van der Walt; Catherine Mathews
Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should be placed on increasing multidisciplinary cooperation, and innovating in education programs to cultivate of translational researchers. Efforts should be made to reform research management in TROs, and establish sustainable funding resources. PMID:24119837
Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663
How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes "scientific" research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a…
Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…
Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory
This paper reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Called the Meaningful E-learning or MEL project, the study was an exploration of the teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students as well as their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of…
Carter, Lorraine M.; Salyers, Vince; Myers, Sue; Hipfner, Carol; Hoffart, Caroline; MacLean, Christa; White, Kathy; Matus, Theresa; Forssman, Vivian; Barrett, Penelope
Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent. Informants can withdraw at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, peer review journals, one PhD thesis and through public presentations to people outside the scientific community. PMID:25079924
Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L
This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitative research interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…
Beaunae, Cathrine; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka
In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…
Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…
Lechuga, Vicente M.
This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…
Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.
A content analysis was conducted of three educational research journals published by the American Educational Research Association to review the quantitative and qualitative techniques used in educational research. All articles appearing in these three journals from 1988 through 1995 (total n=1,715) were considered. Research methods were…
Elmore, Patricia B.; Woehlke, Paula L.
Due to the lack of exact quantitative information or the difficulty associated with obtaining or processing such information, qualitative spatial knowledge representation and reasoning often become an essential means for solving spatial constraint problems as found in science and engineering. This paper presents a computational approach to representing and reasoning about spatial constraints in two-dimensional Euclidean space, where the a
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…
Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda
The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389
Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda
The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389
Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda
Background Evidence-based practice has increasingly been recognized as a priority by professional physiotherapy organizations and influential researchers and clinicians in the field. Numerous studies in the past decade have documented that physiotherapists hold generally favorable attitudes to evidence-based practice and recognize the importance of using research to guide their clinical practice. Research has predominantly investigated barriers to research use. Less is known about the circumstances that actually support use of research by physiotherapists. This study explores the conditions at different system levels that physiotherapists in Sweden perceive to be supportive of their use of research in clinical practice. Methods Patients in Sweden do not need a referral from a physician to consult a physiotherapist and physiotherapists are entitled to choose and perform any assessment and treatment technique they find suitable for each patient. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted with 45 physiotherapists, each lasting between 90 and 110 minutes. An inductive approach was applied, using topics rather than questions to allow the participants to generate their own questions and pursue their own priorities within the framework of the aim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Analysis of the data yielded nine favorable conditions at three system levels supporting the participant’s use of research in clinical practice: two at the individual level (attitudes and motivation concerning research use; research-related knowledge and skills), four at the workplace level (leadership support; organizational culture; research-related resources; knowledge exchange) and three at the extra-organizational level (evidence-based practice guidelines; external meetings, networks, and conferences; academic research and education). Conclusions Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research exist at multiple interdependent levels, including the individual, workplace, and extra-organizational levels. Research use in physiotherapy appears to be an interactive and interpretative social process that involves a great deal of interaction with various people, including colleagues and patients. PMID:23497502
This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…
Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.
Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular conceptualising more fully the role of young people’s agency and student-led ‘systems’ in constituting school environments and generating health risks. Conclusion Institutional features which may shape student health behaviours such as lack of safety, poor student-staff relationships and lack of student voice are amenable to interventions and should be the subject of future investigation. Future qualitative research should focus on health behaviours which are under-theorised in this context such as physical activity, sexual and mental health. PMID:24007211
Objective To synthesise the findings from individual qualitative studies on patients’ understanding and experiences of hypertension and drug taking; to investigate whether views differ internationally by culture or ethnic group and whether the research could inform interventions to improve adherence. Design Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative research using the 2006 UK Economic and Social Research Council research methods programme guidance. Data sources Medline, Embase, the British Nursing Index, Social Policy and Practice, and PsycInfo from inception to October 2011. Study selection Qualitative interviews or focus groups among people with uncomplicated hypertension (studies principally in people with diabetes, established cardiovascular disease, or pregnancy related hypertension were excluded). Results 59 papers reporting on 53 qualitative studies were included in the synthesis. These studies came from 16 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Tanzania, and Thailand). A large proportion of participants thought hypertension was principally caused by stress and produced symptoms, particularly headache, dizziness, and sweating. Participants widely intentionally reduced or stopped treatment without consulting their doctor. Participants commonly perceived that their blood pressure improved when symptoms abated or when they were not stressed, and that treatment was not needed at these times. Participants disliked treatment and its side effects and feared addiction. These findings were consistent across countries and ethnic groups. Participants also reported various external factors that prevented adherence, including being unable to find time to take the drugs or to see the doctor; having insufficient money to pay for treatment; the cost of appointments and healthy food; a lack of health insurance; and forgetfulness. Conclusions Non-adherence to hypertension treatment often resulted from patients’ understanding of the causes and effects of hypertension; particularly relying on the presence of stress or symptoms to determine if blood pressure was raised. These beliefs were remarkably similar across ethnic and geographical groups; calls for culturally specific education for individual ethnic groups may therefore not be justified. To improve adherence, clinicians and educational interventions must better understand and engage with patients’ ideas about causality, experiences of symptoms, and concerns about drug side effects. PMID:22777025
The potential of the Internet as a valuable methodological research tool is increasingly being recognised by both market researchers and academics. This paper contributes to the debate surrounding virtual synchronous group interviews and the value of online research. Specifically it introduces the use of a software conferencing technique – Hotline Connect – and discusses the implications of using the technique
Henrietta O’Connor; Clare Madge
One criticism about qualitative research is that it is difficult to generalize findings to settings not studied. To explore this issue, I examine three broad arguments for generalizing from data: sample-to-population extrapolation, analytic generalization, and case-to-case transfer. Qualitative research often uses the last argument, but some efforts have been made to use the first two. I suggest that analytic generalization
WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE
Qualitative interviews are a rich means of gathering information from families. The qualitative interviewer has a choice of\\u000a interviewing individual family members, multiple family members at the same time, or a combination. The configuration of interviewees\\u000a is a choice guided by the epistemology of the researcher, research aims, and questions. This article reviews the literature\\u000a on interviewing different configurations of
Ben K. Beitin
\\u000a This chapter explores mixed method research designs that seek to combine elements of qualitative and quantitative research\\u000a into a criminological investigation. This is neither a new nor a radical concept. Indeed, the differences between so-called\\u000a “qualitative” methods and so-called “quantitative” methods in social science have been called “more apparent than real” (Hanson\\u000a 2008: 97; see also Newman and Benz 1998;
Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted. PMID:24809790
Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole
Background Since the 1990s, professional institutions worldwide have emphasised the need to develop research in general practice to improve the health of the population. The recent creation of professorships in general practice in French Universities should foster research in this field. Our aim was to explore the views of patients and relevant professionals on research in general practice. Methods Qualitative study, using the grounded theory approach according to Strauss and Corbin, conducted in 2010 in three French regions. Nine focus groups were run to data saturation, and included 57 participants in four different categories: patients, non-academic GPs, academic GPs, academics in other disciplines. Results Most of the participants in the four categories described research in general practice as specific to the population managed and relevant for health care. They considered that its grounding in day-to-day practice enabled pragmatic approaches. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry, rivalries between university disciplines and a possible gap between research and practice were considered as pitfalls. The barriers identified were representations of the medical researcher as a “laboratory worker”, the lack of awareness of any research in the discipline, and lack of time and training. While the views of patients and non-academic GPs are mostly focused on professional issues and the views of academics other than GPs on technical issues, academic GPs are in a position to play a role of interface between the universities and general practices. Conclusions Although the role of GPs in research is perceived differently by the various protagonists, research in general practice has an undisputed legitimacy in France. Solutions for overcoming the identified barriers include research networks with appropriate resources and training and scientifically sound collaborative research projects, as already implemented in leading countries. PMID:25047280
Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. PMID:23959758
Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind
Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…
Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary
Is the research process similar to a hero's journey? Just as a hero draws on different archetypes during the journey, a researcher moves through phases and must draw upon different strengths. In this article, the six archetypes that Pearson (1998) links to the hero's journey are described. Then, each phase of a qualitative research study is…
Villate, Vanessa M.
As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…
Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary
The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…
Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy
This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…
Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy
and quantitative data analysis methodologies of trip-chaining behavior research. The proposed qualitative methods utilizing either qualitative or quantitative methods alone. This research proposes the integration of both research integrates qualitative and quantitative analysis tools to accomplish this comprehensive
Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. PMID:25189538
Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete
Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices. PMID:20074120
De Haene, Lucia
This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating Children's and…
Graves, Norman J., Ed.
Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on ?m2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on ?mRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme ?m2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de ?mRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro ?m2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de ?mRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética
Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi
\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of
Aim The trajectory in psychotic disorders which leads from a relatively normal premorbid state in young people to a first episode of psychosis is only partly understood. Qualitative research methods can be used to begin to elucidate the temporal unfolding of symptoms leading to a first episode of psychosis, and its impact on families. Methods We conducted open-ended interviews with family members of 13 patients with recent onset non-affective psychotic disorders, which focused on changes observed, effects on the family, explanatory models, help-seeking patterns and future expectations. Standard data analytic methods employed for qualitative research were used. Results Narratives by family members were remarkably similar. First, social withdrawal and mood symptoms developed in previously normal children; these changes were typically ascribed to drugs or stress, or to the ‘storminess’ of adolescence. Coping strategies by family members included prayer and reasoning/persuasion with the young person, and family initially sought help from friends and religious leaders. Entry into the mental health system was then catalysed by the emergence of overt symptoms, such as ‘hearing voices’, or violent or bizarre behaviour. Family members perceived inpatient hospitalization as traumatic or difficult, and had diminished expectations for the future. Conclusions Understanding families’ explanatory models for symptoms and behavioural changes, and their related patterns of help-seeking, may be useful for understanding evolution of psychosis and for the design of early intervention programmes. Dissatisfaction with hospitalization supports the mandate to improve systems of care for recent-onset psychosis patients, including destigmatization and a focus on recovery. PMID:19129931
Corcoran, Cheryl; Gerson, Ruth; Sills-Shahar, Rachel; Nickou, Connie; McGlashan, Thomas; Malaspina, Dolores; Davidson, Larry
Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583
Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García
Understanding the interactions between people, computer-mediated communication, and online life requires that researchers appropriate a set of methodological tools that would be best suited for capturing and analyzing the phenomenon. However, these tools are not limited to relevant technological forms of data collections and analysis programs; it…
The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…
Hall, Sarah A.
The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…
Fogg, Terry; Wightman, Colin W.
PROGRAMME SUMMARY Social Research Methods at City University draws on the expertise available within and will equip you with practical skills in qualitative and quantitative research methods, in addition1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION Â POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Programme name Social Research
Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary. PMID:23066379
Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
This is an instructional module on the process of experimentation as a scientific research method. The authors use a contextual approach, which includes a brief history of experimental research and a case study of Louis Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation of microorganisms. A question set is also included, along with background information for teachers. Editor's Note: Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are consciously manipulated and the outcome or effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed. This resource is designed to guide beginning students in designing experiments that meet the standards of a "fair test". It is appropriate for use in both secondary and lower-level undergraduate courses.
Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne
This article examines the ways in which art and aesthetics provide powerful and rich models for inquiry and connection, facilitating fresh perception, conceptualization, and engagement in qualitative research. The very engagement with research parallels the engagement with the arts. In this engagement, problem setting and problem solving, the…
The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.
Over the past 30 years, qualitative research has emerged as a widely accepted alternative to the quantitative paradigm for performing research in educational communications and technology. As the new paradigm has evolved, it has spawned a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques that have both increased its potential…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a selective and necessarily truncated history of the place and use of qualitative approaches in the study of children's consumption in order to provide some depth of understanding regarding differences between and commonalities of approaches employed by academic market researchers, social science researchers and, to a lesser extent, market practitioners.
Daniel Thomas Cook
This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…
Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher
The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…
Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer
Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitative research in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…
Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.
Aims to address a gap in the literature about quality criteria for validity and reliability in qualitative research within the realism scientific paradigm. Six comprehensive and explicit criteria for judging realism research are developed, drawing on the three elements of a scientific paradigm of ontology, epistemology and methodology. The first two criteria concern ontology, that is, ontological appropriateness and contingent
Marilyn Healy; Chad Perry
This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…
Hashemi, Mohammad R.
Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499
Methodology is the study of research methods. This study tests three different methodological approaches to the same material, 93 doctoral theses from NTNU, to learn more about (a) the research methods actually in use in ICS and (b) each methodological approach’s ability to shed light on (a). First, a KWIC analysis of “research method ” is done. Despite being both primitive and time consuming, the KWIC analysis depicts well the extent and scope of the methodological debate in the material overall. Second, research methods employed in 772 thesis chapters are classified using both Zelkowitz’s (1997) and Ramesh’s (2004) taxonomies. This study finds that “research method per text” classification is much more problematic than previous studies have suggested and tells us more about the taxonomies themselves than the research methods employed in the material. Third, examples of “ICS engineering ” used as a research method are drawn from the material. Trend exemplification is highly subjective and qualitative, rendering the findings tentative. Despite its weaknesses, trend exemplification manages to positively shed light on a tacit research method employed in ICS and some of its methodological premises. Introduction — Information and Computer Science ICS is a broad academic field spanning disciplines such as Computer Science (CS),
Ivar Tormod; Berg Ørstavik
The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission-line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a 'flare') passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disc - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensing, while not strong, can produce significant observable effects that will help in differentiating the properties of BELRs. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI: ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.
Garsden, H.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.
Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitative research has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitative research in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitative research can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitative research, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals. PMID:23156206
Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication. PMID:14769454
Graneheim, U H; Lundman, B
The major stored nitrogen compound in alfalfa seeds is canavanine. In order to identify this non-protein amino acid, from seed extract and sprout water, a micro thin-layer chromatography method was developed. Successful separation and identification was achieved using micro silica plates, a 70:30 ...
A class of numerical methods for constructing bifurcation curves for systems of coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations is presented. Foundations are discussed, and several variations are outlined along with their respective capabilities. Appropriate background material from dynamical systems theory is presented.
Cummings, Peter A.
Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…
TCD Research Methods Â Fall 2004 LAS 6292 (Sect. 6816x) Thursday, Periods 6-8 (12:50- 3:50) 376 and development. Required textbooks, available at Goering's Books and Bagels: 1. Bernard, H.R. 1995. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 3rd edition. AltaMira Press, Walnut
Pilyugin, Sergei S.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an argument for the place of mixed methods research across practice settings as an effective means of supporting evidence-based practice in physiotherapy. Physiotherapy practitioners use both qualitative and quantitative methods throughout the process of patient care-from history taking, assessment, and intervention to evaluation of outcomes. Research on practice paradigms demonstrates the importance of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve 'expert practice' that is concerned with optimizing outcomes and incorporating patient beliefs and values. Research paradigms that relate to this model of practice would integrate qualitative and quantitative types of knowledge and inquiry, while maintaining a prioritized focus on patient outcomes. Pragmatism is an emerging research paradigm where practical consequences and the effects of concepts and behaviors are vital components of meaning and truth. This research paradigm supports the simultaneous use of qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry to generate evidence to support best practice. This paper demonstrates that mixed methods research with a pragmatist view provides evidence that embraces and addresses the multiple practice concerns of practitioners better than either qualitative or quantitative research approaches in isolation. PMID:20649500
Shaw, James A; Connelly, Denise M; Zecevic, Aleksandra A
Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…
Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma
A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…
Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue
There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…
Ralph LaRossa's (2012) article on the multidimensional world of qualitative research provides family scientists with a set of innovative tools to guide writing and reviewing. He proffered an engaging challenge: to view the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") as a meeting place of scholars, a thought community (Zerubavel, 1997), even a culture…
Roy, Kevin M.
Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…
Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit
The authors carried out a 4-year qualitative analysis of a case study in higher education. An undergraduate course based on the principles of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) was designed, implemented, and evaluated. The process was developed by a community of practice, formed by quite a number of researchers coming from the…
Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Anguita-Martinez, Rocio; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra
Explored family context for children's health-related learning through qualitative research. Gathered data from one dual-career, middle-class, two-parent family with school-age children. Identified core conceptual category, maintenance of structure and order in family life. Claims relationships are evident between and among this category,…
This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…
Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly
This article describes experiential-learning approaches to conveying the work and rewards involved in qualitative research. Seminar students interviewed one another, transcribed or took notes on those interviews, shared those materials to create a set of empirical materials for coding, developed coding schemes, and coded the materials using those…
DeLyser, Dydia; Potter, Amy E.
Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…
Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn
In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitative research plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…
McDuffie, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
This is a revised version of the 2003 British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Presidential Address delivered at the 7th Oxford International Conference on Education and Development. The processes of globalisation have been viewed by some as a major threat to the qualitative research tradition in education. Two main…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.
This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…
Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret
This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…
Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber
R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…
Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…
various researchers involved in the development and use of model-based and qualitative reasoning methods or possible to use quantitative methods, researchers use qualitative approaches. Depending on the biomedical with research in the biomedical field is that researchers applying model-based and qualitative-reasoning methods
Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1) Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2) Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3) Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4) Lower prestige; 5) Poor remuneration; 6) Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7) Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training. PMID:22909189
Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’?, ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status varied. Participants experienced distress as their notion of self identity shifted and emotions that reflected the various stages of the grief process were evident in participants’ accounts. The process of self-managing lifestyle took place through experiential learning; the level of engagement with lifestyle change reflected an individual’s unique view of the balance needed to manage ‘realistic change’ whilst leading to a life that was perceived as ‘worth living’. Findings highlight the importance of providing person centred care that aligns with both psychological and physical dimensions of recovery which are inextricably linked. PMID:25097066
This article reviews qualitative research into the consumption of pornography and other sexually explicit media emerging from\\u000a a range of subject areas. Taking a critique of quantitative methods and a focus on measuring sexual effects and attitudes\\u000a as a starting point, it considers the proposition that qualitative work is more suited to an examination of the complex social,\\u000a cultural, and
Qualitative data can be a powerful tool in developing interventions for substance use and other HIV-risk behaviors. Mixed-methods design offers researchers the ability to obtain data that provides both breadth and depth to their research. However, the integration of qualitative data in mixed-methods research has been limited. This paper describes the qualitative design of the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal mixed-method study with an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (N=526) in Los Angeles. Integral to this discussion is how a mixed-methods study can address common challenges such as sampling, representation and integration. PMID:20222783
Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy ‘world’ and enhancing research communications and transferability to decision makers. It also highlights an opportunity to invest in implementation research platforms, such as health policy research and analysis institutions. PMID:25274639
Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa
The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example.
Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kee-Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sung-Deok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
A visual bag of words method for interactive qualitative localization and mapping David FILLIAT any robot position. This system is inspired by visual categorization algorithms called bag of words inspired from bag of words methods used in object categories learning developed in the computer vision
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The purpose of this article is to outline the potential genres of qualitative research that can be used to research the domains of health, sport, recreation, and physical education. Drawing on Denzin and Lincoln (2000) and Sparkes (2002a), and connecting to the work of six researchers, this article will present five genres of qualitative research that are increasingly informing our
Tim F. Hopper; Leanna E. Madill; Chris D. Bratseth; Kathi A. Cameron; James D. Coble; Laura E. Nimmon
The purpose of this article is to outline the potential genres of qualitative research that can be used to research the domains of health, sport, recreation, and physical education. Drawing on Denzin and Lincoln (2000) and Sparkes (2002a), and connecting to the work of six researchers, this article will present five genres of qualitative research…
Hopper, Tim F.; Madill, Leanna E.; Bratseth, Chris D.; Cameron, Kathi A.; Coble, James D.; Nimmon, Laura E.
This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…
Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.
Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy 'world' and enhancing research communications and transferability to decision makers. It also highlights an opportunity to invest in implementation research platforms, such as health policy research and analysis institutions. PMID:25274639
Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa
The open-ended corporate interview as a qualitative research method is proposed as a valuable component of an evidentiary strategy in economic geography. It is argued to be more sensitive than other survey methods to historical, institutional, and strategic complexity. The corporate interview method is particularly appropriate in periods of economic and social change that challenge traditional analytical categories and theoretical
After completing a qualitative methods course in geography, we moved classroom discussions into practice. While undertaking graduate fieldwork in sites across the globe, we participated in critical, reflexive journaling. Whereas journal writing is often private, we shared our entries, aiming to facilitate rigour while concurrently exploring…
Heller, Elizabeth; Christensen, Julia; Long, Lindsay; Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Osano, Philip M.; Ricker, Britta; Kagan, Emily; Turner, Sarah
This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…
Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth
In this response to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…
Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce
As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…
Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms
This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…
The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…
Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel
Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death in children and adolescents. About 4% of deaths in children of age less than 5 years and 13% of deaths in children of age 5-15 years are due to cancer in Iranian population. The disease can cause many problems, which are usually detected by a psychologist, for the children and their mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the psychological challenges of the children with cancer and their mothers’ experience. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative research conducted through thematic analysis approach. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. Purposive sampling was conducted. The numbers of the children and their mothers participating in this study were 34 and 32, respectively. Results: Data analysis showed that the problems faced by children with cancer and their mothers fell into five main categories. These categories included spiritual, psychological (such as aggression, anxiety, depression), communicational problems, inadequate knowledge (about the disease, its treatment, and treatment complications), and care-related problems. Conclusions: The results showed that lack of awareness and spiritual problems were the most important problems of the patients and their mothers. If necessary knowledge about the disease and its treatment and complications is given to the children and their mothers at the time of diagnosis, and also, spiritual care interventions are administered during treatment, their psychological problems can be notably reduced. PMID:25183971
Reisi-Dehkordi, Negar; Baratian, Hajar; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali
Background International collaborators face challenges in the design and implementation of ethical biomedical research. Evaluating community understanding of research and processes like informed consent may enable researchers to better protect research participants in a particular setting; however, there exist few studies examining community perspectives in health research, particularly in resource-limited settings, or strategies for engaging the community in research processes. Our goal was to inform ethical research practice in a biomedical research setting in western Kenya and similar resource-limited settings. Methods We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, in a qualitative study to understand community perspectives on biomedical research and informed consent within a collaborative, multinational research network in western Kenya. Analyses included manual, progressive coding of transcripts from mabaraza to identify emerging central concepts. Results Our findings from two mabaraza with 108 community members revealed that, while participants understood some principles of biomedical research, they emphasized perceived benefits from participation in research over potential risks. Many community members equated health research with HIV testing or care, which may be explained in part by the setting of this particular study. In addition to valuing informed consent as understanding and accepting a role in research activities, participants endorsed an increased role for the community in making decisions about research participation, especially in the case of children, through a process of community consent. Conclusions Our study suggests that international biomedical research must account for community understanding of research and informed consent, particularly when involving children. Moreover, traditional community forums, such as mabaraza in East Africa, can be used effectively to gather these data and may serve as a forum to further engage communities in community consent and other aspects of research. PMID:23009744
of quantitative and qualitative approaches in research. In psychiatry, depending on disciplines and traditions the quantitative/qualitative divide. Keywords: Qualitative methods, Quantitative methods, Mixed methods research: the fierce, ongoing struggle be- tween quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Certain ontological
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Review of Statistical Research Methods Training and Research Support (including the Statistical Consulting Unit) Report August 2014 #12;Review of Statistical Research Methods Training and Research Support edge in research methods and research training. Research in many disciplines increasingly requires
Background Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) and HIV issues are often controversial and neglected, leading to challenges with engaging policy actors. Research evidence is complex, posing further challenges for ensuring that policy and practice are evidence-based. Many health researchers are adopting innovative approaches to engaging stakeholders in their research, yet these experiences are not often shared. This qualitative study focuses on the research communication and policy influencing objectives, strategies and experiences of four research consortia working on SRH, HIV and AIDS. Methods We carried out 22 in-depth interviews with researchers and communications specialists (research actors) from the four consortia and their partners, working in nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Using the ‘framework’ approach to qualitative data analysis, we identified factors that affect the interaction of research evidence with policy and practice. We used the ODI RAPID analytical framework to present these results, adapting this tool by incorporating the actions, strategies and positionality of research actors. Results The characteristics of researchers and their institutions, policy context, the multiplicity of actors, and the nature of the research evidence all play a role in policy influencing processes. Research actors perceived a trend towards increasingly intensive and varied communication approaches. Effective influencing strategies include making strategic alliances and coalitions and framing research evidence in ways that are most attractive to particular policy audiences. Tensions include the need to identify and avoid unnecessary communication or unintended impacts, challenges in assessing and attributing impact and the need for adequate resources and skills for communications work. Conclusions We contend that the adapted RAPID framework can serve as a tool for research actors to use in resolving these tensions, through facilitating a reflexive approach to considering their own combination of attributes, skills, networks and objectives and the ways these relate to policy contexts, actors and processes. PMID:21679385
The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been
Guy G. Gable
Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches. PMID:23543938
White, Michael J.; Judd, Maya D.; Poliandri, Simone
As lines between research paradigms continue to blur with the ever-increasing popularity of mixed methods research, there are useful, and occasionally oxymoronic, opportunities for educational researchers to juxtapose tools from opposing methods. The gold standard is just not possible in so much of what we do with small-scale research, nor is it…
Brooks, Gordon P.
Background Palliative care is a vital component of patient-centered care. It has increasingly become central to the management and care of seriously ill patients by integrating physical, psychosocial, and spiritual supportive services. Through qualitative inquiry, this paper examines cancer patients’ perceptions of the process and outcomes of the pain and palliative care consultative services they received while enrolled in a clinical trial. Methods A qualitative analysis of open-ended questions was conducted from a sub-sample of patients (n?=?34) with advanced cancers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy of a palliative care consult service. Two open-ended questions focused on patient perceptions of continued participation on their primary cancer clinical trials and their perceptions of interdisciplinary communication. Results Three overarching themes emerged when asked whether receiving pain and palliative care services made them more likely to remain enrolled in their primary cancer clinical trial: patients’ past experiences with care, self-identified personal characteristics and reasons for participation, and the quality of the partnership. Four themes emerged related to interdisciplinary communication including: the importance of developing relationships, facilitating open communication, having quality communication, and uncertainty about communication between the cancer clinical trial and palliative care teams. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of qualitative inquiry methods to explore patient perceptions regarding the efficacy of palliative care services for cancer patients enrolled in a cancer clinical trial. Validation of patient perceptions through qualitative inquiry regarding their pain and palliative care needs can provide insight into areas for future implementation research. Trial registration NIH Office of Human Subjects Research Protection OHSRP5443 and University of Pennsylvania 813365 PMID:25276094
The increasing interconnectedness of academic research and external industry has left research vulnerable to conflicts of interest. These conflicts have the potential to undermine the integrity of scientific research as well as to threaten public trust in scientific findings. The present effort sought to identify themes in the perspectives of faculty researchers regarding conflicts of interest. Think-aloud interview responses were qualitatively analyzed in an effort to provide insights with regard to appropriate ways to address the threat of conflicts of interest in research. Themes in participant responses included disclosure of conflicts of interest, self-removal from situations where conflict exists, accommodation of conflict, denial of the existence of conflict, and recognition of complexity of situations involving conflicts of interest. Moral disengagement operations are suggested to explain the appearance of each identified theme. In addition, suggestions for best practices regarding addressing conflicts of interest given these themes in faculty perspectives are provided. PMID:25115563
Mecca, Jensen T; Gibson, Carter; Giorgini, Vincent; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane
qualitative research methods as well as provide networking opportunities for researchers interested in qualitative or mixed-methods health research. 8 a.m.-5 p.m. Wednesday, April 30, 2014 UC Davis, SacramentoS E C O N D U C D A V I S Qualitative Health Symposium: Using Qualitative Methods to Advance Health
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Objectives Although concerns over clinical research have been expressed, the governance of clinical research has been little studied. The aim was to describe research policy, volume, funding and concerns over clinical research in Finland. Design A qualitative study and the data were collected from various sources, including documents, statistics and semistructured expert interviews. Setting Finland. Results We found no national policy for clinical research. Many actors were responsible for facilitating, directing, regulating and funding clinical research, but no actor had the main responsibility. Health professionals were the main drivers for clinical research. The role of the health ministry was small. The ministry distributed state money for clinical research in health services (EVO-money), but did not use it to direct research. Municipalities responsible for health services or national health insurance had little interest in clinical research. The Academy of Finland had had initiatives to promote clinical research, but they had not materialised in funding. Clinical research was common and internationally competitive, but its volume had declined relatively in the 2000s. Industry was an important private funder, mainly supporting drug trials made for licensing purposes. Drug trials without an outside sponsor (academic projects) declined between 2002 and 2010. The funding and its targeting and amount were no one's responsibility. Concerns over clinical research were similar as in other countries, but it had appeared late. Conclusions Our results suggest fragmented governance and funding in clinical research. The unsystematic research environment has not prevented clinical research from flourishing, but the public health relevance of the research carried out and its sustainability are unclear. PMID:23408074
Hemminki, Elina; Veerus, Piret; Virtanen, Jorma; Lehto, Juhani
Electronic database search strategies have developed substantially over the course of the past two decades, but their optimal use within a broader search strategy remains unclear. This article evaluates the use of a range of search strategies to identify qualitative evidence on the implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs. Within the time-limited context of the production of a policy-relevant systematic review, the authors found the protocol-driven, targeted, and reference-checking search strategies to be the most effective, while obtaining authors' suggestions proved to be a resource-intensive process with negligible results. Weaknesses in the indexing of qualitative research in electronic literature databases mean that the sensitivity of searches may need to be reduced to allow time for other search strategies to be implemented. Expert knowledge may be optimally used through involving experts in the design and implementation of a search strategy, rather than solely as a source of citations. PMID:21224267
Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany; Ashton, Kate
Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations. PMID:19960518
Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing
Background Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM), are increasingly common in the Netherlands. While disease management programs have been well-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. The overall aim of the study is to explore how disease management programs are implemented within primary care settings in the Netherlands; this paper focuses on the early development and implementation stages of five disease management programs in the primary care setting, based on interviews with project leadership teams. Methods Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the five selected sites with sixteen professionals interviewed; all project directors and managers were interviewed. The interviews focused on each project’s chosen chronic illness (diabetes, eating disorders, COPD, multi-morbidity, CVRM) and project plan, barriers to development and implementation, the project leaders’ action and reactions, as well as their roles and responsibilities, and disease management strategies. Analysis was inductive and interpretive, based on the content of the interviews. After analysis, the results of this research on disease management programs and the Chronic Care Model are viewed from a traveling technology framework. Results This analysis uncovered four themes that can be mapped to disease management and the Chronic Care Model: (1) changing the health care system, (2) patient-centered care, (3) technological systems and barriers, and (4) integrating projects into the larger system. Project leaders discussed the paths, both direct and indirect, for transforming the health care system to one that addresses chronic illness. Patient-centered care was highlighted as needed and a paradigm shift for many. Challenges with technological systems were pervasive. Project leaders managed the expenses of a traveling technology, including the social, financial, and administration involved. Conclusions At the sites, project leaders served as travel guides, assisting and overseeing the programs as they traveled from the global plans to local actions. Project leaders, while hypothetically in control of the programs, in fact shared control of the traveling of the programs with patients, clinicians, and outside consultants. From this work, we can learn what roadblocks and expenses occur while a technology travels, from a project leader’s point of view. PMID:22578251
From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. PMID:23165608
Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M
A method is described to create qualitative images of thick oil in oil spills on water using near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data. The method uses simple 'three-point-band depths' computed for each pixel in an imaging spectrometer image cube using the organic absorption features due to chemical bonds in aliphatic hydrocarbons at 1.2, 1.7, and 2.3 microns. The method is not quantitative because sub-pixel mixing and layering effects are not considered, which are necessary to make a quantitative volume estimate of oil.
Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; Livo, K. Erik; Lundeen, Sarah; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Kokaly, Raymond; Hoefen, Todd; Sarture, Charles; McCubbin, Ian; Roberts, Dar; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne; Pearson, Neil; The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Team
Background To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n =?18), England (n =?8), Australia (n =?4), Sweden (n =?4), both England and Wales (n =?2), and Scotland (n =?2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation. Conclusions Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use. PMID:24984881
Background Noncompliance with medications may have major impacts on outcomes measured in research, potentially distorting the validity of controlled clinical trials. Riboflavin is frequently used in trials as a marker of adherence. It can be combined with study medication and is excreted in urine where it fluoresces under UV light. This study compares qualitative visual inspection of fluorescence to quantitative fluorometric analysis of riboflavin concentration in its ability to detect the presence of riboflavin in urine. Methods Twenty-four volunteers received 0 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg doses of riboflavin under single-blind conditions, with 20 also receiving a 100 mg dose. Five serial urine samples were collected over the following 36 hours. Quantitative measurement of riboflavin by fluorometric analysis and qualitative assessment of each sample using visual inspection were performed. Results The overall false positive rate for qualitative assessment was 53%. For quantitative assessment, a riboflavin concentration of 900 ng/mL was established to classify positive samples. More than 80% of samples were positive 2 to 24 hours following ingestion of 25 mg and 50 mg, and less than 80% were positive at 36 hours. At least 95% of observations for the 100 mg dose were above 900 ng/mL at all timepoints. Conclusions Quantitative fluorometric assessment is superior to qualitative visual inspection alone in determining medication adherence. The combination of 25–50 mg of daily riboflavin and a cut-off level of 900 ng/mL allows for the acceptable sensitivity of missing detection of non-compliant participants while preserving a high level of power to detect all cases of medication compliance. PMID:22921475
Herron, Abigail J.; Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Parinello, Christina M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Raby, Wilfred N.; Bisaga, Adam
The aim of the article is to show how substantial qualitative material consisting of graphic cognitive maps can be analysed by using digital CmapTools, Excel and SPSS. Evidence is provided of how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined in educational research by transforming qualitative data into quantitative data to facilitate…
The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.
Franck, Bruno M.
Background: Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors. Method: A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors. Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s) that substantially predicts treatment exposure. Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s) and outcome. Results: A hypothetical example is provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met. Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding. Limitations: Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1) predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2) minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3) assessing the association of the introduced variable(s) with outcome, and 4) deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach). Conclusions: To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method's basic approach is straightforward. The method's routine usefulness, however, has not yet been established, nor has the method been fully validated. Rapid further investigation of this novel method is clearly indicated, given the potential value of its quantitative or qualitative output.
Smith, Eric G.
Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…
Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John
The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day. PMID:25312768
Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda
Despite the importance of communication to patient safety in hospital settings, we know surprisingly little about communication patterns between physicians and nurses, particularly on general medical-surgical units. Poor communication is the leading cause of preventable adverse events in hospitals, as well as a major root cause of sentinel events. The literature provides little guidance on what qualitative methods are best for capturing different types of communication events and patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for identifying and characterizing communication events between physicians and nurses to better understand communication patterns on general medical-surgical units. We used a sequential qualitative mixed method design beginning with general observation, progressing to shadowing and focus groups of physicians and nurses who worked on two medical-surgical units at one academically affiliated U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. Each data collection method (observation, shadowing, and focus groups) had its own advantages and disadvantages for capturing communication events and patterns. Through observation we were able to see the "what": communication activities. Shadowing was most useful for understanding "how" physicians and nurses communicated. Focus groups helped answer "why" certain patterns emerged and allowed us to further explore communication events within a group setting. By using all three methods we were able to more thoroughly characterize communication events than by using a single method alone, providing a more holistic picture of how communication occurs on an inpatient medical-surgical unit. PMID:24483246
Manojlovich, Milisa; Harrod, Molly; Holtz, Bree; Hofer, Timothy; Kuhn, Latoya; Krein, Sarah L
Researchers in geography education have access to a wide range of research methods, spanning the quantitative-qualitative continuum. However, the choice of which methods to employ in one's research has a direct impact on the subsequent quality of the research findings and should therefore be carefully considered. This paper briefly explores the…
Objectives Obesity rates remain high among children in the United States (US), but children of low-income, minority families are at particularly high risk. Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing US population group. Effective strategies will require attention to a wide array of culturally mediated variables that influence child feeding practices through the social contexts in which behaviors take place. This paper presents the design and implementation of a qualitative study examining low-income, Latina mothers’ perceptions of child weight status and feeding practices, and their associations with the development of overweight in children. Guided by the social ecologic model and social contextual model on the role of the family in mediating health behavior, the Latina Mother Child Feeding Practices (LMCFP) study provided a systematic exploration of the influence of social class, culture, and environmental factors associated with mothers’ perceptions of child overweight on feeding practices and behaviors. Methods The design for this qualitative study consisted of three sequential phases: focus groups, in-depth interviews and cognitive interviews with Latina mothers conducted by Spanish-speaking researchers. Results Results showed the important role of socio-cultural factors in influencing Latina mothers’ child feeding practices. In the short-term, this research yielded information to develop a child-feeding questionnaire appropriate for low-income, Latina mothers. Conclusion Findings have important implications in developing nutrition education strategies for child health promotion that account for the social and cultural context of minority, low-income caregivers. PMID:21512780
Lindsay, AC; Sussner, KM; Greaney, ML; Wang, ML; Davis, RE; Peterson, KE
Introduction: Educational environment is an important determinant of students’ behavior and its elements are associated with academic achievement and course satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine students’ expectations of the ideal educational environment. Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Using a theoretical sampling method, we selected eight students from Health School of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, studying health education, public health, environmental health, occupational health and medical entomology. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were used and continued until reaching data saturation. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Students' expectations of the ideal educational environment emerged in four main themes including school atmosphere, teaching, human aspects (with three subthemes including teachers, students, and school staff) and non-human aspects (with two subthemes including educational equipment and physical environment). Conclusion: Educational environment is a multidimensional issue and to achieve an ideal educational environment, educational planners should meet the students' expectations of the school atmosphere, teaching, teachers, students, school staff, educational equipment and physical environment. PMID:25512939
AGHAMOLAEI, TEAMUR; SHIRAZI, MANDANA; DADGARAN, IDEH; SHAHSAVARI, HOOMAN; GHANBARNEJAD, AMIN
KEY FACTS Module name Introduction to Research Methods and Applied Data Analysis Module code HRM001 is given to the teaching of qualitative and quantitative research methods and study designs. More-line research methods training #12;WHAT WILL I BE EXPECTED TO ACHIEVE? On successful completion of this module
A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.
Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria
This paper provides the background for a workshop designed to stimulate interaction between case writers for research and case writers for teaching around the practical challenges of fieldwork. The first section defines the workshop format (panel presentations, group discussions, and a plenary session). It also describes four major issues to be…
Pasquero, Jean; Schmitt, Ruth; Beaulieu, Suzanne
Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years). Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural). Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted interventions and the combined provision of information, life skills, support and access to youth-friendly services. Interventions should aim to counter negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods and the dual role of condoms for contraception and STI prevention should be exploited, despite the challenges involved. PMID:19228420
Williamson, Lisa M; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Petticrew, Mark; Hart, Graham J
Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…
Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.
The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research
For American professional and graduate health sciences trainees, a mentored fellowship in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC) can be a transformative experience of personal growth and scientific discovery. We invited 86 American trainees in the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program and Fulbright-Fogarty Fellowship 2011-2012 cohorts to contribute personal essays about formative experiences from their fellowships. Nine trainees contributed essays that were analyzed using an inductive approach. The most frequently addressed themes were the strong continuity of research and infrastructure at Fogarty fellowship sites, the time-limited nature of this international fellowship experience, and the ways in which this fellowship period was important for shaping future career planning. Trainees also addressed interaction with host communities vis-à-vis engagement in project implementation. These qualitative essays have contributed insights on how a 1-year mentored LMIC-based research training experience can influence professional development, complementing conventional evaluations. Full text of the essays is available at http://fogartyscholars.org/. PMID:25246694
Bearnot, Benjamin; Coria, Alexandra; Barnett, Brian Scott; Clark, Eva H; Gartland, Matthew G; Jaganath, Devan; Mendenhall, Emily; Seu, Lillian; Worjoloh, Ayaba G; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Vermund, Sten H; Heimburger, Douglas C
Background: Nursing education is both formal and informal. Formal education represents only a small part of all the learning involved; and many students learn more effectively through informal processes. There is little information about nursing student informal education and how it affects their character and practice. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study explores undergraduate nursing student perceptions of informal learning during nursing studies. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with a sample of undergraduate nursing students (n = 14). Strauss and Corbin’s constant comparison analysis approach was used for data analysis. Results: The categories that emerged included personal maturity and emotional development, social development, closeness to God, alterations in value systems, and ethical and professional commitment. Conclusion: Findings reveal that nursing education could take advantage of informal learning opportunities to develop students’ nontechnical skills and produce more competent students. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:23922595
Seylani, Khatereh; Negarandeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Easa
Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…
Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph
Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23824703
Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.
Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166
Educational Research Methods 2013 From Pslc Contents 1 Research Methods for the Learning Sciences (Koedinger) 1.11.11 Experimental Research Methods (Koedinger) 1.11.12 Wrap-up Research Methods and useful links: learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Educational_Research_Methods_2013 (http://learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Educational_Research_Methods
Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473
Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert
Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best to involve individuals and communities in promoting ethical conduct of global health research in resource poor settings. PMID:21961798
Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013
This paper reports on the development, self-critique and evolution of research methods for interpreting and understanding students’ metacognition that were developed through the Metacognition and Reflective Inquiry (MRI) collaborative study. The MRI collaborative was a multi-year, multi-case, research study that investigated the elusive nature and character of high school students’ metacognition across formal and informal science learning contexts. The study’s research design comprised a series of integrated, layered, interpretive case studies which were conducted in a hermeneutic fashion over a 3 year period. The implementation of each case study provided an opportunity for the researchers to reflect critically on the research methods used to elucidate metacognition and hence refine the individual and collective capacity, responsiveness and fruitfulness of the methods used. This paper discusses the evolution of these methods and the lessons that the entire study provides for the conceptualization of other qualitative-interpretivist studies.
Anderson, David; Nashon, Samson M.; Thomas, Gregory P.
Current multispectral night vision (NV) colorization techniques can manipulate images to produce colorized images that closely resemble natural scenes. The colorized NV images can enhance human perception by improving observer object classification and reaction times especially for low light conditions. This paper focuses on the qualitative (subjective) evaluations and comparisons of six NV colorization methods. The multispectral images include visible (Red-Green- Blue), near infrared (NIR), and long wave infrared (LWIR) images. The six colorization methods are channel-based color fusion (CBCF), statistic matching (SM), histogram matching (HM), joint-histogram matching (JHM), statistic matching then joint-histogram matching (SM-JHM), and the lookup table (LUT). Four categries of quality measurements are used for the qualitative evaluations, which are contrast, detail, colorfulness, and overall quality. The score of each measurement is rated from 1 to 3 scale to represent low, average, and high quality, respectively. Specifically, high contrast (of rated score 3) means an adequate level of brightness and contrast. The high detail represents high clarity of detailed contents while maintaining low artifacts. The high colorfulness preserves more natural colors (i.e., closely resembles the daylight image). Overall quality is determined from the NV image compared to the reference image. Nine sets of multispectral NV images were used in our experiments. For each set, the six colorized NV images (produced from NIR and LWIR images) are concurrently presented to users along with the reference color (RGB) image (taken at daytime). A total of 67 subjects passed a screening test ("Ishihara Color Blindness Test") and were asked to evaluate the 9-set colorized images. The experimental results showed the quality order of colorization methods from the best to the worst: CBCF < SM < SM-JHM < LUT < JHM < HM. It is anticipated that this work will provide a benchmark for NV colorization and for quantitative evaluation using an objective metric such as objective evaluation index (OEI).
Zheng, Yufeng; Reese, Kristopher; Blasch, Erik; McManamon, Paul
In this introduction we reflect on two key questions that initiated this special issue on qualitative inquiry: What can qualitative researchers do to regain their post-paradigm-wars cache? How do we avoid distracting "science wars" in the future? We suggest that the strong tendency to narrow the research methods accepted as…
Fischman, Gustavo E.; Tefera, Adai A.
This paper is a synthesis of the information in the report Inventory, Bibliography and Synthesis of Qualitative Research in the European Union which was co-ordinated for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal, by the National Addiction Centre, London, UK. It is based on the work of a network of qualitative researchers from the European Union. The report includes detailed information from each member state on current qualitative projects, relevant publications from the last 10 years and a directory of those researchers active in this area. The paper introduces the project, outlines its future direction and discusses what can be defined as 'qualitative research'. Historical developments and the role of qualitative methodology in relation to research into drug use are examined. A summary of the project's findings is presented, and the relevance of qualitative research for policy-making is discussed. Finally, the methodology used to collect data for the project is described. PMID:10085497
Fountain, J; Griffiths, P
Increased use of qualitative and quantitative methods in quality of life projects necessitates an examination of how to effectively work within a mixed method framework. The research objectives of this paper are to (1) operationalize the two goals of mixed method research (confirmation and comprehension) and (2) develop a strategy for using mixed…
Dunning, Heather; Williams, Allison; Abonyi, Sylvia; Crooks, Valorie
Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to
U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman
Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection
This collection examines many influences of biographical inquiry in education and discusses methodological issues from the perspectives of veteran and novice biographers. The section on qualitative research and educational biography contains the following chapters: "Musings on Life Writing: Biography and Case Studies in Teacher Education" (Robert…
Kridel, Craig, Ed.
This study focused on things learned from teaching doctoral students (17 doctoral and 2 masters students) about qualitative analytic strategies. Researchers used a grounded theory approach while simultaneously drawing from literature related to adult learning theories, doctoral student training, and curricula development, all of which informed…
Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Asghar, Anila; Gaylor, Sue Stuebner
The proposed eight-acre building site for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) facility is a former uncontrolled landfill. As a prerequisite to foundation design and to formulation of an excavation plan, it was necessary to characterize the landfill materials and to conduct a qualitative human risk assessment. Chemical analysis of surface-water, groundwater, and landfill soils followed the analytical
W. Harrison; B. Nashold; N. K. Meshkov; C. Tome; A. S. Boparai; R. R. Heinrich; D. G. Graczyk; S. A. Sandberg; S. A. Foster; M. J. Schweighauser; J. J. Russell
Mind maps may provide a new means to gather unsolicited data through qualitative research designs. In this paper, I explore the utility of mind maps through a project designed to uncover the experiences of Latvians involved in a legal technical assistance project. Based on a sample of 19 respondents, the depth and detail of the responses between…
Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695
Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian
Obesity is a prominent public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast-food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study used focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the use of these menu labels among low-income minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were held at various community organizations throughout New York City over a 9-month period in 2011. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few participants used menu labels, despite awareness. The most frequently cited as barriers to menu label use included: price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding about caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695
Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian
Background Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. Methods In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration, integrating role plays into behaviour change training, providing more practical information about stress management and removing self-monitoring of lifestyle change. Conclusion Qualitative research is integral to developing the design detail of a complex intervention and tailoring its components to address individuals' needs in different healthcare systems. The findings highlight how qualitative research may be a valuable component of the preparation for complex interventions and their evaluation. PMID:16848896
Corrrigan, Mairead; Cupples, Margaret E; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Leathem, Claire S; Clerkin, Pauline; Murphy, Andrew W
Control Banding strategies offer a simplified control of worker exposures when there is an absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry fits this classification as there are overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. Many experts have suggested Control Banding as a solution for these issues. A recent survey shows a majority of nanomaterial users are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. A Control Banding Nanotool has been developed and implemented to afford a qualitative risk assessment toward the control of nanoparticle exposures. The international use of the Control Banding Nanotool reflects on both its need and its possibilities. By developing this dynamic Control Banding Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of Control Banding appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations. This success can be seen in providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them, and initiating an appropriate discussion of these risks with nonexperts. Experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters, affording better utility and consistency of research. This database of toxicological research findings should be harnessed and presented in a format feeding directly into the Control Banding Nanotool severity and probability risk matrix. Making the latest research available for experts and practitioners alike will provide the best protection of workers in the nanotechnology industries. This presentation will also show the science behind the simplified Control Banding Nanotool approach, its structure, weighting of risks, utility for exposure mitigation, and the research needs to bolster its effectiveness.
Zalk, D; Paik, S; Swuste, P
This article critically explores data generated within a participatory research project with young people in the care of a local authority, the (Extra)ordinary Lives project. The project involved ethnographic multi-media data generation methods used in groups and individually with eight participants (aged 10-20) over a school year and encouraged…
Holland, Sally; Renold, Emma; Ross, Nicola J.; Hillman, Alexandra
This investigation was conducted to explore contemporary critiques that challenge the growing body of scholarly research that would reveal and support diverse understandings of the world. Principal methods for this deconstruction of contemporary critiques include document analysis of writing that examines content and author location and context…
Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Cannella, Gaile S.
This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self-concept; (h) high parental expectations and the parental role, especially the father's role, are imperative; and (i) reading avidly was preferred over watching television. Further research is needed to verify all components and interactions of the same with a greater sample of gifted students, by extending the study to include the male counterpart and by providing additional validity to elementary instruction and the success of academically gifted students.
Butcher, Ann Patrice
Despite the importance of studying the dynamics and consequences of trauma, there has been concern that trauma-focused questionnaires and interviews could further harm vulnerable participants, such as pregnant women who have suffered prior sexual trauma (e.g., rape, incest, sexual abuse). There has also been concern that employing personal interviews, rather than anonymous written questionnaires in trauma-focused research procedures may compromise participants' confidentiality. This exploratory study examined the methodological differences associated with perceived discomforts and benefits among pregnant women participants in a two-phase, trauma-focused research study. In Phase I, pregnant women (N = 109) completed anonymous, trauma-related questionnaires. In Phase II, a subsample of Phase I participants (N = 10) who reported a previous history of sexual trauma completed in-depth, personal interviews. Participants in both phases of the study rated their reaction to research participation using the Response to Research Participation Questionnaire Revised (RRPQ-R). Results suggest that both written survey and personal interview methods are well tolerated by pregnant women. Specific findings indicated that pregnant women with a sexual trauma history reported significantly higher "personal benefit" from participating in personal interview procedures compared to written questionnaires. Recommendations for conducting trauma-focused research with potentially high-risk or vulnerable populations are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research are outlined in an effort to further extend the ethical understanding of the benefits and costs of trauma-focused research. PMID:19919318
Schwerdtfeger, Kami L
Only a small number of qualitative studies have investigated panelists' experiences during standard-setting activities or the thought processes associated with panelists' actions. This qualitative study involved an examination of the experiences of 11 panelists who participated in a prior, one-day standard-setting meeting in which either the…
Hein, Serge F.; Skaggs, Gary E.
The enormous synthetic efforts on novel solar cell materials require a reliable and fast technique for the rapid screening of novel donor/acceptor combinations in order to quickly and reliably estimate their optimized parameters. Here, we report the applicability of such a versatile and fast evaluation technique for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) by utilizing a steady-state photoluminescence (PL) method confirmed by electroluminescence (EL) measurements. A strong relation has been observed between the residual singlet emission and the charge transfer state emission in the blend. Using this relation, a figure of merit (FOM) is defined from photoluminescence and also electroluminescence measurements for qualitative analysis and shown to precisely anticipate the optimized blend parameters of bulk heterojunction films. Photoluminescence allows contactless evaluation of the photoactive layer and can be used to predict the optimized conditions for the best polymer-fullerene combination. Most interestingly, the contactless, PL-based FOM method has the potential to be integrated as a fast and reliable inline tool for quality control and material optimization. PMID:25003533
Baran, Derya; Li, Ning; Breton, Anne-Catherine; Osvet, Andres; Ameri, Tayebeh; Leclerc, Mario; Brabec, Christoph J
This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…
LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.
Although social justice is a core value of social work, it can be more difficult to integrate into a research methods class. This article describes an assignment developed for a BSW one-semester research class that served the dual purpose of educating students about social justice as well as qualitative research. Students were instructed to…
Mapp, Susan C.
This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.
Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in income from formal and informal sources all reinforce these preferences. While non-financial attributes are also important for Vietnamese doctors, the scale of the difference of opportunities presents a considerable policy challenge. Significant salary increases for doctors in hard-to-staff areas are likely to have some impact. However, addressing the differentials is likely to require broader market reforms and regulatory measures. PMID:21849045
The selection and identification of a suitable hydrological model structure is a more challenging task than fitting parameters of a fixed model structure to reproduce a measured hydrograph. The suitable model structure is highly dependent on various criteria, i.e. the modeling objective, the characteristics and the scale of the system under investigation and the available data. Flexible environments for model building are available, but need to be assisted by proper diagnostic tools for model structure selection. This paper introduces a qualitative method for model component sensitivity analysis. Traditionally, model sensitivity is evaluated for model parameters. In this paper, the concept is translated into an evaluation of model structure sensitivity. Similarly to the one-factor-at-a-time (OAT) methods for parameter sensitivity, this method varies the model structure components one at a time and evaluates the change in sensitivity towards the output variables. As such, the effect of model component variations can be evaluated towards different objective functions or output variables. The methodology is presented for a simple lumped hydrological model environment, introducing different possible model building variations. By comparing the effect of changes in model structure for different model objectives, model selection can be better evaluated. Based on the presented component sensitivity analysis of a case study, some suggestions with regard to model selection are formulated for the system under study: (1) a non-linear storage component is recommended, since it ensures more sensitive (identifiable) parameters for this component and less parameter interaction; (2) interflow is mainly important for the low flow criteria; (3) excess infiltration process is most influencing when focussing on the lower flows; (4) a more simple routing component is advisable; and (5) baseflow parameters have in general low sensitivity values, except for the low flow criteria.
Van Hoey, S.; Seuntjens, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Nopens, I.
Conditional cash transfer programs provide cash grants to poor households conditional on their participation in primary health care services. While significant impacts have been demonstrated quantitatively, little attention is paid to why CCTs have these observed impacts, and as importantly- why impacts are not greater than they are. This article draws on qualitative research from four countries over a ten year period (1999-2009) to provide insights into why expected health and nutrition impacts do and do not occur. In Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Turkey, ethnographic methods were used, involving between 87 and 120 households per country, and in Mexico, focus groups were conducted with 230 people. Key informant interviews were conducted with health care providers in all countries. While CCTs operate primarily on the assumption that a cash incentive will produce behaviour change, we found multiple sociocultural and structural influences on health care decisions that compete with cash. These include beliefs around traditional and modern biomedical practices, sociocultural norms, gender relations, and the quotidian experience of poverty in many dimensions. We conclude that impacts can be increased through a better understanding of multiple contextual influences on health care decisions, and greater attention to the health education components and complementary interventions. PMID:21122965
Adato, Michelle; Roopnaraine, Terry; Becker, Elisabeth
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560
Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W
Film as a tool for learning offers considerable opportunity for enhancing student understanding. This paper reflects on the experiences of a project that required students to make a short film demonstrating their practical understanding of qualitative methods. In the psychogeographical tradition, students were asked to "drift" across the…
Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…
Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam
This introductory essay for the journal Symposium presents an overview of issues related to ‘Q-Squared in Policy: the use of qualitative and quantitative methods of poverty analysis in decision-making’. We focus on issues raised on the supply side of data use, relating, inter alia to the informational content and policy usefulness of different types of data and analysis. These issues
Paul Shaffer; Ravi Kanbur; Nguyen Thu Hang; Ellen Bortei-Doku Aryeetey
Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130
Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J
Background There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders. Methods and Findings Interviews were conducted with 36 researchers (19 UK and 17 US) from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and ten community leaders from a range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds, followed by self-completion questionnaires. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated where necessary, and transcribed. The Framework approach was used for analysis. Barriers to ethnic minority participation revolved around five key themes: (i) researchers' own attitudes, which ranged from empathy to antipathy to (in a minority of cases) misgivings about the scientific importance of the question under study; (ii) stereotypes and prejudices about the difficulties in engaging with minority ethnic populations; (iii) the logistical challenges posed by language, cultural differences, and research costs set against the need to demonstrate value for money; (iv) the unique contexts of the two countries; and (v) poorly developed understanding amongst some minority ethnic leaders of what research entails and aims to achieve. US researchers were considerably more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities, which appeared to a large extent to reflect the longer-term impact of the National Institutes of Health's requirement to include minority ethnic people. Conclusions Most researchers and community leaders view the broadening of participation in research as important and are reasonably optimistic about the feasibility of recruiting South Asians into asthma studies provided that the barriers can be overcome. Suggested strategies for improving recruitment in the UK included a considerably improved support structure to provide academics with essential contextual information (e.g., languages of particular importance and contact with local gatekeepers), and the need to ensure that care is taken to engage with the minority ethnic communities in ways that are both culturally appropriate and sustainable; ensuring reciprocal benefits was seen as one key way of avoiding gatekeeper fatigue. Although voluntary measures to encourage researchers may have some impact, greater impact might be achieved if UK funding bodies followed the lead of the US National Institutes of Health requiring recruitment of ethnic minorities. Such a move is, however, likely in the short- to medium-term, to prove unpopular with many UK academics because of the added “hassle” factor in engaging with more diverse populations than many have hitherto been accustomed to. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19823568
Sheikh, Aziz; Halani, Laila; Bhopal, Raj; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Partridge, Martyn R.; Car, Josip; Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark
Combining social capital theory and immigration history and theory a qualitative study was conducted using a variation of Critical Incident Technique to identify the motivations of individuals in rural communities who championed community responses to the influx of large immigrant populations. Twenty-eight individuals identified as key champions…
Laeger-Hagemeister, Mary A.
A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…
is the study of qualitative causal models [3-20, 24, 25]. Research on qualitative causal models differs fromARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 289 Qualitative Simulation* Benjamin Kuipers Department of Computer Qualitative simulation is a key inference process in qualitative causal reasoning. However, the precise
Background The consent process for a genetic study is challenging when the research is conducted in a group stigmatized because of beliefs that the disease is familial. Podoconiosis, also known as 'mossy foot', is an example of such a disease. It is a condition resulting in swelling of the lower legs among people exposed to red clay soil. It is a very stigmatizing problem in endemic areas of Ethiopia because of the widely held opinion that the disease runs in families and is untreatable. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of social stigma on the process of obtaining consent for a study on the genetics of podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia. Methods We adapted a rapid assessment tool validated in The Gambia. The methodology was qualitative involving focus-group discussions (n = 4) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with community members, fieldworkers, researchers and staff of the Mossy Foot Treatment and Prevention Association (MFTPA) working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis. Results We found that patients were afraid of participation in a genetic study for fear the study might aggravate stigmatization by publicizing the familial nature of the disease. The MFTPA was also concerned that discussion about the familial nature of podoconiosis would disappoint patients and would threaten the trust they have in the organization. In addition, participants of the rapid assessment stressed that the genetic study should be approved at family level before prospective participants are approached for consent. Based on this feedback, we developed and implemented a consent process involving community consensus and education of fieldworkers, community members and health workers. In addition, we utilized the experience and established trust of the MFTPA to diminish the perceived risk. Conclusion The study showed that the consent process developed based on issues highlighted in the rapid assessment facilitated recruitment of participants and increased their confidence that the genetic research would not fuel stigma. Therefore, investigators must seek to assess and address risks of research from prospective participants' perspectives. This involves understanding the issues in the society, the culture, community dialogues and developing a consent process that takes all these into consideration. PMID:19698115
Tekola, Fasil; Bull, Susan; Farsides, Bobbie; Newport, Melanie J; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N; Davey, Gail
The aim of this study was to systematically review qualitative literature published between 1990 and 2006 exploring the patient experience within the emergency department (ED) with the intent of describing what factors influence the patient experience. Twelve articles were retrieved following combination of key words using five databases. The overarching categories developed from this integration of literature were; emotional impact of emergency, staff-patient interactions, waiting, family in the emergency department, and emergency environment. The patient experience issue given most emphasis by the articles under review was the caring or lack of caring regarding the patients' psychosocial and emotional needs. This was in contrast to the culture of the ED which emphasised "medical-technical" skill and efficiency. Satisfaction studies need to understand many factors and influences, qualitative methodologies have the ability to do so. PMID:20382369
Gordon, Jane; Sheppard, Lorraine A; Anaf, Sophie
Family caregivers are crucial for supporting home death. We reviewed published qualitative research on home-based family caregiving at end of life (1998-2008), synthesizing key findings and identifying gaps where additional research is needed. Multiple databases were searched and abstracts reviewed for a focus on family caregiving and palliative care; full articles were reviewed to extract data for this review. In total, 105 articles were included. Findings are presented in the following areas: the caregiving experience and contextual features; supporting family caregivers at end of life; caregiving roles and decision-making; and rewards, meaning and coping. We noted a lack of definitional clarity; a reliance on interview methods and descriptive, thematic analyses, and a relative lack of diversity of patient conditions. Research needs are identified in several areas, including the bereavement experience, caregiver ambivalence, access to services, caregiver meaning-making, and relational and contextual influences on family caregiving at end of life. PMID:20576673
Funk, L; Stajduhar, Ki; Toye, C; Aoun, S; Grande, Ge; Todd, Cj
To be published in In Proceedings of ACM Eye Tracking Research & Applications Symposium, Austin, TX, 2010 Qualitative and Quantitative Scoring and Evaluation of the Eye Movement Classification Algorithms presents a set of qualitative and quantitative scores designed to assess performance of any eye movement
Oleg, Komogortsev - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University
This article draws on the articulation of a value for reflexivity that has accumulated within qualitative methods debates in the past decade. It demonstrates how reflexivity is interwoven with the concept of ethical mindfulness. The argument has developed from a consideration of the ethical dilemmas that were a salient aspect of an ongoing…
This article describes a mixed-methods approach to integrating the methodological tools of social network analysis and qualitative research to explore intersectionality as it pertains to faculty experiences in institutional contexts. These research strategies, employed at the individual and aggregate levels, can be useful tools as institutions aim…
Pifer, Meghan J.
\\u000a This chapter examines the integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the development of culturally grounded\\u000a mental health, and psychosocial assessment tools for use with populations displaced by armed conflict or natural disaster.\\u000a After first arguing for the importance of grounding our assessment tools in local cultural contexts, the author then describes\\u000a the unique and complementary contributions that qualitative
Kenneth E. Miller
Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. Methods This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. Results A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.’ Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a “trial and error” process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Conclusions Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical/health procedures as either research or treatment. Those with low health status may be more vulnerable to potential coercion, suggesting the need for a more cautious approach to obtaining consent. Our findings also indicate the need for boundary work in order to better differentiate treatment and research. It is important however to acknowledge a categorical ambiguity; it is not always the case that people are misinformed about the possible benefits of research procedures (i.e., therapeutic misconception); our participants were aware that the primary purpose of research is to gain new knowledge yet they also identified a range of actual health benefits arising from their participation. PMID:24119203
Background and Objectives India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities–for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers’ and community members’ current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India’s Karnataka state. Methods 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Results Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. Conclusions These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and other interventions to address identified gaps in knowledge and ensure that providers and pharmacists have up-to-date information regarding proper usage of uterotonic drugs. PMID:23638148
Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana
Despite the growing body of research on doctoral education, little is known about how doctoral students learn to do research across the disciplines. Even though there is a lack of empirical research on the pedagogy of research in doctoral education, much of the literature anecdotally and metaphorically attributes students' learning to traditional…
Flores, Emma M.
To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the "American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)," "Journal of Experimental Education (JEE)" and "Journal of Educational Research (JER)" from…
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively new, but increasingly important, contributor to both local and national decision-making processes. Adopting a multi-method approach, it incorporates qualitative and quantitative analyses to determine the various health impacts of policies and projects. HIA thus reflects recent developments in sociological theory, which have promoted qualitative techniques and challenged the dominance of quantitative methods. HIA
Kevin Love; Catherine Pritchard; Kevin Maguire; Ann Mccarthy; Paul Paddock
The vibration responses of different linear faults all possess some common features, which make fault diagnosis very difficult. Based on the multi-sensor information fusion theory, this paper presents a new qualitative identification method for the diagnosis of linear faults. The excitation-response dynamic equation is constructed and system balancing response with full consideration of system anisotropy is analyzed. Through discussion of the precession orbit shape difference and its dispersive situation, the orbit shape average difference coefficient and the corresponding dispersion term are estimated to obtain the theoretical balancing effect. Finally, the qualitative identification of linear fault can be done according to whether the calculated balancing effect meets the safe operation requirement or not. The dynamic characteristic of the system difference coefficients is verified by a simulation experiment and the case study further testifies the capability and reliability of the proposed method.
Lang, Genfeng; Liao, Yuhe; Liu, Qingcheng; Lin, Jing
Practice-based research networks may be expanding beyond research into rapid learning systems. This mixed-methods study uses Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality registry data to identify networks currently engaged in dissemination of research findings and to select a sample to participate in qualitative semistructured interviews. An adapted Diffusion of Innovations framework was used to organize concepts by characteristics of networks, dissemination activities, and mechanisms for rapid learning. Six regional networks provided detailed information about dissemination strategies, organizational context, role of practice-based research network, member involvement, and practice incentives. Strategies compatible with current practices and learning innovations that generate observable improvements may increase effectiveness of rapid learning approaches. PMID:24594566
Lipman, Paula Darby; Lange, Carol J; Cohen, Rachel A; Peterson, Kevin A
This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…
Mixed methods research (MMR)—which integrates qualitative and quantitative methods in one study to improve the study's quality—is not common in library and information science (LIS) and has not been discussed in its literature. While still evolving and generating much discussion about its nature and standards for its evaluation, MMR has been employed in the social and behavioral sciences for more
The main characteristic of risk investment is high risk and high income. Therefore, the risk scale and constitution of risk investment project become important factors when the risk investors make the risk investment decision. In Chinese researches about risk investment decision-making theories, the comprehensive evaluation of risk of the venture investment project mainly is qualitative method. Although the quantitative method
A pure compound has been isolated and identified as coptisine on the basis of UV and NMR spectroscopy data using preparative\\u000a separation of the extract from greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herbs by column chromatography over short columns of silica gel. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the total\\u000a alkaloid contents in C. majus is performed using TLC analysis and spectrophotometry
E. S. Artamonova; V. A. Kurkin
Improving the health status of minority populations in the United States is a major public health challenge. This report describes an anthropological approach to obtaining information needed for designing and evaluating a culturally appropriate dietary intervention for Chinese-Americans. Ninety-minute qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 less-acculturated Chinese-American women in their native language (Cantonese or Mandarin), soliciting information from participants regarding
JESSIE A SATIA; RUTH E PATTERSON; VICKY M TAYLOR; CARRIE L CHENEY; SHARYNE SHIU-THORNTON; KAMOLTHIP CHITNARONG; ALAN R KRISTAL
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of how teachers become action researchers in the context of Pakistan in view of the attempts by the Ministry of Education to reconceptualize teachers as researchers. A metasynthesis of 20 action research theses by MEd students of a private university as part of their program requirements…
Background. Mixed methods research uses qualitative and quantitative methods together in a single study or a series of related studies. Objectives. To review the prevalence and quality of mixed methods studies in complementary medicine. Methods. All studies published in the top 10 integrative and complementary medicine journals in 2012 were screened. The quality of mixed methods studies was appraised using a published tool designed for mixed methods studies. Results. 4% of papers (95 out of 2349) reported mixed methods studies, 80 of which met criteria for applying the quality appraisal tool. The most popular formal mixed methods design was triangulation (used by 74% of studies), followed by embedded (14%), sequential explanatory (8%), and finally sequential exploratory (5%). Quantitative components were generally of higher quality than qualitative components; when quantitative components involved RCTs they were of particularly high quality. Common methodological limitations were identified. Most strikingly, none of the 80 mixed methods studies addressed the philosophical tensions inherent in mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Conclusions and Implications. The quality of mixed methods research in CAM can be enhanced by addressing philosophical tensions and improving reporting of (a) analytic methods and reflexivity (in qualitative components) and (b) sampling and recruitment-related procedures (in all components). PMID:24454489
Bishop, Felicity L.; Holmes, Michelle M.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the concerns of mothers referred to health center in south Tehran, Iran about immunizing children aged 0-24 months. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. The mothers' concerns over immunizing their children fell into 5 main categories: (1) "Factors that cause mothers' concerns," (2) "Factors that influence mothers' concerns," (3) "Information, education, and communication barriers," (4) "Informational/educational needs and sources," and (5) "The necessity of childhood vaccinations." According to study findings, mothers consider immunizing children important and they have enough trust in the health system. A deep understanding of maternal concerns about immunizing their children at 0-24 months allows nurses to reduce mothers' concerns by removing communication barriers and providing appropriate and adequate information. PMID:25188870
Delkhosh, Marjan; Negarandeh, Reza; Ghasemi, Elham; Rostami, Hossein
The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…
Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer
Surveyed police officers from two police departments in the Midwest on their perceptions of date rape (N = 91). The aim of this research was to examine the influence of officers' work experiences and general beliefs about women on their perceptions of date rape. Two approaches were utilized. First, using quantitative structural-equation modeling, a model that integrated work experiences and individual beliefs was evaluated using LISREL VII. Results suggest a direct path from the work experience variables to perceptions of date rape: Officers with more experience with rape cases held more sympathetic beliefs about date rape and date rape victims. Officers who found their training on rape to be very helpful, and those who reported that their work environment was sexualized and sexual harassment was a problem, were also less victim blaming. An indirect influence of these variables was also supported. Officers with more experience, those who perceived their training as helpful, and those with heightened awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace also held more favorable attitudes toward women, which, in turn, predicted less victim-blaming perceptions of date rape. Second, qualitative methods were used to have the police define and describe in their own words what has shaped their beliefs about date rape. These narratives were content analyzed by two raters. The qualitative results validated the quantitative findings as the officers were most likely to mention professional experience with rape cases and departmental trainings as important factors that changed their opinions. Work climate and personal experiences were also cited as influential. Implications for integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in research, and training interventions with police are discussed. PMID:7572832
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
The authors investigated approaches to increase recruitment of South Asians into United Kingdom (UK) asthma studies through qualitative interviews with 36 United States (US) and UK researchers, and 10 UK community leaders. In general, the US researchers were more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities in health research.
This research project addresses a series of methodological and theoretical statistical problems in the analysis of categorical data using loglinear and logistic response models, which grow directly out of problems in the study of the American educational system, and in basic educational research. The project focuses on the adaptation and…
Fienberg, Stephen E.; Larntz, Kinley
Aim This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Background Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Data sources Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. Review methods A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. Conclusion This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. Implications for research/practice When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility. PMID:25587865
James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen
The aim of this article is to consider the value of qualitative research to inform nurse education and policy for the hospitalized child and young person (CYP). The theoretical issues and tensions inherent in qualitative research with children and young people's nursing are presented in conjunction with a discussion and analysis of how the epistemological and ontological concepts underpin and guide research. It is then followed by an exploration of their influence on enabling nurses to understand the CYP's perspective, before finally leading to an analysis of the impact on the development of policy and research. PMID:24867586
Selecting a research method for empirical software engineering research is problematic because the benefits and challenges\\u000a to using each method are not yet well catalogued. Therefore, this chapter describes a number of empirical methods available.\\u000a It examines the goals of each and analyzes the types of questions each best addresses. Theoretical stances behind the methods,\\u000a practical considerations in the application
Steve Easterbrook; Janice Singer; Margaret-Anne Storey; Daniela Damian
Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25\\\\% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative
Robert K. Yin; M S Sridhar
This paper examines and reviews research methods applied within the field of mobile human-computer interaction. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of current practice for studying mobile HCI to identify shortcomings in the way research is conducted and to propose opportunities for future ap- proaches. 102 publications on mobile human-computer interaction research were categorized in a matrix relating their
Jesper Kjeldskov; Connor Graham
Used as a primary text for a required one-hour basic research methods course at the College of Charleston, this handbook is designed to familiarize the student with the basic precepts and tools used in research. Each of the seven chapters represents a different step in the research process: (1) locating background information--encyclopedias; (2)…
Education is concerned with initiating and attending to developmental processes, a highly dynamic subject matter. Therefore,\\u000a research in education faces great challenges. The methods used in education research, however, frequently fail to take into consideration fully the very dimension of process and development.\\u000a In many cases, the methods follow a research ideal informed by the natural sciences; often they are
Alexander Wettstein; Beat Thommen
Bayesian statistics represents a paradigm shift in statistical reasoning and an approach to analysis that is applicable to prevention trials with small samples. This paper introduces the reader to the philosophy behind Bayesian statistics. This introduction is followed by a review of some issues that arise in sampling statistics and how Bayesian methods address them. Finally, the article provides an extended illustration of the application of Bayesian statistics to data from a prevention trial that tested a family-focused intervention. PMID:25468407
Kadane, Joseph B
In this paper we discuss the complexities of interview transcription. While often seen as a behind-the-scenes task, we suggest that transcription is a powerful act of representation. Transcription is practiced in multiple ways, often using naturalism, in which every utterance is captured in as much detail as possible, and/or denaturalism, in which grammar is corrected, interview noise (e.g., stutters, pauses, etc.) is removed and nonstandard accents (i.e., non-majority) are standardized. In this article, we discuss the constraints and opportunities of our transcription decisions and point to an intermediate, reflective step. We suggest that researchers incorporate reflection into their research design by interrogating their transcription decisions and the possible impact these decisions may have on participants and research outcomes. PMID:16534533
Oliver, Daniel G.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Mason, Tina L.
Competence-based teacher education provides new knowledge within the knowledge triangle of education, research and innovation. Communicative competence is of the greatest importance which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission, 2004). The successful…
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Parenting a child with complex health/palliative care needs is wide ranging. Family-centred practices place parents at the heart of the ongoing care of these children, and therefore it makes sense that their views and experiences should be central to research within the field. Despite this assertion, little guidance exists as to how best to…
Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor
No data has been found about the influences of the ERASMUS program on Turkish pre-service teachers of English who participated in the ERASMUS Mobility Program. Thus, in this study the researcher aims to evaluate the ERASMUS Mobility Program regarding its contributions to the progress of Turkish pre-service teachers of English and the problems they…
Writing a dissertation to fulfill the requirement for the completion of Ph.D. programs has always been the most challenging task for doctoral students. It is especially true for EFL students who not only need to struggle with the research process, but also the English language. One way to avoid being an ABD (All But Dissertation or All But Dead),…
The "law of large numbers" indicates that as sample size increases, sample statistics become less variable and more closely estimate their corresponding population parameters. Different research studies investigating how people consider sample size when evaluating the reliability of a sample statistic have found a wide range of…
Noll, Jennifer; Sharma, Sashi
The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…
Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.
This article speaks conceptually and methodologically about the ethics and politics of doing research with newcomer refugee youth and issues of representation. Feminist poststructuralist paradigms across a variety of fields have critically examined notions of experience, agency, and identity to in order to encompass more fluid understandings of…
Thorstensson Dávila, Liv
This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…
Tierney, Patrick J.
Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six in-depth interviews with family planning providers were conducted. Content analysis was used to synthesize the data. Result. Participants' knowledge on long acting and permanent contraceptives is limited to recognizing the name of the methods. Most of the participants are not able to identify permanent methods as a method of contraception. They lack basic information on how these methods work and how they can use it. Women had fears and rumors about each of these methods. They prefer methods which do not require any procedure. Family planning providers stated as they have weakness on counseling of all contraceptive choices. Conclusion. There are personal barriers and knowledge gaps on these contraceptive methods. Improving the counseling service program can help women to increase knowledge and avoid misconceptions of each contraceptive choice. PMID:25140252
The mixed methods approach has emerged as a "third paradigm" for social research. It has developed a platform of ideas and practices that are credible and distinctive and that mark the approach out as a viable alternative to quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However, there are also a number of variations and inconsistencies within the mixed…
The proposed eight-acre building site for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) facility is a former uncontrolled landfill. As a prerequisite to foundation design and to formulation of an excavation plan, it was necessary to characterize the landfill materials and to conduct a qualitative human risk assessment. Chemical analysis of surface-water, groundwater, and landfill soils followed the analytical protocol promulgated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Contract Laboratory Program for its Target Compound List of contaminants. This protocol was used to determine concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/pesticides, inorganic compounds, radioactive materials, asbestos, and many of the metals analyzed. 49 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.
Harrison, W.; Nashold, B.; Meshkov, N.K.; Tome, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Boparai, A.S.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Chemical Technology Div.); Sandberg, S.A. (Hydro-Terra, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA)); Foster, S.A.; Schweighauser, M.J. (Clement Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Russell, J.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biologi
Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.
Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)
The notion that social identities and social inequality based on ethnicity, sexual orientation, and sex\\/gender are intersectional\\u000a rather than additive poses a variety of thorny methodological challenges. Using research with Black lesbians (Bowleg, manuscripts\\u000a in preparation; Bowleg et al., Journal of Lesbian Studies, 2008; Bowleg et al., Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology 10:229–240, 2004; Bowleg et al., Journal of
Internet addiction is “an individual’s inability to control their Internet use, which in turn leads to feelings of distress and functional impairment of daily activities” [Shapira, N., Lessig, M., Goldsmith, T., Szabo, S., Lazoritz, M., Gold, M. et al. (2003). Problematic Internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 17(4), 207–216]. Previous research in this field has offered
Alecia C. Douglas; Juline E. Mills; Mamadou Niang; Svetlana Stepchenkova; Sookeun Byun; Celestino Ruffini; Seul Ki Lee; Jihad Loutfi; Jung-Kook Lee; Mikhail J. Atallah; Marina Blanton
This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the "scientific method" does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. It is appropriate for introductory physics courses and for teachers seeking content support in research practices. Editor's Note: Secondary students often cling to the notion that scientific research follows a stock, standard "scientific method". They may be unaware of the differences between experimental research, correlative studies, observation, and computer-based modeling research. In this resource, they can glimpse each methodology in the context of a real study done by respected scientists. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.
Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne
Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. PMID:23176320
Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A
This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…
Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi
Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years). Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies. PMID:24023586
Stöckigt, B.; Teut, M.; Witt, C. M.
Qualitative methods in a randomised controlled trial: the role of an integrated qualitative process evaluation in providing evidence to discontinue the intervention in one arm of a trial of a decision support tool
Objective To understand participants' experiences and understandings of the interventions in the trial of a computerised decision support tool in patients with atrial fibrillation being considered for anti?coagulation treatment. Design Qualitative process evaluation carried out alongside the trial: non?participant observation and semistructured interviews. Participants 30 participants aged >60?years taking part in the trial of a computerised decision support tool. Results Qualitative evidence provided the rationale to undertake a decision to discontinue one arm of the trial on the basis that the intervention in that arm, a standard gamble values elicitation exercise was causing confusion and was unlikely to produce valid data on participant values. Conclusions Qualitative methods used alongside a trial allow an understanding of the process and progress of a trial, and provide evidence to intervene in the trial if necessary, including evidence for the rationale to discontinue an intervention arm of the trial. PMID:17545351
Murtagh, M J; Thomson, R G; May, C R; Rapley, T; Heaven, B R; Graham, R H; Kaner, E F; Stobbart, L; Eccles, M P
In recent years, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same study has become increasingly acceptable in both applied and academic psychological research. However, a difficulty for many mixed methods researchers is how to integrate findings consistently. The value of using a coherent framework throughout the research…
Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus
This task supports research into methodologies for determining particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations. Due to the complexity of PM (composition, size distribution, and concentration), developing PM methods that perform acceptably under most weather conditions at most U.S. l...
In this study, Information Technologies teachers' views and usage cases on performance based assesment methods (PBAMs) are examined. It is aimed to find out which of the PBAMs are used frequently or not used, preference reasons of these methods and opinions about the applicability of them. Study is designed with the phenomenological design…
Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket
Library Research Methods Divinity Graduate Students Info Lit @ Mac Peggy Findlay Liaison Librarian Mills Research Help 2nd floor - ext. 26005 firstname.lastname@example.org Email email@example.com Chat Mon-Fri, 11 am-3 pm MSN firstname.lastname@example.org AOL and Yahoo Messenger Maclibraries September 2007 Library
Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.