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1

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods  

E-print Network

Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Methods Methods Debora A. Paterniti, Ph.D. Debora A: Research Design Part I: Research Design #12;purpose of qualitative methods § to provide an openended. Paterniti, Ph.D. Center for Health Services Research in Center for Health Services Research in Primary

Leistikow, Bruce N.

2

Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

2005-01-01

3

Qualitative methods in environmental health research.  

PubMed Central

Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

Brown, Phil

2003-01-01

4

Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these

Janice L. Hanson; Dorene F. Balmer; Angelo P. Giardino

2011-01-01

5

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

6

Qualitative methods in research on teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research studies the meaning of actions that occur, both in face-to-face interactions and in the wider society surrounding the immediate scene of action. To conduct interpretive research on teaching, intense and long-term participant observation in an educational setting is required, followed by deliberate and long-term reflection on what was observed. Questions regarding the observer's point of view, previously learned formal theories, cultural conditioning, and personal values must be considered. Attitudes toward teaching and learning as well as measures of effectiveness are also worth examining. This paper argues that such detailed scrutiny of everyday teaching routines is a route to improving educational practice, as performed by university researchers as well as practicing teachers.

Erickson, Frederick

2006-05-19

7

Public Health 439 (section 20) Qualitative Research Methods  

E-print Network

Public Health 439 (section 20) Qualitative Research Methods Spring 2012 1 PUB HLTH 439 (section 20) Qualitative Research Methods Spring 2011 Day/Time: Tuesdays, 6:00 ­ 9:00 PM Classroom Location: McGaw 2 research deals with words, spoken and written. This course will focus on qualitative research methods

Chisholm, Rex L.

8

Pluralisms in Qualitative Research: From Multiple Methods to Integrated Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pluralism offers promising ways forward for qualitative research, invoking the use of multiple methods to investigate complex social questions. Drawing on two different research projects, we reflexively demonstrate, discuss, and illustrate our processes of working pluralistically. In various ways, we argue that multiple methods function smoothly if they are closely aligned with the broad assumptions underpinning the research, resulting in

Kerry Chamberlain; Trudie Cain; Joanna Sheridan; Ann Dupuis

2011-01-01

9

“Insider accounts”: a qualitative research method for small firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to present a detailed description of the qualitative research method adopted by the author in his doctoral research into the investment decision-making process in small manufacturing enterprises; and to inform small firm researchers generally, particularly those who may be considering the use of a qualitative research methodology for the first time in

Ignatius Ekanem

2007-01-01

10

Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

Thomas, R. Murray

11

The politics of historical discourse analysis: a qualitative research method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical discourse analysis must not be judged by the

Ingólfur Ásgeir Jóhannesson

2010-01-01

12

Qualitative Research in CKD: An Overview of Methods and Applications.  

PubMed

There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. PMID:24768353

Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

2014-09-01

13

An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2008-01-01

14

The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based…

Leko, Melinda M.

2014-01-01

15

Teaching Qualitative Research Methods through Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitative research methods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles the…

Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.

2009-01-01

16

Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

17

[Quantitative and qualitative research methods, can they coexist yet?].  

PubMed

Qualitative design is gaining ground in Nursing research. In spite of a relative progress however, the evidence based practice movement continues to dominate and to underline the exclusive value of quantitative design (particularly that of randomized clinical trials) for clinical decision making. In the actual context convenient to those in power making utilitarian decisions on one hand, and facing nursing criticism of the establishment in favor of qualitative research on the other hand, it is difficult to chose a practical and ethical path that values the nursing role within the health care system, keeping us committed to quality care and maintaining researcher's integrity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have advantages and disadvantages, and clearly, none of them can, by itself, capture, describe and explain reality adequately. Therefore, a balance between the two methods is needed. Researchers bare responsibility to society and science, and they should opt for the appropriate design susceptible to answering the research question, not promote the design favored by the research funding distributors. PMID:21800639

Hunt, Elena; Lavoie, Anne-Marise

2011-06-01

18

Confirmation and qualitative evidence-instances: justifying the use of qualitative research methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a preliminary attempt in outlining the directions for a new approach in confirming qualitative research findings. The basic argument is that traditional Confirmation Theory may be applied to establish a firmer epistemological foundation for the acceptance of hypotheses within qualitative-ethnographic research. While all aspects of Confirmation Theory are not applicable to the qualitative case, because the probability

Steven I. Miller

1990-01-01

19

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

20

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

21

Journalistic Observation as a Qualitative Research Method for Sociology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison is made between the tools of observation and research used by journalists to study society and the media, and the qualitative and clinical research tools used in the social and psychological sciences. The first part of the paper, a journalistic approach to sociology, traces the notion of the sociologist as a super-reporter using…

Burd, Gene

22

The Status of Instruction in Qualitative Communication Research Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses whether and how qualitative methods are being taught in communication curricula. Finds general agreement about the units, specific topics, and activities that should be covered. Suggests that instruction at the graduate level is healthy, but it receives less attention at the undergraduate level than either quantitative methods or…

Frey, Lawrence R.; Anderson, Shawny; Friedman, Paul G.

1998-01-01

23

Shifting Priorities: Reflections on Teaching Qualitative Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe pedagogical approaches to qualitative methodology by an instructor of educational psychology at a large research university. The essay begins with an overview of how my graduate training influenced my orientation to empirical study. Next, I will focus on the obstacles encountered when instructing graduate…

Booker, Keonya C.

2009-01-01

24

Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIt has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical

Ulrika Östlund; Lisa Kidd; Yvonne Wengström; Neneh Rowa-Dewar

2011-01-01

25

Mgt 661: Seminar in Qualitative Research Methods New Mexico State University Spring 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

In basic terms, Qualitative Methods is a detailed description of situations, events, people, and behaviors. It includes what people say about their experiences, attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts through recordings, documents, transcripts, records, and narrative histories. Qualitative data sources include observation and participant observation, fieldwork, interviews, texts, and the researcher's diary of impressions and reactions. Qualitative methods are typically open-ended and

Michael R. Manning

26

Methodolatry and Qualitative Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing turn to qualitative research in health psychology raises a number of issues about the appropriate use and relevance of qualitative methods in this field. In this article I raise concerns about methodolatry: the privileging of methodological concerns over other considerations in qualitative health research. I argue that qualitative researchers are in danger of reifying methods in the same

Kerry Chamberlain

2000-01-01

27

Assessing alcohol consumption: developments from qualitative research methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some shortcomings of self-report questionnaires used to assess alcohol use quantity and frequency and demonstrates the advantages of qualitative interviews to more accurately capture drinking patterns among adolescents. The paper considers alcohol use among two ethnic groups of Black adolescents and discusses variations in rates of alcohol consumption. Qualitative interview data collected from African-American and Haitian adolescents

Lee Strunin

2001-01-01

28

Constituting the Field: An Essay on Harry Torrance's "Qualitative Research Methods in Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…

Dimitriadis, Greg

2011-01-01

29

HBHE 753\\/NUTR 753 Qualitative Research Methods Instructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the course, students will be expected to conduct their own qualitative study on a topic chosen by the instructor. Students will work individually to collect data through in- depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations. They will work in small groups to analyze this data, and present the results of the analysis. Students will submit their interview guides and

Suzanne Maman; Elizabeth King

30

Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. PMID:24047204

2013-01-01

31

Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research.  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research. Images p45-a PMID:7613329

Pope, C.; Mays, N.

1995-01-01

32

ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

PubMed Central

A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

2011-01-01

33

Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in research practice: purposes and advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing ‘paradigm wars’ between the methodological traditions of qualitative and quantitative research, ‘mixed methods’ represents nowadays a rapidly developing field of social science methodology. In such discussions it is often emphasized that the use of methods should be predominantly influenced by substantive research questions, and not only by methodological and epistemological considerations. As all methods have specific limitations as

Udo Kelle

2006-01-01

34

An Applied Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Academic Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…

Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.

2012-01-01

35

Integrating the Complete Research Project into a Large Qualitative Methods Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory exercises are standard practice in qualitative methods courses; less common are projects that engage students in the entire research process, from research design to write-up. Although the teaching literature provides several models of complete research projects, their feasibility, and appropriateness for large, compulsory,…

Raddon, Mary-Beth; Nault, Caleb; Scott, Alexis

2008-01-01

36

A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

Palladino, John M.

2009-01-01

37

The Use of Email Interviewing as a Qualitative Method of Inquiry in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues for the potential that email interviewing has as a qualitative method in educational research. The article draws on research that uses email as a way of generating online narratives in order to understand how academics construct their identities. In doing so, the article considers the challenges that email interviewing poses…

James, Nalita

2007-01-01

38

Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this introductory text addresses media and communication research methods. Written for beginning research students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples. Attention-grabbing dialogue begins each chapter and gives…

Berger, Arthur Asa

39

Qualitative and quantitative research methods: old wine in new bottles? On understanding and interpreting educational phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the humanities (e.g. history, philosophy, literary analysis, arts?based inquiry). Since the early twentieth

Paul Smeyers

2008-01-01

40

Qualitative Investigation of Doctoral Students' Learning Experiences in Online Research Methods Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although distance education courses have become commonplace in most colleges and universities, the introduction of online research methods courses in the preparation of doctoral students has been slow in developing. This qualitative study explores the online learning experiences of doctoral students who have taken 1 or more of their research

Lim, Jae Hoon; Dannels, Sharon A.; Watkins, Ryan

2008-01-01

41

Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

Cox, Rebecca D.

2012-01-01

42

Using Qualitative Methods to Make and Support Claims in Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitative methods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduded data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.

Johnson, Andy; Sandifer, Cody

2010-06-16

43

Using Qualitative Methods to Make and Support Claims in Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitative methods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduced data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.

Sandifer, Cody; Johnson, Andy

2006-12-06

44

Sampling in Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

2011-01-01

45

Teaching Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

Delyser, Dydia

2008-01-01

46

Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.  

PubMed

Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions. PMID:24846122

Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

2014-09-01

47

Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.  

PubMed

Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions. PMID:24845954

Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

2014-10-01

48

Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected

Suzanne Moffatt; Martin White; Joan Mackintosh; Denise Howel

2006-01-01

49

Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the nature of clinical knowledge in medicine, exposed some of the shortcomings of quantitative research methods, and briefly introduced qualitative methods as an approach for improved understanding. Here, I shall discuss how scientific quality can be maintained when qualitative research methods are applied. I present some overall standards, describe specific challenges met when the medical researcher uses qualitative

Kirsti Malterud

2001-01-01

50

Disciplining Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

2006-01-01

51

The gendering of organizational research methods : Evidence of gender patterns in qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role that gender plays in choice of research methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The publication patterns of men and women in four prominent management journals over two decades were analyzed in three North American journals – Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Organization Science – and one European journal

Donde Ashmos Plowman; Anne D. Smith

2011-01-01

52

Geo-Narrative: Extending Geographic Information Systems for Narrative Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed-Method Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research seeks to contribute to advancing qualitative methodologies at the intersection of qualitative geographic information systems (GIS), narrative analysis, 3D GIS-based time-geographic methods, and computer-aided qualitative data analysis. The approach to GIS-based narrative analysis developed in the study, called “geo-narrative,” is based on extending current GIS capabilities for the analysis and interpretation of narrative materials such as oral histories,

Mei-Po Kwan; Guoxiang Ding

2008-01-01

53

Video Elicitation Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions  

PubMed Central

We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003

Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.

2012-01-01

54

Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

55

Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

Lach, Denise

2014-01-01

56

Inside qualitative, cross?national research: making methods transparent in a EU housing study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade there has been a significant growth in comparative, cross?national research and recognition of its potential significance in responding to globalisation pressures. A range of methodological approaches have been documented. However, whilst a growing literature exists on undertaking comparative research generally, less has been published on the experiences of undertaking qualitative research in a cross?national context, particularly

Deborah Quilgars; Marja Elsinga; Anwen Jones; Janneke Toussaint; Hannu Ruonavaara; Päivi Naumanen

2009-01-01

57

Evaluation of Evaluation Studies Using Qualitative Research Methods in the Social Work Literature (1990-2003): Evidence that Constitutes a Wake-Up Call  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines the quality of evaluation studies using qualitative research methods in the social work literature in terms of a number of criteria commonly adopted in the field of qualitative research. Method: Using qualitative and evaluation as search terms, relevant qualitative evaluation studies from 1990 to 2003 indexed by…

Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tang, Vera M. Y.; Han, X. Y.

2005-01-01

58

Qualitative Research Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are aspects of the human experience that cannot be enumerated or represented by a summary score. Clinicians in the surgical\\u000a disciplines intuitively know this, yet often are not certain how to evaluate the perspectives and circumstances of their patients’\\u000a experiences. Qualitative research is systematic inquiry that focuses on exploring and understanding the experiences of individuals\\u000a and groups. Both the

Donna L. Berry; Sally L. Maliski; William J. Ellis

59

Conducting Qualitative Research in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory underlying qualitative research design and a specific formative evaluation study that includes qualitative methods are discussed. The focus is the data analyses methods and procedures employed in the evaluation study, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the inquiry. Qualitative research focuses on the idiographic and operates on…

Sears, James T.; And Others

60

Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…

Mertens, Donna M.

2004-01-01

61

Developing and piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative research methods.  

PubMed

Despite the turmoil of a worldwide economic crisis, the health sector remains largely understaffed, and the nursing shortage represents a major issue that jeopardizes graduate nursing education. Access to education remains a challenge, particularly in rural and remote areas. This article reports the process of developing an asynchronous online qualitative research course. This online course was piloted among 16 interdisciplinary students. Participants agreed that experiential learning was useful to understand the intricacies of qualitative research. Within this constructivist approach, students were immersed in real-life experiences, which focused on the development of skills applicable to qualitative research. Based on the findings, we suggest that constructivism and the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model (a four-part approach for fostering the development of complex skills) represent valuable ontological and pedagogical approaches that can be used in online courses. Triangulating these two approaches is also congruent with the student-centered philosophy that underpins nursing graduate programs. PMID:22533499

Holtslander, Lorraine F; Racine, Louise; Furniss, Shari; Burles, Meridith; Turner, Hollie

2012-06-01

62

Consensual Qualitative Research: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitative research (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in terms of the consensus

Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox; Barbara J. Thompson; Elizabeth Nutt Williams; Shirley A. Hess; Nicholas Ladany

2005-01-01

63

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

64

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2012-01-01

65

Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

Gaytan, Jorge

2007-01-01

66

Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods

Lund, Thorleif

2012-01-01

67

The use of the ethnonursing qualitative research method to study culture care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leininger developed the ethnonursing research method to study transcultural human care phenomena using her theory of culture care diversity and universality. The ethnonursing research methodology which uses an open, largely inductive process of discovery to document, describe, understand, and interpret people’s meanings and experiences will be presented. The ethnonursing researcher functions as co-participant with informants working together to discover how

Sandra J Mixer; Hiba Wehbe-Alamah; Marilyn R McFarland; Renee Burke

2009-01-01

68

Using Numbers in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

Maxwell, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

69

The cathartic reflection: Enhancing community engagement through use of qualitative research methods in post-disaster community planning.  

E-print Network

??Qualitative research methodological tools such as focus groups, key informant interviews and community surveys are traditionally used to provide context to larger quantitative research studies.… (more)

Gaffey, Abigail Marie

2013-01-01

70

A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships. Understanding how to identify and evaluate constructivist lessons is the first step in promoting and improving constructivism in teaching. Chapter 4 summarizes a theoretically-generated series of practical criteria that define constructivism: (1) Eliciting Prior Knowledge, (2) Creating Cognitive Dissonance, (3) Application of New Knowledge with Feedback, and (4) Reflection on Learning, or Metacognition. These criteria can be used by any practitioner to evaluate the level of constructivism used in a given lesson or activity.

Hartle, R. Todd

71

Qualitative Clinical Research with Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of how qualitative research methods (QRMs) can augment the literature in child and adolescent clinical psychology by contributing to theory and hypothesis building. We discuss the utility of qualitative methods in examining the nature of clinical processes and obtaining deeper understandings about quantitative…

Nelson, Mary Lee; Quintana, Stephen M.

2005-01-01

72

Learning Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

Gerhart, Lael

2009-01-01

73

The Town Hall Focus Group: A New Format for Qualitative Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The town hall focus group method is described in this paper. We start by outlining the circumstances that brought about this unusual research strategy. Then, we describe the tactical decisions we made that allowed this particular effort to be a success. We conclude with a series of concrete suggestions for conducting focus groups with large groups…

Zuckerman-Parker, Michelle; Shank, Gary

2008-01-01

74

Recursive Frame Analysis: Reflections on the Development of a Qualitative Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origin of recursive frame analysis (RFA) is revisited and discussed as a postmodern alternative to modernist therapeutic models and research methods that foster hegemony of a preferred therapeutic metaphor, narrative, or strategy. It encourages improvisational performance while enabling a means of scoring the change and movement of the…

Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

2012-01-01

75

Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method. Discussion Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both "internal", grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible "internal" and "external" research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress. Summary This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the "formal case study", allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity for the practitioner-researcher to contribute to the evidence-base in homeopathy in a systematic fashion. The FCS can also be used to inform the design of clinical trials through holistic study of the "active ingredients" of the therapeutic process and its clinical outcomes. PMID:15018637

Thompson, Trevor DB

2004-01-01

76

Qualitative Aspects of Historical Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the differences in methodology, content, and conclusions among various approaches to music education historical research. Argues that the preeminent role of interpretation in historical research mandates a broad assortment of methodologies including qualitative research. Includes excerpts from four different histories describing a seminal…

Mark, Michael

1996-01-01

77

Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching computer corpora for language learning. Proceedings of KAMALL 2011: New Directions for Blended Learning in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invi  

E-print Network

Alex Boulton. Blending research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches to researching in EFL. Daejeon: Pai Chai University, South Korea [invited conference] 1 Blending research methods Directions for Blended Learning in EFL, Korea, Republic Of (2011)" #12;Alex Boulton. Blending research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

The use of triangulation in qualitative research.  

PubMed

Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry. PMID:25158659

Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

2014-09-01

79

Qualitative Health Research with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a study about children's experience of asthma to show that qualitative research with children has inherent difficulties relating to access and ethical and developmental issues. Asserts that because of children's stage of development and the asymmetrical relationship between researcher and informants, adequate safeguards and awareness of these…

Ireland, Lorraine; Holloway, Immy

1996-01-01

80

Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research - what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618  

PubMed Central

Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

2006-01-01

81

Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

Lee, Cheu-Jey George

2012-01-01

82

Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.  

PubMed

Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no references to qualitative; methodological terms such as thematic analysis or constant comparative methods were used inconsistently; qualitative was a catch-all panacea rather than a methodology with well-argued terms or contextual definition. PMID:21295895

Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

2011-04-01

83

A Dialogue on Space and Method in Qualitative Research on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors critically examine the use of space in education research and illustrate how spatial analyses of education reframe persistent educational problems in productive, actionable ways. The authors juxtapose critical spatial analyses with traditional temporal analyses. The authors approach the knowledge-construction process…

Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Kuntz, Aaron M.

2011-01-01

84

Qualitative Methods in Empirical Studies of Software Engineering  

E-print Network

of research. Along with new research questions, new research methods are needed to study nontechnical aspects of software engineering. In many other disciplines, qualitative research methods have been developed]. Qualitative research methods were designed, mostly by educational researchers and other social scientists [19

85

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01

86

Qualitative Research and Its Place in Psychological Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative-qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is…

Madill, Anna; Gough, Brendan

2008-01-01

87

Misconceptions and the Qualitative Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitative research methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students.

Ridgeway, Dori

2006-06-23

88

Qualitative Methods for Studying Distributed Software Development: Issues and Challenges  

E-print Network

the begin- ning stages of my doctoral studies via a formal course on qualitative research methods as well. Subsequently, I have applied the knowl- edge and insights by incorporating qualitative methods in my researchQualitative Methods for Studying Distributed Software Development: Issues and Challenges Sameer

Patil, Sameer

89

Uncovering Spiritual Resiliency Through Feminist Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted in Germany and America explored how spirituality might facilitate resiliency in old women. Believing in the importance of matching research methods with research goals, we used a feminist, qualitative, denominationally specific approach. We proposed that, through such a design, it would be possible to (a) allow the unique experiences of old women to be expressed; (b) identify

Rosemary Blieszner; Janet L. Ramsey

2003-01-01

90

Qualitative research in medicine and health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Qualitative research is becoming more prominent in medicine. It is still not clear how it can address either clinical or biopsychosocial\\u000a research questions. Methodologic standards and guidelines for qualitative research in medicine and health care remain too\\u000a sketchy to help one evaluate a qualitative study critically. Alternatives for addressing complex real-life questions quantitatively\\u000a exist. Until better guidelines for qualitative research

Poy M. Poses; Alice M. Isen

1998-01-01

91

Qualitative Research: An Essential Part of Statistical Cognition Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…

Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff

2010-01-01

92

Standards for Qualitative (and Quantitative) Research: A Prolegomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of qualitative methods in educational research has led to considerable controversy about standards for the design and conduct of research. This controversy has been playing itself out over the last several decades largely in terms of the quantitative-qualitative debate. In this paper we argue that framing the issue of standards in terms of quantitative-qualitative debate is misguided. We

Kenneth Howe; Margaret Eisenhart

1990-01-01

93

Mapping the possibilities of qualitative research in music education: a primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using qualitative research methods, and show possible ways that qualitative research methods might be

Kathryn Roulston

2006-01-01

94

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial. PMID:24913438

2014-01-01

95

Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative Inquiry: Meaning…

Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.

96

Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

Hunt, Brandon

2011-01-01

97

The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

Greenberg, Gary

2011-01-01

98

Enhance Your Team-Based Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Qualitative research projects often involve the collaborative efforts of a research team. Challenges inherent in teamwork include changes in membership and differences in analytical style, philosophy, training, experience, and skill. This article discusses teamwork issues and tools and techniques used to improve team-based qualitative research. METHODS We drew on our experiences in working on numerous projects of varying, size, duration, and purpose. Through trials of different tools and techniques, expert consultation, and review of the literature, we learned to improve how we build teams, manage information, and disseminate results. RESULTS Attention given to team members and team processes is as important as choosing appropriate analytical tools and techniques. Attentive team leadership, commitment to early and regular team meetings, and discussion of roles, responsibilities, and expectations all help build more effective teams and establish clear norms. As data are collected and analyzed, it is important to anticipate potential problems from differing skills and styles, and how information and files are managed. Discuss analytical preferences and biases and set clear guidelines and practices for how data will be analyzed and handled. As emerging ideas and findings disperse across team members, common tools (such as summary forms and data grids), coding conventions, intermediate goals or products, and regular documentation help capture essential ideas and insights. CONCLUSIONS In a team setting, little should be left to chance. This article identifies ways to improve team-based qualitative research with more a considered and systematic approach. Qualitative researchers will benefit from further examination and discussion of effective, field-tested, team-based strategies. PMID:16046570

Fernald, Douglas H.; Duclos, Christine W.

2005-01-01

99

Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

MacDonald, Cathy

2012-01-01

100

Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

2011-01-01

101

Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

2010-01-01

102

Balancing acts in qualitative accounting research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the motivation for this special issue and its contributions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a conceptual editorial piece which discusses current methodological tendencies in qualitative accounting research. Findings – The paper argues that qualitative research involves some balancing acts between, on the one hand, pragmatic and aesthetic aspects and,

Sven Modell; Christopher Humphrey

2008-01-01

103

The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

2007-01-01

104

Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

105

Aesthetic Forms of Data Representation in Qualitative Family Therapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we provide a rationale for using alternative, aesthetic methods of qualitative representation (e.g., creative writing, art, music, performance, poetry) in qualitative family therapy research. We also provide illustrative examples of methods that bring findings to life, and involve the audience in reflecting on their meaning. One…

Piercy, Fred P.; Benson, Kristen

2005-01-01

106

Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums.  

PubMed

With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback. PMID:22918135

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2012-11-01

107

Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

2007-01-01

108

Teaching Qualitative Research: Lessons from Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research has become increasingly perceived as well suited to the advancement of counseling psychology, yet opportunities for formal training in qualitative inquiry remain inconsistently available within and across graduate programs. For the potential contribution of this approach to counseling psychology to be realized, graduate…

Poulin, Karen L.

2007-01-01

109

Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

2008-01-01

110

Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

Dooley, Kim E.

2007-01-01

111

Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

2012-01-01

112

Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

Agee, Jane

2009-01-01

113

Teaching against the Text: The Case of Qualitative Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although all of us must teach against the text at times, I find myself doing this most often when teaching about qualitative methods in the context of a general introductory methods course. Myths about the nature and practice of qualitative research are both embedded in the folklore of mainstream sociology and supported by the textbooks that we…

Hood, Jane C.

2006-01-01

114

Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

2012-01-01

115

Qualitative versus Quantitative Methods: Understanding Why Qualitative Methods are Superior for Criminology and Criminal Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of knowledge is important for criminology and criminal justice. Two predominant types of methods are available for criminologists' to use--quantitative and qualitative methods. The value, appropriateness and necessity of using qualitative methods is discussed. Because of the unique contributions - depth of understandings being primary -- that qualitative methods can provide it is argued that such approaches should

Richard Tewksbury

116

The use of quotes in qualitative research.  

PubMed

Quoted words and phrases from research participants are a common feature of qualitative research reports. Quoting is a process that requires the achievement of the proper balance between the obligations of scientific reporting and the taking of artistic license. Quotes are used to support researcher claims, illustrate ideas, illuminate experience, evoke emotion, and provoke response. Quoting involves researchers in acts of choosing that lie in the domains of aesthetics and ethics. PMID:7972926

Sandelowski, M

1994-12-01

117

Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

2011-01-01

118

The application of qualitative research findings to oncology nursing practice.  

PubMed

The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings. PMID:25355024

Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy

2014-11-01

119

[Changes in the perceptions of qualitative research and investigation].  

PubMed

Qualitative research and investigation has proven to be fundamental in sanitary practice and brings to bear a body of knowledge which can not be provided by other methods; although classically it has been considered a less scientific method of research, this perception which has changed in recent years. PMID:16459875

Calderon, Carlos

2005-12-01

120

Qualitative research and the profound grasp of the obvious.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the value of promoting coexistent and complementary relationships between qualitative and quantitative research methods as illustrated by presentations made by four respected health services researchers who described their experiences in multi-method projects. DATA SOURCES: Presentations and publications related to the four research projects, which described key substantive and methodological areas that had been addressed with qualitative techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sponsor interest in timely, insightful, and reality-anchored evidence has provided a strong base of support for the incorporation of qualitative methods into major contemporary policy research studies. In addition, many issues may be suitable for study only with qualitative methods because of their complexity, their emergent nature, or because of the need to revisit and reexamine previously untested assumptions. CONCLUSION: Experiences from the four projects, as well as from other recent health services studies with major qualitative components, support the assertion that the interests of sponsors in the policy realm and pressure from them suppress some of the traditional tensions and antagonisms between qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:10591276

Hurley, R E

1999-01-01

121

Leadership for scholarly excellence: A qualitative examination of department chair facilitation methods to promote research productivity in pre-tenure biological sciences faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leading a large, highly productive department that must compete on the global stage requires an increasingly broad skill-set. This study investigates whether there are methods that life science department chairs can employ to enhance the research productivity of their pre-tenure faculty and examines if leadership at the department chair level matters. Using a qualitative approach to examine six highly successful life science departments and their leaders as well as focus group interviews with nine pre-tenure faculty members, this study brings new discovery to the field of department chair leadership. This study validates the importance of department chair leadership while revealing the special skill-set that is important, the positive effects of mentoring on pre-tenure faculty, and that motivation may be linked to the culture of an organization. The results of this research are important for higher education institutions looking to build department of scholarly excellence, especially in the life sciences.

Pourciau, Todd Anthony

122

Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

2011-01-01

123

Research Methods in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…

Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

2011-01-01

124

Triangulation of communication skills in qualitative research instruments.  

PubMed

Triangulation is a credible and useful method of conducting research which can result in an increase in both quality and quantity of data gathered. The five documented types of triangulation (data, investigator, theoretical, methodological, unit of analysis) do not completely answer all the needs of nurse researchers, particularly in the field of qualitative research. Using more than one method of data collection from within the same research tradition (within-method triangulation) is an accepted and effective technique. Extending the concept of triangulation to include the development of research tools leads to the proposal that the conscious use of two or three types of communication within each qualitative research instrument would improve its effectiveness over a tool which used only one type. This application of 'triangulation of communication skills' is considered within each of the major qualitative research tools, and the benefits outlined. The implications for nursing research and nurse researchers of consciously using non-verbal cues to supplement verbal information are described. It is suggested that using triangulation of communication skills in this way may improve the validity of data obtained and, if clearly documented, increase the credibility of the findings. In particular, when conducting qualitative interviews, the expert use of triangulation of communication skills will enhance the quality and quantity of data gathered. To this end, novice researchers need education and practice in using communication skills to best effect, in order to ensure the validity and completeness of their findings. PMID:8894885

Begley, C M

1996-10-01

125

Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic \\

Trevor DB Thompson; Cotham Hill

2004-01-01

126

How Qualitative Methods Contribute to Understanding Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence  

PubMed Central

Summary Strict adherence to medication regimens is generally required to obtain optimal response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, we have made limited progress in developing strategies to decrease the prevalence of nonadherence. As we work to understand adherence in developed countries, the introduction of ART in resource-poor settings raises novel challenges. Qualitative research is a scientific approach that uses methods such as observation, interviews, and verbal interactions to gather rich in-depth information about how something is experienced. It seeks to understand the beliefs, values, and processes underlying behavioral patterns. Qualitative methods provide powerful tools for understanding adherence. Culture-specific influences, medication beliefs, access, stigma, reasons for nonadherence, patterns of medication taking, and intervention fidelity and measurement development are areas ripe for qualitative inquiry. A disregard for the social and cultural context of adherence or the imposition of adherence models inconsistent with local values and practices is likely to produce irrelevant or ineffective interventions. Qualitative methods remain underused in adherence research. We review appropriate qualitative methods for and provide an overview of the qualitative research on ART nonadherence. We discuss the rationales for using qualitative methods, present 2 case examples illustrating their use, and discuss possible institutional barriers to their acceptance. PMID:17133205

Sankar, Andrea; Golin, Carol; Simoni, Jane M.; Luborsky, Mark; Pearson, Cynthia

2014-01-01

127

Standards for Qualitative (And Quantitative) Research: A Prolegomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of qualitative methods in educational research has !ed to considerable controversy about standards for the design and conduct of research. Thzs controversy has been playing itself out over the last several decades largely in terms of the quantitative- qualitatzve debate. In this paper we argue that framzng the issue of standards m terms of quantztative-quahtatzve debate zs mzsguided.

Kenneth Howe; Margaret Eisenhart

1990-01-01

128

[Reflexivity: a critical issue in qualitative research].  

PubMed

Reflexivity is an English term that Spanish speaking people have to assign a technical meaning. Reflexivity expresses the conscience of researchers conscience and refers to their connection with the study's situation. It is a process by which researchers step back to critically exam the effect they have on the study and the impact of their interactions with participants. The reflexive process is embedded in all research levels and is present in all the research phases, from the research question to fieldwork, from data analysis to writing the final report. Nevertheless, the question is not so much to engage in reflective activities but to be a reflexive researcher. Reflexivity is a human ability that is present during social interactions. For this reason it is present in qualitative research. A self inquirer can be addressed as it is constructed by the relationships and interactions that are established with study participants. Reflexivity has an educational character that continues after the study is completed. PMID:21531602

de la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

2011-01-01

129

A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin

2013-07-01

130

[Reflexivity as the ethos of qualitative research].  

PubMed

This paper seeks to promote reflection on ethics in anthropological and qualitative research and emphasize the comprehensive, relational and reflective character of this process, as well as the advantages and problems that arise from different logic and often conflicting interests between researchers and their interlocutors. The text is divided into four parts and addresses the ethical: (a) significance of these approaches; (b) behavior of the researcher in the field; (c) analysis of the empirical material; and (d) considerations in the preparation of results of anthropological and qualitative studies, using some classic examples from the international literature. The paper concludes by reflecting on the distinction between the requirements of the Ethics Committee and the Ethics of research itself. It must be clear that the comprehensive sense of ethics which includes the responsibility of the researcher cannot be condensed in the instruments required for the judgment of projects because the following elements are involved in the development of research, namely the social significance of the work, the institutional relations with fund providers, how to treat staff and research students in academic work and commitments with the scientific community. PMID:24820593

Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

2014-04-01

131

Seeing the world of physical culture: the potential of visual methods for qualitative research in sport and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readers should also refer to the journal’s website at http:\\/\\/www.informaworld.com\\/rqrs and check volume 2, issue 2 to view the visual material in colour.Adopting visual methods can enhance our understanding of the social world. By encompassing a multitude of forms including photographs, videos, maps, diagrams, symbols and so forth, images can provide specific information about our existence. They can also act

Cassandra Phoenix

2010-01-01

132

Why we need qualitative research in suicidology.  

PubMed

Using the differentiation between explanations and understanding from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on explanations is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large extent taken the suicidological field into a dead-end of repetitious research. It is argued that an increased focus on understanding and thus extended use of qualitative methodology is essential in bringing the suicidological field forward. PMID:20170263

Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2010-02-01

133

Multiple social contexts in qualitative bereavement research  

PubMed Central

Little research focuses on the ways that bereaved family members react to and make meaning of their experience of the death of an elderly father and husband. In a qualitative, ethnographic study of 34 bereaved families we examined how family members respond to two inter-related social contexts: 1. Social-cultural values and attitudes such as attitudes toward grieving for old persons, and 2. The inter-personal dyadic relationship between interviewer and interviewee. An underlying theme of uncertainty pervades the study participants’ views of what is normal and expected in their own process of bereavement. Implications for future bereavement research are suggested. PMID:22939542

Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney

2012-01-01

134

Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

Farber, Nancy K.

2006-01-01

135

Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.  

PubMed

The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst common issues were identified through the two research approaches, key differences also emerged. The classical, more quantitative approach provided objective measurement of problem frequency, which was compared with owners' perceptions of importance. The qualitative participatory approach provided greater opportunity for researchers to gain detailed understanding of local issues and appreciate how owners defined and prioritised problems affecting them and their animals. Both approaches provided valuable and complementary information that can be used to inform interventions aimed at providing sustainable improvements in the health and wellbeing of working animals and their owners. It is recommended that both quantitative and qualitative approaches are employed as part of detailed needs assessment work prior to defining and prioritising the charity's future interventions. PMID:23419786

Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

2013-03-01

136

Evolving guidelines for publication of qualitative research studies in psychology and related fields.  

PubMed

We present a set of evolving guidelines for reviewing qualitative research, to serve four functions: to contribute to the process of legitimizing qualitative research; to ensure more appropriate and valid scientific reviews of qualitative manuscripts, theses, and dissertations; to encourage better quality control in qualitative research through better self- and other-monitoring; and to encourage further developments in approach and method. Building on a review of existing principles of good practice in qualitative research, we used an iterative process of revision and feedback from colleagues who engage in qualitative research, resulting in a set of seven guidelines common to both qualitative and quantitative research and seven guidelines especially pertinent to qualitative investigations in psychology and related social sciences. The Evolving Guidelines are subject to continuing revision and should not be used in a rigid manner, in order to avoid stifling creativity in this rapidly evolving, rich research tradition. PMID:10532145

Elliott, R; Fischer, C T; Rennie, D L

1999-09-01

137

Mapping the Possibilities of Qualitative Research in Music Education: A Primer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using…

Roulston, Kathryn

2006-01-01

138

How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

Drisko, James W.

2008-01-01

139

Undertaking Qualitative Research amongst Homeless Populations in the UK - Contrasting Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is in three parts. The first part briefly discusses the impact of qualitative methods on homelessness research in the UK. The second describes a particular ten-year research programme into the family background of homeless young people and discusses the relationship between qualitative research and quantitative research in this programme. The third part describes an alternative approach to researching

Joan Smith; Megan Ravenhill

140

Observations on positivism and pseudoscience in qualitative nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper I will examine the boundaries between positivism, interpretivism and pseudoscience, arguing that some qualitative researchers may risk the credibility of nursing research by utilizing concepts from the margins of science. There are two major threats to the perceived rigour and credibility of qualitative research in its many forms. First is a trend in some work towards a mystical view of both the methods and the content of the qualitative enterprise. This can be detected, I will argue, in the work of Rosemary Parse in particular. The second potentially damaging trend is almost its epistemological opposite, towards excessive reliance on precise procedures, strict definitions and verification exemplified by Juliet Corbin and others. I will suggest that this is nothing to fear, but something to be clear about. This is not social constructionism or interpretivism but a 'qualitative' version of positivism. The paper concludes that students and researchers should be cautious in the uncritical acceptance of theories and 'research' which approach the boundaries of pseudoscience on the one hand, and 'hard' science on the other. PMID:10403982

Johnson, M

1999-07-01

141

Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

Lisa Given

2006-01-01

142

Working "Our" Hyphens: Exploring Identity Relations in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the work of Michelle Fine and others, researchers are encouraged to examine the processes of qualitative research in a manner that attends to the lived experiences of those who participate in a given research project. The authors explore identity relations in qualitative research, specifically asking how their research projects are…

Wagle, Tina; Cantaffa, David T.

2008-01-01

143

Interviewing the Investigator: Strategies for Addressing Instrumentation and Researcher Bias Concerns in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instrumentation rigor and bias management are major challenges for qualitative researchers employing interviewing as a data generation method in their studies. A usual procedure for testing the quality of an interview protocol and for identifying potential researcher biases is the pilot study in which investigators try out their proposed methods

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

144

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation  

PubMed Central

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-01-01

145

An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

2012-01-01

146

Aspects of Qualitative Research in Suicidology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article is based on twelve years experience with psychodynamically-oriented psychotherapy for suicidal patients at the Center for Therapy and Studies of Suicidal Behaviour (TZS) at the University Hospital of Eppendorf in Hamburg. Our work in psychotherapy, as well as the accompanying scientific research, is guided by an explicit psychodynamic approach to which, however, an objective quantitative method is

Benigna Gerisch

2002-01-01

147

Postmodernism comes to program evaluation II: A review of Denzin and Lincoln's Handbook of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denzin and Lincoln's Handbook of Qualitative Research represents a major publishing event. It comprehensively gathers together and organizes rapidly growing developments in the philosophy, theory and method of conducting qualitative research. While this sounds innocent enough, the power and foundational core behind these developments is explosive: it is the postmodernist attack on the traditional, quantitative methods of positivist social science

Daniel B. Fishman

1995-01-01

148

Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

149

Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other authors examining this issue. The analysis demonstrated that the criteria produced by this study may provide useful guidelines for evaluating cross-language research and for novice cross-language researchers designing their first studies. Finally, the study also indicates that researchers attempting cross-language studies need to address the methodological issues surrounding language barriers between researchers and participants more systematically. PMID:18789799

Squires, Allison

2009-01-01

150

Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative

Donmoyer, Robert

2012-01-01

151

The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

Maxwell, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

152

Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

Richards, Keith

2009-01-01

153

Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.

Niaz, Mansoor

154

Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

2011-01-01

155

Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

Donmoyer, Robert

2012-01-01

156

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

157

Virtual Instruction: A Qualitative Research Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…

Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.

2010-01-01

158

The norm and the text: Denzin and Lincoln's handbooks of qualitative method.  

PubMed

Qualitative methods have lately enjoyed enhanced legitimacy and are increasingly used in academic and applied social research. Yet the field is marked by controversy about virtually every key tenet of qualitative inquiry, from matters of epistemology to purely practical matters of relations with research subjects. Not only is the practice of qualitative research hotly contested, consensus is lacking about the purpose of qualitative research and whether it has a distinctive role to play relative to other approaches to the study of social phenomena. Against this context, the handbooks of qualitative method edited by Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln represent a significant attempt to capture the breadth of contemporary approaches to qualitative method. The article examines key contributions from the handbooks, drawing on these to develop a view of qualitative method from a pragmatic, realist perspective. Among the issues considered are the significance of relativism, subjectivity, post-modernism and feminist method, the politicization of the purposes of qualitative research, the debate over criteria of validity, and the move to treat qualitative research as an entertainment rather than a scientific practice. PMID:15259199

Fielding, N G

1999-09-01

159

How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

2012-01-01

160

Visual Evidence in Qualitative Research: The Role of Videorecording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in their work and discuss the factors

Sorrel Penn-Edwards

161

Speed Bumps: A Student-Friendly Guide to Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help undergraduate and graduate students begin a discussion about the technicalities, politics, and ethics surrounding qualitative research, focusing on research in the interest of social justice. It offers a view of how two researchers have conceptualized their own research process and renders problematic many of the…

Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle

162

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

PubMed

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews. PMID:23774032

Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

2014-02-01

163

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing "Mountains of Words" for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

164

Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative research procedures in North America. The choice points and alternatives in phenomenological research in psychology are delineated.

Frederick J. Wertz

2005-01-01

165

The mix of qualitative and quantitative research in major marketing journals, 1993-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to determine the mix of qualitative and quantitative research published in major marketing journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study involved a content analysis of 1,195 articles published between 1993 and 2002 in three prominent marketing journals. Findings – It was found that 24.80 per cent of articles employed qualitative methods in some form,

Dallas Hanson; Martin Grimmer

2007-01-01

166

Rethinking Texts: Narrative and the Construction of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitative research texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…

Holley, Karri A.; Colyar, Julia

2009-01-01

167

Why We Need Qualitative Research in Suicidology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…

Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2010-01-01

168

Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within

Lorna Storr

2004-01-01

169

Qualitative Methods in Family Evaluation: Creative Assessment Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role that experiential therapy methods can play in qualitative family assessment. It is believed that these methods can be quite helpful in engaging families in a collaborative evaluation process. The advantages of qualitative assessment are presented as a complement to more quantitative family evaluation measures. (BF)

Deacon, Sharon A.; Piercy, Fred P.

2001-01-01

170

Between and within-site variation in qualitative implementation research  

PubMed Central

Background Multisite qualitative studies are challenging in part because decisions regarding within-site and between-site sampling must be made to reduce the complexity of data collection, but these decisions may have serious implications for analyses. There is not yet consensus on how to account for within-site and between-site variations in qualitative perceptions of the organizational context of interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze variation in perceptions among key informants in order to demonstrate the importance of broad sampling for identifying both within-site and between-site implementation themes. Methods Case studies of four sites were compared to identify differences in how Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers implemented a Primary Care/Mental Health Integration (PC/MHI) intervention. Qualitative analyses focused on between-profession variation in reported referral and implementation processes within and between sites. Results Key informants identified co-location, the consultation-liaison service, space, access, and referral processes as important topics. Within-site themes revealed the importance of coordination, communication, and collaboration for implementing PC/MHI. The between-site theme indicated that the preexisting structure of mental healthcare influenced how PC/MHI was implemented at each site and that collaboration among both leaders and providers was critical to overcoming structural barriers. Conclusions Within- and between-site variation in perceptions among key informants within different professions revealed barriers and facilitators to the implementation not available from a single source. Examples provide insight into implementation barriers for PC/MHI. Multisite implementation studies may benefit from intentionally eliciting and analyzing variation within and between sites. Suggestions for implementation research design are presented. PMID:23286552

2013-01-01

171

Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research (mixed research is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods research. In doing this, we briefly review the paradigm “wars”

R. Burke Johnson; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

2004-01-01

172

Ethnography in qualitative educational research: AMEE Guide No. 80.  

PubMed

Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that gathers observations, interviews and documentary data to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The use of ethnographic research in medical education has produced a number of insightful accounts into its role, functions and difficulties in the preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to ethnography - its history, its differing forms, its role in medical education and its practical application. Specifically, the Guide initially outlines the main characteristics of ethnography: describing its origins, outlining its varying forms and discussing its use of theory. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. In addition, the Guide goes on to offer a range of ideas, methods, tools and techniques needed to undertake an ethnographic study. In doing so it discusses its conceptual, methodological, ethical and practice challenges (e.g. demands of recording the complexity of social action, the unpredictability of data collection activities). Finally, the Guide provides a series of final thoughts and ideas for future engagement with ethnography in medical education. This Guide is aimed for those interested in understanding ethnography to develop their evaluative skills when reading such work. It is also aimed at those interested in considering the use of ethnographic methods in their own research work. PMID:23808715

Reeves, Scott; Peller, Jennifer; Goldman, Joanne; Kitto, Simon

2013-08-01

173

Evaluating the Level of Evidence of Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for evaluating the levels of evidence based on quantitative research are well established. However, the same cannot be said for the evaluation of qualitative research. This article discusses a process members of an evidence-based clinical practice guideline development team with the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses used to create a scoring system to determine the strength

Sandra Cesario; Karen Morin; Anne Santa-Donato

174

Rethinking consumer disadvantage: the importance of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight into the behaviour and attitudes of an under-researched group of consumers, and identifies some useful pointers for future research on consumer disadvantage. More specifically, the paper explores the relationships between the potential causes of consumer disadvantage, forms of consumer disadvantage and accessibility. The exploratory study consisted of a combination of quantitative (diary survey) and qualitative (semi-structured

Lucy Woodliffe

2004-01-01

175

The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

Vitus, Kathrine

2008-01-01

176

Building Confidence in Qualitative Research: Engaging the Demands of Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to…

Torrance, Harry

2008-01-01

177

Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

178

Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods

Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

2005-01-01

179

Research Paper: Emotional Aspects of Computer-based Provider Order Entry: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesComputer-based provider order entry (CPOE) systems are implemented to increase both efficiency and accuracy in health care, but these systems often cause a myriad of emotions to arise. This qualitative research investigates the emotions surrounding CPOE implementation and use.MethodsWe performed a secondary analysis of several previously collected qualitative data sets from interviews and observations of over 50 individuals. Three researchers

Dean F. Sittig; Michael Krall; JoAnn Kaalaas-Sittig; Joan S. Ash

2005-01-01

180

Qualitative Epidemiologic Methods Can Improve Local Prevention Programming among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network (OSAM) is designed to provide accurate, timely, qualitatively-oriented epidemiologic descriptions of substance abuse trends and emerging problems in the state's major urban and rural areas. Use of qualitative methods in identifying and assessing substance abuse practices in local communities is one of…

Daniulaityte, Raminta; Siegal, Harvey A.; Carlson, Robert G.; Kenne, Deric R.; Starr, Sanford; DeCamp, Brad

2004-01-01

181

Praxis to Practice: Putting Qualitative Methods To Work for Rural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines issues and areas of concern for the educational researcher moving from the relative safety of academic research to the more perilous arena of practice-oriented or action-oriented qualitative research. The first question is one of purity or objectivity: giving credibility to research results by imposing adequate rigor on methods

Lawrence, Barbara Kent

182

Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods

Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2004-01-01

183

Social Research Methods Knowledge Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. The Knowledge Base covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. The Knowledge Base was designed to be different from the many typical commercially-available research methods texts. It uses an informal, conversational style to engage both the newcomer and the more experienced student of research. It is a fully hyperlinked text that can be integrated easily into an existing course structure or used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher who simply wants to browse.

Trochim, William M.

2004-11-17

184

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

Lieber, Eli

2009-01-01

185

Mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research: interviews with experienced nursing faculty in Japan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. PMID:23506173

Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito

2013-05-01

186

Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research

Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

2011-01-01

187

WOMEN'S EXPERIENCES OF ABUSE: A REVIEW OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews qualitative research published within the past 15 years based on women's first person accounts of their abuse experiences. Battered women's accounts of their experiences in abusive relationships aid in understanding why they stay, how they cope, and how others can help. Women's views of the emotional consequences of battering, the process of leaving, and the impact of

Martha R. Sleutel

1998-01-01

188

International Immersion in Counselor Education: A Consensual Qualitative Research Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…

Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

2014-01-01

189

Evocative Cues and Presence: Relational Consciousness within Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces an example of how pictures were used to facilitate exploration of spiritual aspects of self, as a basis for qualitative research, with young people aged 15-18 years. The author considers how spiritually moving and stirring experiences may be related to the notion of a direct, participatory embodied attunement to the world.…

Pearmain, Rosalind

2007-01-01

190

To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

Lather, Patti

2014-01-01

191

Under Construction: How Narrative Elements Shape Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers how narrative constructs could be used to strengthen the writing process. The authors outline the narratological devices of plot, point of view, authorial distance, and character, and examine how these concepts can be used when writing with qualitative data. Narratological tools equip the researcher to selectively manage the…

Holley, Karri; Colyar, Julia

2012-01-01

192

Embodiment of the interpersonal nexus: revealing qualitative research findings on shoulder surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background The paper reports on the importance of the interpersonal nexus within qualitative research processes, from a recent research project on patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Our aim is to reveal the importance of qualitative research processes and specifically the role of the interpersonal nexus in generating quality data. Literature related to the importance of human interactions and interpersonal communication processes in health-related research remains limited. Shoulder surgery has been reported to be associated with significant postoperative pain. While shoulder surgery research has investigated various analgesic techniques to determine key efficacy and minimization of adverse side effects, little has been reported from the patient perspective. Methods Following institutional ethics approval, this project was conducted in two private hospitals in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The methods included a survey questionnaire, semistructured interviews, and researcher-reflective journaling. Researcher-reflective journaling was utilized to highlight and discuss the interpersonal nexus. Results This research specifically addresses the importance of the contributions of qualitative methods and processes to understanding patient experiences of analgesic efficacy and shoulder surgery. The results reveal the importance of the established research process and the interwoven interpersonal nexus between the researcher and the research participants. The interpersonal skills of presencing and empathetic engagement are particularly highlighted. Conclusion The authors attest the significance of establishing an interpersonal nexus in order to reveal patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Interpersonal emotional engagement is particularly highlighted in data collection, in what may be otherwise understated and overlooked qualitative findings in patient experiences of shoulder surgery. PMID:22442632

Glass, Nel; Ogle, K Robyn

2012-01-01

193

From Qualitative Work to Intervention Development in Pediatric Oncology Palliative Care Research  

PubMed Central

Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers. PMID:23632900

Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L.; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Hinds, Pamela S.

2013-01-01

194

Ten Steps for Conceptualizing and Conducting Qualitative Research Studies in a Pragmatically Curious Manner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of methodological pluralism and mixed-methods, qualitative researchers can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and the possible design and methodology choices to create studies that not only allow them to pursue their investigative curiosities, but also result in coherent and effective systems of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

195

Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative

Wheeldon, J.

2010-01-01

196

Research that Matters: Qualitative Research in the Service of Social Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & Qualitative Research Conference. It is routine for qualitative researchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…

Biklen, Douglas P.

2011-01-01

197

Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2010-01-01

198

Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

2012-01-01

199

YouTube as a Qualitative Research Asset: Reviewing User Generated Videos as Learning Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

YouTube, the video hosting service, offers students, teachers, and practitioners of qualitative researchers a unique reservoir of video clips introducing basic qualitative research concepts, sharing qualitative data from interviews and field observations, and presenting completed research studies. This web-based site also affords qualitative

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

200

Understanding Qualitative Metasynthesis: Issues and Opportunities in Early Childhood Intervention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative

Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann

2011-01-01

201

Recommendations for internet-based qualitative health research with hard-to-reach populations.  

PubMed

Researchers new to online qualitative health research frequently have questions about how to transfer knowledge of offline data collection to an online environment. In this article, we present best-practice guidelines derived from the literature and our experience to help researchers determine if an online qualitative study design is appropriate for their research project and, if so, when to begin data collection with a hard-to-reach population. Researchers should reflect on administrative, population, and data collection considerations when deciding between online and offline data collection. Decisions must be made regarding whether to conduct interviews or focus groups, to collect data using asynchronous or synchronous methods, and to use only text or to incorporate visual media. Researchers should also reflect on human subjects, recruitment, research instrumentation, additional data collection, and public relations considerations when writing protocols to guide the research team's response to various situations. Our recommendations direct researchers' reflection on these considerations. PMID:24623662

Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy A; Bockting, Walter O; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-04-01

202

Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.

2012-01-01

203

Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research\\u000a studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements\\u000a of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative\\u000a and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was

Lawrence A. PalinkasGregory; Gregory A. Aarons; Sarah Horwitz; Patricia Chamberlain; Michael Hurlburt; John Landsverk

2011-01-01

204

Getting through ethics: the fit between research ethics board assessments and qualitative research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we draw on the authors' collective experiences as qualitative researchers undergoing research ethics reviews. We highlight specific areas within our standard national guidelines that support qualitative research. Using case examples, we illustrate how diverse interpretations of these guidelines can be inconsistent and problematic for qualitative researchers. We outline recommendations for transparency, reciprocity, and streamlining of the review process. It is our hope that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more collegial evaluative process, thereby contributing to the advancement of knowledge. PMID:23324201

McCormack, Dianne; Carr, Tracy; McCloskey, Rose; Keeping-Burke, Lisa; Furlong, Karen E; Doucet, Shelley

2012-12-01

205

Using Qualitative Methods to Assess Diverse Institutional Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on describing how institutional researchers can use qualitative cultural assessments to better understand the role that their campus cultures play in shaping individual and group behaviors and experiences. A special emphasis is given to the implications of institutional diversity in the processes of designing and conducting…

Museus, Samuel D.

2007-01-01

206

Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

2013-01-01

207

A QUALITATIVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE HSI DISPLAY COMPLEXITY  

SciTech Connect

There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation.

Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

2013-04-01

208

Spirituality in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Method for a Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses an ongoing research project on contemporary forms of youth and young adult spirituality, highlighting issues in the history and definition of spirituality and in development of appropriate qualitative methods of investigation. Previous research on the topic has been bedevilled by difficulties of definition. "Spirit" and…

Singleton, Andrew; Mason, Michael; Webber, Ruth

2004-01-01

209

Experimental Ethnography: The Marriage of Qualitative and Quantitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and ethnographic research methods are often described as mutually exclusive. This article suggests how they could be combined in the method of “experimental ethnography.” Building ethnographic methods into the separate branches of randomized controlled trials could substantially increase the range of conclusions that can be produced by experimental research designs, as well as by ethnographic methods. Experimental designs offer

Lawrence W. Sherman; Heather Strang

2004-01-01

210

A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method Evaluating Compromise Solutions  

E-print Network

have devised for use in such design advice tools. 2 Conflict in collaborative design It is a wiseA Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method for Evaluating Compromise Solutions to Conflicts in Collaborative Design Dennis Bahler Dept. of Computer Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695

Bahler, Dennis R.

211

Qualitative Research as Cultural and Religious Mirror: What Do Researchers Really Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the interaction between the work and lives of five religious qualitative researchers whose research studies investigate both culture and religion. The ways their personal backgrounds, experiences, and values affect their choice of research topics and their relationships with research participants and with data, are revealed…

Court, Deborah

2008-01-01

212

Integrating Qualitative Methods in a Predominantly Quantitative Evaluation: A Case Study and Some Reflections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of qualitative methods used in a predominantly quantitative evaluation indicates a variety of roles for such a mixing of methods, including framing and revising research questions, assessing the validity of measures and adaptations to program implementation, and gauging the degree of uncertainty and generalizability of conclusions.…

Mark, Melvin M.; Feller, Irwin; Button, Scott B.

1997-01-01

213

Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

2006-01-01

214

Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

2013-01-01

215

Quantitative and Qualitative Research can Complement Each Other: Reply to Rennie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rennie's (1996) commentary on our two papers (Gershefski, Arnkoff, Glass, & Elkin, 1996; Levy, Glass, Arnkoff, Gershefski, & Elkin, 1996) discusses the strengths of qualitative research. In this reply, we present the strengths of the quantitative approach we took, including the advantages that result from testing hypotheses and from placing priority on explicit statement of method, internal validity, and generalizability.

Diane Arnkoff; Carol Glass; Irene Elkin; James Levy; John Gershefski

1996-01-01

216

Using Qualitative Research to Assess Teaching and Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the results of an assessment project whose purpose was to improve the faculty-development program for instructors who teach in technology-infused TILE (Transform, Interact, Learn, Engage) classrooms at the University of Iowa. Qualitative research methods were critical for (1) learning about how students and instructors…

Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek; Saichaie, Kem; Jesse, Maggie; Florman, Jean C.; Ingram, Beth F.

2014-01-01

217

Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499

Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

2011-01-01

218

Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.  

PubMed

In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. PMID:21402442

Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

2011-05-15

219

Challenges and promises of integrating knowledge engineering and qualitative methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to expose some of the close ties that exist between knowledge engineering (KE) and qualitative methodology (QM). Many key concepts of qualitative research, for example meaning, commonsense, understanding, and everyday life, overlap with central research concerns in artificial intelligence. These shared interests constitute a largely unexplored avenue for interdisciplinary cooperation. We compare and take some steps toward integrating two historically diverse methodologies by exploring the commonalities of KE and QM both from a substantive and a methodological/technical perspective. In the second part of this essay, we address knowledge acquisition problems and procedures. Knowledge acquisition within KE has been based primarily on cognitive psychology/science foundations, whereas knowledge acquisition within QM has a broader foundation in phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology. Our discussion and examples are interdisciplinary in nature. We do not suggest that there is a clash between the KE and QM frameworks, but rather that the lack of communication potentially may limit each framework's future development.

Lundberg, C. Gustav; Holm, Gunilla

220

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods  

E-print Network

Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods in Computer Science (Serge Demeyer -- University of Antwerp) Lab on Reengineering http://lore.ua.ac.be/ Zurich Kunsthaus Antwerp Middelheim Research Methods Introduction · Origins of Computer Science · Research Philosophy Research Methods · Feasibility study · Pilot

Nierstrasz, Oscar

221

MB 800 Research Methods in Missiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Required Reading 1. Booth, Wayne C., Colomb, Gregory G. and Williams, Joseph M. The Craft of Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, 270 pp.\\u0009ISBN: 0226065685 2. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE Publications; 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage, 2002. 246 pp. ISBN: 0761924426 3. Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews : From Paper

Michael A. Rynkiewich

2005-01-01

222

Educational Research Methods: A Web Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introduction to various types of research methods for students in education and psychology is not only informative, but it also allows students to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of both quantitative and qualitative research methods. A valuable exercise in the Web-based course for helping students identify what type of…

Schumacker, Randall E.

223

MSW PREREQUISITES: RESEARCH METHODS  

E-print Network

MSW PREREQUISITES: STATISTICS RESEARCH METHODS ALL PREREQUISITE COURSES: Are at an undergraduate-square Graph data What counts as a RESEARCH METHODS course? Derived from one of the social science disciplines

Barthelat, Francois

224

Overcoming Methods Anxiety: Qualitative First, Quantitative Next, Frequent Feedback along the Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political Science research methods courses face two problems. First is what to cover, as there are too many techniques to explore in any one course. Second is dealing with student anxiety around quantitative material. We explore a novel way to approach these issues. Our students began by writing a qualitative paper. They followed with a term…

Bernstein, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Brooke Thomas

2013-01-01

225

Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

2009-01-01

226

Re-Examining the Nature of Researcher-Participant Relationships in Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative research conversation needs to include a critical examination of a study's relational dimension. Excerpts are presented from two doctoral dissertations that discuss the nature of the researcher-participant relationships formed through the studies. The first dissertation, "Beyond the Yellow Brick Road: Educational Portraits of…

Busier, Holly-Lynn; Pigeon, Yvette

227

Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

2014-01-01

228

Revisiting the Benefits Debate: Does Qualitative Social Work Research Produce Salubrious Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work discussion about the intersection of therapy and research has been heated. There is ongoing theoretical debate about the fit of qualitative research and social work practice, as well as the proper goals and potential impact of clinical research. In this article, two qualitative researchers report empirical findings and discuss the…

McCoyd, Judith L. M.; Shdaimah, Corey S.

2007-01-01

229

Ethical and Political Issues in Qualitative Research from a Philosophical Point of View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The moral rules that come into play when researchers engage in qualitative inquiry are explored. Qualitative researchers first need to consider the aims of the research and how it is conducive to the educational good. A primary methodological consideration is to obtain the informed consent of those who participate in the research. The social…

Clark, John A.

230

"Mixed Methods" Research Examined  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the use of "mixed methods" research in education--studies that blend different research strategies. Although various methodologies have always been part of a researcher's toolkit, much of the renewed attention to that strategy is a reaction to the U.S. Department of Education's current emphasis on using randomized field…

Viadero, Debra

2005-01-01

231

A Review of the Qualitative Research on Multigrade Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of interviews and surveys provides an overview of the problems and needs of rural school teachers in multigrade classrooms. A review of research and teacher reports in the U.S. and other countries compares instructional methods in multigrade and single grade classrooms. Implications for teacher preparation, classroom organization, and…

Miller, Bruce A.

1991-01-01

232

Insecurities of Women Regarding Breast Cancer Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Only 1.2%–11% of all potential study participants participate in cancer studies. Low participation rates can result in bias or in a failure to obtain data saturation. Subject-scientific psychology assumes that reasons for acting are based on individual premises. The objective of this study was to render reproducible individual reasons of female breast cancer patients to participate or not participate in breast cancer studies using a qualitative approach. Methods Problem-based interviews were conducted with female breast cancer patients. The selection of interview partners continued until theoretical data saturation was achieved. Results As main arguments against participation emotional overload and too many medication side-effects were stated. Improvement of health-related values, long-term protection and comprehensive follow-up exams were stated as arguments for participation. Trust in the attending physician was mentioned as influencing both participation and non-participation. Conclusions A significant influential factor determining willingness to participate in studies was one's contentment with patient-physician communication. In order to guarantee an adequate patient decision-making process, keeping existing standards for patient briefings is absolutely mandatory. PMID:24312584

Habersack, Marion; Luschin, Gero

2013-01-01

233

Qualitative Research: An Introduction. Purposes, Methodology, Criteria for Judgment, and a Rationale for Mixed Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research is research that attempts not only to understand the world, but also to understand it through the eyes of the participants whose world it is. Consequently, qualitative research must occur in a natural setting. The study begins, not with hypotheses to be proved or disproved, but with a flexible plan to explore a phenomenon.…

Wilson, Vicki A.

234

A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

2012-01-01

235

Using Qualitative Research to Generate Questions and Contextualize Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the strengths of a qualitative study of the effectiveness of environmental impact statements. Notes that the study explores an ill-defined area and relates writing to the situation in which it occurs. (RS)

Winsor, Dorothy A.

1993-01-01

236

Using Culture-Centered Qualitative Formative Research to Design Broadcast Messages for HIV Prevention for African American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify “competing narratives” that support healthy behavior despite the

Jennifer R. Horner; Daniel Romer; Peter A. Vanable; Laura F. Salazar; Michael P. Carey; Ivan Juzang; Thierry Fortune; Ralph DiClemente; Naomi Farber; Bonita Stanton; Robert F. Valois

2008-01-01

237

The Cultural Politics of Qualitative Research in Education: Confirming and Contesting the Canon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a critical review of the 1992 "Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education." The article examines diverse approaches to qualitative field research, discusses ambiguous relationships between education and parent disciplines, notes how the collection represents current dialogue, and examines chapters on critical ethnology. (SM)

Anderson, Gary L.

1994-01-01

238

Using Qualitative Research to Develop Culturally Competent Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitative research. We agree that qualitative

Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Auerbach, Carl F.

2009-01-01

239

Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among Tehranian adolescents: A qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background: For effectively promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents, it is necessary to identify the determinants of intake. This qualitative research was conducted to explore the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among Tehranian adolescents in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present qualitative study is aimed at identifying the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among Tehranian adolescents in 2012. Male and female students in the middle schools of Tehran, in the age range of 11-14 years, were used as the study population, which was selected by the convenience method. Semi-structured interactional interviews were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method. Results: The availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in home, availability of unhealthy options in the environment, socioeconomic status, advertising about unhealthy options, subjective norms, reinforcement, and modeling were explored as environmental factors in this study. Also, individual factors were extracted as the second category that encompassed the subcategories including; preferences, knowledge, skill in preparing fruits and vegetables, outcome expectations, outcome expectancy, perceived susceptibility, and perceived seriousness. Conclusion: It is recommended that interventions have family-based designs as well as environmental policy-based (especially schools) ones. Meanwhile, families should be educated to adapt their children's sapour with tastes of fruits and vegetables during their childhood.

Rakhshanderou, Sakineh; Ramezankhani, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

2014-01-01

240

Mixed methods: a research design for management doctoral dissertations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine two management doctoral research projects to highlight the advantages in mixed methods as the primary research design. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper summarises the methods of data collection and analysis which were used by two doctoral students in their management research. The researchers used mixed methods approaches (quantitative and qualitative) to explore different areas

Uma D. Jogulu; Jaloni Pansiri

2011-01-01

241

Research Methods Taught and Utilized in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed underlying factors of the research- practice gap by exploring research methods taught in MSW programs, methods used in social work research, and methods preferred by MSW students. Research course syllabi were analyzed on the dimensions of qualitative versus quantitative and idiographic versus nomothetic. Empirical articles (N = 218), published in 14 social work journals were coded on

Cleora A. Roberts

1989-01-01

242

The Use and Validation of Qualitative Methods Used in Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When conducting a two-year college program review, there are several advantages to supplementing the standard quantitative research approach with qualitative measures. Qualitative research does not depend on a large number of random samples, it uses a flexible design which can be refined as the research is executed, and it generates findings in a…

Plucker, Frank E.

243

Taking the “Q” Out of Research: Teaching Research Methodology Courses Without the Divide Between Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that the debate between quantitative and qualitative is divisive and, hence, counterproductive for advancing the social and behavioral science field. We advocate that all graduate students learn to utilize and to appreciate both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. As such, students will develop into pragmatist researchers who are able to utilize

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Nancy L. Leech

2005-01-01

244

Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

245

Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights  

EPA Science Inventory

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

246

Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study  

PubMed Central

Background Translational medicine is attracting much attention worldwide and many translational research organizations (TROs) have been established. In China, translational medicine has developed rapidly, but faces many challenges. This study was aimed at exploring these challenges faced by emerging TROs in China. Method A qualitative, multiple case study approach was used to assess the challenges faced by TROs in China. Data were collected between May and August 2012. Results Eight cases were identified. Overall, four themes that characterized TROs in China emerged from analyses: 1. objectives, organizer, and funding resources, 2. participating partners and research teams, 3. management, and 4. achievements. All TROs had objectives related to translating basic discovery to clinic treatment and cultivating translational researchers. In terms of organizer and funding resources, 7 out of 8 TROs were launched only by universities and/or hospitals, and funded mostly through research grants. As for participating partners and multidisciplinary research teams, all but one of the TROs only involved biomedical research institutions who were interested in translational research, and characterized as clinical research centers; 7 out of 8 TROs involved only researchers from biomedicine and clinical disciplines and none involved disciplines related to education, ethnicity, and sociology, or engaged the community. Current management of the TROs were generally nested within the traditional research management paradigms, and failed to adapt to the tenets of translational research. Half of the TROs were at developmental stages defined as infrastructure construction and recruitment of translational researchers. Conclusions TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should be placed on increasing multidisciplinary cooperation, and innovating in education programs to cultivate of translational researchers. Efforts should be made to reform research management in TROs, and establish sustainable funding resources. PMID:24119837

2013-01-01

247

United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study in 2003–2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22911055

Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

2012-01-01

248

The science of context: modes of response for qualitative researchers in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes ‘scientific’ research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a context. These include: (1) Conducting critical inquiry into the socio?intellectual frameworks and institutional networks

Peter Demerath

2006-01-01

249

Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research  

PubMed Central

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

2013-01-01

250

Ergonomics research methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

1973-01-01

251

Visionlearning: Research Methods: Experimentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructional module on the process of experimentation as a scientific research method. The authors use a contextual approach, which includes a brief history of experimental research and a case study of Louis Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation of microorganisms. A question set is also included, along with background information for teachers. Editor's Note: Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are consciously manipulated and the outcome or effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed. This resource is designed to guide beginning students in designing experiments that meet the standards of a "fair test". It is appropriate for use in both secondary and lower-level undergraduate courses.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-19

252

The Case for Fiction as Qualitative Research: Towards a Non-Referential Ground for Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…

Mus, Stijn

2012-01-01

253

Qualitative Research with an Understudied Population: In-Depth Interviews with Women of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based qualitative research offers advantages for study of populations that are understudied and not well understood, but qualitative methodology presents major challenges. This article examines some of these challenges, illustrated by a study of pregnancy and childbearing among women of Mexican descent. Issues addressed in this article include culture and gender relevance, access to the population, representativeness, skilled interviewers, trust

Margaret Sherrard Sherraden; Rossana E. Barrera

1995-01-01

254

Body image of children and adolescents with cancer: a metasynthesis on qualitative research findings.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents with cancer are confronted with many challenges. This review considered studies that used qualitative methods to examine the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between 1960 and October 2010. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. The derived four metasyntheses included being distanced from the body, loss of self-identity, self-protective strategies and support, and getting rid of the shackles of the body. In conclusion, children and adolescents with cancer also experience various problems associated with changes in their body image. Repeated courses of treatment lead to loss of a normal, orderly life, and might even result in changes in interpersonal interactions. In response to body image change, individuals with cancer develop self-protective, coping strategies. Children and adolescents who experience life-threatening cancer come to face body image change positively, and might hold a confident attitude toward their future. PMID:22672500

Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shin-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

2012-09-01

255

Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

Caruth, Gail D.

2013-01-01

256

A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of juvenile offenders and their families. Sixteen families were recruited from juvenile probation facilities in 2

Janay B. Sander; Jill D. Sharkey; Roger Olivarri; Diane A. Tanigawa; Tory Mauseth

2010-01-01

257

Qualitative Research in Suicidology: Still a Well-Disguised Blessing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative research can offer the best possible approximation of objective, unprejudiced observations and may therefore be a cornerstone of theory formulation in suicidal behavior. However, despite an increase in publications containing quantitative research, few theories have emerged. This paper describes a few factors that contributed to that: inadequate statistical techniques, research variety, lack of validity, and lack of effect size

Erik Jan de Wilde

2002-01-01

258

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

259

Selection Mechanisms Underlying High Impact Biomedical Research - A Qualitative Analysis and Causal Model  

PubMed Central

Background Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. Methodology/Principal Findings Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. Conclusions The proposed selection mechanism provides insights that can be translated into research coaching programs as well as research policy models to optimize the introduction of high impact research at a broad scale among institutional and governmental agencies. PMID:20479867

Zelko, Hilary; Zammar, Guilherme Roberto; Bonilauri Ferreira, Ana Paula; Phadtare, Amruta; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

2010-01-01

260

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

261

Is my mum going to hear this? Methodological and ethical challenges in qualitative health research with young people.  

PubMed

Ethical issues arise in all research settings. However, qualitative research with young people raises specific dilemmas that warrant special attention. In this paper we describe an ethical dilemma that arose during a qualitative project we carried out exploring self-management of chronic illness in adolescents. A participant disclosed details of poor adherence with medication, which had significant health implications. Prior to this disclosure he had been assured of confidentiality and thus we found ourselves unsure of how to proceed. Here, we analyse the case in detail, highlighting the ethically important moments, the options for action and the implications of these. We do this with the aim of facilitating ethical mindfulness and thus, ultimately, ethical research practice. As a backdrop to this case we consider the broader ethical context. We find that qualitative research is susceptible to ethical dilemmas because: (1) it is not always possible to predict all possible questions and responses; (2) the nature of the relationship between researchers and participants is amenable to sensitive disclosures; (3) the process of qualitative research can make it difficult for participants to voice concerns or withdraw; and (4) participants' identities are generally known to researchers, complicating boundary issues. Research with young people is susceptible to ethical dilemmas because: (1) young people have limited life experience; (2) consent is often required from both young people and parents; (3) issues of competence can complicate assumptions about informed consent; and (4) the power differential between researchers and participants is significant. When combining qualitative research methods and young participants, the scope for ethical risk is thus substantial. PMID:19782456

Duncan, Rony E; Drew, Sarah E; Hodgson, Jan; Sawyer, Susan M

2009-12-01

262

The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular conceptualising more fully the role of young people’s agency and student-led ‘systems’ in constituting school environments and generating health risks. Conclusion Institutional features which may shape student health behaviours such as lack of safety, poor student-staff relationships and lack of student voice are amenable to interventions and should be the subject of future investigation. Future qualitative research should focus on health behaviours which are under-theorised in this context such as physical activity, sexual and mental health. PMID:24007211

2013-01-01

263

[Adequate application of quantitative and qualitative statistic analytic methods in acupuncture clinical trials].  

PubMed

Recently, proper use of the statistical methods in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has received increased attention. Statistical inference based on hypothesis testing is the foundation of clinical trials and evidence-based medicine. In this article, the authors described the methodological differences between literature published in Chinese and Western journals in the design and analysis of acupuncture RCTs and the application of basic statistical principles. In China, qualitative analysis method has been widely used in acupuncture and TCM clinical trials, while the between-group quantitative analysis methods on clinical symptom scores are commonly used in the West. The evidence for and against these analytical differences were discussed based on the data of RCTs assessing acupuncture for pain relief. The authors concluded that although both methods have their unique advantages, quantitative analysis should be used as the primary analysis while qualitative analysis can be a secondary criterion for analysis. The purpose of this paper is to inspire further discussion of such special issues in clinical research design and thus contribute to the increased scientific rigor of TCM research. PMID:22883399

Tan, Ming T; Liu, Jian-ping; Lao, Lixing

2012-08-01

264

Lay perspectives on hypertension and drug adherence: systematic review of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesise the findings from individual qualitative studies on patients’ understanding and experiences of hypertension and drug taking; to investigate whether views differ internationally by culture or ethnic group and whether the research could inform interventions to improve adherence. Design Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative research using the 2006 UK Economic and Social Research Council research methods programme guidance. Data sources Medline, Embase, the British Nursing Index, Social Policy and Practice, and PsycInfo from inception to October 2011. Study selection Qualitative interviews or focus groups among people with uncomplicated hypertension (studies principally in people with diabetes, established cardiovascular disease, or pregnancy related hypertension were excluded). Results 59 papers reporting on 53 qualitative studies were included in the synthesis. These studies came from 16 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Tanzania, and Thailand). A large proportion of participants thought hypertension was principally caused by stress and produced symptoms, particularly headache, dizziness, and sweating. Participants widely intentionally reduced or stopped treatment without consulting their doctor. Participants commonly perceived that their blood pressure improved when symptoms abated or when they were not stressed, and that treatment was not needed at these times. Participants disliked treatment and its side effects and feared addiction. These findings were consistent across countries and ethnic groups. Participants also reported various external factors that prevented adherence, including being unable to find time to take the drugs or to see the doctor; having insufficient money to pay for treatment; the cost of appointments and healthy food; a lack of health insurance; and forgetfulness. Conclusions Non-adherence to hypertension treatment often resulted from patients’ understanding of the causes and effects of hypertension; particularly relying on the presence of stress or symptoms to determine if blood pressure was raised. These beliefs were remarkably similar across ethnic and geographical groups; calls for culturally specific education for individual ethnic groups may therefore not be justified. To improve adherence, clinicians and educational interventions must better understand and engage with patients’ ideas about causality, experiences of symptoms, and concerns about drug side effects. PMID:22777025

2012-01-01

265

Head-mounted cameras and stimulated recall in qualitative sport research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of innovative procedures available for use in qualitative research, including observation, note-taking and verbal protocol techniques. This paper highlights the potential usefulness of stimulated recall as an innovative technique for use in qualitative research in sport and possibly exercise. Specifically, it focuses on video footage obtained from head-mounted cameras for use in stimulated recall during post-event

Susan Houge Mackenzie; John H. Kerr

2012-01-01

266

Using Hermeneutics as a Qualitative Research Approach in Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…

Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy

2005-01-01

267

Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

2013-01-01

268

Beyond division: convergences between postmodern qualitative research and family therapy.  

PubMed

Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices. PMID:20074120

De Haene, Lucia

2010-01-01

269

It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1) Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2) Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3) Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4) The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions towards their involvement in interdisciplinary research. A well thought-out rationale for interdisciplinary research, and strategies to utilize the contribution of each researcher involved were seen as facilitators towards maximizing the benefits that could be derived from interdisciplinary research. PMID:18501005

Nair, Kalpana M; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Raina, Parminder

2008-01-01

270

Quantitative and Qualitative Research across Cultures and Languages: Cultural Metrics and their Application.  

PubMed

Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted. PMID:24809790

Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole

2014-12-01

271

Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

2001-01-01

272

Cultivating the qualitative research borderlands: educational poetics and the politics of inclusivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research has extended the boundaries of legitimate knowledge by including the insights of ‘subjects’, valuing the voices of groups that have been excluded from telling their stories, seeing the complex ways researchers may be positioned in relation to other research participants, and becoming more diverse in their views of validity and reliability. Gitlin argues that these extensions have been

Andrew Gitlin

2008-01-01

273

Multiple pathways to knowledge generation: qualitative and quantitative research approaches in sport and exercise psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative research approaches incorporate different research methodologies but also are structured, evaluated and justified using different philosophical bases. Thus, they may truly involve different ‘ways to know’. The purpose of this article is to present one quantitative scholar’s perceptions as to how the work produced by both sets of researchers can be used to enhance the teaching, advising

Thelma S. Horn

2011-01-01

274

The sociologist and the community developer: Autonomy and role conflict in qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists are being called upon to evaluate community development efforts in the United States at an increasing rate. These sociologists, as independent researchers, are working side by side with professional community development consultants. Based on an ongoing community development research project, which rests largely upon qualitative techniques, the roles of consultant and researcher are delineated. Methodological advantages and disadvantages of

Stephen Clark King

1981-01-01

275

Qualitative Research in Question: A Narrative of Disciplinary Power with/in the IRB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…

Johnson, Tara Star

2008-01-01

276

Qualitative Research as a Hero's Journey: Six Archetypes to Draw on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is the research process similar to a hero's journey? Just as a hero draws on different archetypes during the journey, a researcher moves through phases and must draw upon different strengths. In this article, the six archetypes that Pearson (1998) links to the hero's journey are described. Then, each phase of a qualitative research study is…

Villate, Vanessa M.

2012-01-01

277

Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

2009-01-01

278

Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

2014-01-01

279

African-American and Hispanic Perceptions of HIV Vaccine Clinical Research: A Qualitative Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To examine perceptions of phase-I human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial participation among African-Americans and Hispanics in San Francisco, California. Design . Qualitative, semistructured interviews. Setting . San Francisco Department of Health. Participants . Thirty-six African-American and Hispanic men and women, 18 to 50 years of age, residing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Method . Purposive sampling using advertisements, community-based organization rosters, and snowball referrals. Thematic analysis of transcripts identified salient themes and patterns. Results . Participants viewed participation in HIV research as important; however, they held that HIV was not a health priority given limited awareness about HIV research or beliefs that only infected or high-risk persons were eligible for participation. Altruism and personal gain, trustworthy trial staff, convenient schedules and facilities, and involvement of trusted community groups in recruitment were perceived to motivate participants. Concerns about the social consequences of participating in HIV research and product-related side effects were seen as discouraging participation. Limitations include the possibility that participants in interview research have more favorable views of biomedical research than those who refuse to participate. Conclusion . Historically, African-Americans and Hispanics in the United States have had limited participation in HIV trials. Understanding their perceptions of HIV biomedical research, identifying facilitators and barriers to participation, addressing misinformation about HIV, distorted risk perceptions, HIV stigma, and providing accessible opportunities to participate are imperative to ensure health equity and generalizability of findings. PMID:24432823

Toledo, Lauren; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Arreola, Sonya; Campbell, Chadwick; Sutton, Madeline

2014-01-01

280

Mapping Research Questions to Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Information Systems (IS) research, there is a wide range of research methods available. Yet the selection of a suitable\\u000a research method remains a problem. March and Smith (1995) proposed a classification of research methods. Instead of their\\u000a great merits, for example, differentiation between design science and natural science, we would here like to supplement them\\u000a with some important amendments

Pertti Järvinen

281

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name Social Research Methods  

E-print Network

PROGRAMME SUMMARY Social Research Methods at City University draws on the expertise available within and will equip you with practical skills in qualitative and quantitative research methods, in addition1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION ­ POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Programme name Social Research

Weyde, Tillman

282

Perfect Match? Qualitative audience research and the community media sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Griffith University researchers in 2002 presented the final results of a national survey of community radio stations. The final report 'Culture Commitment Community - The Australian Community Radio Sector' contained a wealth of information on the sector and covered many 'station-based' perspectives on issues such as localism, funding and sponsorship, Indigenous and ethnic programming and training. A key criticism of

Michael Meadows; Susan Forde; Jacqui Ewart; Kerrie Foxwell; Christine Morris

2005-01-01

283

Doing Qualitative Research Using Your Computer: A Practical Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a practical, hands-on guide to using commonly available everyday technology, including Microsoft software, to manage and streamline research projects. It uses straight-forward, everyday language to walk readers through this process, drawing on a wide range of examples to demonstrate how easy it is to use such software. This guide is…

Hahn, Chris

2008-01-01

284

Improving Transcription of Qualitative Research Interviews with Speech Recognition Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…

Fogg, Terry; Wightman, Colin W.

285

Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

Hall, Sarah A.

2013-01-01

286

A Review of the Qualitative Research on Multigrade Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews selected research studies of multigrade classrooms in Canada, Finland, eight developing nations (India, Korea, Maldives, Nepal, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia), and the United States. Based on information about the perceptions of multigrade instruction of principals and teachers, the following issues are…

Miller, Bruce A.

287

Activity Theory and Qualitative Research in Digital Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the interactions between people, computer-mediated communication, and online life requires that researchers appropriate a set of methodological tools that would be best suited for capturing and analyzing the phenomenon. However, these tools are not limited to relevant technological forms of data collections and analysis programs; it…

Sam, Cecile

2012-01-01

288

"What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

2007-01-01

289

Out of the frying pan? Streamlining the ethics review process of multisite qualitative research projects.  

PubMed

This paper describes the ethics approval processes for two multicentre, nationwide, qualitative health service research projects. The paper explains that the advent of the National Ethics Application Form has brought many improvements, but that attendant processes put in place at local health network and Human Research Ethics Committee levels may have become significantly more complicated, particularly for innovative qualitative research projects. The paper raises several questions based on its analysis of ethics application processes currently in place. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexity of multicentre research ethics applications for research in health services has been addressed by the introduction of the National Ethics Application Form. Uptake of the form across the country's human research ethics committees has been uneven. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper adds detailed insight into the ethics application process as it is currently enacted across the country. The paper details this process with reference to difficulties faced by multisite and qualitative studies in negotiating access to research sites, ethics committees' relative unfamiliarity with qualitative research , and apparent tensions between harmonisation and local sites' autonomy in approving research. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Practitioners aiming to engage in research need to be aware that ethics approval takes place in an uneven procedural landscape, made up of variable levels of ethics approval harmonization and intricate governance or site-specific assessment processes. PMID:23257167

Iedema, Rick A M; Allen, Suellen; Britton, Kate; Hor, Suyin

2013-05-01

290

Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

Hashemi, Mohammad R.

2012-01-01

291

Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

2009-01-01

292

On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on ?m2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on ?mRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme ?m2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de ?mRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro ?m2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de ?mRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética

Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

293

[Qualitative research: an introduction to focus group methodology and its application].  

PubMed

The focus group interview, an increasingly popular method in qualitative research, is used to obtain information that is highly accurate and relevant through a dynamic group interactive technique. Focus groups are used to gather ideas, opinions, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs based on participants experiences in a defined area of interest. Focus groups can be used during the preliminary or exploratory stage of a study; during the course of a study (e.g., to develop or evaluate a particular / interesting program of activities); or after a program has been completed (e.g., to assess impact or generate further avenues of research). Focus group interviews can be used either as a method in their own right or as a complement to other methods, especially to check triangulation and validity. While our study concluded that focus group interviews are an "easy and cost efficient" method to collect quality data, validity and relationship issues between focus group data and other data must be determined and considered in the results. This article introduces the background, definitions, focus group process, participants, interview guidelines, moderator responsibilities, and data collection and analysis related to the focus group methodology. PMID:16602049

Chang, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Li-Ling

2006-04-01

294

What influences contraceptive behaviour in women who experience unintended pregnancy? A systematic review of qualitative research.  

PubMed

Abstract One in five pregnancies in the UK ends in abortion. The great majority of those pregnancies are unintended, resulting from incorrect, inconsistent or non-use of contraception, rather than contraception failure. We undertook a synthesis of qualitative research with women who have unintended pregnancies as a new approach to understanding contraceptive behaviour. A literature search was carried out using four databases. Identified studies were screened against pre-set inclusion criteria. Included studies were quality assessed. Analysis followed a meta-ethnographic approach. A total of 236 studies were identified, of which nine were included. Six categories involved in contraceptive behaviour were identified - access, method factors, knowledge, societal influence, personal beliefs and motivations and relationship factors. A model of contraceptive behaviour was developed. Contraceptive behaviour is a complex, multifactorial process. Interventions targeting one aspect are unlikely to make a difference; however identifying and affecting the important factors within a population may improve contraception adherence. PMID:24911041

Pratt, R; Stephenson, J; Mann, S

2014-11-01

295

Using Qualitative Methods to Develop a Measure of Resident-to-Resident Elder Mistreatment in Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite expansion of research on elder mistreatment, limited attention has been paid to the development of improved measurement instruments. This gap is particularly notable regarding measurement of mistreatment in long-term care facilities. This article demonstrates the value of qualitative methods used in item development of a Resident-to-Resident Elder Mistreatment (R-REM) measure for use in nursing homes and other care facilities. It describes the development strategy and the modification and refinement of items using a variety of qualitative methods. Methods A combination of qualitative methods was used to develop close-ended items to measure R-REM, including review by a panel of experts, focus groups, and in-depth cognitive interviews. Results Information gathered from the multiple methods aided in flagging problematic items, helped to highlight the nature of the problems in measures, and provided suggestions for item modification and improvement. Conclusions The method employed is potentially useful for future attempts to develop better measures of elder mistreatment. The employment of previously established measurement items drawn from related fields, modified through an intensive qualitative research strategy, is an effective strategy to improve elder mistreatment measurement. PMID:23506835

Watkins, Beverly; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Silver, Stephanie; Sukha, Gail; Bortagis, Gabriel; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl

2014-01-01

296

Qualitative Research in Educational Communications and Technology: A Brief Introduction to Principles and Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 30 years, qualitative research has emerged as a widely accepted alternative to the quantitative paradigm for performing research in educational communications and technology. As the new paradigm has evolved, it has spawned a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques that have both increased its potential…

Neuman, Delia

2014-01-01

297

Expanding Perspectives: Qualitative Research in Higher Education. Second Edition. ASHE Reader Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitative research in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…

Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.

298

University Students' Research Orientations: Do negative attitudes exist toward quantitative methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n?=?196) and US (n?=?122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical methods, their readiness to use quantitative and qualitative methods in their own research, and the difficulties they experienced

Mari Murtonen

2005-01-01

299

Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

2011-01-01

300

Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men  

PubMed Central

Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Aviles, Nuria Romo; Lozano, Maria del Rio; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, Maria del Mar Garcia

2013-01-01

301

GPs’ perspectives on the management of patients with multimorbidity: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore GPs’ experiences of clinical management of multimorbidity or multiple chronic diseases. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex, Social Science Full Text and digital theses/online libraries (database inception to September 2012) to identify literature using qualitative methods (focus groups or interviews). Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results Of 1805 articles identified, 37 were reviewed in detail and 10 were included, using a total of 275 GPs in 7 different countries. Four areas of difficulty specific to the management of multimorbidity emerged from these papers: disorganisation and fragmentation of healthcare; the inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine; challenges in delivering patient-centred care; and barriers to shared decision-making. A ‘line of argument’ was drawn which described GPs’ sense of isolation in decision-making for multimorbid patients. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the problem areas for GPs in the management of multimorbidity may be classified into four domains. There will be no ‘one size fits all’ intervention for multimorbidity but these domains may be useful targets to guide the development of interventions that will assist and improve the provision of care to multimorbid patients. PMID:24038011

Sinnott, Carol; Mc Hugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Bradley, Colin

2013-01-01

302

Using culture-centered qualitative formative research to design broadcast messages for HIV prevention for African American adolescents.  

PubMed

The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify "competing narratives" that support healthy behavior despite the dominance of messages that favor risk-taking behavior. The method is illustrated using qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 124 adolescents. Analysis focuses on two barriers to sexual risk reduction: (a) social pressure for early initiation of sexual intercourse and (b) perceptions that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. We demonstrate how competing narratives identified in the analysis can be featured in radio and television messages advocating healthy behavior by modeling risk-reducing negotiation skills. PMID:18569363

Horner, Jennifer R; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Carey, Michael P; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry; Diclemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Stanton, Bonita; Valois, Robert F

2008-06-01

303

A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

Niaz, Mansoor

2008-01-01

304

TCD Research Methods Fall 2004 LAS 6292 (Sect. 6816x)  

E-print Network

TCD Research Methods ­ Fall 2004 LAS 6292 (Sect. 6816x) Thursday, Periods 6-8 (12:50- 3:50) 376 and development. Required textbooks, available at Goering's Books and Bagels: 1. Bernard, H.R. 1995. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 3rd edition. AltaMira Press, Walnut

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

305

Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

2014-01-01

306

Observation of locomotor functional recovery in adult complete spinal rats with BWSTT using semiquantitative and qualitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Experimental rat model of spinal cord transection.Setting:China rehabilitation research center.Objective:To investigate locomotor functional recovery in spinal rats with BWSTT using semiquantitative and qualitative methods.Methods:Five-day postoperative (dpo), adult female complete spinal rats (at T8 level) received 40 days of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). Signs of functional recovery were examined with average combined scores (ACOS) and Basso Beattie and Bresnahan

Y Zhang; S R Ji; C Y Wu; X H Fan; H J Zhou; G L Liu

2007-01-01

307

Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics  

E-print Network

Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics Serdar Uckun, Member, IEEE, Kai Goebel, and Peter J statistical rigor. In this paper, we provide a critical review of current research methods in PHM and contrast business impact. Index Terms--Prognostics, Prognostics and Health Management, Research Methods, Performance

Lucas, Peter

308

Transformative Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

Mertens, Donna M.

2010-01-01

309

Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: A qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. Methods A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants’ view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. Results The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0?%), having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0?%) and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7?%). The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6?%), improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6?%) and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3?%). Conclusions The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education. PMID:22840193

2012-01-01

310

The imagework method in health and social science research.  

PubMed

Existing alongside the traditional forms of qualitative social science research, there is a set of potential research methods that derive from experiential groupwork and the humanistic human potential movement and are only slightly used by researchers. Social science research has barely begun to use these powerful strategies that were developed originally for personal and group change but that are potentially applicable to the research domain. This article will locate these methods within the qualitative research domain and propose a novel view of their value. The study of the actual and potential use of one of these methods, imagework, will be the particular focus of this article. References to the use of artwork, sculpting, psychodrama, gestalt, and dreamwork will also be made. The hypothesis underpinning the author's approach is that experiential research methods such as imagework can elicit implicit knowledge and self-identifies of respondents in a way that other methods cannot. PMID:10558363

Edgar, I R

1999-03-01

311

Understanding youth: using qualitative methods to verify quantitative community indicators.  

PubMed

Community- and individual-level data were collected from interviews with 1,294 boys and girls, 13 to 19 years old, in three impoverished urban communities of Beirut. Univariate analyses of variables provide quantitative indicators of adolescents' lives and communities. Researchers including the authors, interested in using these indicators to plan for community interventions with youth in the Palestinian refugee camp, discuss the pertinent results with youth from the camp in six focus groups. The authors find that many indicators misrepresent the situation of youth in the camp. For example, adolescents may have underreported cigarette and argileh (water pipe) smoking (8.3% and 22.4%, respectively) because of the lack of social desirability of these behaviors; other questions may have been misunderstood, such as perceived health and health compared to others. Also, important issues for them such as drug abuse, violence, and school problems were not asked. Implications for intervention research are discussed. PMID:17971480

Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima

2009-01-01

312

Impact of clinical and health services research projects on decision-making: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background This article reports on the impact assessment experience of a funding program of non-commercial clinical and health services research. The aim was to assess the level of implementation of results from a subgroup of research projects (on respiratory diseases), and to detect barriers (or facilitators) in the translation of new knowledge to informed decision-making. Methods A qualitative study was performed. The sample consisted of six projects on respiratory diseases funded by the Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia between 1996 and 2004. Semi-structured interviews to key informants including researchers and healthcare decision-makers were carried out. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed on an individual (key informant) and group (project) basis. In addition, the differences between achieved and expected impacts were described. Results Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most participants indicated changes in health services or clinical practice had resulted from research. The channels used to transfer new knowledge were mainly conventional ones, but also in less explicit ways, such as with the involvement of local scientific societies, or via debates and discussions with colleagues and local leaders. The barriers and facilitators identified were mostly organizational (in research management, and clinical and healthcare practice), although there were also some related to the nature of the research as well as personal factors. Both the expected and achieved impacts enabled the identification of the gaps between what is expected and what is truly achieved. Conclusions In this study and according to key informants, the impact of these research projects on decision-making can be direct (the application of a finding or innovation) or indirect, contributing to a more complex change in clinical practice and healthcare organization, both having other contextual factors. The channels used to transfer this new knowledge to clinical practice are complex. Local scientific societies and the relationships between researchers and decision-makers can play a very important role. Specifically, the relationships between managers and research teams and the mutual knowledge of their activity have shown to be effective in applying research funding to practice and decision-making. Finally the facilitating factors and barriers identified by the respondents are closely related to the idiosyncrasy of the human relations between the different stakeholders involved. PMID:23663364

2013-01-01

313

Research 2.0: A Framework for Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Web 2.0 Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the potential of the Web 2.0 environment for conducting both qualitative and quantitative research. The paper analyzes the emerging Research 2.0 domain using the theoretical framework of Web 2.0 core principles (e.g., web as a platform, harnessing collective intelligence, etc.). These principles, first proposed by Tim O'Reilly, provide a useful lens through which researchers can examine the

Dinesh Rathi; Lisa M. Given

2010-01-01

314

Use of qualitative methods to identify solutions to selected equine welfare problems in Ireland.  

PubMed

This paper explores the views of those in the Irish equine industry, organisations and government regarding necessary improvements to equine welfare in Ireland at unregulated gatherings and during the disposal process. Three qualitative research methods were employed, namely semistructured interviews, focus groups and a structured, facilitated workshop. Representatives from industry, welfare societies, socially disadvantaged groupings and government engaged with this process and shared their views regarding horse welfare and implementable solutions with merit to address welfare problems. A consensus was achieved that equine welfare in Ireland could be improved by the development of a comprehensive identification system, a Code of Practice for horse gatherings, a horse licensing scheme, ring-fenced funding to promote responsible, humane horse disposal and better means of raising awareness of the value of safeguarding horse welfare for the benefit of all parties. PMID:22331502

Collins, J A; More, S J; Hanlon, A; Wall, P G; McKenzie, K; Duggan, V

2012-04-28

315

Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

2012-01-01

316

A common base for quality control criteria in quantitative and qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the social sciences, several scientific paradigms are mutually isolated owing to their use of specific sets of methodological criteria and quality control procedures. In this article, the central hypothesis, to be tested by conceptual analysis and logical reasoning, is that recommended procedures for quality control in quantitative as well as qualitative research can be derived from a common base

Peter G. Swanborn

1996-01-01

317

Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

Vitanova, Gergana

2013-01-01

318

A Qualitative Action Research Project Documenting Student Perceptions of the Effects of Visual Culture on Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have conducted a qualitative action research project focusing on student perceptions of the impact of visual culture on teens including popular media. Students especially in high schools are bombarded with visual imagery through various technology sources. While working with high school juniors and seniors I noticed a rise in teen pregnancy and sexual confusion among this population. I wondered

Jessica M. Miccichi

2011-01-01

319

The Contributions of Qualitative Research to Discussions of Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitative research plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…

McDuffie, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

320

Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

Mashhadi, Azam

321

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

322

Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

2011-01-01

323

Co-Operative Education: Challenges of Qualitative Research on Learning in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the challenges of qualitative research on workplace learning that occurs within co-operative (co-op) education. Co-op education is extensive in Canada, with an estimated 10% of the student population enrolled in co-op secondary education each year. The context for this study was a veterinary clinic in which four co-op…

Chin, Peter; Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

324

Sampling Designs in Qualitative Research: Making the Sampling Process More Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2007-01-01

325

Brief Note on the Origins, Evolution, and Meaning of the Qualitative Research Concept "Thick Description"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins, cross-disciplinary evolution, and definition of "thick description" are reviewed. Despite its frequent use in the qualitative literature, the concept of "thick description" is often confusing to researchers at all levels. The roots of this confusion are explored and examples of "thick description" are provided. The article closes with…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.

2006-01-01

326

Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

2013-01-01

327

Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2013-01-01

328

Giving Voice to Critical Campus Issues. Qualitative Research in Student Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents six qualitative research studies written by graduate students in the Higher Education and Student Affairs masters program at the University of Vermont. The papers provide case studies concerning suicide, acquaintance rape, alcohol-related student death, classism, adult children of alcoholics, and multiracial identity. Following…

Manning, Kathleen, Ed.

329

Productivity and Academic Assessment in Brazil: Challenges for Qualitative Health Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the challenges to the qualitative health research approach, under the regime of productivity that rules current academic evaluation in many countries. The analysis considers aspects common to several contexts, illustrating the discussion with the Brazilian context and, more specifically, within the dynamics of the collective…

Bosi, Maria Lucia Magalhaes

2012-01-01

330

Mixed Method Designs: A Review of Strategies for Blending Quantitative and Qualitative Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical debate surrounding quantitative and qualitative research paradigms has been at times rather passionate. Arguments for and against methodologies often have centered on the philosophical differences regarding issues such as generalizability, epistemology, and authentic representation of the phenomena under research. More recently,…

Pole, Kathryn

2007-01-01

331

Continuation Methods for Qualitative Analysis of Aircraft Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of numerical methods for constructing bifurcation curves for systems of coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations is presented. Foundations are discussed, and several variations are outlined along with their respective capabilities. Appropriate background material from dynamical systems theory is presented.

Cummings, Peter A.

2004-01-01

332

Review of Statistical Research Methods Training and Research  

E-print Network

Review of Statistical Research Methods Training and Research Support (including the Statistical Consulting Unit) Report August 2014 #12;Review of Statistical Research Methods Training and Research Support edge in research methods and research training. Research in many disciplines increasingly requires

Chen, Ying

333

Seismic attenuation qualitative characterizing method based on adaptive optimal-kernel time-frequency representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main issue of seismic attenuation characterizing method based on time-frequency analyzing method is the time-frequency resolution. The adaptive optimal-kernel time-frequency representation, which has high time-frequency resolution comparing with commonly used time-frequency analyzing method, is investigated. The seismic attenuation qualitative characterizing method based on adaptive optimal-kernel time-frequency representation is proposed. The synthetic data example and 3D field-data example reveal that the proposed method can qualitatively characterize seismic attenuation, and the attenuated anomaly of this field-data example coincides with gas reservoir well.

Wang, Xiaokai; Gao, Jinghuai; Chen, Wenchao; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Xiudi; Zhu, Zhenyu

2013-02-01

334

THE CORPORATE INTERVIEW AS A RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-ended corporate interview as a qualitative research method is proposed as a valuable component of an evidentiary strategy in economic geography. It is argued to be more sensitive than other survey methods to historical, institutional, and strategic complexity. The corporate interview method is particularly appropriate in periods of economic and social change that challenge traditional analytical categories and theoretical

Erica Schoenberger

1991-01-01

335

Medical students' perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1) Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2) Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3) Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4) Lower prestige; 5) Poor remuneration; 6) Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7) Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training. PMID:22909189

2012-01-01

336

Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

Karadag, Engin

2010-01-01

337

Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.  

PubMed

There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

2012-10-01

338

Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

2012-01-01

339

Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’?, ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status varied. Participants experienced distress as their notion of self identity shifted and emotions that reflected the various stages of the grief process were evident in participants’ accounts. The process of self-managing lifestyle took place through experiential learning; the level of engagement with lifestyle change reflected an individual’s unique view of the balance needed to manage ‘realistic change’ whilst leading to a life that was perceived as ‘worth living’. Findings highlight the importance of providing person centred care that aligns with both psychological and physical dimensions of recovery which are inextricably linked. PMID:25097066

2014-01-01

340

[Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].  

PubMed

From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. PMID:23165608

Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

2012-10-01

341

AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

1990-01-01

342

Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy ‘world’ and enhancing research communications and transferability to decision makers. It also highlights an opportunity to invest in implementation research platforms, such as health policy research and analysis institutions. PMID:25274639

Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

2014-01-01

343

Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research.  

PubMed

In exercise and cognition research, few studies have investigated whether and how the qualitative aspects of physical exercise may impact cognitive performance in the short or long term. This commentary, after recalling the evidence on the "dose-response" relationship, shifts the focus to intersections between different research areas that are proposed to shed light on how qualitative exercise characteristics can be used to obtain cognitive benefits. As concerns the acute exercise area, this commentary highlights the applied relevance of developmental and aging studies investigating the effects of exercise bouts differing in movement task complexity and cognitive demands. As regards the chronic exercise area, potential links to research on cognitive expertise in sport, functional ability in aging, and life skills training during development are discussed. "Gross-motor cognitive training" is proposed as a key concept with relevant implications for intervention strategies in childhood and older adulthood. PMID:23204358

Pesce, Caterina

2012-12-01

344

Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

2007-01-01

345

Smoking Cessation and the Internet: A Qualitative Method Examining Online Consumer Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support — including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials — can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. Objectives This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Methods Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit® smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Results Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity — and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Conclusions Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources. PMID:12554555

Frisby, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N

2002-01-01

346

Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy 'world' and enhancing research communications and transferability to decision makers. It also highlights an opportunity to invest in implementation research platforms, such as health policy research and analysis institutions. PMID:25274639

Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

2014-09-01

347

PhD Students' Perceptions of the Relationship between Philosophy and Research: A Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored, described, and discovered meaning in the lived experiences of PhD students regarding two courses: Philosophy of Science and Qualitative Methods. The philosophical underpinning was constructivism. The phenomenological methodology employed a structured questionnaire to collect data. It involved mailed computer disks with…

Efinger, Joan; Maldonado, Nancy; McArdle, Geri

2004-01-01

348

Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on Their Qualitative Field Research Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After completing a qualitative methods course in geography, we moved classroom discussions into practice. While undertaking graduate fieldwork in sites across the globe, we participated in critical, reflexive journaling. Whereas journal writing is often private, we shared our entries, aiming to facilitate rigour while concurrently exploring…

Heller, Elizabeth; Christensen, Julia; Long, Lindsay; Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Osano, Philip M.; Ricker, Britta; Kagan, Emily; Turner, Sarah

2011-01-01

349

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSES FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH: INTEGRATION THROUGH TIME-SERIES DESIGNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generalized least squares method, a time-series multiple-regression analysis, is proposed to assess simultaneously treatment efficacy and process correlates of outcome as well as test alternative hypotheses of treatment efficacy. This approach has the further advantage of application to small samples by capitalizing on repeated measurements. Criteria for qualitative analysis are presented in an attempt to provide guidelines for the

Louise Gaston; Charles R. Marmar

1989-01-01

350

A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes  

PubMed Central

Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future NPT research, authors should explicate their rationale for choosing NPT as their theoretical framework and, where possible, involve multiple stakeholders including service users to enable analysis of implementation from a range of perspectives. PMID:24383661

2014-01-01

351

"I Tell You, It's a Journey, Isn't It?" Understanding Collaborative Meaning Making in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While collaboration is common in qualitative inquiry, few studies examine the collaborative process in detail. In our study, we adopt an interpretive, reflexive stance to explore our process as a collaborative qualitative research team. We analyzed transcripts of eight research meetings for aspects and assumptions underlying our collaboration.…

Paulus, Trena M.; Woodside, Marianne; Ziegler, Mary F.

2010-01-01

352

The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research

Anyan, Frederick

2013-01-01

353

Exploring and Understanding Gender in Education: A Qualitative Research Manual for Education Practitioners and Gender Focal Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology is described for conducting qualitative research on gender issues in education. Qualitative research, a critical step for achieving the global Education For All (EFA) goals, will assist identifying the issues, analyzing the contents, and formulating viable policy. "Gender" refers to the social roles and responsibilities that belong…

Bernard, Anne; Armstrong, Greg; Attig, George

2005-01-01

354

The State of Qualitative Research in Gifted Education as Published in American Journals: An Analysis and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…

Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms

2007-01-01

355

An Examination of Research Methods in Mathematics Education (1995-2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods examination of 710 research articles in mathematics education published in six prominent educational journals during the period 1995-2005 finds that 50% of the studies used qualitative methods only, 21% used quantitative methods only, and 29% mixed qualitative and quantitative methods in various ways. Although the number of…

Hart, Lynn C.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Marvin E.

2009-01-01

356

Issues of Conducting Qualitative Research in an Inner-City Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and critiques the use of a combined qualitative and quantitative research methodology to investigate the impact of the verdict and subsequent civil disturbances in the Rodney King police brutality case upon Black youth, ages 15-3Q, in South Central Los Angeles. The study conducted in 1993-1994, focused on the attitudes and experiences of these youth in four institutional

Jewelle Taylor Gibbs; Teiahsha Bankhead-Greene

1997-01-01

357

A qualitative exploration of the use of calendar landmarking instruments in cancer symptom research  

E-print Network

participants had existing chronic conditions, specifically where symptoms 244 were of a similar nature such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung 245 cancer, or benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer, we found that this 246 could create... landmarking instruments could also have value in early 322 diagnosis research across other diseases and conditions. 323 In conclusion, this qualitative exploration is the first to describe the potential role of 324 calendar landmarking instruments...

Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Cheung, Camilla; Hall, Nicola; Birt, Linda; Walter, Fiona M.

2014-01-01

358

Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been

Guy G. Gable

1994-01-01

359

Strategies and tensions in communicating research on sexual and reproductive health, HIV and AIDS: a qualitative study of the experiences of researchers and communications staff  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) and HIV issues are often controversial and neglected, leading to challenges with engaging policy actors. Research evidence is complex, posing further challenges for ensuring that policy and practice are evidence-based. Many health researchers are adopting innovative approaches to engaging stakeholders in their research, yet these experiences are not often shared. This qualitative study focuses on the research communication and policy influencing objectives, strategies and experiences of four research consortia working on SRH, HIV and AIDS. Methods We carried out 22 in-depth interviews with researchers and communications specialists (research actors) from the four consortia and their partners, working in nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Using the ‘framework’ approach to qualitative data analysis, we identified factors that affect the interaction of research evidence with policy and practice. We used the ODI RAPID analytical framework to present these results, adapting this tool by incorporating the actions, strategies and positionality of research actors. Results The characteristics of researchers and their institutions, policy context, the multiplicity of actors, and the nature of the research evidence all play a role in policy influencing processes. Research actors perceived a trend towards increasingly intensive and varied communication approaches. Effective influencing strategies include making strategic alliances and coalitions and framing research evidence in ways that are most attractive to particular policy audiences. Tensions include the need to identify and avoid unnecessary communication or unintended impacts, challenges in assessing and attributing impact and the need for adequate resources and skills for communications work. Conclusions We contend that the adapted RAPID framework can serve as a tool for research actors to use in resolving these tensions, through facilitating a reflexive approach to considering their own combination of attributes, skills, networks and objectives and the ways these relate to policy contexts, actors and processes. PMID:21679385

2011-01-01

360

Qualitative Experimentation, Local Generalizability, and Other Oxymoronic Opportunities for Educated Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As lines between research paradigms continue to blur with the ever-increasing popularity of mixed methods research, there are useful, and occasionally oxymoronic, opportunities for educational researchers to juxtapose tools from opposing methods. The gold standard is just not possible in so much of what we do with small-scale research, nor is it…

Brooks, Gordon P.

2011-01-01

361

A meta-study of qualitative research examining stressor appraisals and coping among adolescents in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to create an integrated theoretical perspective of the qualitative adolescent sport stressor appraisal and coping literature. A secondary aim was to critique theoretical and methodological issues in the extant literature. Following database searches, 20 studies were retained for analysis. Meta-data, meta-theory, and meta-method analyses were conducted followed by a final meta-synthesis of findings.

Katherine A. Tamminen; Nicholas L. Holt

2010-01-01

362

CSM parallel structural methods research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

Storaasli, Olaf O.

1989-01-01

363

Disease management projects and the Chronic Care Model in action: baseline qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM), are increasingly common in the Netherlands. While disease management programs have been well-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. The overall aim of the study is to explore how disease management programs are implemented within primary care settings in the Netherlands; this paper focuses on the early development and implementation stages of five disease management programs in the primary care setting, based on interviews with project leadership teams. Methods Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the five selected sites with sixteen professionals interviewed; all project directors and managers were interviewed. The interviews focused on each project’s chosen chronic illness (diabetes, eating disorders, COPD, multi-morbidity, CVRM) and project plan, barriers to development and implementation, the project leaders’ action and reactions, as well as their roles and responsibilities, and disease management strategies. Analysis was inductive and interpretive, based on the content of the interviews. After analysis, the results of this research on disease management programs and the Chronic Care Model are viewed from a traveling technology framework. Results This analysis uncovered four themes that can be mapped to disease management and the Chronic Care Model: (1) changing the health care system, (2) patient-centered care, (3) technological systems and barriers, and (4) integrating projects into the larger system. Project leaders discussed the paths, both direct and indirect, for transforming the health care system to one that addresses chronic illness. Patient-centered care was highlighted as needed and a paradigm shift for many. Challenges with technological systems were pervasive. Project leaders managed the expenses of a traveling technology, including the social, financial, and administration involved. Conclusions At the sites, project leaders served as travel guides, assisting and overseeing the programs as they traveled from the global plans to local actions. Project leaders, while hypothetically in control of the programs, in fact shared control of the traveling of the programs with patients, clinicians, and outside consultants. From this work, we can learn what roadblocks and expenses occur while a technology travels, from a project leader’s point of view. PMID:22578251

2012-01-01

364

Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background There are no empirically-grounded criteria or tools to define or benchmark the quality of outpatient clinical documentation. Outpatient clinical notes document care, communicate treatment plans and support patient safety, medical education, medico-legal investigations and reimbursement. Accurately describing and assessing quality of clinical documentation is a necessary improvement in an increasingly team-based healthcare delivery system. In this paper we describe the quality of outpatient clinical notes from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods Using purposeful sampling for maximum diversity, we conducted focus groups and individual interviews with clinicians, nursing and ancillary staff, patients, and healthcare administrators at six federal health care facilities between 2009 and 2011. All sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. Results The 163 participants included 61 clinicians, 52 nurse/ancillary staff, 31 patients and 19 administrative staff. Three organizing themes emerged: 1) characteristics of quality in clinical notes, 2) desired elements within the clinical notes and 3) system supports to improve the quality of clinical notes. We identified 11 codes to describe characteristics of clinical notes, 20 codes to describe desired elements in quality clinical notes and 11 codes to describe clinical system elements that support quality when writing clinical notes. While there was substantial overlap between the aspects of quality described by the four stakeholder groups, only clinicians and administrators identified ease of translation into billing codes as an important characteristic of a quality note. Only patients rated prioritization of their medical problems as an aspect of quality. Nurses included care and education delivered to the patient, information added by the patient, interdisciplinary information, and infection alerts as important content. Conclusions Perspectives of these four stakeholder groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings. PMID:23164470

2012-01-01

365

Library Research Methods Divinity Graduate Students  

E-print Network

Library Research Methods Divinity Graduate Students Info Lit @ Mac Peggy Findlay Liaison Librarian Research Methods: Divinity #12;Library Research Methods: Divinity Objectives Library Catalogue Database search engines RefWorks: citation manager and bibliography builder #12;Library Research Methods: Divinity

Haykin, Simon

366

Cultural science and qualitative educational research: work ‘in the first place’ on the morality of classroom life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of qualitative research in education is addressed in this paper in terms of three categories of scientific inquiry (following Heap, 1992) and the varying place and function of qualitative work in each of these categories. The argument is put that one of these categories of inquiry, specifically cultural human sciences, offers the educational enterprise distinctive theoretical and analytic

Peter Freebody; Jill Freiberg

2006-01-01

367

Whatever happened to the third paradigm? Exploring mixed methods research designs in sport and exercise psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, quantitative and qualitative approaches to research were portrayed as being incompatible, if not mutually exclusive. More recently, however, researchers have explored the possible complementarity of these approaches through mixed methods research (MMR) – the so-called third research paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and implications of mixed methods designs for research in

Aidan P. Moran; James J. Matthews; Kate Kirby

2011-01-01

368

Qualitative inquiry: a method for validating patient perceptions of palliative care while enrolled on a cancer clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Palliative care is a vital component of patient-centered care. It has increasingly become central to the management and care of seriously ill patients by integrating physical, psychosocial, and spiritual supportive services. Through qualitative inquiry, this paper examines cancer patients’ perceptions of the process and outcomes of the pain and palliative care consultative services they received while enrolled in a clinical trial. Methods A qualitative analysis of open-ended questions was conducted from a sub-sample of patients (n?=?34) with advanced cancers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy of a palliative care consult service. Two open-ended questions focused on patient perceptions of continued participation on their primary cancer clinical trials and their perceptions of interdisciplinary communication. Results Three overarching themes emerged when asked whether receiving pain and palliative care services made them more likely to remain enrolled in their primary cancer clinical trial: patients’ past experiences with care, self-identified personal characteristics and reasons for participation, and the quality of the partnership. Four themes emerged related to interdisciplinary communication including: the importance of developing relationships, facilitating open communication, having quality communication, and uncertainty about communication between the cancer clinical trial and palliative care teams. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of qualitative inquiry methods to explore patient perceptions regarding the efficacy of palliative care services for cancer patients enrolled in a cancer clinical trial. Validation of patient perceptions through qualitative inquiry regarding their pain and palliative care needs can provide insight into areas for future implementation research. Trial registration NIH Office of Human Subjects Research Protection OHSRP5443 and University of Pennsylvania 813365

2014-01-01

369

The Evaluation of the Applicability of the 2005 Social Studies Curriculum in Multigrade Teaching in Terms of Teacher Views (A Qualitative Research)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a qualitative study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the 2005 Social Studies Course Curriculum in multigrade teaching according to teacher opinions. The data of the research were obtained by interview method applied to 58 teachers teaching in multigrade classes in 2008-2009 academic year. The data obtained in the…

Ocak, Gurbuz; Yildiz, Sureyya Sevki

2011-01-01

370

Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

2007-01-01

371

Video conferencing technology in research on schizophrenia: a qualitative study of site research staff.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to advance knowledge of the experience of multisite research staff with video conferencing mental health data collection among study participants with schizophrenia. An end-of-study focus group was conducted with all (N = 19) study coordinators of a multisite randomized trial of pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia to characterize the experiences of coordinators overseeing semistructured assessments via video conferencing technology (VCT). Researchers conducted an audiotaped voluntary focus group. Investigators independently coded a transcript of the focus group, followed by discussions to reach consensus on key themes. Three key themes emerged, involving issues associated with (a) the technology itself, (b) the technology in the context of clinical care and research, and (c) the feasibility of using VCT for study assessments, including coordinators' perceptions of participants' experience of VCT. Additional themes were that (a) interviewer skills appeared to moderate the impact of VCT, (b) research participants with serious psychiatric disorders who participated in VCT assessments appeared, overall, to be more amenable to the technology than research coordinators anticipated, and (c) because VCT will be adapted in a wide range of settings, staffing and resource needs should be considered in planning for and adopting VCT for psychiatric research or clinical assessment. This study adds contextual detail and emphasis to the existing literature on the use of VCT in research and factors regarding the effective deployment of the technology in research. PMID:24575916

Rowe, Michael; Rosenheck, Robert; Stern, Erica; Bellamy, Chyrell

2014-01-01

372

The quantitative and qualitative recovery of Campylobacter from raw poultry using USDA and Health Canada methods.  

PubMed

Harmonisation of methods between Canadian government agencies is essential to accurately assess and compare the prevalence and concentrations present on retail poultry intended for human consumption. The standard qualitative procedure used by Health Canada differs to that used by the USDA for both quantitative and qualitative methods. A comparison of three methods was performed on raw poultry samples obtained from an abattoir to determine if one method is superior to the others in isolating Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses. The average percent of positive samples was 34.72% (95% CI, 29.2-40.2), 39.24% (95% CI, 33.6-44.9), 39.93% (95% CI, 34.3-45.6) for the direct plating US method and the US enrichment and Health Canada enrichment methods, respectively. Overall there were significant differences when comparing either of the enrichment methods to the direct plating method using the McNemars chi squared test. On comparison of weekly data (Fishers exact test) direct plating was only inferior to the enrichment methods on a single occasion. Direct plating is important for enumeration and establishing the concentration of Campylobacter present on raw poultry. However, enrichment methods are also vital to identify positive samples where concentrations are below the detection limit for direct plating. PMID:25084671

Sproston, E L; Carrillo, C D; Boulter-Bitzer, J

2014-12-01

373

Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

Franck, Bruno M.

1990-01-01

374

Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.  

PubMed

Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid. PMID:23678897

Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

2013-12-01

375

A Method for Qualitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is described to create qualitative images of thick oil in oil spills on water using near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data. The method uses simple 'three-point-band depths' computed for each pixel in an imaging spectrometer image cube using the organic absorption features due to chemical bonds in aliphatic hydrocarbons at 1.2, 1.7, and 2.3 microns. The method is not quantitative because sub-pixel mixing and layering effects are not considered, which are necessary to make a quantitative volume estimate of oil.

Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; Livo, K. Erik; Lundeen, Sarah; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Kokaly, Raymond; Hoefen, Todd; Sarture, Charles; McCubbin, Ian; Roberts, Dar; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne; Pearson, Neil

2010-01-01

376

Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

2014-01-01

377

Which Methods Are Best Suited to the Production of High-Quality Research in Geography Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers in geography education have access to a wide range of research methods, spanning the quantitative-qualitative continuum. However, the choice of which methods to employ in one's research has a direct impact on the subsequent quality of the research findings and should therefore be carefully considered. This paper briefly explores the…

Butt, Graham

2010-01-01

378

Module name Introduction to Research Methods and Applied Data Module code HRM001  

E-print Network

KEY FACTS Module name Introduction to Research Methods and Applied Data Analysis Module code HRM001 is given to the teaching of qualitative and quantitative research methods and study designs. More-line research methods training #12;WHAT WILL I BE EXPECTED TO ACHIEVE? On successful completion of this module

Weyde, Tillman

379

Using Qualitative Research to Inform the Development of a Comprehensive Outcomes Assessment for Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. Objective The goal of the current study was to inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. Method Self-reported adult asthma sufferers recruited from a 3,000 member New England-area research panel participated in either one of three focus groups (N=21) or individual cognitive item debriefing interviews (N=20) to discuss how asthma impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and provide feedback on a preliminary set of asthma impact survey items and prototype patient report. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted using traditional research principles (e.g., semi-structured interview guide, probing, and think aloud techniques). An Expert Advisory Panel (N=12) including asthma clinical specialists and measurement professionals was convened to review results from the focus group and cognitive interview studies and make recommendations for final survey and report development. Results Domains of health impacted by asthma included physical (recreation, play, competitive sports, and exercise), social (activities, family relationships), emotional (anger, upset, frustration, anxiety, worry), sleep, role (recreational/leisure activities; work), and sexual functioning. Most items in the impact survey were easily understood, covered important content, and included relevant response options. Items with contradictory examples and multiple concepts were difficult to comprehend. Suggestions were made to expand survey content by including additional items on physical and sexual functioning, sleep, self-consciousness, stigma, and finances. Reports were considered useful and participants saw value in sharing the results with their doctor. Graphic presentation of scores was not always understood; participants preferred tabular presentation of score levels with associated interpretative text. Display of inverse scores for different measures (higher scores equaling better health on one scale and worse health on another) shown on a single page was confusing. The score history section of the report was seen as helpful for monitoring progress over time, particularly for those recently diagnosed with asthma. Expert panelists agreed that displaying inverse scores in a single summary report may be confusing to patients and providers. They also stressed the importance of comprehensive interpretation guidelines for patients, with an emphasis on what they should do next based on scores. Panelists made recommendations for provider and aggregate-level reports (e.g., “red flags” to indicate significant score changes or cut-points of significance; identification of subgroups that have scored poorly or recently gotten worse). Conclusion Incorporating input from patients, clinicians, and measurement experts in the early stages of product development should improve the construct validity of this PRO measure and enhance its practical application in healthcare. PMID:20508735

Turner-Bowker, Diane M.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; DeRosa, Michael A.; Paulsen, Christine A.; Bransfield, Christopher P.

2009-01-01

380

Using Online Methods and Designs to Conduct Research on Personal Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the Internet has become a useful tool for carrying out research. The authors provide information specific to relationship research regarding qualitative and quantitative research methods, the advantages and disadvantages of online research, and practical concerns researchers may have regarding data quality and validity, sampling issues, and ethical considerations. They conclude with an empirical example of how the

Brian Ogolsky; Sylvia Niehuis; Carl Ridley

2009-01-01

381

Educational Research Methods 2013 1 Research Methods for the Learning Sciences 05-748  

E-print Network

Educational Research Methods 2013 From Pslc Contents 1 Research Methods for the Learning Sciences (Koedinger) 1.11.11 Experimental Research Methods (Koedinger) 1.11.12 Wrap-up Research Methods and useful links: learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Educational_Research_Methods_2013 (http://learnlab.org/research/wiki/index.php/Educational_Research_Methods

382

The use of multiple qualitative methods to characterize communication events between physicians and nurses.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of communication to patient safety in hospital settings, we know surprisingly little about communication patterns between physicians and nurses, particularly on general medical-surgical units. Poor communication is the leading cause of preventable adverse events in hospitals, as well as a major root cause of sentinel events. The literature provides little guidance on what qualitative methods are best for capturing different types of communication events and patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for identifying and characterizing communication events between physicians and nurses to better understand communication patterns on general medical-surgical units. We used a sequential qualitative mixed method design beginning with general observation, progressing to shadowing and focus groups of physicians and nurses who worked on two medical-surgical units at one academically affiliated U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. Each data collection method (observation, shadowing, and focus groups) had its own advantages and disadvantages for capturing communication events and patterns. Through observation we were able to see the "what": communication activities. Shadowing was most useful for understanding "how" physicians and nurses communicated. Focus groups helped answer "why" certain patterns emerged and allowed us to further explore communication events within a group setting. By using all three methods we were able to more thoroughly characterize communication events than by using a single method alone, providing a more holistic picture of how communication occurs on an inpatient medical-surgical unit. PMID:24483246

Manojlovich, Milisa; Harrod, Molly; Holtz, Bree; Hofer, Timothy; Kuhn, Latoya; Krein, Sarah L

2015-01-01

383

Methods in Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Comparative effectiveness research (CER) seeks to assist consumers, clinicians, purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions to improve health care at both the individual and population levels. CER includes evidence generation and evidence synthesis. Randomized controlled trials are central to CER because of the lack of selection bias, with the recent development of adaptive and pragmatic trials increasing their relevance to real-world decision making. Observational studies comprise a growing proportion of CER because of their efficiency, generalizability to clinical practice, and ability to examine differences in effectiveness across patient subgroups. Concerns about selection bias in observational studies can be mitigated by measuring potential confounders and analytic approaches, including multivariable regression, propensity score analysis, and instrumental variable analysis. Evidence synthesis methods include systematic reviews and decision models. Systematic reviews are a major component of evidence-based medicine and can be adapted to CER by broadening the types of studies included and examining the full range of benefits and harms of alternative interventions. Decision models are particularly suited to CER, because they make quantitative estimates of expected outcomes based on data from a range of sources. These estimates can be tailored to patient characteristics and can include economic outcomes to assess cost effectiveness. The choice of method for CER is driven by the relative weight placed on concerns about selection bias and generalizability, as well as pragmatic concerns related to data availability and timing. Value of information methods can identify priority areas for investigation and inform research methods. PMID:23071240

Armstrong, Katrina

2012-01-01

384

Global Health Research in Narrative: A Qualitative Look at the FICRS-F Experience.  

PubMed

For American professional and graduate health sciences trainees, a mentored fellowship in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC) can be a transformative experience of personal growth and scientific discovery. We invited 86 American trainees in the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program and Fulbright-Fogarty Fellowship 2011-2012 cohorts to contribute personal essays about formative experiences from their fellowships. Nine trainees contributed essays that were analyzed using an inductive approach. The most frequently addressed themes were the strong continuity of research and infrastructure at Fogarty fellowship sites, the time-limited nature of this international fellowship experience, and the ways in which this fellowship period was important for shaping future career planning. Trainees also addressed interaction with host communities vis-à-vis engagement in project implementation. These qualitative essays have contributed insights on how a 1-year mentored LMIC-based research training experience can influence professional development, complementing conventional evaluations. Full text of the essays is available at http://fogartyscholars.org/. PMID:25246694

Bearnot, Benjamin; Coria, Alexandra; Barnett, Brian Scott; Clark, Eva H; Gartland, Matthew G; Jaganath, Devan; Mendenhall, Emily; Seu, Lillian; Worjoloh, Ayaba G; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Vermund, Sten H; Heimburger, Douglas C

2014-11-01

385

Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

2005-01-01

386

Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

2012-01-01

387

Iranian undergraduate nursing student perceptions of informal learning: A qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background: Nursing education is both formal and informal. Formal education represents only a small part of all the learning involved; and many students learn more effectively through informal processes. There is little information about nursing student informal education and how it affects their character and practice. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study explores undergraduate nursing student perceptions of informal learning during nursing studies. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with a sample of undergraduate nursing students (n = 14). Strauss and Corbin’s constant comparison analysis approach was used for data analysis. Results: The categories that emerged included personal maturity and emotional development, social development, closeness to God, alterations in value systems, and ethical and professional commitment. Conclusion: Findings reveal that nursing education could take advantage of informal learning opportunities to develop students’ nontechnical skills and produce more competent students. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:23922595

Seylani, Khatereh; Negarandeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Easa

2012-01-01

388

Patient Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where it is closely associated with HIV/AIDS. Poor adherence to treatment is common despite various interventions aimed at improving treatment completion. Lack of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of barriers to and facilitators of, treatment adherence is currently a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. The aim of this systematic review of qualitative studies was to understand the factors considered important by patients, caregivers and health care providers in contributing to TB medication adherence. Methods and Findings We searched 19 electronic databases (1966–February 2005) for qualitative studies on patients', caregivers', or health care providers' perceptions of adherence to preventive or curative TB treatment with the free text terms “Tuberculosis AND (adherence OR compliance OR concordance)”. We supplemented our search with citation searches and by consulting experts. For included studies, study quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist and data were extracted independently onto a standard form. We then followed Noblit and Hare's method of meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. We screened 7,814 citations and selected 44 articles that met the prespecified inclusion criteria. The synthesis offers an overview of qualitative evidence derived from these multiple international studies. We identified eight major themes across the studies: organisation of treatment and care; interpretations of illness and wellness; the financial burden of treatment; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about treatment; law and immigration; personal characteristics and adherence behaviour; side effects; and family, community, and household support. Our interpretation of the themes across all studies produced a line-of-argument synthesis describing how four major factors interact to affect adherence to TB treatment: structural factors, including poverty and gender discrimination; the social context; health service factors; and personal factors. The findings of this study are limited by the quality and foci of the included studies. Conclusions Adherence to the long course of TB treatment is a complex, dynamic phenomenon with a wide range of factors impacting on treatment-taking behaviour. Patients' adherence to their medication regimens was influenced by the interaction of a number of these factors. The findings of our review could help inform the development of patient-centred interventions and of interventions to address structural barriers to treatment adherence. PMID:17676945

Munro, Salla A; Lewin, Simon A; Smith, Helen J; Engel, Mark E; Fretheim, Atle; Volmink, Jimmy

2007-01-01

389

A Recursive Approach to Mixed Methods Research in a Longitudinal Study of Postsecondary Education Disability Support Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed methods research has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Literature reveals that exploratory qualitative analysis followed by confirmatory survey research is common and concurrent studies outnumber longitudinal design. Longitudinal studies using quantitative and qualitative methods in sequence for exploratory purposes are rare,…

Christ, Thomas W.

2007-01-01

390

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascon, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Munoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

391

Suffering, silence, and status: the importance and challenges of qualitative research on AIDS orphanhood.  

PubMed

Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with Ugandan children affected by AIDS conducted from 2007 to 2014, this report summarizes findings of a study conducted to better understand the ways children experience orphanhood at the hands of HIV/AIDS. Three crucial, interrelated concepts emerged: suffering, silence, and status. This study explored the social context of AIDS orphanhood as both a cause of social suffering and a context for the suffering of individual children. Though problematic, silence about suffering is often due to continuing HIV/AIDS stigma in Uganda that makes one's status unspeakable, in spite of the adverse effect this has on the social order and efforts to eradicate the disease. Approaching silence as a distinct form of communication rather than an absence of it, the report considers silence's intergenerational functions, its detriments, and its consolations, in the context of HIV/AIDS-affected children's lives. In doing so, it also highlights the need for more child-centered, qualitative research on AIDS' psychosocial effects on children, despite the challenges of doing such research. PMID:25297723

Cheney, Kristen E

2015-01-01

392

Development of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory(TM) Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module items: qualitative methods  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there is no disease-specific outcome measure to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of pediatric patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE). Therefore, the objective of this qualitative study was to further develop and finalize the items and support the content validity for the new Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module. Methods Multiphase qualitative methodology was utilized in the development of the PedsQL™ EoE Module conceptual model. Focus interview transcripts of pediatric patients with EoE and their parents and expert review were previously used to develop the initial items and domains for the PedsQL™ EoE Module. In the current investigation, utilizing the respondent debriefing methodology, cognitive interviewing was conducted individually with pediatric patients with EoE and their parents on each newly developed item. Results Information from a total of 86 participants was obtained in combination from the previous investigation and the current study. From the previous 42 focus interviews, items were developed around the domain themes of symptoms, difficulties with eating food, treatment adherence, worry about symptoms and illness, feelings of being different than family and peers, and problems discussing EoE with others. In the current study’s cognitive interviewing phase, a separate cohort of 44 participants systematically reviewed and provided feedback on each item. Items were added, modified or deleted based on this feedback. Items were finalized after this feedback from patients and parents. Conclusions Using well-established qualitative methods, the content validity of the new PedsQL™ Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module items was supported in the current investigation. In the next iterative instrument development phase, the PedsQL™ Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module is now undergoing multisite national field testing. PMID:23009120

2012-01-01

393

Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best to involve individuals and communities in promoting ethical conduct of global health research in resource poor settings. PMID:21961798

2011-01-01

394

Designing a knowledge transfer and exchange strategy for the Alberta Depression Initiative: contributions of qualitative research with key stakeholders  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and of significant societal burden. In fall 2004, the 'Alberta Depression Initiative' (ADI) research program was formed with a mission to enhance the mental health of the Alberta population. A key expectation of the ADI is that research findings will be effectively translated to appropriate research users. To help ensure this, one of the initiatives funded through the ADI focused specifically on knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). The objectives of this project were first to examine the state of the KTE literature, and then based on this review and a set of key informant interviews, design a KTE strategy for the ADI. Methods Face to face interviews were conducted with 15 key informants familiar with KTE and/or mental health policy and programs in Alberta. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results This paper reports on findings from the qualitative interviews. Respondents were familiar with the barriers to and facilitators of KTE as identified in the existing literature. Four key themes related to the nature of effective KTE were identified in the data analysis: personal relationships, cultivating champions, supporting communities of practice, and building receptor capacity. These recommendations informed the design of a contextually appropriate KTE strategy for the ADI. The three-phased strategy involves preliminary research, public workshops, on-going networking and linkage activities and rigorous evaluation against pre-defined and mutually agreed outcome measures. Conclusion Interest in KTE on the part of ADI has led to the development of a strategy for engaging decision makers, researchers, and other mental health stakeholders in an on-going network related to depression programs and policy. A similarly engaged process might benefit other policy areas. PMID:19523226

Mitton, Craig; Adair, Carol E; McKenzie, Emily; Patten, Scott; Waye-Perry, Brenda; Smith, Neale

2009-01-01

395

Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013

2013-01-01

396

A Mixed Method Approach to Quality of Life Research: A Case Study Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased use of qualitative and quantitative methods in quality of life projects necessitates an examination of how to effectively work within a mixed method framework. The research objectives of this paper are to (1) operationalize the two goals of mixed method research (confirmation and comprehension) and (2) develop a strategy for using mixed…

Dunning, Heather; Williams, Allison; Abonyi, Sylvia; Crooks, Valorie

2008-01-01

397

Confusing Claims for Data: A Critique of Common Practices for Presenting Qualitative Research on Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We question widely accepted practices of publishing articles that present quantified analyses of qualitative data. First, articles are often published that provide only very brief excerpts of the qualitative data themselves to illustrate the coding scheme, tacitly or explicitly treating the coding results as data. Second, articles are often…

Hammer, David; Berland, Leema K.

2014-01-01

398

Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

2004-01-01

399

Using arts to enhance mental healthcare environments: Findings from qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a qualitative study of the subjective impact of a visual arts project in a Mental Health NHS Trust in England. A qualitative approach was adopted including documentary analysis, focus groups and over 50 in-depth interviews.Arts were found to help shape healing environments through four processes: modernisation; enhancing valued features; diminishing negative aspects; and creating opportunities for

Norma Daykin; Ellie Byrne; Tony Soteriou; Susan OConnor

2010-01-01

400

Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT) research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. Methods A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. Discussion These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional organizations in Canada and elsewhere to develop, implement, and evaluate mentorship for KT research and practice. This research will establish a theoretical basis upon which we and others can compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that enhance KT mentorship. If successful, this program of research may increase knowledge about, confidence in, and greater utilization of KT processes, and the quality and quantity of KT research, perhaps ultimately leading to better implementation and adoption of recommended health care services. PMID:19691833

Gagliardi, Anna R; Perrier, Laure; Webster, Fiona; Leslie, Karen; Bell, Mary; Levinson, Wendy; Rotstein, Ori; Tourangeau, Ann; Morrison, Laurie; Silver, Ivan L; Straus, Sharon E

2009-01-01

401

Music as a method of coping with cancer: A qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166

Ahmadi, Fereshteh

2013-01-01

402

Method as Ruse: Foucault and Research Method  

E-print Network

be used as a measure, one is always in the position of beginning again. While each new study with realism and JMid-America" Review ofSociology Method as Ruse 56 Method as Ruse idealism represents a new approximation, each new litudy with method seen as r~Jsc...

Cooke, Marvin L.

1994-04-01

403

Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

2013-01-01

404

Successful Aging with Sickle Cell Disease: Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Theory  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the lives of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This article reports findings from a qualitative pilot study, which used life review as a method to explore influences on health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with SCD, Six females with SCD, recruited from two urban sickle cell clinics in the U.S., engaged in semi-structured, in-depth life review interviews. MaxQDA2 software was used for qualitative data coding and analysis. Three major themes were identified: vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes. These themes are consistent with the Theory of Self-Care Management for Sickle Cell Disease. Identifying vulnerability factors, self-care management resources, and health outcomes in adults with SCD may aid in developing theory-based interventions to meet health care needs of younger individuals with SCD. The life review process is a useful means to gain insight into successful aging with SCD and other chronic illnesses. PMID:19838320

Jenerette, Coretta M.; Lauderdale, Gloria

2009-01-01

405

"Let's get the best quality research we can": public awareness and acceptance of consent to use existing data in health research: a systematic review and qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Opt-in consent is usually required for research, but is known to introduce selection bias. This is a particular problem for large scale epidemiological studies using only pre-collected health data. Most previous studies have shown that members of the public value opt-in consent and can perceive research without consent as an invasion of privacy. Past research has suggested that people are generally unaware of research processes and existing safeguards, and that education may increase the acceptability of research without prior informed consent, but this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. Our objectives were to determine the range of public opinion about the use of existing medical data for research and to explore views about consent to a secondary review of medical records for research. We also investigated the effect of the provision of detailed information about the potential effect of selection bias on public acceptability of the use of data for research. Methods We carried out a systematic review of existing literature on public attitudes to secondary use of existing health records identified by searching PubMed (1966-present), Embase (1974-present) and reference lists of identified studies to provide a general overview, followed by a qualitative focus group study with 19 older men recruited from rural and suburban primary care practices in the UK to explore key issues in detail. Results The systematic review identified twenty-seven relevant papers and the findings suggested that males and older people were more likely to consent to a review of their medical data. Many studies noted participants’ lack of knowledge about research processes and existing safeguards and this was reflected in the focus groups. Focus group participants became more accepting of the use of pre-collected medical data without consent after being given information about selection bias and research processes. All participants were keen to contribute to NHS-related research but some were concerned about data-sharing for commercial gain and the potential misuse of information. Conclusions Increasing public education about research and specific targeted information provision could promote trust in research processes and safeguards, which in turn could increase the acceptability of research without specific consent where the need for consent would lead to biased findings and impede research necessary to improve public health. PMID:23734773

2013-01-01

406

A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Universal Screening by Family Therapy Interns: Implications for Practice, Research, Training, and Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented--and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening--is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy…

Todahl, Jeffrey L.; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

2008-01-01

407

2010-2011 Seed Grant Awards The Qualitative Research Interest Group (QRIG) at the Consortium on Race, Gender and  

E-print Network

of qualitative researchers from the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction, College Student Personnel-construct language expertise. Stephen John Quaye Assistant Professor College of Education College Student Personnel Program Engaging College Students in Difficult Dialogues: A Multi-Institution Study. This study

Milchberg, Howard

408

What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

2010-01-01

409

Writing Educational Biography: Explorations in Qualitative Research. Critical Education Practice; Volume 13. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1098.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection examines many influences of biographical inquiry in education and discusses methodological issues from the perspectives of veteran and novice biographers. The section on qualitative research and educational biography contains the following chapters: "Musings on Life Writing: Biography and Case Studies in Teacher Education" (Robert…

Kridel, Craig, Ed.

410

Qualitative research study of high-achieving females' life experiences impacting success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study investigated the life experiences of five academically gifted female students in math and science in reflection of their elementary learning prior to enrollment at a prestigious science and mathematics high school. The elite high school limits admission to the state of Illinois' top students. The purpose of this study is to unfold the story of five academically gifted females in attendance at the elite high school reflecting on their life experiences in elementary school that contributed to their current academic success. Twelve female students, who at the time of this study were currently in their senior year (12th grade) of high school, were solicited from the top academic groups who are regarded by their teachers as highly successful in class. Students were selected as part of the study based on academic status, survey completion and interest in study, Caucasian and Asian ethnicity, locale of elementary school with preference given to the variety of school demographics---urban, suburban, and rural---further defined the group to the core group of five. All female participants were personally interviewed and communicated via Internet with the researcher. Parents and teachers completing surveys as well met the methodological requirements of triangulation. An emergent theme of paternal influence came from the research. Implications supported in the research drawn from this study to increase achievement of academically gifted females include: (a) proper early identification of learner strengths plays a role; (b) learning with appropriate intellectual peers is more important than learning with their age group; (c) teachers are the greatest force for excellent instruction; (d) effective teaching strategies include cooperative learning, multi-sensory learning, problem-based learning, and hands-on science; (e) rigor in math is important; (f) gender and stereotypes need not be barriers; (g) outside interests and activities are important for self-concept; (h) high parental expectations and the parental role, especially the father's role, are imperative; and (i) reading avidly was preferred over watching television. Further research is needed to verify all components and interactions of the same with a greater sample of gifted students, by extending the study to include the male counterpart and by providing additional validity to elementary instruction and the success of academically gifted students.

Butcher, Ann Patrice

2003-07-01

411

Qualitative research to identify racialist discourse: towards equity in nursing curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional curriculum planning is beginning to address issues of equity. The authors report on findings from a research initiative to begin to integrate antiracism into an undergraduate curriculum. Theory and methods of Essed, Fanon, Frankenberg, Hall, van Dijk and Woodward are synthesized for interpreting racialist discourse. The findings support the principle of normalizing accountability for discourse practices which construct whiteness

Rebecca Hagey; Robert W MacKay

2000-01-01

412

The use of morphine to treat cancer-related pain: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research.  

PubMed

Morphine is the most commonly used opioid for severe cancer-related pain. Despite its established effectiveness, it is often used cautiously in clinical practice, particularly outside specialist palliative care. This review identifies the key social, contextual, and physical concerns held by patients, carers, and health care professionals when using morphine, which might explain the caution taken in its use. The review used an approach called critical interpretive synthesis (CIS), which combines conventional systematic review techniques with methods for interpretative synthesis of qualitative research. An existing review examining the effectiveness of morphine and a guideline on its use were synthesized with 19 qualitative articles to establish understanding of how context of use can affect the established effectiveness of morphine. The article argues for the appropriateness of CIS for answering questions of this type. The results demonstrate that using morphine is a balancing act and a trade-off between pain relief and adverse effects. Deep-seated concerns regarding the symbolism of morphine, addiction, and tolerance are held by patients, carers, and clinicians, which influence prescription and use. Cancer pain is a referent for disease status and has existential meaning, with the introduction of morphine becoming a metaphor for impending death. Cancer pain is intersubjective, with its perception and reporting influenced by those with whom the patient interacts. By understanding the context and social meaning surrounding the use of morphine to treat cancer pain, health care professionals can begin to anticipate, acknowledge, and address some of the barriers to its use, thereby enhancing pain control. PMID:19783398

Flemming, Kate

2010-01-01

413

Qualitative Analysis of Academic Program Review Reports: UC Berkeley Library’s Collaborative, Research-driven Approach for Strategic Planning and Continuous Improvement  

E-print Network

Design library enhancements through a collaborative and qualitative research approach that intensively studies our academicacademic program review documentation Use collaborative findings to inform the design of strategic library

Dupuis, Elizabeth A.; Loo, Jeffery L.

2014-01-01

414

Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Methods for Event-specific Detection of Genetically Modified Cotton Mon1445 and Mon531  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the DNA sequences of the junctions between recombinant and cotton genomic DNA of the two genetically modified (GM)\\u000a cotton varieties, herbicide-tolerance Mon1445 and insect-resistant Mon531, event-specific primers and probes for qualitative\\u000a and quantitative PCR detection for both GM cotton varieties were designed, and corresponding detection methods were developed.\\u000a In qualitative PCR detection, the simplex and multiplex PCR detection

Litao Yang; Aihu Pan; Kewei Zhang; Changsong Yin; Bingjun Qian; Jianxiu Chen; Cheng Huang; Dabing Zhang

2005-01-01

415

Hospitality marketing research from 2000 to 2009 : Topics, methods, and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of published marketing research within the top four hospitality journals and suggest future research directions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study selects the top four hospitality-oriented journals and analyzes the topics, methods, and trends of hospitality marketing articles published between 2000 and 2009 through a qualitative research design using content

Myongjee Yoo; Sojung Lee; Billy Bai

2011-01-01

416

A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

2007-01-01

417

Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Educational Research: Methods at the Margins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides new ways of thinking about educational processes, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Concrete examples of research techniques are provided for those conducting research with marginalized populations or about marginalized ideas. This volume asserts theoretical models related to research methods and the study of…

Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle, Ed.; Hunter, Cheryl A., Ed.; Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter, Ed.

2009-01-01

418

Teaching Note--Integrating a Social Justice Assignment Into a Research Methods Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social justice is a core value of social work, it can be more difficult to integrate into a research methods class. This article describes an assignment developed for a BSW one-semester research class that served the dual purpose of educating students about social justice as well as qualitative research. Students were instructed to…

Mapp, Susan C.

2013-01-01

419

SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE AND QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

The antagonism between the sociology of knowledge and standard research methods is examined in terms of the contemporary analysis of blue-collar workers. Qualitative methodology is suggested as a possible alternative to the historical research...

Bryan, Dexter

1972-10-01

420

Control Banding Nanotool: Evaluation of a qualitative risk assessment method for the control of nanoparticulate exposures  

SciTech Connect

Control Banding strategies offer a simplified control of worker exposures when there is an absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry fits this classification as there are overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. Many experts have suggested Control Banding as a solution for these issues. A recent survey shows a majority of nanomaterial users are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. A Control Banding Nanotool has been developed and implemented to afford a qualitative risk assessment toward the control of nanoparticle exposures. The international use of the Control Banding Nanotool reflects on both its need and its possibilities. By developing this dynamic Control Banding Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of Control Banding appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations. This success can be seen in providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them, and initiating an appropriate discussion of these risks with nonexperts. Experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters, affording better utility and consistency of research. This database of toxicological research findings should be harnessed and presented in a format feeding directly into the Control Banding Nanotool severity and probability risk matrix. Making the latest research available for experts and practitioners alike will provide the best protection of workers in the nanotechnology industries. This presentation will also show the science behind the simplified Control Banding Nanotool approach, its structure, weighting of risks, utility for exposure mitigation, and the research needs to bolster its effectiveness.

Zalk, D; Paik, S; Swuste, P

2009-01-27

421

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives  

E-print Network

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives The purpose of this course human development. This includes: (1) understanding basic principles of scientific research, measurement, and experimental design; (2) understanding the special methodological challenges of developmental research; (3

Klahr, David

422

Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

423

Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research  

SciTech Connect

A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

Vogt, J R [ed.

1980-01-01

424

Naturalistic Methods in Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes data gathering and analytic procedures, and then presents examples regarding how each fits into the naturalistic research model. From the interactionist perspective, called symbolic interactionism, meaning is of central importance. Naturalistic inquiry is a way of doing social science research which provides the methodological…

Hatch, J. Amos

425

Research Methods and Intelligibility Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…

Sewell, Andrew

2010-01-01

426

Business Research Methods: A Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide provides an overview and model of business research. First, introductory material defines research and discusses the benefits of studying business research methods for both producers and consumers of research. In the next section different types of research are discussed, including experimental, ex post facto, quasi-experimental,…

Dawson, George

427

Still too little qualitative research to shed light on results from reviews of effectiveness trials: A case study of a Cochrane review on the use of lay health workers  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is used increasingly alongside trials of complex interventions to explore processes, contextual factors, or intervention characteristics that may have influenced trial outcomes. Qualitative research conducted alongside trials can also be used to shed light on the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness by looking for factors that can help explain heterogeneous results across trials. In a Cochrane review on the effects of using lay health workers on maternal and child health and infectious disease control, we identified 82 trials. These trials showed promising benefits but results were heterogeneous. Objective To use qualitative studies conducted alongside these trials to explore factors and processes that might have influenced intervention outcomes. Methods We attempted to identify qualitative research carried out alongside the trials by contacting trial authors, checking papers for references to qualitative research, searching Pubmed for related studies, and carrying out citation searches. For those qualitative studies that we included, we extracted information regarding study objective, data collection and analysis methods, and key themes and categories. Results For 52 (63%) of the trials, we found no qualitative research that had been conducted alongside the trials. For 16 (20%) trials, some form of qualitative data collection had been done but was unavailable or had been done before the trial. For 14 (17%) trials, qualitative research had been done during or shortly after the trial, although descriptions of qualitative methods and results were often sparse. Most of these 14 studies aimed to elicit trial participants' perspectives and experiences of the intervention. A common theme was participants' appreciation of the lay health workers' shared circumstances, for instance with regard to social background or experience of the health condition. In six studies, researchers explored the experiences of the lay health workers themselves. Issues included the importance of regular supervision and health professionals' support or lack of support. Conclusions Qualitative studies carried out alongside trials of complex interventions could offer opportunities to authors of systematic reviews of effectiveness wishing to understand the heterogeneity of trial results. For interventions of lay health worker programmes at least, too few such studies exist at present for these opportunities to be realised. PMID:21619645

2011-01-01

428

Research Methods and Data Analysis Procedures Used by Educational Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the "American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)," "Journal of Experimental Education (JEE)" and "Journal of Educational Research (JER)" from…

Hsu, Tse-chi

2005-01-01

429

Research methods and data analysis procedures used by educational researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods\\/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ), Journal of Experimental Education (JEE) and Journal of Educational Research (JER) from 1971 to 1998. Results of the study show that almost three quarters of subject

2005-01-01

430

A Qualitative Investigation of Panelists' Experiences of Standard Setting Using Two Variations of the Bookmark Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only a small number of qualitative studies have investigated panelists' experiences during standard-setting activities or the thought processes associated with panelists' actions. This qualitative study involved an examination of the experiences of 11 panelists who participated in a prior, one-day standard-setting meeting in which either the…

Hein, Serge F.; Skaggs, Gary E.

2009-01-01

431

Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).  

PubMed

This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. PMID:23418918

Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

2013-10-01

432

Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in income from formal and informal sources all reinforce these preferences. While non-financial attributes are also important for Vietnamese doctors, the scale of the difference of opportunities presents a considerable policy challenge. Significant salary increases for doctors in hard-to-staff areas are likely to have some impact. However, addressing the differentials is likely to require broader market reforms and regulatory measures. PMID:21849045

2011-01-01

433

Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.  

PubMed

Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology. PMID:23521381

O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

2013-01-01

434

Post16 physics and chemistry uptake: combining large-scale secondary analysis with in-depth qualitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served three distinct purposes in the design of this

Gillian Hampden-Thompson; Fred Lubben; Judith Bennett

2011-01-01

435

The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

2012-01-01

436

Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

2011-01-01

437

Developing a method for comparing the elite sport systems and policies of nations: a mixed research methods approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to make a contribution to comparative sport research and details a method for comparing nations’ elite sport systems less descriptively by measuring and comparing determinants of national competitiveness quantitatively. A mixed methods exploratory sequential design is used, consisting of two distinct phases. After qualitative exploration, a conceptual model was developed, revealing that there are nine sport policy

Veerle de Bosscher; Simon Shibli; M. van Bottenburg; P. de Knop; Jasper Truyens

2010-01-01

438

Understanding use of health services in conditional cash transfer programs: insights from qualitative research in Latin America and Turkey.  

PubMed

Conditional cash transfer programs provide cash grants to poor households conditional on their participation in primary health care services. While significant impacts have been demonstrated quantitatively, little attention is paid to why CCTs have these observed impacts, and as importantly- why impacts are not greater than they are. This article draws on qualitative research from four countries over a ten year period (1999-2009) to provide insights into why expected health and nutrition impacts do and do not occur. In Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Turkey, ethnographic methods were used, involving between 87 and 120 households per country, and in Mexico, focus groups were conducted with 230 people. Key informant interviews were conducted with health care providers in all countries. While CCTs operate primarily on the assumption that a cash incentive will produce behaviour change, we found multiple sociocultural and structural influences on health care decisions that compete with cash. These include beliefs around traditional and modern biomedical practices, sociocultural norms, gender relations, and the quotidian experience of poverty in many dimensions. We conclude that impacts can be increased through a better understanding of multiple contextual influences on health care decisions, and greater attention to the health education components and complementary interventions. PMID:21122965

Adato, Michelle; Roopnaraine, Terry; Becker, Elisabeth

2011-06-01

439

Rigor In Grounded Theory Research: An Interpretive Perspective on Generating Theory From Qualitative Field Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a set of principles for the use of Grounded Theory techniques in qualitative field studies. Some issues and controversies relating to rigor in Grounded Theory generation are discussed. These include: inductive theory generation and emergence, how theoretical saturation may be judged, the extent to which coding schemes should be formalized, the objectivist- subjectivist debate, and the assessment

Susan Gasson

440

Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Freshman University Students in Extensive Listening: A Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies employed by Iranian freshmen in extensive listening. A group of 12 freshman university students were purposefully selected based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Four learners were identified as advanced, four as intermediate, and four as lower…

Bidabadi, Farinaz Shirani; Yamat, Hamidah

2014-01-01

441

What's in a name? Qualitative description revisited.  

PubMed

"Whatever Happened to Qualitative Description?" (Sandelowski, 2000) was written to critique the prevailing tendency in qualitative health research to claim the use of methods that were not actually used and to clarify a methodological approach rarely identified as a distinctive method. The article has generated several misconceptions, most notably that qualitative description requires no interpretation of data. At the root of these misconceptions is the persistent challenge of defining qualitative research methods. Qualitative description is a "distributed residual category" (Bowker & Star, 2000). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) in the classification of these methods. Its value lies not only in the knowledge its use can produce, but also as a vehicle for presenting and treating research methods as living entities that resist simple classification. PMID:20014004

Sandelowski, Margarete

2010-02-01

442

Contextualized Qualitative Research in Venezuela: Coercive Isomorphic Pressures of the Socioeconomic and Political Environments on Public Relations Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contextualized qualitative research, conducted in Venezuela in July 2004, tests and introduces the concept of coercive isomorphism to Sriramesh and Ver[cbreve]i[cbreve]'s (2003) global public relations theory. It does so by analyzing professional opinions and experiences concerning the status of the profession and how the country's socioeconomic and political environments impact the practice. Twenty-one top-level public relations professionals were interviewed

Juan-Carlos Molleda

2007-01-01

443

Reactions to Reading ,,Remaining Consistent with Method? An Analysis of Grounded Theory Research in Accounting: A Comment on Gurd  

E-print Network

Reactions to Reading ,,Remaining Consistent with Method? An Analysis of Grounded Theory Research, published in "Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management 5, 4 (2008) 253-261" #12;methods as the rules of the method. Accordingly, the researcher is free to develop his or her own techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Facilitating the Recruitment of Minority Ethnic People into Research: Qualitative Case Study of South Asians and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders. Methods and Findings Interviews were conducted with 36 researchers (19 UK and 17 US) from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and ten community leaders from a range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds, followed by self-completion questionnaires. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated where necessary, and transcribed. The Framework approach was used for analysis. Barriers to ethnic minority participation revolved around five key themes: (i) researchers' own attitudes, which ranged from empathy to antipathy to (in a minority of cases) misgivings about the scientific importance of the question under study; (ii) stereotypes and prejudices about the difficulties in engaging with minority ethnic populations; (iii) the logistical challenges posed by language, cultural differences, and research costs set against the need to demonstrate value for money; (iv) the unique contexts of the two countries; and (v) poorly developed understanding amongst some minority ethnic leaders of what research entails and aims to achieve. US researchers were considerably more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities, which appeared to a large extent to reflect the longer-term impact of the National Institutes of Health's requirement to include minority ethnic people. Conclusions Most researchers and community leaders view the broadening of participation in research as important and are reasonably optimistic about the feasibility of recruiting South Asians into asthma studies provided that the barriers can be overcome. Suggested strategies for improving recruitment in the UK included a considerably improved support structure to provide academics with essential contextual information (e.g., languages of particular importance and contact with local gatekeepers), and the need to ensure that care is taken to engage with the minority ethnic communities in ways that are both culturally appropriate and sustainable; ensuring reciprocal benefits was seen as one key way of avoiding gatekeeper fatigue. Although voluntary measures to encourage researchers may have some impact, greater impact might be achieved if UK funding bodies followed the lead of the US National Institutes of Health requiring recruitment of ethnic minorities. Such a move is, however, likely in the short- to medium-term, to prove unpopular with many UK academics because of the added “hassle” factor in engaging with more diverse populations than many have hitherto been accustomed to. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19823568

Sheikh, Aziz; Halani, Laila; Bhopal, Raj; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Partridge, Martyn R.; Car, Josip; Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark

2009-01-01

445

Decomposition methods in turbulence research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

Uruba, Václav

2012-04-01

446

The Delphi Method for Graduate Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

2007-01-01

447

Research Methods for Advanced Warfighting Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWEs) typify the Army's emerging need for more pragmatic and responsive research methods to address the changing climate of military research and improve future force capability. Formative force improvement enables or med...

C. W. Lickteig, D. W. Bessemer, S. E. Graham, W. M. Parry, J. R. Witsken

1996-01-01

448

Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

Suter, Larry E.

2005-01-01

449

Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP356043-5  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), labeling regulations have been introduced, which\\u000a require appropriate detection methods. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection,\\u000a especially for event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods, which have become the internationally agreed\\u000a state-of-art. This paper describes the character and event-specific quantitative detection method of DP-356043-5

Wen Tao Xu; Nan Zhang; Yun Bo Luo; Zhi Fang Zhai; Ying Shang; Xing Hua Yan; Juan Juan Zheng; Kun Lun Huang

450

Impact of social stigma on the process of obtaining informed consent for genetic research on podoconiosis: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The consent process for a genetic study is challenging when the research is conducted in a group stigmatized because of beliefs that the disease is familial. Podoconiosis, also known as 'mossy foot', is an example of such a disease. It is a condition resulting in swelling of the lower legs among people exposed to red clay soil. It is a very stigmatizing problem in endemic areas of Ethiopia because of the widely held opinion that the disease runs in families and is untreatable. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of social stigma on the process of obtaining consent for a study on the genetics of podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia. Methods We adapted a rapid assessment tool validated in The Gambia. The methodology was qualitative involving focus-group discussions (n = 4) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with community members, fieldworkers, researchers and staff of the Mossy Foot Treatment and Prevention Association (MFTPA) working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis. Results We found that patients were afraid of participation in a genetic study for fear the study might aggravate stigmatization by publicizing the familial nature of the disease. The MFTPA was also concerned that discussion about the familial nature of podoconiosis would disappoint patients and would threaten the trust they have in the organization. In addition, participants of the rapid assessment stressed that the genetic study should be approved at family level before prospective participants are approached for consent. Based on this feedback, we developed and implemented a consent process involving community consensus and education of fieldworkers, community members and health workers. In addition, we utilized the experience and established trust of the MFTPA to diminish the perceived risk. Conclusion The study showed that the consent process developed based on issues highlighted in the rapid assessment facilitated recruitment of participants and increased their confidence that the genetic research would not fuel stigma. Therefore, investigators must seek to assess and address risks of research from prospective participants' perspectives. This involves understanding the issues in the society, the culture, community dialogues and developing a consent process that takes all these into consideration. PMID:19698115

Tekola, Fasil; Bull, Susan; Farsides, Bobbie; Newport, Melanie J; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N; Davey, Gail

2009-01-01

451

Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

2014-01-01

452

Picture this: the use of participatory photographic research methods with people with learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that research that employs qualitative methods among vulnerable groups, such as people with learning disabilities, must reconcile the conflict between meeting recognized academic criteria, or measures of research ‘strength’, while at the same time appropriately and effectively representing the experiences and needs of vulnerable respondents. This article explores some of the tensions that lie within these

Jo Aldridge

2007-01-01

453

Death of Mixed Methods? Or the Rebirth of Research as a Craft  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classification by many scholars of numerical research processes as quantitative and other research techniques as qualitative has prompted the construction of a third category, that of "mixed methods", to describe studies that use elements from both processes. Such labels might be helpful in structuring our understanding of phenomena. But they…

Symonds, Jennifer E.; Gorard, Stephen

2010-01-01

454

Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 157.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions in this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative, and comparative and historical research to show how research sensitive to ethnic issues can best be conducted. Rethinking and revising traditional methodologies and applying new ones can portray racial and ethnic issues as they really exist. The…

Stanfield, John H., II, Ed.; Dennis, Rutledge M., Ed.

455

Intersectionality in Context: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Researching the Faculty Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a mixed-methods approach to integrating the methodological tools of social network analysis and qualitative research to explore intersectionality as it pertains to faculty experiences in institutional contexts. These research strategies, employed at the individual and aggregate levels, can be useful tools as institutions aim…

Pifer, Meghan J.

2011-01-01

456

Research Methods for Genetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the basic concepts of genes and genetic studies to clinicians. Some of the relevant methods and issues\\u000a in genetic epidemiology studies are briefly discussed with an emphasis on single nucleotide polymorphism based association\\u000a studies which are currently the main focus of clinical and translational genetics.\\u000a \\u000a Genetics is the fundamental basis of any organism so understanding of genetics

Sadeep Shrestha; Donna K. Arnett

457

Evaluating Student-Generated Film as a Learning Tool for Qualitative Methods: Geographical "Drifts" and the City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Film as a tool for learning offers considerable opportunity for enhancing student understanding. This paper reflects on the experiences of a project that required students to make a short film demonstrating their practical understanding of qualitative methods. In the psychogeographical tradition, students were asked to "drift" across the…

Anderson, Jon

2013-01-01

458

A Review of Qualitative Data Gathering Methods and Their Applications To Support Organizational Strategic Planning Processes. Study Number Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring existing methodologies to determine whether they can be adapted or adopted to support strategic goal setting, this paper focuses on information gathering techniques as they relate to the human resource development professional's input into strategic planning processes. The information gathering techniques are all qualitative methods and…

Wright, Phillip C.; Geroy, Gary D.

459

Qualitative research to identify racialist discourse: towards equity in nursing curricula.  

PubMed

Professional curriculum planning is beginning to address issues of equity. The authors report on findings from a research initiative to begin to integrate antiracism into an undergraduate curriculum. Theory and methods of Essed, Fanon, Frankenberg, Hall, van Dijk and Woodward are synthesized for interpreting racialist discourse. The findings support the principle of normalizing accountability for discourse practices which construct whiteness and otherness in their representations. Essentialist discourse practices are implicated in the perpetuation of racism, ableism, heterosexism, ageism, etc. Hence, the ideal of equity is expanded to include the enactment of non-essentialist discourse. The logic is revealed as either/or; either equity or dominance through normalized perpetuation of essential categories assigning negative value to others constructing difference, marginalization, problematization, exclusion and containment. The confused, middle or neutral position is one of condoning racism and other forms of dominance. PMID:10687809

Hagey, R; MacKay, R W

2000-02-01

460

Between forwarding and mentoring: a qualitative study of recommending medical doctors for international postdoctoral research positions  

PubMed Central

Background Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. Methods To explore the process of informal