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Qualitativemethods have much to offer those studying health care and health services. However, because these methods have traditionally been employed in the social sciences, they may be unfa- miliar to health care professionals and researchers with a biomedical or natural science background. Indeed, qualitativemethods may seem alien alongside the experimental and observational quant- itative methods used in clinical,
Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific\\u000a credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness\\u000a cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitativemethods\\u000a take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities
M. Lakshman; Leena Sinha; Moumita Biswas; Maryann Charles; N. K. Arora
RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATING ISSUES related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitativeresearchmethods\\u000a to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitativeresearch. The purpose\\u000a of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitativemethods. It begins by describing how qualitative\\u000a research is defined, key characteristics of qualitativeresearch,
|Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitativeresearchmethods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitativeresearch. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitativemethods. It begins…
Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitativemethods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitativemethods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitativeresearch in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitativemethods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices.
The purpose of this mixed methods case study was to examine the generalization practices in qualitativeresearch published\\u000a in a reputable qualitative journal. In order to accomplish this, all qualitativeresearch articles published in Qualitative Report since its inception in 1990 (n = 273) were examined. A quantitative analysis of the all 125 empirical qualitativeresearch articles revealed that a
Partial Contents: QualitativeResearchMethods in Drug and AIDS Prevention Research: An Overview; The Role of QualitativeResearch in the Global Program on AIDS at the World Health Organization; Drug Use, AIDS, and Ethnography: Advanced Enthongraphic Rese...
Pluralism offers promising ways forward for qualitativeresearch, invoking the use of multiple methods to investigate complex social questions. Drawing on two different research projects, we reflexively demonstrate, discuss, and illustrate our processes of working pluralistically. In various ways, we argue that multiple methods function smoothly if they are closely aligned with the broad assumptions underpinning the research, resulting in
Kerry Chamberlain; Trudie Cain; Joanna Sheridan; Ann Dupuis
Because of its potential for capturing complexity and process and its focus on communicating the meaning in human action, qualitativeresearch is rapidly gaining acceptance in a wide variety of disciplines. Various qualitative approaches to research support its potential usefulness in genetic counseling research. Formulation of research questions and selection of appropriate qualitativemethods are the first step. Interviewing, narrative
Abstract The Focus Group ( FG) has been actually employed by marketing, and is becoming importanct also in other areas; such as, education, health, management, decision-making, and information systems, among others. Depending on the research objective, the Focus Groupcan be used alone or in conjunction with other methods. The results obtained from the FGapplication are particularly effective in supplying information
The paper describes the difficulties encountered in trying to combine qualitative and quantitative researchmethods in a study of the relationship between moral reasoning and teenage drug use. Four problems that arose in the attempt to reduce qualitative data to a quantitative format are described. These problems are: (1) making analytic sense of singular responses; (2) a mistaken logical inference
Background In recent years, a growing number of methods for synthesising qualitativeresearch have emerged, particularly in relation to health-related research. There is a need for both researchers and commissioners to be able to distinguish between these methods and to select which method is the most appropriate to their situation. Discussion A number of methodological and conceptual links between these methods were identified and explored, while contrasting epistemological positions explained differences in approaches to issues such as quality assessment and extent of iteration. Methods broadly fall into 'realist' or 'idealist' epistemologies, which partly accounts for these differences. Summary Methods for qualitative synthesis vary across a range of dimensions. Commissioners of qualitative syntheses might wish to consider the kind of product they want and select their method – or type of method – accordingly.
There are no easy solutions to the problem of improving the quality of care. Research has shown how difficult it can be, but has failed to provide reliable and effective ways to change services and professional performance for the better. Much depends on the perspectives of users and the attitudes and behaviours of professionals in the context of their organisations
The current debate about quantitative and qualitativemethods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade
This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical…
In the belief that graduate nursing students should be able to analyze, evaluate, and critique both qualitative and quantitative researchmethods and should be able to design their own research projects, two faculty members developed a two-course sequence integrating the two methods. The authors, each an expert in one of the methods, describe how they designed and co-taught these innovative courses. PMID:10876529
Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitativeresearchmethod, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitativeresearch project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.
Teaching qualitativeresearchmethods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…
|This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitativeresearchmethods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles…
Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.
Since gameplay is only realized when the player and game interact, studying player experiences is complicated. Most research designs often emphasise either the structure of the game or the player in isolation of the game itself. In this study an attempt was made to test three different qualitativemethods to study playing styles and by extension player experiences, while trying
What do exemplary qualitative accounts look like, and how do they convince readers of their correctness? What sort of standards can be used to assess qualitativeresearch accounts for public administration? To address these questions, the authors examined 72 recent qualitativeresearch journal articles. Proceeding from a set of preliminary guidelines, they worked iteratively between articles and the emergent template
Ralph S. Brower; Mitchel Y. Abolafia; Jered B. Carr
This article is a preliminary attempt in outlining the directions for a new approach in confirming qualitativeresearch findings. The basic argument is that traditional Confirmation Theory may be applied to establish a firmer epistemological foundation for the acceptance of hypotheses within qualitative-ethnographic research. While all aspects of Confirmation Theory are not applicable to the qualitative case, because the probability
Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitativemethods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and cooperative grouping techniques using the triangulation method.
The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is abstract, very general and its value is usually taken for\\u000a granted. In contrast, this article attempts to show that the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is\\u000a unclear, poor and therefore of limited value and that its popularity risks leading to unfortunate consequences. Various arguments\\u000a are presented for this conclusion. For example,
Qualitativeresearch is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitativeresearch is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain
Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitativeresearchmethods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitativeresearch articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitativeresearch articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitativeresearch articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitativeresearch articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitativemethods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitativeresearch articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitativeresearch.
Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.
|A comparison is made between the tools of observation and research used by journalists to study society and the media, and the qualitative and clinical research tools used in the social and psychological sciences. The first part of the paper, a journalistic approach to sociology, traces the notion of the sociologist as a super-reporter using…
|There are two types of qualitativeresearch that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitativeresearch…
|This introductory level text provides a background for understanding the uses of qualitativeresearch in education, its theoretical and historical underpinnings, and specific methods of educational research. This revised edition places qualitativeresearch into the context of current discussions of researchmethods and alternative ways of…
This introductory level text provides a background for understanding the uses of qualitativeresearch in education, its theoretical and historical underpinnings, and specific methods of educational research. This revised edition places qualitativeresearch into the context of current discussions of researchmethods and alternative ways of knowing.…
This paper offers a concise overview of qualitativemethods in sport and the social sciences. A broad definition of qualitativeresearch is first offered, after which various qualitative traditions – ethnography, grounded theory, narrative inquiry and critical inquiry – are described. After describing these traditions, the paper highlights several ways in which social scientific sport researchers might collect data for
During 1994?95, a small team of researchers at the Scottish Council for Research in Education (SCRE) undertook a commissioned study of adults’ perceptions of their lifestyle options within a Scottish region. The findings of the research were intended to inform initiatives in health education and promotion. Two methods of data collection were employed: in?depth interviews and focus group meetings. In
Using mixed methods is an often proposed but rarely used research design. In this paper, I describe a mixed method approach\\u000a to research on international entrepreneurship. Using a mixed methods design with a case study and a mail survey, I show how\\u000a the two methods make it possible to reach a better understanding of the antecedents of organizational memory and
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitativeresearch in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitativeresearch. This paper reports on the
The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research sponsored a workshop on September 30 and October 1, 1999, entitled QualitativeMethods in Health Research: Opportunities and Considerations in Application and Review. The workshop was organized by the ...
Health care research includes many studies that combine quantitative and qualitativemethods. In this paper, we revisit the quantitative-qualitative debate and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. In addition, we discuss the implications stemming from our view, that the paradigms upon which the methods are based have a different view of reality and therefore a different view of
Abstract:We describe the evolution of qualitativeresearch practices across several years of field testing the Learning by Design ,curriculum. A variety ,of methods ,have been employed ,for the purpose of developing ,a deeper ,understanding ,of learning ,and the learner. Our ,approach ,to qualitativeresearch has changed over time as our evaluation goals have evolved, as no one practice is appropriate
Context: Focus groups are becoming an important method for conduct- ing qualitativeresearch in health care. This strategy enables information to be gathered on the perceptions, beliefs, and values of a group's participants and is particularly well suited to addressing cultural characteristics that impact on a population's health status. As nations become more culturally diverse, qualitativeresearch will likely play
JOSELUIS CALDERON; RICHARD S. BAKER; KENNETH E. WOLF
|This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "QualitativeResearchMethods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitativeresearch today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…
The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitativemethods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…
Through the course, students will be expected to conduct their own qualitative study on a topic chosen by the instructor. Students will work individually to collect data through in- depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations. They will work in small groups to analyze this data, and present the results of the analysis. Students will submit their interview guides and
Research on the dynamics of poverty has rarely been explored or explained qualitatively. The following article discusses an ongoing project combining a secondary longitudinal data analysis with qualitative interviews of young people with prior experience of child poverty. Unusually, the data from their years as survey sample methods will be compared to the interview transcripts. By extending the study of
The focus group approach for collecting qualitative data can be usefully applied in social gerontological studies, both in a single setting and cross-culturally. The experiences of the research terms participating in the Comparative Study of Asian Elderly in employing focus groups are described, and their advantages and disadvantages as a general method for gathering basic qualitative data are discussed. While
A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032
Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
|Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…
This article discusses the application of qualitativemethods in operations research on a family planning service delivery system. Market traders in Ibadan, Nigeria were trained to sell oral contraceptives, condoms, and spermicidal foaming tablets in a collaborative research project of the Fertility Research Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, and the Center for Population and Family Health of Columbia
Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitativeresearchers but can occur between qualitativeresearchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position. PMID:16954531
Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy
This chapter aims to analyze the cognitive mapping method as a tool for supporting qualitativeresearch, particularly to carry\\u000a out literature reviews, concept analysis and qualitative data examination. The author uses his own experience in using the\\u000a cognitive mapping method and in applying CmapTools software to understand the concept of partnership. The author highlights\\u000a some advantages and disadvantages in employing
As the use of qualitativemethods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitativeresearch should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a
|This article argues for the potential that email interviewing has as a qualitativemethod in educational research. The article draws on research that uses email as a way of generating online narratives in order to understand how academics construct their identities. In doing so, the article considers the challenges that email interviewing poses…
Examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this introductory text addresses media and communication researchmethods. Written for beginning research students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples. Attention-grabbing dialogue begins each chapter and gives…
|Examining both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this introductory text addresses media and communication researchmethods. Written for beginning research students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, the book is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples. Attention-grabbing dialogue begins each chapter and gives…
This article, from a keynote address, is the result of some of the things which I learned about qualitativeresearch during my many years of doing and teaching it. The main point I make is that qualitativeresearchers should present a good story which is based on evidence but focused on meaning rather than measurement. In qualitative inquiry, the researchers' selves are involved, their experiences become a resource. Researchers cannot distance themselves from the other participants, although they cannot fully present their meaning and experience. I also discuss voice, paradigm, and innovation as potentially problematic issues in qualitativeresearch. These are terms often used but not always examined for their meaning in qualitative inquiry. If researchers are aware and sensitive, rather than overemotional or self-absorbed, qualitativeresearch can be enlightening, person-centered, and humanistic. PMID:21266705
|Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitativemethods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitativeresearch classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitativeresearchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitativeresearch. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other
Contemporary aspects of researchmethods in sport and exercise psychology are discussed in this wide-ranging review. After an introduction centred on trends in sport and exercise psychology methods, the review is organized around the major themes of quantitative and qualitativeresearch. Our aim is to highlight areas that may be problematic or controversial (e.g. stepwise statistical procedures), underused (e.g. discriminant
Stuart J. H. Biddle; David Markland; David Gilbourne; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Andrew C. Sparkes
This paper examines the current status of qualitative and quantitative research in the context of UK (public) health research in cancer. It is proposed that barren competition between qualitative and quantitative methods is inevitable, but that effective synergy between them continues to be essential to research excellence. The perceived methodological utility, with respect to understanding residual uncertainties, can account for the status accorded various research techniques and these will help to explain shifts witnessed in recent years and contribute towards an understanding of what can be realistically expected in terms of future progress. It is argued that the methodological debate, though familiar to many, is worthy of rearticulation in the context of cancer research where the psychosocial aspects of living with a cancer and the related complexity of providing appropriate cancer care are being addressed across Europe, as evidenced in recent directions in policy and research. PMID:12296843
This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitativemethods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitativeresearch. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduded data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.
This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitativemethods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitativeresearch. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduced data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.
In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitativeresearch. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitativeresearch. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal.
In order to examine the importance of “quantitative” vs. “qualitative” tourism research, similar developments in anthropology arc examined. In addition, the impact of such thought upon marketing is discussed. The tradeoffs of choosing “qualitative” or “scientific” techniques are overtly considered, “science” and “art” in research are operationally defined, and the strength of each method is juxtaposed and justified. Such an
This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitativemethods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology). In addition, it outlines recent trends in qualitative criminology. The potentials and the limits of a perspective of \\
The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.
|Explicitly qualitativeresearch has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…
Four primarily quantitative researchers in the field of sport and exercise psychology offer their observations on qualitativemethods. Topics addressed include their assessment of certain strengths and weaknesses of qualitativeresearch, frustrations and concerns in reading and evaluating qualitativeresearch, and speculation on the future of qualitativeresearch in sport and exercise psychology.
Robert C. Eklund; Karin A. Jeffery; Urska Dobersek; Seongkwan Cho
The paper systematizes the role of qualitativemethods, statistical analyses, and formal network analysis in sociological\\u000a network research, and argues for their systematic combination. Formal network analysis mainly aims at a description of network\\u000a structures as well as at an explanation of the behavior of the network at the systemic level. Formal network analysis can\\u000a also be used in order
In the evaluation of drugs, the randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial is the 'gold standard'. This method, based on a positivist paradigm, answers questions about efficacy and side-effects of treatments that are accepted as valid, reliable and generalisable, provided the study is well designed and properly conducted. In contrast, qualitativeresearch methodologies, originating from the social sciences, embrace a variety of approaches, including phenomenological and other paradigms. Within clinical and health services research, qualitative approaches view the world more subjectively, acknowledging that the researcher is part of what is researched, focusing on meanings and understanding of experience, rather than on what can be reduced to quantitative measures. They can develop new ideas through induction from data, rather than confirming or refuting hypotheses. Qualitativemethods have improved our understanding of the experiences of people with dementia and, if used alongside clinical trials, could be used to improve the relevance of outcomes to patients, compliance and user involvement. They could also possibly generate new measures of efficacy and effectiveness in severe dementia. PMID:15226116
Gibson, Grant; Timlin, Alison; Curran, Stephen; Wattis, John
With changes in U.S. federal guidelines mandating inclusion of children in clinical research, more and more children are being sought as subjects in clinical trials. As research participants, children are more vulnerable than adults because of cognitive and emotional development, legal capacity, level of autonomy, and dependence on family influence. The purpose of this article is to describe the methods
Joanne M. Hall; Patricia E. Stevens; Pamela K. Pletsch
The use of photo researchmethods is influenced by underlying ontological and epistemological assumptions. Variant assumptions about reality and knowledge converge to conceive a relationship between the knower and what can be known. These assumptions provide the rationale for decided ways of engaging participants in the process of scientific inquiry. In this paper, we examine how perspectives of realism and relativism may shape epistemological understandings and influence type and use of photo methods in qualitativeresearch. Based on deliberations about underlying ontological and epistemological assumptions and related strengths and challenges of photo methods, we assert that photo methods contribute to the development of knowledge that both matters to participants and informs nursing practice. PMID:18582296
Qualitativeresearch exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as ‘good’ science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This essay contests this methodological fundamentalism, and interrogates the politics of re?emergent scientism, the
Norman K. Denzin; Yvonna S. Lincoln; Michael D. Giardina
|Qualitativeresearch exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy.…
Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.
This research seeks to contribute to advancing qualitative methodologies at the intersection of qualitative geographic information systems (GIS), narrative analysis, 3D GIS-based time-geographic methods, and computer-aided qualitative data analysis. The approach to GIS-based narrative analysis developed in the study, called “geo-narrative,” is based on extending current GIS capabilities for the analysis and interpretation of narrative materials such as oral histories,
Mixed methodsresearch is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methodsresearch most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.
Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
The aim of this article is to open a discussion on Nursing researchmethods. Authors give some thoughts on qualitative nursing research and underlining the difference between positivistic and teleological vision. Relationship between inductive and deductive thinking is discussed. PMID:10474458
We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitativemethod to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.
Presents research approaches using qualitativemethods that are needed as alternatives to traditional, quantitative methods. Describes the three qualitativemethods of participant-observation, in-depth interviewing, and life histories and case studies. Discusses exemplars of qualitative techniques for research in counselor education and…
There are aspects of the human experience that cannot be enumerated or represented by a summary score. Clinicians in the surgical\\u000a disciplines intuitively know this, yet often are not certain how to evaluate the perspectives and circumstances of their patients’\\u000a experiences. Qualitativeresearch is systematic inquiry that focuses on exploring and understanding the experiences of individuals\\u000a and groups. Both the
Donna L. Berry; Sally L. Maliski; William J. Ellis
Qualitativeresearch aims to address questions concerned with developing an understanding of the meaning and experience dimensions of humans’ lives and social worlds. Central to good qualitativeresearch is whether the research participants’ subjective meanings, actions and social contexts, as understood by them, are illuminated. This paper aims to provide beginning researchers, and those unfamiliar with qualitativeresearch, with an
Ellie Fossey; Carol Harvey; Fiona Mcdermott; Larry Davidson
Following Haring's (1992) recommendation, we have utilized qualitativeresearch techniques to assist us in designing a program of research on inclusive education which is responsive to the outcome values and priorities identified by teachers and parents. Using interviews, observations, and document analysis to follow 35 children in full inclusion classrooms over a period of two years, we have described outcomes
Ilene S. Schwartz; Debbie Staub; Chrysan Gallucci; Charles A. Peck
In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…
|In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each…
Qualitativeresearch approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…
Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael
|Qualitativeresearch approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…
Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael
The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitativeresearch (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in terms of the consensus
Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox; Barbara J. Thompson; Elizabeth Nutt Williams; Shirley A. Hess; Nicholas Ladany
In this article, we introduce strategies and procedures for collecting and analyzing qualitative data and discuss other aspects of qualitativeresearch such as the role of theory. There are multiple traditions of qualitativeresearch, each with its own methods and terminology. Here, we provide a generic approach to qualitativeresearch that is consistent with most qualitativeresearch traditions. This article consists of nine sections: 1) Introduction, 2) Research Questions and Study Design, 3) Collecting Data, 4) Processing Data, 5) Coding and Analyzing Data, 6) Multiple Representations and Making Inferences, 7) Theoretical perspectives, 8) An Illustration of the Research Process and 9) Validity and Reliability in QualitativeResearch. Throughout this article, strategies and examples are provided to help researchers that are both new and veterans to Physics Education Research (PER) to get started in qualitative PER.
|A current movement in qualitativeresearch is a preoccupation with representation of the "other" (Denzin and Lincoln 1994). Feminists, critical theorists and postmodernists have questioned the dominant, legitimized social order and remained sensitive to the multiple issues related to and emanating from power. This paper briefly reviews the…
The authors review the contribution of qualitativemethods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…
Discusses the advantages of using qualitativemethods for services marketing research. Describes in particular the use of an “integrative” qualitativeresearch methodology in relation to a study concerning quality in marketing in a services context. Suggests that the development of an “integrative” qualitativeresearch methodology is built on the very practical need for researchers to develop the “best” possible methodologies
|The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the researchmethods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitativeresearch methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…
More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitativemethods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitativemethods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…
|More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitativemethods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitativemethods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…
People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitativemethods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions. PMID:23801355
Discusses the role of research in nursing education, its purpose and problems, and whether nursing research methodology should continue as is or change. Two case studies of research that used qualitative methodology are presented and discussed. (CT)
|The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitativeresearch studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitativeresearchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…
For qualitativeresearchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and researchmethods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitativeresearchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data.
This article provides an overview of how qualitativeresearchmethods (QRMs) can augment the literature in child and adolescent clinical psychology by contributing to theory and hypothesis building. We discuss the utility of qualitativemethods in examining the nature of clinical processes and obtaining deeper understandings about quantitative…
There seems to be a continuous flow of new and revised books to support the teaching and learning of researchmethods in education and related fields. At one level, this is to be welcomed in an area such as research methodology where there is no single, widely accepted and coherent overview of the subject. The availability of diverse voices and…
Despite the hostility to positivism shown by qualitative methodologists in nursing, as in other disciplines, the epistemological and ontological instincts of qualitativeresearchers seem to coincide with those of the positivists, especially Bayesian positivists. This article suggests that positivists and qualitativeresearchers alike are pro-observation, proinduction, pro-plausibility and pro-subjectivity. They are also anti-cause, anti-realist, anti-explanation, anti-correspondence, anti-truth. In only one respect is there a significant difference between positivist and qualitative methodologists: most positivists have believed that, methodologically, the natural sciences and the social sciences are the same; most qualitativeresearchers are adamant that they are not. However, if positivism fails as a philosophy of the natural sciences (which it probably does), it might well succeed as a philosophy of the social sciences, just because there is a methodological watershed between the two. Reflex antagonism to positivism might therefore be a major obstacle to understanding the real reasons why qualitativeresearch and the natural sciences are methodologically divergent; and less hostility on the part of qualitative nurse researchers might bring certain advantages in its wake. PMID:11885869
In sociological research on sport exists a predominance of questionnaire and quantifying methods, inquiry techniques aimed at establishing representative fea tures. Not enough attention is paid to the question whether the method adopted is at all in accordance with the questions asked and the subject matter. If based on the methodology of symbolical interactionism this methodology deals with the entire
This article reports how quantitative and quaiita- tive methods were combined in a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of interreiation ships be- tween perceptions of work and a computer in- formation system. The articie describes the problems and contributions stemming from different research perspectives and methodolo- gical approaches. It illustrates four methodolo- gical points: (1) the value of combining quaiita- tive and
This article is concerned with the possibility that the development of mixed methodsresearch is being hindered by the tendency that has been observed by some researchers for quantita- tive and qualitative findings either not to be integrated or to be integrated to only a limited extent. It examines findings from 20 interviews with U.K. social researchers, all of whom
Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base.
With an aging population, concerns for road safety point to a growing need for research into the driving attitudes and habits of older adults. In this review of the qualitative literature, we have identified 25 studies that used focus groups or interviews to learn about the experiences and concerns of older drivers. The review addresses four themes: (1) The importance
Fauzia Gardezi; Keith G. Wilson; Malcolm Man-Son-Hing; Shawn C. Marshall; Frank J. Molnar; Bonnie M. Dobbs; Holly A. Tuokko
|This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitativeresearch that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…
There is considerable confusion in the educational literature about the nature of qualitativeresearch. In this article I argue that a major source of the confusion arises from discussing qualitativeresearch as if it is one approach. The discussion in the educational literature concerning qualitativeresearch can be clarified by recognizing that qualitativeresearch comes in many different varieties, which
Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitativemethods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitativeresearch against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitativemethods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitativemethods against the standards set by qualitativeresearchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitativemethods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no references to qualitative; methodological terms such as thematic analysis or constant comparative methods were used inconsistently; qualitative was a catch-all panacea rather than a methodology with well-argued terms or contextual definition. PMID:21295895
Objective: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitativeresearch and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. Background: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitativemethods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. Description: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. Applications: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitativeresearchmethods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used.
Survey research with diverse cultural and ethnic minority groups is a complex and challenging endeavor that confronts the researcher with problems related to linguistic and conceptual equivalence and measurement as well as problems related to difficulties that respondents have with the sociocultural dimensions of the survey\\/interview process. One way to improve the quality of cross-cultural surveys and to insure that
The lack of enthusiastic research activity among counseling professionals has been a subject of professional concern for the last 2 decades. Many graduates of counselor education programs are not connected to academic research and do not establish a research identity. Qualitativeresearchmethods have the potential for creating this connection for…
Reisetter, Marcy; Korcuska, James S.; Yexley, Melinda; Bonds, Deborah; Nikels, Holly; McHenry, William
|Qualitativeresearch has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitativemethods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants…
Notwithstanding the voluminous literature devoted to research genres, more investigation needs to be conducted to demonstrate the pedagogical significance of studying linguistic features in relation to communicative functions. Motivated by a concern for the pedagogical applicability of genre analysis, this paper investigates the extent to which…
In this article, the authors critically examine the use of space in education research and illustrate how spatial analyses of education reframe persistent educational problems in productive, actionable ways. The authors juxtapose critical spatial analyses with traditional temporal analyses. The authors approach the knowledge-construction process…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitativeresearch but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitativeresearch and the structure of a qualitative…
|Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitativeresearch traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitativeresearch, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…
Methods of qualitative dynamical systems are introduced in the study of general gravitational fields near the initial singularity. Using a synchronous reference frame it is proved that any cosmological singularity in a globally hyperbolic spacetime contai...
|Describes qualitative techniques and their use in industrial and vocational psychology for theory generation, elaboration, and testing. Discusses research design, data analysis, and best practices using qualitativemethods. Contains 54 references. (SK)|
Lee, Thomas W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Sablynski, Chris J.
Qualitativeresearch methodology focuses on individuals' lived experiences as they are presented in thoughts, ideas, feelings, attitudes and perceptions. In addition, the research approach emphasizes human behaviour and social inter- action. It explores the quality of a phenomenon, not the quantity. This article outlines the major characteristics of qualitativeresearch methodology and gives applications and examples. The aim of qualitative
Quantitative research dominates published literature in the helping professions. Mixed methodsresearch, which integrates quantitative and qualitative methodologies, has received a lukewarm reception. The authors address the iterative separation that infuses theory, praxis, philosophy, methodology, training, and public perception and propose a…
McLafferty, Charles L., Jr.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
OBJECTIVE: To explain the ethnographic, phenomenologic, and grounded theory approaches to qualitativeresearch and to describe how these approaches can be applied to contemporary topics related to athletic training education. BACKGROUND: Athletic training education has recently experienced an increase in the use of qualitativemethods, and various qualitative approaches are viable for answering many questions related to athletic training education. Ethnography focuses on describing a culture or subculture. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of lived human experience. Grounded theory focuses on developing theory related to social processes. Each approach is contextual and attempts to facilitate insight and understanding related to the human condition. DESCRIPTION: We provide an in-depth discussion of each of the selected qualitative approaches and explain the focus and unique data-collection and data-analysis strategies and identify the distinctive outcomes of each approach. Each research approach has a distinct purpose, and the specific application is driven by the questions asked. We also identify questions that are amenable to a specific method. APPLICATIONS: To better understand the interactive nature of education and learning, athletic training researchers are beginning to ask questions that require information to be gathered about meaning, contexts, culture, and processes. Such questions are best answered through the use of qualitativeresearchmethods that most commonly include ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory. In order for athletic training professionals to gain the most from the research conducted, it is essential that they have an understanding of the theoretic underpinnings of these methods and when each should be used. PMID:12937540
Reports concepts which 12th-grade physics students hold about motion before and after a lecture is given. Compares quantitative and qualitativeresearch methodology and describes some responses to test items. Shows six questions, student responses, and typical incorrect explanations used by students.
During the past two decades, a set of systematic comparative case analysis techniques has been developing at a steady pace. During the last few years especially, the main initial technique, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), has been complemented by other related methods and techniques. The purpose of this article is to critically assess some main recent developments in this field. QCA
In this article we question the “ethicism” that often permeates the discourse on qualitativeresearch, that is, the implicit idea that qualitativeresearch is ethically good in itself, or at least ethically superior to the uncaring quantitative approaches. In order to throw light on the ethics of qualitative interviews in contemporary consumer societywhat has also been called “the interview society”we
A management course included a qualitativeresearch module in which a panel of three faculty researchers demonstrated their methods (interpretive, grounded theory, and critical discourse analysis) using an interview transcript. Class discussion and a 6-month follow-up focus group indicated the module demystified data analysis and illustrated…
For institutional researchers, the choice to use a quantitative or qualitative approach to research is dictated by time, money, resources, and staff. Frequently, the choice to use one or the other approach is made at the method level. Choices made at this level generally have rigor, but ignore the underlying philosophical assumptions structuring beliefs about methodology, knowledge, and reality. When
Qualitativeresearchmethods are systematic approaches to knowledge development that do not involve quantification. Such methods are used widely in nursing to understand the lived experience and the socioeconomic contexts of cardiovascular health and illness. The evolution of qualitativemethods through three phases - traditional, modern and postmodern - frames the discussion. Three common qualitativemethods - ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory - are presented. Applications of qualitativemethods have contributed to an understanding of such phenoma as adjustment after myocardial infarction, the experience of an acute cardiac event, the experience of chronic heart disease, the family and the cardiac illness experience, family adjustment to heart transplantation, physical activity practices of working women and family influence on individual health-related decisions in response to heart health intiatives. Postmodern approaches are briefly discussed. Participatory research is presented as an example of a postmodern approach to knowledge development. It is posited that interdisciplinary and multimethod cardiovascular research programs that incorporate qualitativemethods will strengthen knowledge development in the cardiovascular field by contributing to an understanding of complex issues related to cardiovascular health and illness for individual persons, families, communities and populations, and to program and policy development. PMID:10863170
The author feels that the solution of most problems in theoretical physics begins with the application of qualitativemethods - dimensional estimates and estimates made from simple models, the investigation of limiting cases, the use of the analytic properties of physical quantities, etc. This book proceeds in this spirit, rather than in a formal, mathematical way with no traces of
|This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitativeresearch.|
In this essay, qualitativeresearch is shown to consist of a set of methods that fits very nicely with some of the research questions asked by organizational and vocational psychologists. Because many researchers want additional tools, interest in these qualitative techniques appears to be growing. Two metagoals of this article are (a) to bolster this growing interest and (b) to
Thomas W. Lee; Terence R. Mitchell; Chris J. Sablynski
This article describes the status of qualitativeresearch in applied linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL), identifying trends through an informal survey of professional journals, an examination of relevant qualitative studies and researchmethods texts, and a presentation of the views of researcher methodologists. (88 references)…
|In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitativemethods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the…
This paper first identifies the differing assumptions and perspectives of management practitioners, qualitativeresearchers, and quantitative researchers. Special attention is given to the question of 'research for what', and 'what should the output of re...
Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitativeresearch process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe
Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitativeresearch process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to partic- ipate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to
Reviewing literature in qualitativeresearch can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitativeresearchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitativeresearchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…
Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene
|Reviewing literature in qualitativeresearch can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitativeresearchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitativeresearchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…
Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene
This article is concerned with ethical issues that have to be considered when undertaking qualitativeresearch. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as in other types of research and have their basis in moral and ethical principles. Qualitativeresearch, however, generates specific ethical problems because of the close relationship that researchers form with participants. Qualitativeresearch with patients is especially difficult because of their vulnerability and lack of power in the clinical situation. Therefore the potential conflict between the dual role of the nurse--the professional and the research roles--has to be solved. Researchers also learn how to cope with the tension of subjective and objective elements of the research. Nurses who attempt qualitativeresearch have to consider a variety of complex ethical issues, which are addressed in this paper. PMID:7583428
Background Qualitativeresearch appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitativeresearch and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitativeresearch over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitativeresearch in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitativeresearch was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitativeresearch; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitativeresearch). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitativeresearch publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitativeresearch was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b?=?3.688, P?=?0.012); and with qualitativeresearch specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b?=?6.847, P<0.001). Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitativeresearch was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b?=?1.776, P?=?0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitativeresearch. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitativeresearch in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitativeresearch, as expressed by the appearance of specific guidelines and editorials/methodological papers on the subject, are independently associated with the publication of original qualitativeresearch; irrespective of the journals' impact factor.
Qualitativeresearch evokes rather stereotyped responses from the mainstream of social science. The following 10 standardized responses to the stimulus "qualitativeresearch interview" (QRI) are discussed: (1) it is not scientific, only common sense; (2) it is not objective, but subjective; (3) it is not trustworthy, but biased; (4) it is not…
The American Psychological Association Task Force recommended that researchers always report and interpret effect sizes for quantitative data. However, no such recommendation was made for qualitative data. Thus, the first objective of the present paper is to provide a rationale for reporting and interpreting effect sizes in qualitativeresearch. Arguments are presented that effect sizes enhance the process of verstehen\\/hermeneutics
This article identifies and explores some unresolved problems surrounding the role of theory and evidence in qualitativeresearch. It begins by distinguishing among various meanings of the term ‘theory’, focusing in particular on the view that portrays it as consisting of specific explanatory principles. An ambivalence towards theory on the part of qualitativeresearchers is highlighted, showing how the influence
|The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitativeresearch results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitativeresearchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…
|Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitativeresearch in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitativeresearch in general, as well as within counseling…
|This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of QualitativeResearch, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of QualitativeResearch"). "The…
Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitativeresearch. Background Cross-language qualitativeresearch involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitativeresearchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitativemethods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitativeresearch approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.
This article presents the argument that combining visual methods with other qualitativeresearchmethods enhances the inherent strengths of each methodology and allows new understandings to emerge. These would otherwise remain hidden if only one method were used in isolation. In a qualitative inquiry of an elementary teacher's constructivist…
Examines various criteria that have been proposed for evaluating the increasing number of empirical studies carried out using qualitativeresearchmethods and demonstrates how such criteria may privilege certain forms of qualitativeresearch while excluding others. Select existing evaluative criteria for qualitativeresearch proposed by applied…
|Examines various criteria that have been proposed for evaluating the increasing number of empirical studies carried out using qualitativeresearchmethods and demonstrates how such criteria may privilege certain forms of qualitativeresearch while excluding others. Select existing evaluative criteria for qualitativeresearch proposed by applied…
The frequency of qualitative studies in the Emergency Medicine Journal, while still low, has increased over the last few years. All take a generic approach and rarely conform to established qualitative approaches such as phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory. This generic approach is no doubt selected for pragmatic reasons but can be weakened by a lack of rigor and understanding of qualitativeresearch. This paper explores qualitative approaches and then focuses on “best practice” for generic qualitativeresearch.
BackgroundQualitativeresearch appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitativeresearch and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitativeresearch over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication.DesignA quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitativeresearch in 67 journals of general
Kerem Shuval; Karen Harker; Bahman Roudsari; Nora E. Groce; Britain Mills; Zoveen Siddiqi; Aviv Shachak; Lise Lotte Gluud
Introduction: Research in psychiatry overwhelmingly relies on quantitative methodology. However, qualitativeresearch may be an invaluable tool in psychiatry. Its potential under utilisation is multi factorial: it is still regarded by some as a \\
This article addresses the possibility of combining quantitative and qualitativeresearch approaches. The paradigms underlying quantitative and qualitativeresearch (for example, positivism and postmodernism) are identified. The limitations and strengths of both approaches are highlighted, and the conclusion is reached that a combination of the two methods builds on the strengths of both. This is followed by a discussion of
Aim. This article aims to identify the contributions of qualitativeresearch to evidence-base d practice in nursing. Background. Qualitativeresearch dates back to the 1920s and 1930s, when anthropologists and sociologists used qualitativeresearchmethods to study human phenomena in naturalistic settings and from a holistic viewpoint. Afterwards, other subject matters, including nursing, adopted qualitativemethods to answer their research
|This article discusses the importance of mixed-methodsresearch, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methodsresearch for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…
BackgroundFeldenkrais Method balance classes have been found to be effective in improving balance in recent studies, but there has been little research into possible mechanisms behind the effectiveness of these classes. Indeed, there has been little research into the content of any balance training classes.
Karol A. Connors; Mary P. Galea; Cathy M. Said; Louisa J. Remedios
We are flooded with a wave of writings on causality in the social sciences during the last decades. The same holds for the\\u000a relationship between quantitative and qualitativeresearch in the social sciences. An enormous amount of texts appears on\\u000a (causality in) qualitativeresearch, mostly in a controversy with quantitative research. These writings induced us to develop\\u000a the thesis of
With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet researchmethods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitativeresearchmethod. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitativeresearchmethod are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback. PMID:22918135
Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitativeresearch study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…
Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro
|The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative researchmethods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitativeresearch conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…
|This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…
Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.
The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…
The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitativeresearch of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitativeresearch. Students, as neophyte…
|Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at…
With the current emphasis on accountability for outcomes and the need for objective evaluation of efficacy of interventions, physiotherapists are increasingly using evidence from research as a source of information to support clinical decision making. The concept of evidence- based practice has been adopted widely in physiotherapy with much work devoted to encouraging the transfer of research results into clinical
This article discusses developments in the field of qualitative methodology since the publication of King, Keohane, and Verba's (KKV's) Designing Social Inquiry. Three areas of the new methodology are examined: (1) process tracing and causal-process observations; (2) methods using set theory and logic; and (3) strategies for combining qualitative and quantitative research. In each of these areas, the article argues,
It is widely believed that there is a clear distinction between `quantitative' and `qualitative' research, and these embedded or institutionalised terms profoundly affect the practice of such research. In this article the clarity and\\/or usefulness of the distinction is challenged together with the whole idea that there are given `methodologies' for research. Almost everything turns on conceptual clarity in relation
The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitativeresearch paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms
The majority of logistics research is primarily populated by quantitative research viewed through a positivist lens. Increasingly, there are calls for logistics research to more frequently employ qualitative methodologies. The trend in management research generally is increasingly to use methods and approaches which provide a middle ground between the contrasting positivist and phenomenological paradigms and perspectives. Methodological triangulation, using quantitative
|As qualitativeresearch methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the QualitativeResearch Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…
The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involv...
|The value of qualitative assessment approaches has been underestimated primarily because they are often juxtaposed against long-standing quantitative traditions and the widely accepted premise that the best research produces generalizable and statistically significant findings. Institutional researchers avoid qualitativemethods for at least…
This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitativeresearch with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…
Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro
|This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitativeresearch with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…
Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro
|"ResearchMethods in Education" introduces researchmethods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions. It weaves…
This article describes the significance of qualitative methodologies in capturing the complexities of the disability experience. The authors discuss some of the principles of qualitativeresearch and show how those principles lend themselves to the new disability paradigm that has emerged in the last 20 years. They give examples of three disability studies in which qualitativemethods were used to
The paper urges that researches into the social scientific aspects of sport centrally depend on distinctive epistemological assumptions, ignored at researchers’ peril. Given the ‘question?and?answer’ (i.e. erotetic) relation between research questions and researchmethods in sport, ‘qualitativeresearch’ into sport is best recognised as research dealing with persons viewed as persons. But such interpersonal conceptions automatically import an ethical dimension;
Qualitativeresearchers often use other principles for judging the quality of their study than quantitative researchers. This\\u000a inhibits a straightforward assessment of the quality and comparability of different types of studies, as well as decision-making\\u000a about their usefulness for further research and practice. In this article, we question the use of alternative criteria, and\\u000a argue for one coherent and inclusive
|Bringing the various elements of qualitativeresearch papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…
Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan
States that there are two general approaches to reasoning which may result in the acquisition of new knowledge: inductive reasoning commences with observation of specific instances, and seeks to establish generalisations; deductive reasoning commences with generalisations, and seeks to see if these generalisations apply to specific instances. Most often, qualitativeresearch follows an inductive process. In most instances, however, theory
Often associated with early stages of individual and organizational change is exploration of basic premisses or assumptions held by individuals. Management faculty could benefit from an increased awareness of epistemological and values assumptions that they and others are applying in their educational planning and classroom instructional choices. Multiparadigmatic qualitativeresearch on the evolving field of management education itself might allow
Leading a large, highly productive department that must compete on the global stage requires an increasingly broad skill-set. This study investigates whether there are methods that life science department chairs can employ to enhance the research productivity of their pre-tenure faculty and examines if leadership at the department chair level matters. Using a qualitative approach to examine six highly successful life science departments and their leaders as well as focus group interviews with nine pre-tenure faculty members, this study brings new discovery to the field of department chair leadership. This study validates the importance of department chair leadership while revealing the special skill-set that is important, the positive effects of mentoring on pre-tenure faculty, and that motivation may be linked to the culture of an organization. The results of this research are important for higher education institutions looking to build department of scholarly excellence, especially in the life sciences.
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the potential for learning from customers of a market leader through qualitative marketing research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents findings from a study that applies a combination of quantitative and qualitativeresearchmethods. An online variation of an existing qualitativeresearchmethod is proposed. Findings – The results suggest that
Alexander E. Reppel; Isabelle Szmigin; Thorsten Gruber
|The relationship between the philosophy, theory, and methods of different research paradigms is explored in this article. Specific theoretical perspectives, critical theory, postmodernism, critical race theory, queer theory, and feminist theory are explored in the context of their political values and implications for qualitativeresearch.…
The proliferation of qualitativemethods in educational research has !ed to considerable controversy about standards for the design and conduct of research. Thzs controversy has been playing itself out over the last several decades largely in terms of the quantitative- qualitatzve debate. In this paper we argue that framzng the issue of standards m terms of quantztative-quahtatzve debate zs mzsguided.
Qualitative counseling and psychotherapy research produced in the United Kingdom and in Canada and the United States is examined. It is shown that the methods and methodologies in the British research have been influenced by postmodern epistemology more than in North American work, which reflects a greater effect of positivism. Correspondingly, it is shown that a higher value has been
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and illustrate blind qualitative hypothesis testing, which is a qualitativeresearch technique that further generalizes the well-known notion of “blindness” in research to include a qualitativeresearcher. The technique introduces a method to test a priori hypotheses using qualitative, emergent observation and analysis without the biasing influence of prior knowledge
Background Qualitativeresearch makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitativeresearch in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitativeresearch involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitativeresearch in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.
Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary
BACKGROUND: Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic \\
Reflexivity is an English term that Spanish speaking people have to assign a technical meaning. Reflexivity expresses the conscience of researchers conscience and refers to their connection with the study's situation. It is a process by which researchers step back to critically exam the effect they have on the study and the impact of their interactions with participants. The reflexive process is embedded in all research levels and is present in all the research phases, from the research question to fieldwork, from data analysis to writing the final report. Nevertheless, the question is not so much to engage in reflective activities but to be a reflexive researcher. Reflexivity is a human ability that is present during social interactions. For this reason it is present in qualitativeresearch. A self inquirer can be addressed as it is constructed by the relationships and interactions that are established with study participants. Reflexivity has an educational character that continues after the study is completed. PMID:21531602
Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This article suggests that qualitativeresearch offers a
Interest in how qualitative health research might be used more widely to inform health policy and medical practice is growing. Synthesising findings from individual qualitative studies may be one method but application of conventional systematic review methodology to qualitativeresearch presents significant philosophical and practical challenges. The aim here was to examine the feasibility of synthesising qualitativeresearch using qualitative
Historical and contemporary developments in feminist thinking on theory and method are considered. The critique of positivism is outlined, together with the affinity between feminist research and qualitativemethods. Dilemmas are raised concerning: a false dualism between quantity and quality; ethical concerns; and writing in the personal. There are contradictory positions within the contemporary argument for methodological pluralism, such that
We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community-based qualitativeresearch. Qualitativeresearch activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitativeresearch practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's
|This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitativeresearch is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitativeresearch are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitativeresearch in depth, including developing…
The authors of articles examining quantitative and qualitativeresearch frequently highlight and over-emphasise the differences in these two research paradigms. Differences are typically portrayed as dichotomous vs. differences in emphasis or degree. Additionally, similarities and shared middle ground are often ignored. The above perspective can lead to incomplete, inaccurate and misleading reviews on both types of research. Furthermore, the above
Readers should also refer to the journal’s website at http:\\/\\/www.informaworld.com\\/rqrs and check volume 2, issue 2 to view the visual material in colour.Adopting visual methods can enhance our understanding of the social world. By encompassing a multitude of forms including photographs, videos, maps, diagrams, symbols and so forth, images can provide specific information about our existence. They can also act
OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitativeresearch are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitativeresearch and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitativeresearch have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitativeresearch is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitativeresearch will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitativemethods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitativeresearch, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitativeresearch results. Images Figure 1
The concept of theme is critical to the accurate interpretation of qualitative data. A literature review of qualitativeresearch methodology and nursing research studies reveals considerable diversity in the identification of themes, the interpretation of the concept, and its function in data analysis. Part of the problem is the transfer of researchmethods from other disciplines to the study of nursing phenomena. The transfer often results in a blending of distinct researchmethods that compromises methodological rigor in data analysis and theory generation. A definition of theme is developed from the literature review and interdisciplinary definitions and descriptions. Five aspects of a theme and criteria foundational to the definition and concept of theme are identified. Implications of the concept of theme are presented for the conduct and application of research findings to the practice and development of nursing science. PMID:10804897
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new qualitativemethod that is theoretically underpinned by cognitive anthropology. This research strategy is introduced to further advance the understanding of complex green consumer behavior – in this case life-cycle analysis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper examines the contextual aspects of problem-solving behavior of green, environmentally concerned consumers. Cognitive anthropology
Objectives: To demonstrate the beneé ts of applying meta ethnography to the synthesis of qualitativeresearch, by means of a worked example. Methods: Four papers about lay meanings of medicines were arbitrarily chosen. Noblit and Hare' s seven-step process for conducting a meta ethnography was employed: getting started; deciding what is relevant to the initial interest; reading the studies; determining
One of the initial and challenging processes that research students and students undertaking research modules encounter is the formation or appraisal of the research question. Research questions acquire significance as the rigor and validity of the research project rests on the extent to which the conclusions of the study have answered the research question. For qualitative studies the research question acquires even greater significance since the notions of audit trail, which commences from the research question is considered as an indication of a valid or not research. Hence, the formation of a qualitativeresearch question requires to be based on a framework as to have specific content, coherence and structure. The content takes the form of a declarative statement that provides focus on a specific issue, but at the same time allows enough flexibility as for variables to emerge from the data. The coherence should smoothly bridge the philosophical/theoretical propositions of the qualitative paradigms with the practical execution of the study and this is achieved by the use of specific verbs, nouns and phrases. Lastly, the structure needs to adequately answer to the who, when, where, what, how and why of the study. PMID:17714834
We present a set of evolving guidelines for reviewing qualitativeresearch, to serve four functions: to contribute to the process of legitimizing qualitativeresearch; to ensure more appropriate and valid scientific reviews of qualitative manuscripts, theses, and dissertations; to encourage better quality control in qualitativeresearch through better self- and other-monitoring; and to encourage further developments in approach and method. Building on a review of existing principles of good practice in qualitativeresearch, we used an iterative process of revision and feedback from colleagues who engage in qualitativeresearch, resulting in a set of seven guidelines common to both qualitative and quantitative research and seven guidelines especially pertinent to qualitative investigations in psychology and related social sciences. The Evolving Guidelines are subject to continuing revision and should not be used in a rigid manner, in order to avoid stifling creativity in this rapidly evolving, rich research tradition. PMID:10532145
This essay outlines focus groups as a relatively new method of research for the com munication and organizational researcher. The needs for this type of research, essen tial ingredients of a quality focus group session, and the advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. A theoretical framework is established and specific instances of the application of focus groups in
Computers have been used for half a century in research using textual data but the introduction of software to support qualitative analysis has proven controversial in a way that it never was in the field of content analysis. To understand this controversy, and its implications for qualitativeresearch, we begin with a description of qualitative software. We note that for
|Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitativemethods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitativeresearch methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using…
|This study examined how qualitativeresearch is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitativeresearch content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…
Qualitativeresearch is becoming increasingly popular amongst curriculum subject specialists and this is noticeable amongst geographical educators seeking alternative approaches to conducting studies concerned with complex human phenomena. It has not been ascertained just what conception geographical educators have of qualitativeresearch. In this paper we seek to address the questions: What is the experience of qualitativeresearch possessed by
|This Policy Research Brief explores the strengths of qualitativeresearch and the types of information it can make available to policymakers concerned with issues affecting persons with disabilities. The naturalistic methodology employed in qualitativeresearch is described. Three specific studies using qualitative methodology are excerpted and…
In this paper I will examine the boundaries between positivism, interpretivism and pseudoscience, arguing that some qualitativeresearchers may risk the credibility of nursing research by utilizing concepts from the margins of science. There are two major threats to the perceived rigour and credibility of qualitativeresearch in its many forms. First is a trend in some work towards a mystical view of both the methods and the content of the qualitative enterprise. This can be detected, I will argue, in the work of Rosemary Parse in particular. The second potentially damaging trend is almost its epistemological opposite, towards excessive reliance on precise procedures, strict definitions and verification exemplified by Juliet Corbin and others. I will suggest that this is nothing to fear, but something to be clear about. This is not social constructionism or interpretivism but a 'qualitative' version of positivism. The paper concludes that students and researchers should be cautious in the uncritical acceptance of theories and 'research' which approach the boundaries of pseudoscience on the one hand, and 'hard' science on the other. PMID:10403982
Introduction Radiography, as with other health care professions, aims towards establishing full professional recognition. A recognized research back- ground is considered an essential component of this. Usually, emphasis is placed on quantitative research which focuses on the deductive component of the scientific 'confirmatory' method. However, this situation changed after the emergence of a post-positivist philosophy of medical research, which suggests
BackgroundThe dance literature has been researching injuries risk factors but results are divergent. New factors need to be searched and the qualitativemethods are a good way to search.ObjectivesTo search factors that affect the health of the dancers, from the dancer's representations.DesignThis is a cross-sectional study using a qualitative approach, from the perspective of the dancers.SettingProfessional dancers of a public
C Silveira Bolling; T Marcio Magalhães Pinheiro; A Martinez Hernaez
|Qualitative criticism is a method of understanding things, actions, and events within a social framework. It is a method of acquiring knowledge to guide decision making based on local knowledge and a synthesis of principles from criticism and qualitativeresearch. The function of qualitative criticism is centered with Richard Rorty's theoretical…
Considering the case of William James, the author examines the likelihood of a successful career as a qualitativeresearcher in contemporary U.S. psychology. Fifty-seven journals affiliated with the American Psychological Association or its divisions were analyzed to show the place of qualitativeresearch in U.S. psychology over the past 50 years. Journal abstracts, mission statements, and a short e-mail questionnaire from editors were used to understand patterns and trends in qualitativeresearch in U.S. psychology. Editors are generally accepting of qualitative work, although mission statements do not always signal likely interest in qualitative work. The amount of qualitative work published is comparably low, but patterns of increased publication are found in some journals. Trends in methodologies, topics of research, and ways in which qualitativeresearch enters journals over time are discussed. Suggestions for the publication of qualitative work are provided. PMID:18348429
The authors contend that qualitativeresearch should be scrutinized for its usefulness in the discovery of substantive theory. They try to present generic elements of the process of generating substantive theory from qualitative data, and consider how the researcher collects and analyzes qualitative data, max imizes the theory's credibility, puts trust in his theory, and conveys the theory to others.
Discusses a number of important issues pertaining to the domain of qualitative market research. Attempts to define what qualitativeresearch is about and discuss some of the difficulties involved in coming up with a clear definition of the qualitative paradigm. Suggests a number of issues relating to theory and practice that warrant the existence of a new journal devoted specifically
Instrumentation rigor and bias management are major challenges for qualitativeresearchers employing interviewing as a data generation method in their studies. A usual procedure for testing the quality of an interview protocol and for identifying potential researcher biases is the pilot study in which investigators try out their proposed methods…
The number of older athletes is growing with the aging of populations across the developed world. This article reviews studies from a variety of disciplines that focus specifically on the motives and experiences of older adults competing in physically demanding sports at events such as masters and veterans competitions in Australia or the Senior Olympics in North America. It is shown that the majority of research into this phenomenon has taken a quantitative approach or failed to consider older athletes' experiences in the context of broader sociocultural discourses. Therefore, using the author's research into the experiences of older Australian masters athletes as a catalyst, the need for and strength of sociological qualitativeresearch in this area is discussed. The use of qualitativemethods, such as in-depth interviews and observations, and interpretive analysis provided alternative ways of making sense of older adults and their relationship with competitive sport to what is typically found in the sport and aging literature. PMID:17215556
Background. Qualitativeresearch explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. Objective. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (indepth interviews and focus groups). Methods. We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell
With the increased popularity of qualitativeresearch, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methodsresearch designs. It defines mixed methodsresearch, discusses its origins and philosophical basis,
William E. Hanson; John W. Creswell; Vicki L. Plano Clark; Kelly S. Petska; J. David Creswell
|In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitativeresearch. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.
Most qualitativeresearchers do not recommend generalization from qualitative studies, as this research is not based on random\\u000a samples and statistical controls. The objective of this study is to explore the degree to which in-service teachers understand\\u000a the controversial aspects of generalization in both qualitative and quantitative educational research and as to how this can\\u000a facilitate problems faced by the
Qualitativeresearch consists of methods that allow for a more in-depth understanding of phe nomena and encompasses techniques such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, and participant observation. The guidelines that pertain to sampling and analysis are different from those which govern quantitative techniques, but they can be applied just as rigorously to ensure the validity of the results. This article
This report investigates the application of qualitativemethods of nonlinear analysis to problems of power system stability. It examines applications of bifurcation analysis, continuation methods, algebraic-geometry, differential topology, differentiable dynamical systems and functional (input-output) analysis to analyze nonlinear dynamical systems such as those used to model the behavior of an electric power system. The work reported here hs developed computational methods of analysis, both numerical and non-numerical; and it uses simple power system stability examples to illustrate the general methods.
|This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitativeresearch. Following a "researcher-as-instrument," or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitativeresearch are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards…
Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…
Objectives Cross-language qualitativeresearch occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitativeresearch was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitativeresearchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other authors examining this issue. The analysis demonstrated that the criteria produced by this study may provide useful guidelines for evaluating cross-language research and for novice cross-language researchers designing their first studies. Finally, the study also indicates that researchers attempting cross-language studies need to address the methodological issues surrounding language barriers between researchers and participants more systematically.
The traditional quantitative emphasis of health services research obscures the fact that qualitative techniques are the best means of investigating the evaluation of certain health services research problems. Two evaluation studies employing qualitativemethods are described to illustrate the appropriateness of such methods for addressing certain research questions. A brief discussion of current opinion concerning reliability and validity issues associated
Myrna Silverman; Edmund M. Ricci; Margaret J. Gunter
|The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitativeresearch, and many qualitativeresearchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…
|This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitativeresearch participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitativeresearchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
|This paper reviews developments in qualitativeresearch in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitativeresearch has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…
|The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitativeresearch conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitativeresearch are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
A quick search using the key word qualitative on the Canadian Family Physician website generated more than 100 qualitativeresearch articles published in the past 3 years alone. This paper provides an overview of the history of science to help readers appreciate the basic epistemo- logical commonalities and differences between qualita- tive and quantitative approaches to research.
Generalization, which is an act of reasoning that involves drawing broad inferences from particular observations, is widely-acknowledged as a quality standard in quantitative research, but is more controversial in qualitativeresearch. The goal of most qualitative studies is not to generalize but rather to provide a rich, contextualized understanding of some aspect of human experience through the intensive study of
|In a climate of increased accountability, standardization, federal control, and politicization of education research and scholarship, this article briefly reviews various positions outlined by qualitativeresearchers about quality in qualitative inquiry, showing how these are implicated in the acquisition, conceptualization, and use of…
Freeman, Melissa; deMarrais, Kathleen; Preissle, Judith; Roulston, Kathryn; St. Pierre, Elizabeth A.
Writing the proposal for a qualitativeresearch methodology study is a double challenge because of the emergent nature of qualitativeresearch design and because a methodology study entails describing a process to produce a process. How the authors addressed this chal- lenge is shown in the annotated text of the grant proposal—\\
|The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitativeresearch. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1)…
This article refers to recent debates about the potential methodological costs and benefits of computer use in qualitativeresearch and about the relationship between methodological approaches (eg. 'Grounded Theory') on the one hand and computer-aided methods of qualitativeresearch on the other. It is argued that the connection between certain computer-aided strategies and methodological approaches is far more loose than
The publication of a special section of 8 qualitative studies in the Journal of Counseling Psychology marks a growing recognition of the contribution that qualitativeresearch can make to the discipline. The researchers of the 8 studies used an adaptation of the grounded theory method as their design. The theories generated by the studies are positively evaluated with constructivist criteria.
|This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitativeresearch" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitativemethods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals…
Randomized field experiments should take a more central place in qualitativeresearch. Although field experimentation is often considered a quantitative enterprise, this paper illustrates the compatibility of field experimentation with various types of qualitative measurement tools and research questions. Integrating qualitative and quantitative data within field experiments allows investigators to move past simple average treatment effects and explore mechanisms of
|This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.
|Excerpts from a seminar presentation "Studies in Adult Education" discussing Freire's conception of social research and his opinion of how his ideas, born in a Latin American context, might be applied to Africa. (Author/MW)|
This paper presents a qualitative simulation method for analyzing employee group behavior by integrating QSIM (Qualitative SIMulation) with basic causal reasoning. A description method for complex interactions between environment, management policy and group behaviour is designed. A qualitative simulation method including the simulation rules and a simulation engine is then proposed. The validation of the proposed method is tested, and
PURPOSE We wanted to review and synthesize published criteria for good qualitativeresearch and develop a cogent set of evaluative criteria. METHODS We identified published journal articles discussing criteria for rigorous research using standard search strategies then examined reference sections of relevant journal articles to identify books and book chapters on this topic. A cross-publication content analysis allowed us to identify criteria and understand the beliefs that shape them. RESULTS Seven criteria for good qualitativeresearch emerged: (1) carrying out ethical research; (2) importance of the research; (3) clarity and coherence of the research report; (4) use of appropriate and rigorous methods; (5) importance of reflexivity or attending to researcher bias; (6) importance of establishing validity or credibility; and (7) importance of verification or reliability. General agreement was observed across publications on the first 4 quality dimensions. On the last 3, important divergent perspectives were observed in how these criteria should be applied to qualitativeresearch, with differences based on the paradigm embraced by the authors. CONCLUSION Qualitativeresearch is not a unified field. Most manuscript and grant reviewers are not qualitative experts and are likely to embrace a generic set of criteria rather than those relevant to the particular qualitative approach proposed or reported. Reviewers and researchers need to be aware of this tendency and educate health care researchers about the criteria appropriate for evaluating qualitativeresearch from within the theoretical and methodological framework from which it emerges.
This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitativeresearchmethods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitativeresearch procedures in North America. The choice points and alternatives in phenomenological research in psychology are delineated.
|A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitativeresearchmethods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic…
Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther
The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitativeresearch study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…
|Objective: To identify how qualitativeresearch has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded,…
Objective: To identify how qualitativeresearch has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…
Discussions regarding standards for assessing qualitativeresearch have not sufficiently addressed questions concerning the privatization of this type of analysis. In response to this dilemma, the authors of this article address some of the strategies that they have employed in working with doctoral students and offer suggestions for assessing and publicly disclosing the methodological rigor and analytical defensibility of qualitative
Vincent A. Anfara; Kathleen M. Brown; Terri L. Mangione
Purpose – To contribute to improved research practices by addressing three key realities in management research, all being largely disregarded by research: complexity, context and persona (the human and social aspects of researcher behaviour). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on observations from real world cases and inductive analysis the article proceeds as a scientific discourse and advocacy for qualitative methodology combined with
|Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitativeresearch data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in…
This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitativemethods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitativemethods course…
The purposes of this article are to position mixed methodsresearch (mixed research is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methodsresearch, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methodsresearch. In doing this, we briefly review the paradigm “wars”
Considering the case of William James, the author examines the likelihood of a successful career as a qualitativeresearcher in contemporary U.S. psychology. Fifty-seven journals affiliated with the American Psychological Association or its divisions were analyzed to show the place of qualitativeresearch in U.S. psychology over the past 50 years. Journal abstracts, mission statements, and a short e-mail questionnaire
Qualitativeresearch creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitativeresearch, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitativeresearch projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data.
|There is a sparse body of literature about students' and instructors' experiences in graduate qualitative courses. In this study, 11 doctoral students and one instructor employed a narrative framework to uncover our perceived truths about our experiences as we interacted, studied, pondered, and journeyed through a qualitativeresearchmethods…
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to determine the mix of qualitative and quantitative research published in major marketing journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study involved a content analysis of 1,195 articles published between 1993 and 2002 in three prominent marketing journals. Findings – It was found that 24.80 per cent of articles employed qualitativemethods in some form,
In this article, the authors apply the findings of research into transitional processes in the arts to a consideration of qualitativeresearch. They identify and describe four types of transitional practice: the transferential, the transformational, the transpositional, and the transgressional. Transitional practices in both art and research are found to be dialectical, involving presencing and absencing, doing and undoing, and
|This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitativeresearch texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…
Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The
Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye
This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitativeresearch texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…
|States that community colleges must pay attention to the multiethnic environments in which they exist. Presents an annotated bibliography that offers perspectives on diversity in education and research, which may help practitioners and researchers to understand how to conduct qualitativeresearch sensitive to the cultures of their subjects.…
Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…
With the increased popularity of qualitativeresearch, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…
Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.
|Over the last decade, research and teaching activities have increasingly undergone review by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). This paper presents seven case reports of research that has been regulated by IRBs, including examples from the contexts of funded projects, student research in dissertations, and qualitativemethodsresearch courses.…
This is a report of the experience of several months' ethnographic research by a genetic counselor researcher in a cancer treatment clinic. One goal of the exercise was to directly experience a method of qualitativeresearch known as ethnography, which relies heavily on participant-observation, in an applied clinical setting. Another goal was to explore a previously undescribed research area in
June A. Peters; Carol L. McAllister; Wendy S. Rubinstein
Background Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitativeresearchmethods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix) through qualitativeresearchmethods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries. Methods This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitativeresearch methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase. Results The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education), pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators). This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans. Conclusion Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitativeresearch methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitativeresearch methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries that may possibly be useful for prevention or future quantitative research.
Nursing research has not evolved with immunity from the qualitative-quantitative debate which has surrounded the behavioural and social sciences. The outcome of this debate should be better nursing science since researchers are forced to face and address the controversial issues. Attaining this goal requires researchers to debate the issues with a knowledge of epistemology and methodology and not blind devotion to the tradition of the hard sciences. This paper addresses the issues of epistemology, methodology, and ethics for two prototypes of the qualitative-quantitative continuum. Grounded theory explains the issues of qualitativeresearch: the search for meaning, the inclusion of environmental factors, the depth of data, and the treatment of participants as subjects. The true experiment, the epitomy of the quantitative approach, seeks to identify existing truths by isolating the significant variables and controlling for contaminating factors. Based on these arguments, recommendations are made for nursing research which rely on both approaches. PMID:3848448
|Qualitativeresearchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…
Qualitativeresearchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…
Qualitativeresearchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context, word count, classical content analysis, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, conversation analysis,
This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within
Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…
Proposes a conceptualisation of “entrepreneurial marketing” based on the practices of successful entrepreneurs. The methodology took account of specific issues in researching entrepreneurs such as lack of common understanding of management terms, and the influence of ego on participants’ responses. Depth interviews used critical incident technique to elicit accounts from entrepreneurs of their marketing practices. Focus groups supplemented individual interviews
The aim of this article was to provide a quantitative researchers’ perspective on qualitativeresearch applied to sport and exercise psychology. Specifically, we aimed to identify some of the ‘problems’ that researchers adopting a predominantly quantitative, ‘natural science’ approach to psychological phenomena in psychology have with qualitative approaches. In addition, we also identified, as researchers from a predominantly background, the
Background Multisite qualitative studies are challenging in part because decisions regarding within-site and between-site sampling must be made to reduce the complexity of data collection, but these decisions may have serious implications for analyses. There is not yet consensus on how to account for within-site and between-site variations in qualitative perceptions of the organizational context of interventions. The purpose of this study was to analyze variation in perceptions among key informants in order to demonstrate the importance of broad sampling for identifying both within-site and between-site implementation themes. Methods Case studies of four sites were compared to identify differences in how Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers implemented a Primary Care/Mental Health Integration (PC/MHI) intervention. Qualitative analyses focused on between-profession variation in reported referral and implementation processes within and between sites. Results Key informants identified co-location, the consultation-liaison service, space, access, and referral processes as important topics. Within-site themes revealed the importance of coordination, communication, and collaboration for implementing PC/MHI. The between-site theme indicated that the preexisting structure of mental healthcare influenced how PC/MHI was implemented at each site and that collaboration among both leaders and providers was critical to overcoming structural barriers. Conclusions Within- and between-site variation in perceptions among key informants within different professions revealed barriers and facilitators to the implementation not available from a single source. Examples provide insight into implementation barriers for PC/MHI. Multisite implementation studies may benefit from intentionally eliciting and analyzing variation within and between sites. Suggestions for implementation research design are presented.
The quantitative?qualitative debate positions researchers between two apparently opposed epistemological extremes: the positivist or experimental and the constructivist or contextual. In this article, I argue that the two research traditions are not mutually exclusive: rather they are inextricably linked. Further, seemingly divergent assumptions about objective reality simply represent different understandings about our relationship to reality, and both have validity under
Scholars who are drawn to qualitativeresearch methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
This article discusses how the underlying assumptions and practices of teacher research position it as a distinct form of educational inquiry, and identifies qualitative methodology as a central influence on the work. A discussion of some of the common conceptualizations and processes of PK-12 teacher research, the complex yet continually changing…
Purpose – This paper seeks to depict an overall picture of an exploratory research journey to exemplify how qualitative studies on little understood phenomena can be done successfully. The paper aims to show how the author adopted an appropriate approach and an apposite methodology to cope with the uncertainty, stress and ambiguity arising during exploratory research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper
Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along
|The quality of qualitativeresearch has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to…
Offers a positive example of how small firms can benefit from low cost qualitative market research techniques to determine achievable advantageous marketing strategies. The issue of identifying “customer perceived value” was chosen as the prime focus. The experimental Pilot Programme featured a series of depth interviews and a focus group session. The research benefited from the inclusion of some classical
: In this paper we will approach another qualitative marketing research type based ona new relation â€“ from laboratory to reality . In fact believe and do not research is an oldsaying stepped out of the marketing specialists’ vocabulary. The increased competition and thequick rhythm of the technologies’ evolution and together with them of the products and services areengines that
Abstract The quantitative and qualitativeresearch traditions can be thought of as distinct cultures marked by dierent,values, beliefs, and norms. In this essay, we adopt this metaphor toward the end of contrasting these research traditions across ten areas: (1) approaches to explanation, (2) conceptions of causation, (3) multivariate expla- nations, (4) equifinality, (5) scope and causal generalization, (6) case selection,
|Learning how to conduct qualitativeresearch may seem daunting for those new to the task, especially given the paradigm's emphasis on complexity and emergent design. Although there are guidelines in the literature, each project is unique and ultimately the individual researcher must determine how best to proceed. Reflexivity is thus considered…
To learn the skills of qualitative analysis, 28 nursing students selected research questions, interviewed each other, and conducted data analysis. Students' analyses had 89% agreement with the instructor's on the topic of lab-to-clinic skill transfer, 96% agreement on the influence of experience, and 61% on nervousness during clinical supervision.…
Ethnography is a type of qualitativeresearch that gathers observations, interviews and documentary data to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The use of ethnographic research in medical education has produced a number of insightful accounts into its role, functions and difficulties in the preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to ethnography - its history, its differing forms, its role in medical education and its practical application. Specifically, the Guide initially outlines the main characteristics of ethnography: describing its origins, outlining its varying forms and discussing its use of theory. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. In addition, the Guide goes on to offer a range of ideas, methods, tools and techniques needed to undertake an ethnographic study. In doing so it discusses its conceptual, methodological, ethical and practice challenges (e.g. demands of recording the complexity of social action, the unpredictability of data collection activities). Finally, the Guide provides a series of final thoughts and ideas for future engagement with ethnography in medical education. This Guide is aimed for those interested in understanding ethnography to develop their evaluative skills when reading such work. It is also aimed at those interested in considering the use of ethnographic methods in their own research work. PMID:23808715
Reeves, Scott; Peller, Jennifer; Goldman, Joanne; Kitto, Simon
Background Qualitativeresearch has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitativeresearch studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitativeresearch published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitativeresearch articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitativeresearch it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.
ObjectivesComputer-based provider order entry (CPOE) systems are implemented to increase both efficiency and accuracy in health care, but these systems often cause a myriad of emotions to arise. This qualitativeresearch investigates the emotions surrounding CPOE implementation and use.MethodsWe performed a secondary analysis of several previously collected qualitative data sets from interviews and observations of over 50 individuals. Three researchers
Dean F. Sittig; Michael Krall; JoAnn Kaalaas-Sittig; Joan S. Ash
Bibliographic research developed among the 24 fascicles from the "Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem" presented in the SciELO database, from 2005 to 2008. The objective was to identify emergent themes on qualitativeresearches published on a nursing periodic; correlate theses themes with the knowledge production in nursing and reflect about the social role of these qualitativeresearches analyzed. After analysis, 173 qualitative studies were identified, and three categories arose: nursing training, areas of practice, nursing care basis/ principles/ conceptions, and professional issues. In the relationship among the categories, the patterns of knowledge and the social role highlight the social-political knowledge, reflecting the profession maturation regarding intrinsic social issues, part of it social body; and extrinsic, the demands from society. PMID:21755223
To develop a set of recommendations for authors of qualitative studies in the field of health informatics, we conducted an extensive literature search and also manually checked major journals in the field of biomedical informatics and qualitativeresearch looking for papers, checklists, and guidelines pertaining to assessing and reporting of qualitative studies. We synthesized the found criteria to develop an initial set of reporting recommendations that are particularly relevant to qualitative studies of health information technology systems. This paper presents a preliminary version of these recommendations. We are planning to refine and revise this version using comments and suggestions of experts in evaluation of health informatics applications and publish a detailed set of recommendations. PMID:21893872
Niazkhani, Zahra; Pirnejad, Habibollah; Aarts, Jos; Adams, Samantha; Bal, Roland
Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…
|Directed at practitioners in adult and career education, this document defines qualitativeresearch, compares qualitativeresearch to quantitative research, describes the "war" between proponents of each kind of research, describes how to assess qualitativeresearch, and explains how to choose and use qualitative techniques. Pitfalls of using…
The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the United States about quantitative and qualitativeresearch paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitativeresearchers, who often view themselves in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, i.e., researchers…
|In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitativeresearch studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research…
Given that recent literature reviews on physical activity in urban parks deliberately excluded qualitative findings, we reviewed qualitativeresearch on this topic informed by a published classification scheme based on quantitative research. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies relied mainly on semi-structured interviews with individuals or in focus groups; only five studies involved in situ observation. Our synthesis aligns with previous quantitative research showing that attributes including safety, aesthetics, amenities, maintenance, and proximity are important for encouraging park use. Furthermore, our synthesis of qualitativeresearch suggests that perceptions of the social environment entwine inextricably with perceptions of the physical environment. If so, physical attributes of parks as well as perceptions of these attributes (formed in relation to broader social contexts) may influence physical activity patterns. Both qualitative and quantitative methods provide useful information for interpreting such patterns, and in particular, when designing and assessing interventions intended to improve the amount and intensity of physical activity. PMID:20356780
McCormack, Gavin R; Rock, Melanie; Toohey, Ann M; Hignell, Danica
This paper presents a new qualitative data interpretation and data compression method, which is based on modified adaptive k-means clustering algorithm. Conventional qualitative data interpretation methods that are based on control charts, such as Shewart, CUSUM, and EWMA control charts, are focused upon detection of changes from steady state values, so they are not suitable for describing transient or dynamic
Kyung Joo Mo; Sooyung Eo; Dongil Shin; En Sup Yoon
This course is an introduction to qualitativemethods in political science. After a review of the main competing epistemological approaches, we concentrate on the most prevalent qualitativemethod in political science: the comparative case-study. We then turn to interpretivism, ethnography, and discourse analysis, and their respective applications in political science. Class Requirements: Three 10 page papers, as well as reaction
This article presents a framework for thinking about the fundamental activities of inference--data analysis and interpretation--by researchers using qualitative data. I contrast these two activities. For analysis I describe seven operations: categorization, abstraction, comparison, dimensionalization, integration, iteration, and refutation. For interpretation I suggest metaphor and other literary devices as models for understanding the meanings of others, identifying patterns in these
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the understanding that can be gained about employees' use of voice as a response to organisational change using qualitativeresearch and, in particular, narrative analysis. Narrative analysis of voice can provide insight into why voice is used and how voice differs from resistance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses a
|In "Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of QualitativeResearch" (LaRossa, 2012), the author expressed the hope that, by sketching a cognitive map of the writing and reviewing process, authors and reviewers for the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") would be better able to communicate with each other about the…
Addresses the need in qualitative market research to consider how best to sample and recruit the right mindsets (respondents) and, if appropriate, prime these for subsequent interviews to maximise insight. Discusses models that might direct recruitment and some of the myths of good recruitment practice and argues for a more eclectic use of different approaches depending on the nature of
Explains how specific qualitativeresearch techniques can be used to better understand a work culture in another country. These techniques include: (1) collecting ethnographic information; (2) consciously observing surroundings; (3) choosing a broad range of informants; (4) finding a key informant; (5) conducting ethnographic interviews; (6) analyzing artifacts; (7) recording observations, interviews, and impressions; and (8) respecting privacy
ABSTRACT Qualitativeresearch in sport psychology has been increasingly on the rise, thereby allowing a greater understanding of the participant’s experiences (see Dale, 1996). Exercise psychologists (e.g., Gauvin, 1990; Golberg, 1992; Whaley & Ebbeck, 1997) have also employed qualitativemethodologies in their investigations, although to a much lesser extent. Consequently, there remains a need for additional studies, particularly in exercise psychology,
Completing your undergraduate dissertation using qualitativeresearch can be a very rewarding task and presents a number of challenges which are different to those faced by those choosing a quantitative approach In this short article, I am going to take a reflective approach informed by some of the experiences I have had supervising dis- sertation students in three different universities
This article reviews qualitativeresearch published within the past 15 years based on women's first person accounts of their abuse experiences. Battered women's accounts of their experiences in abusive relationships aid in understanding why they stay, how they cope, and how others can help. Women's views of the emotional consequences of battering, the process of leaving, and the impact of
|Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action ResearchMethods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…
Background The aim of this publication is to present a case study of how to locate and appraise qualitative studies for the conduct of a meta-ethnography in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM is commonly associated with individualized medicine. However, one established scientific approach to the individual, qualitativeresearch, thus far has been explicitly used very rarely. This article demonstrates a case example of how qualitativeresearch in the field of CAM studies was identified and critically appraised. Methods Several search terms and techniques were tested for the identification and appraisal of qualitative CAM research in the conduct of a meta-ethnography. Sixty-seven electronic databases were searched for the identification of qualitative CAM trials, including CAM databases, nursing, nutrition, psychological, social, medical databases, the Cochrane Library and DIMDI. Results 9578 citations were screened, 223 articles met the pre-specified inclusion criteria, 63 full text publications were reviewed, 38 articles were appraised qualitatively and 30 articles were included. The search began with PubMed, yielding 87% of the included publications of all databases with few additional relevant findings in the specific databases. CINHAL and DIMDI also revealed a high number of precise hits. Although CAMbase and CAM-QUEST® focus on CAM research only, almost no hits of qualitative trials were found there. Searching with broad text terms was the most effective search strategy in all databases. Conclusions This publication presents a case study on how to locate and appraise qualitative studies in the field of CAM. The example shows that the literature search for qualitative studies in the field of CAM is most effective when the search is begun in PubMed followed by CINHAL or DIMDI using broad text terms. Exclusive CAM databases delivered no additional findings to locate qualitative CAM studies.
|This paper proposes the importance of qualitativeresearch synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitativeresearch synthesis…
|The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & QualitativeResearch Conference. It is routine for qualitativeresearchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…
A review of the methodological literature describing mixed-methods and quantitative and qualitativeresearch paradigms suggest that though many have rejected the so-called paradigm wars there remains much focus on what is different about each research tradition. This has borne out in practice where professional organizations often have subgroups dedicated to the study of one tradition or another. Indeed, Human Resources
EnglishThis article describes concepts of critical reflection, critical incident and qualitativeresearchmethods that were taught on a master’s social work programme in an African state, by European colleagues. Student evaluation suggests that they had learned the importance of contextualizing social work knowledge.FrenchCet article passe en revue les notions de réflexion critique et les méthodes de recherche qualitative et d’incident
This paper examines briefly the limits and possibilities of the qualitativeresearch paradigm in sub?Saharan Africa with a focus on Southern and Eastern Africa. The qualitativeresearch paradigm is relatively new to African researchers and institutions, and there are relatively few Africans able to sustain research institutes committed to the qualitativeresearch paradigm in education. African researchers, unlike their counterparts
The increasing credibility of qualitative approaches for research in nursing has opened up new debates about methodology and rigour. Traditionally, qualitativemethods have been scrutinized using some criteria that are more pertinent for quantitative research. The transition to a more subjective, reflexive approach to nursing research may be painful, but brings benefits. With the loss of scientific rigour comes the gain of eliciting true meaning, by recreating the experiences of others through co-operative enquiry. An openly subjective approach allows the researcher to be a real partner with informants, and to openly use her own experiences and reflections in order to uncover valuable meaning and to find a different type of objectivity. This paper explores some of the issues that are of concern and some of the benefits that may result from an openly subjective approach in qualitative nursing research. PMID:7963043
Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative…
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann
|YouTube, the video hosting service, offers students, teachers, and practitioners of qualitativeresearchers a unique reservoir of video clips introducing basic qualitativeresearch concepts, sharing qualitative data from interviews and field observations, and presenting completed research studies. This web-based site also affords qualitative…
|Background: Excessive alcohol consumption by underage students is a serious and persistent problem facing most U.S. colleges and universities. Purpose: This qualitative study explores why underage students engage in high-risk drinking and examines motivational cues that may serve as behavioral deterrents. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with…
|Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…
Background Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitativeresearch for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a research interview. Methods A descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected in the context of two studies exploring the experiences of care of palliative care patients and carers. The interviews ended with questions about patients' and carers' thoughts on participating in the studies and whether this had been a distressing or helpful event. We used a qualitative descriptive analysis strategy generated from the interviews and the observational and interactional data obtained in the course of the study. Results The interviews were considered helpful: sharing problems was therapeutic and being able to contribute to research was empowering. However, thinking about the future was reported to be the most challenging. Consent forms were sometimes read with apprehension and being physically unable to sign was experienced as upsetting. Interviewing patients and carers separately was sometimes difficult and not always possible. Conclusion The open interview enables the perspectives of patients and carers to be heard, unfettered from the structure of closed questions. It also enables those patients or carers to take part who would be unable to participate in other study designs. The context is at least as important as the format of the research interview taking into account the relational circumstances with carers and appropriate ways of obtaining informed consent. Retrospective consent could be a solution to enhancing participants control over the interview.
Telephone interviews are largely neglected in the qualitativeresearch literature and, when discussed, they are often depicted as a less attractive alternative to face-to-face interviewing. The absence of visual cues via telephone is thought to result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and to compromise rapport, probing, and interpretation of responses. Yet, telephones may allow respondents to feel relaxed and able to disclose sensitive information, and evidence is lacking that they produce lower quality data. This apparent bias against telephone interviews contrasts with a growing interest in electronic qualitative interviews. Research is needed comparing these modalities, and examining their impact on data quality and their use for studying varying topics and populations. Such studies could contribute evidence-based guidelines for optimizing interview data.
The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methodsresearch has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the design options and procedures that accompany this methodological choice. Discussions
Vicki L. Plano Clark; Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas; Susan L. Churchill; Denise ONeil Green; Amanda L. Garrett
|The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methodsresearch has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…
Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.
This article summarizes findings from studies that employed electronic mail (e-mail) for conducting in- depth interviewing. It discusses the benefits of, and the challenges associated with, using e-mail interviewing in qualitativeresearch. The article concludes that while a mixed mode interviewing strategy should be considered when possible, e-mail interviewing can be in many cases a viable alternative to face-to-face and
Discrete event simulation (DES) is widely known to be a quantitative research tool. A simulation modelling process is mainly based on feeding quantitative data into a model to produce quantitative results in a structured sequential process. Qualitative approaches to research take a less structured approach with more of an inclination towards judgmental and expert knowledge rather than hard data. In
Tillal Eldabi; Zahir Irani; Ray J. Paul; Peter E. D. Love
This paper considers students' attitudes toward research and writing about research and discusses methods used to help students overcome their largely negative attitudes toward research. The paper first states that at Illinois State University in Normal, the course that follows freshman composition is one on academic discourse. The paper reports…
Built environment research consists of cognitive and affective, as well as behavioural, components. Existing built environment research utilises either strong qualitative or, more often, strong quantitative methodologies. Aims to discuss some of the philosophical issues that would be considered when undertaking academic research into the built environment. Considers the available research options or paradigms and suggests ways in which a
Dilanthi Amaratunga; David Baldry; Marjan Sarshar; Rita Newton
This paper introduces qualitativemethods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitativemethods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research.
Purpose – This paper seeks to provide a behind-the-scenes view of how a qualitativeresearch project was conducted. It is therefore a paper about the process of qualitativeresearch from the point of view of a researcher, rather than a qualitativeresearch paper about an organization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Its approach is both theoretical and reflective rather than a description or
Univariate methods are very helpful when utilized appropriately within the research analysis. However, there are many occasions in which only multivariate methods will satisfy an optimal assessment. In this case, multivariate methods will permit the researcher to incorporate many variables within a single research analysis. This work reviews the use of multivariate methods and how to apply them in clinical medicine. PMID:22853812
Flikkema, Robert; Lloris-Carsi, J M; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitativeresearch on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitativeresearch. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Researchmethods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). CONCLUSION By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitativemethods.
Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice
We present a qualitativemethod for a mobile robot toexplore an unknown environment and learn a map,which can be robust in the face of various possibleerrors in the real world. Procedural knowledge for themovement, topological model for the structure of theenvironment, and metrical information for geometricalaccuracy are separately represented in our method,whereas traditional methods describe the environmentmainly by metrical information.
Experimental and ethnographic researchmethods are often described as mutually exclusive. This article suggests how they could be combined in the method of “experimental ethnography.” Building ethnographic methods into the separate branches of randomized controlled trials could substantially increase the range of conclusions that can be produced by experimental research designs, as well as by ethnographic methods. Experimental designs offer
This paper focuses on the teaching of the qualitativemethod, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), to healthcare professionals (HCPs). It introduces briefly the philosophical background of IPA and how it has been used within healthcare research, and then discusses the teaching of IPA to HCPs within received educational theory. Lastly, the paper describes how IPA has been taught to students\\/trainees in
BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy causes considerable financial burden on society with a major part caused by sick-leave. There are wide variations in duration of sick-leave. The aim of our study was to identify all aspects that influence the moment of return to work by using focus groups and to compare responses from patients and physicians. METHODS: A qualitativeresearch design was planned
Frederik Keus; Jolanda de Vries; Hein G Gooszen; Cornelis JHM van Laarhoven
|Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe
Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various researchmethods, mixed methodsresearch remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitativemethods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methodsresearch. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methodsresearch, types of mixed methodresearch designs, steps involved in developing a mixed methodresearch study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitativeresearchmethods are provided. The term mixed methodsresearch is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitativemethods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem. PMID:18187598
This paper explores six phases of a research project designed specifically to engage high school students as co-researchers in a multisite qualitative study exploring perceptions of tobacco use among high school students in four schools. It describes how university researchers collaborated with the high school students and summarizes seven major…
Miller, Dana L.; McVea, Kristine L. S. P.; Creswell, John W.; Harter, Lynn; Mickelson, William; McEntarffer, Rob
|It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…
In this paper, we discuss challenges for planning and executing qualitativeresearch conducted by an international research project team. The study comprised an exploratory examination of strategies of offshoring and onshoring for software development. An important methodological challenge is that the members of the research team live in different countries, rely on different languages and originate from different cultures. These
Rafael Prikladnicki; J. Roberto Evaristo; Daniela Damian; Jorge Luis Nicolas Audy
Much of the research published in the property discipline consists of work utilising quantitative methods. While research gained using quantitative methods, if appropriately designed and rigorous, leads to results which are typically generalisable and quantifiable, it does not allow for a rich and in-depth understanding of a phenomenon. This is especially so if a researcher's aim is to uncover the
In spite of the importance of staying close to their buyers, many marketers feel it is impossible to identify needs for new products through marketing research. They feel that consumer respondents simply cannot describe their wants and needs for products which are not currently on the market. This paper describes two qualitative approaches for co-creating new product concepts with consumers.
Research examining children's and young people's food and eating practices has become more common place in recent years. Qualitativemethods can be useful in such sense-making research, where an individual's narrative is likely to involve complexity, contradiction and ambiguity. Speaking and writing about food and eating can offer participants of all ages and most abilities the opportunity to delve into
Summary Mixed methodsresearch is the use of quantitative and qualitativemethods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methodsresearch. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methodsresearch, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methodsresearch, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitativemethods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methodsresearch is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems.
In the early 1990s, scholars from a variety of disciplines encouraged greater inclusion of qualitativeresearch methodology in the mental health field. Moon, Dillon, and Sprenkle (1990) hoped their paper "Family therapy and qualitativeresearch" would serve as a stimulus for further development of qualitativeresearch in the field of family…
Faulkner, Rhonda A.; Klock, Kathryn; Gale, Jerry E.
|This essay addresses the topic of the state of qualitativeresearch in education by asserting that qualitativeresearch in education is in quite a state. Drawing heavily on Denzin and Lincoln's periodization of qualitativeresearch as a guide, it outlines the various competing developments from within and outside that are vying to characterize…
This autoethnography describes how a Korean woman made a decision to be a qualitativeresearcher, what she has confronted in a positivistic culture, and how she has survived as a qualitativeresearcher. The author, using self-reflection, raises issues of professional development, academic politics, and coping strategies for qualitativeresearchers.
This is the second in a series of four papers on understanding and doing qualitativeresearch (Frankel & Devers (2000) Qualitativeresearch: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Devers & Frankel (2000) Study design in qualitativeresearch—2: sampling and data collection strategies, Education for Health, 13, 263-271). Here, we focus on problems of study design, including question develop-
The past two decades have been an exciting and productive time for research with children and teenagers, with many studies at the forefront of developing research practices infused with creativity and innovation. Such approaches are often participatory, using methods that draw upon and incorporate children and teenagers’ diverse skills and interests to foster active participation in the research process. Similarly,
|A qualitativeresearch conversation needs to include a critical examination of a study's relational dimension. Excerpts are presented from two doctoral dissertations that discuss the nature of the researcher-participant relationships formed through the studies. The first dissertation, "Beyond the Yellow Brick Road: Educational Portraits of…
Scholars who are drawn to qualitativeresearch methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…
The mind maps represent the authors’ concept of researchmethods at this time. The major aspects, rather than a complete picture,\\u000a of researchmethods are illustrated in seven distinct areas: research problem, research design, sampling techniques, ethical\\u000a matters, data collection, data analysis, and report findings. Brief descriptions explain the mind maps and why items were\\u000a placed in certain areas where
|Observations on qualitative manuscripts submitted for publication identified problem areas: organization and format, relationship of concept and method, methodological issues (study type, conceptual framework, sample, data collection/analysis, integrity, data management), discussion, and data presentation. Recommendations for improving quality of…
In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitativemethod is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitativemethod is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitativemethod proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. PMID:21402442
In this opinion piece, we provide a critical commentary on the arena of qualitativeresearch in IS. We reflect on why reviewer or editorial evaluations of manuscripts, with respect to methodological issues in qualitative studies, often come across as ''prejudiced.\\
The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study. PMID:16432800
The mixed methods paradigm is still in its adolescence, and, thus, is still relatively unknown and confusing to many researchers.\\u000a In general, mixed methodsresearch represents research that involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative\\u000a and qualitative data in a single study or in a series of studies that investigate the same underlying phenomenon. Over the\\u000a last several years, a plethora
Quantitative and qualitativemethods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitativemethod for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitativemethod would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499
A combinatorial approach to deal with qualitative problems related to power system state estimation is proposed. The discussed techniques share the same theoretical background which also underlies a previously proposed method for observability analysis. The combinatorial framework is presented and further exploited to devise a fast method for identification of single critical measurements. This method is then extended to allow the determination of critical measurement sets. The interest in investigating these questions lies in the fact that, when contaminated by gross errors, critical measurements are undetectable, whereas measurements in critical sets are unidentifiable. The performance of the proposed combinatorial methods is appraised by means of several tests, using the IEEE-14 and 30 bus systems and two realistic systems of Brazilian utilities.
Costa, A.S.; Pizza, T.S. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolic, SC (BR)); Mandel, A. (Dept. of Computer Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (BR))
Interviews form an essential part of data collection for many qualitative nursing studies. Information about how to individualize interview formats to meet the purpose and style of specific qualitativeresearch approaches, however, is not readily accessible to the researcher. This paper offers an overview of use of the interviewer as an instrument in qualitativeresearch, as well as ways in which the differing purposes and styles of ethnographic and phenomenological research approaches affect the format for the interview. PMID:7665776
|Conducting qualitativeresearch on topics that are emotionally laden can have a powerful impact on the researcher. Recent literature addresses the essential nature of the emotional connection that must be part of the qualitativeresearch process. However, for the most part, it neglects the issue of self-care strategies for the researcher that are…
The article reviews the relatively weak position of qualitativeresearch within health care in the UK. A comparison is made between quantitative and qualitative paradigms of research from the perspective of health care professionals. The tensions and paradoxes between nursing and medical research in orthopaedics are made explicit. Reliability and validity are taken as cornerstones of both types of research,
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methodsresearch. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methodsresearch is used in health services research (HSR). METHODS: Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitativemethods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…
Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura
|Early approach to research in industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology was oriented towards quantitative techniques as a result of influences from the social sciences. As the focus of I/O psychology expands from psychological test development to other personnel functions, there has been an inclusion of qualitativemethods in I/O psychology…
Ehigie, Benjamin Osayawe; Ehigie, Rebecca Ibhaguelo
Background: Qualitativeresearch can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. Abstract: Objective: To inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. Abstract: Methods: Self-reported adult asthma patients recruited from
Diane M. Turner-Bowker; Renee N. Saris-Baglama; Michael A. DeRosa; Christine A. Paulsen; Christopher P. Bransfield
Despite the popularity and strong advocacy for combining quantitative and qualitativemethods, few mixed methods approaches are found in the sport management research. As a result, this article examines the frequency with which mixed methodsresearch has been used in recent sport management research, and demonstrates ways in which mixed methods can help improve the validity of research findings in
The use of qualitativeresearch in the study of leadership is growing and its impact on the field is beginning to be felt. This article outlines some of the advantages of qualitative investigations of leadership and reports the results of an investigation of police leadership in England in which a qualitative approach was employed. Drawing on ideas from the New
This is the second in a series of four papers on understanding and doing qualitativeresearch [Frankel & Devers (2000) Qualitativeresearch: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Devers & Frankel (2000) Study design in qualitativeresearch--2: sampling and data collection strategies, Education for Health, 13, 263-271]. Here, we focus on problems of study design, including question development, literature review, identifying a target audience and resource needs assessment. We provide a step-by-step description of major issues and choice points in the process. There are three key differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs. First, the logic of qualitativeresearch is often inductive, rather than deductive, and consists of describing people's and groups' particular situations, meanings and experiences. Second, qualitativeresearch designs are often emergent and flexible, and the research itself is quite dynamic. Third, the qualitativeresearch process is non-linear and non-sequential. There is agreement that good qualitative studies answer clearly stated, important research questions. How qualitativeresearch questions are formulated has implications for conducting a literature review. Some scholars believe that literature should be reviewed prior to beginning a study; others argue that this may impede the researcher from truly listening, observing and remaining open to new concepts and ideas. We offer suggestions about formulating research questions and how and when to conduct a literature review. Another important issue in conducting qualitativeresearch is determining the resources that will be needed to conduct a study. These include internal resources, such as research skills, and external resources, such as personnel (expertise and time), equipment, supplies and travel. A description of typical resource and management issues in conducting a qualitativeresearch study is included. PMID:14742087
This exploratory, qualitative study investigates the perceptions of Guatemalans regarding the impact of tourism and migration in Antigua, Guatemala. The vehicle of data representation is the research poem, a new and valuable innovation within qualitativeresearch. The research poems presented were derived from twenty-two interviews with owners and directors of language schools and the Maya of Antigua. The sociohistorical factors
|Qualitativeresearch is research that attempts not only to understand the world, but also to understand it through the eyes of the participants whose world it is. Consequently, qualitativeresearch must occur in a natural setting. The study begins, not with hypotheses to be proved or disproved, but with a flexible plan to explore a phenomenon.…
|This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitativeresearch. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitativeresearch included in…
Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie
While empirical studies in software engineering are beginning to gain recognition in the research community, this subarea is also entering a new level of maturity by beginning to address the human aspects of software development. This added focus has added a new layer of complexity to an already challenging area of research. Along with new research questions, new researchmethods
|Discusses the strengths of a qualitative study of the effectiveness of environmental impact statements. Notes that the study explores an ill-defined area and relates writing to the situation in which it occurs. (RS)|
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitativeresearch…
The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify “competing narratives” that support healthy behavior despite the
Jennifer R. Horner; Daniel Romer; Peter A. Vanable; Laura F. Salazar; Michael P. Carey; Ivan Juzang; Thierry Fortune; Ralph DiClemente; Naomi Farber; Bonita Stanton; Robert F. Valois
Objective: To make manifest, through a qualitativeresearch process, the competing meanings constructed by the various parties in a legal case based on their own phenomenological perspective and/or experience of the events that gave rise to the legal complaint. Methods: Representative quotes from the documentary court filings of various parties in a U.S. Supreme Court case, Safford Unified School District v. Redding, involving a highly emotional issue-strip search of a child at school by school officials –provide the data source. These texts are analyzed conceptually to discover themes which help summarize the parties’ diverse phenomenological perspectives on the ‘facts’. Results: The sample texts from the court filings in the case were readily organized by themes and the competing parties’ conflicting perspectives located on opposite ends of various continuums described in terms of those themes. Conclusions: Making sense of conflicting legal positions can be considered, in part, as an informal qualitativeresearch process. The use of textual analysis, a qualitativeresearch process, can greatly assist in making more explicit the conflicting phenomenological perspectives of the various parties latent in the hundreds of documents typically filed with the courts in any major case. This may be helpful in mediation.
BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. METHODS: Key informant interviews were conducted with
Kalpana M Nair; Lisa Dolovich; Kevin Brazil; Parminder Raina
The shortage of qualified teachers, and the quality and quantity of the science taught in precollege institutions are two focal issues in today's national crisis in science education. This article delineates aspects of qualitativeresearch having the potential of providing guidance to change agents in designing effective strategies to mitigate the crisis. A discursive approach to qualitativeresearch involving the
Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitativeresearch. We agree that qualitative…
|Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitativeresearch. We agree that qualitative…
|This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitativeresearch in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitativeresearch…
Purpose – To discuss and analyse three themes in qualitativeresearch in marketing which are objects of both frustration and confusion: analysis and interpretation; theory generation; and a quest for scientific pluralism and individual researcher lifestyles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Underpinning the discussion is that complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, chaos, change, uncertainty and unpredictability are characteristics of a market economy; that qualitative and
Increasingly, human geographers are being encouraged to combine qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The combination involves more than simply juxtaposing approaches; instead, some of the barriers between them need to be removed. This, however, is often easier said than done. Here we address the issue of combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches through a concrete example: a social impact assessment
Students new to doing qualitativeresearch in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitativeresearch for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…
Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diary studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning their pertinence to the field. Limitations and potential critiques regarding the use of diaries are also addressed.
|From the beginnings of qualitativeresearch in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self?…
|Offers some insights on how to maximize the researchmethods course, such that students will take from the course a meaningful learning experience as opposed to a short-term exercise on memorizing terms and, ideally, administrators who review the course will recognize communication as an academic discipline rich in theory and methodology. (SG)|
The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that the debate between quantitative and qualitative is divisive and, hence, counterproductive for advancing the social and behavioral science field. We advocate that all graduate students learn to utilize and to appreciate both quantitative and qualitativeresearch methodologies. As such, students will develop into pragmatist researchers who are able to utilize
This paper provides an overview of qualitativeresearch and is written to assist the reader to both understand and use qualitativemethods. The relevance of qualitativeresearch to clinical practice is highlighted. A brief historical perspective of qualitativeresearch is given, along with many of the underlying epistemological issues of qualitativemethods. A working definition of qualitative inquiry is offered
Literature on the combination of qualitative and quantitative research components at the primary empirical study level has recently accumulated exponentially. However, this combination is only rarely discussed and applied\\u000a at the research synthesis level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible contribution of mixed methodsresearch to the integration of\\u000a qualitative and quantitative research at the synthesis
This paper explores processes of meaning-making and modes of knowing in a largely qualitative, industry-based study of competency-based training, conducted by research teams throughout Australia. Implications of differing epistemological perspectives of researchers are examined and suggestions for enhancing the rigour of team-based qualitativeresearch studies are made. This paper describes the methodology and some of the research practices of a
BACKGROUND: Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral\\/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitativeresearch to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries.
Lisa M Williamson; Alison Parkes; Daniel Wight; Mark Petticrew; Graham J Hart
|Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…
The extended model of different forms of work satisfaction (Büssing, 1991), originally proposed by Bruggemann (1974), is suggested as a distinctive qualitative approach to work satisfaction. Six forms of work satisfaction—progressive, stabilized, resigned satisfaction, constructive, fixated, resigned dissatisfaction—are derived from the constellation of four constituent variables: comparison of the actual work situation and personal aspirations, global satisfaction, changes in level
|How might qualitativeresearchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes "scientific" research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a…
Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitativeresearch. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitativeresearch and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitativemethods to elicit poor children’s perspectives about\\u000a threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences\\u000a of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of wellbeing, threats to their wellbeing,\\u000a coping strategies,
Bethlehem Tekola; Christine Griffin; Laura Camfield
\\u000a This chapter explores mixed methodresearch designs that seek to combine elements of qualitative and quantitative research\\u000a into a criminological investigation. This is neither a new nor a radical concept. Indeed, the differences between so-called\\u000a “qualitative” methods and so-called “quantitative” methods in social science have been called “more apparent than real” (Hanson\\u000a 2008: 97; see also Newman and Benz 1998;
‘Before you finish your breakfast this morning, you will have relied onhalf the world.’—Martin Luther King(www.fairtrade.org.uk) This paper is concerned with the extent of consumer understanding of the Fairtrade brand and consumer uptake of products under the auspices of the Fairtrade organisation. There are ethical issues surrounding the brand from both the consumer and organisational (supplier) perspectives. Qualitative focus groups
Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed MethodsResearch (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed MethodsResearch designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative researchmethods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed MethodsResearch to study complex human phenomena. PMID:21880844
Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L
Qualitative empirical research and case studies have, like any other scientific method, their strengths and weaknesses. But\\u000a how valid are the findings stemming from such research, particularly when they are base on data gained from interviews? This\\u000a paper primarily deals with the methodological problems throughout the whole research process. Areas of concerns are: (1) before\\u000a collecting data and during the
Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.
Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderon, Jose L.
Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitativeresearch helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...
Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative research findings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitativeresearch findings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitativeresearch fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitativeresearch be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitativeresearch findings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitativeresearchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided. PMID:16684207
This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitativeresearch interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…
Asserts that the craft knowledge of skilled teachers must be shared to help nursing students become competent, committed qualitativeresearchers. Strategies to develop a qualitative eye, deal with challenges such as ethical conduct, inform approaches to fieldwork, and extend capacity and confidence to interpret data, play with ideas, analyze…
Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitativeresearch literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for?profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In addition, the author discusses conceptual notions of culture and
Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitativeresearch literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for?profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In addition, the author discusses conceptual notions of culture and
|In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…
|Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitativeresearch literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…
|Thirty-two qualitative investigations of co-teaching in inclusive classrooms were included in a metasynthesis employing qualitativeresearch integration techniques. It was concluded that co-teachers generally supported co-teaching, although a number of important needs were identified, including planning time, student skill level, and training;…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.; McDuffie, Kimberly A.
|This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitativeresearch interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…
Community-based qualitativeresearch offers advantages for study of populations that are understudied and not well understood, but qualitative methodology presents major challenges. This article examines some of these challenges, illustrated by a study of pregnancy and childbearing among women of Mexican descent. Issues addressed in this article include culture and gender relevance, access to the population, representativeness, skilled interviewers, trust
|This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…
Relatively little is known about students' conceptions of research and, in particular, whether there are conceptually discrete patterns of variation that can be used to model this phenomenon in terms of research-as-learning outcomes. The present study explores the dimensionality of students' conceptions of research from two complementary research…
Meyer, Jan H. F.; Shanahan, Martin P.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.
The growth of qualitativeresearch holds the potential for vastly enriching our understanding of phenomena in the health sciences. However, the potential of this trend is hampered by a widespread inability of quantitative and qualitativeresearchers to talk to each other. The authors' concern in this area grows out of our experience reviewing small grant applications for the National Institute on Aging, where they frequently find qualitativeresearch proposals scoring worse than do those using quantitative approaches. This article addresses practical problems in communicating qualitativeresearch to readers whose training and experience is primarily quantitative. Two themes running through the discussion are the need for detail and the explicit tying of methodological strategies to research goals. PMID:12474913
Belgrave, Linda Liska; Zablotsky, Diane; Guadagno, Mary Ann
An effort is made to show that a mathematically consistent combinatorial theory which has been previously used for topological observability analysis can be extended to deal with other qualitative problems in power system state estimation. In particular, the problems of critical measurement and critical set identification are addressed. The interest in investigating these questions lies in the fact that, when
Background Evidence-based practice has increasingly been recognized as a priority by professional physiotherapy organizations and influential researchers and clinicians in the field. Numerous studies in the past decade have documented that physiotherapists hold generally favorable attitudes to evidence-based practice and recognize the importance of using research to guide their clinical practice. Research has predominantly investigated barriers to research use. Less is known about the circumstances that actually support use of research by physiotherapists. This study explores the conditions at different system levels that physiotherapists in Sweden perceive to be supportive of their use of research in clinical practice. Methods Patients in Sweden do not need a referral from a physician to consult a physiotherapist and physiotherapists are entitled to choose and perform any assessment and treatment technique they find suitable for each patient. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted with 45 physiotherapists, each lasting between 90 and 110 minutes. An inductive approach was applied, using topics rather than questions to allow the participants to generate their own questions and pursue their own priorities within the framework of the aim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Analysis of the data yielded nine favorable conditions at three system levels supporting the participant’s use of research in clinical practice: two at the individual level (attitudes and motivation concerning research use; research-related knowledge and skills), four at the workplace level (leadership support; organizational culture; research-related resources; knowledge exchange) and three at the extra-organizational level (evidence-based practice guidelines; external meetings, networks, and conferences; academic research and education). Conclusions Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research exist at multiple interdependent levels, including the individual, workplace, and extra-organizational levels. Research use in physiotherapy appears to be an interactive and interpretative social process that involves a great deal of interaction with various people, including colleagues and patients.
Background Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. Methodology/Principal Findings Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitativemethods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. Conclusions The proposed selection mechanism provides insights that can be translated into research coaching programs as well as research policy models to optimize the introduction of high impact research at a broad scale among institutional and governmental agencies.
Although the use of action research has made its way into various faculties of education as a means of applying theory to practice, there remains a disconnect between the teacher as an educator and the teacher as a researcher. Research must be empirically based; therefore, it has traditionally been seen to reside in the domain of the theorist or…
he importance of high-quality research to address our knowledge deficits in relation to the causes of hospital-acquired infection has been acknowledged by the Department of Health. However, the contribution of nursing research may be restricted by confusion over the use of different paradigms and the discipline's lack of research pedigree. This paper discusses how nursing and infection control has historically
The potential of the Internet as a valuable methodological research tool is increasingly being recognised by both market researchers and academics. This paper contributes to the debate surrounding virtual synchronous group interviews and the value of online research. Specifically it introduces the use of a software conferencing technique – Hotline Connect – and discusses the implications of using the technique
|Although the use of action research has made its way into various faculties of education as a means of applying theory to practice, there remains a disconnect between the teacher as an educator and the teacher as a researcher. Research must be empirically based; therefore, it has traditionally been seen to reside in the domain of the theorist or…
|This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative researchmethods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitativemethods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…
Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary.
Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.
One criticism about qualitativeresearch is that it is difficult to generalize findings to settings not studied. To explore this issue, I examine three broad arguments for generalizing from data: sample-to-population extrapolation, analytic generalization, and case-to-case transfer. Qualitativeresearch often uses the last argument, but some efforts have been made to use the first two. I suggest that analytic generalization
There are a number of innovative procedures available for use in qualitativeresearch, including observation, note-taking and verbal protocol techniques. This paper highlights the potential usefulness of stimulated recall as an innovative technique for use in qualitativeresearch in sport and possibly exercise. Specifically, it focuses on video footage obtained from head-mounted cameras for use in stimulated recall during post-event
Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) pose ethical challenges for investigators and ethics committees. This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1) ethical challenges in CRTs; (2) the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3) the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs. Methods Descriptive qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 20 experienced CRT researchers. Results Informants expressed concern over the potential for bias that may result from requirements to obtain informed consent from research participants in CRTs. Informants suggested that the need for informed consent ought to be related to the type of intervention under study in a CRT. Informants rarely expressed concern regarding risks to research participants in CRTs, other than risks to privacy. Important issues identified in the research ethics literature, including fair subject selection and other justice issues, were not mentioned by informants. The ethics review process has had positive and negative impacts on CRT conduct. Informants stated that variability in ethics review between jurisdictions, and increasingly stringent ethics review in recent years, have hampered their ability to conduct CRTs. Many informants said that comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs would be helpful to researchers and research ethics committees. Conclusions Informants identified key ethical challenges in the conduct of CRTs, specifically relating to identifying subjects, seeking informed consent, and the use of gatekeepers. These data have since been used to identify topics for in-depth ethical analysis and to guide the development of comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs.
This article defines qualitativeresearch as applied in the field of dietetics to increase knowledge and competency in evaluating this type of research. The authors explain the design of qualitative studies, explore congruence with quantitative research, and provide examples of applications in dietetics, stressing the importance of ensuring validity and reliability of qualitative measures. The article aims to help food
Jeffrey E. Harris; Philip M. Gleason; Patricia M. Sheean; Carol Boushey; Judith A. Beto; Barbara Bruemmer
The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…
With an estimated 200 million Internet users, the Internet has created communities that would \\/could not have formed otherwise providing access to interdisciplinary, heterogeneous groups. New modes of contacting research subjects as well as the social mobility provided by the new technologies confronts researchers with the need to revisit concepts such as interview, subject, field site, and informed consent. This
|This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a…
Formulates the idea of the "interpretive zone" as a way to describe the space in which collaborative interpretation of research unfolds. Because of the importance of teamwork to qualitativeresearch, the interpretive zone becomes a critical location for future methodological inquiry and examination of the dynamics of group research. (SLD)
Sociologists are being called upon to evaluate community development efforts in the United States at an increasing rate. These sociologists, as independent researchers, are working side by side with professional community development consultants. Based on an ongoing community development research project, which rests largely upon qualitative techniques, the roles of consultant and researcher are delineated. Methodological advantages and disadvantages of
|Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitativeresearch strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…
Purpose – This paper makes the case for the use of real diaries as an alternative methodology in marketing research. It is argued that Qualitative Diary Research (QDR) in marketing and consumer research is an innovative way to capture rich insights into processes, relationships, settings, products and consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To illustrate the utility of QDR this paper explores the
This special issue provides a unique look at contemporary research issues in sport and exercise psychology. Individuals who primarily self-identify as ‘quantitative researchers’ provide their perceptions and insights about the strengths and weaknesses of qualitativeresearch in their line of inquiry and situate these perspectives in their own academic histories. A number of recurrent themes emerge that reflect on the
Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.
Qualitative data can be a powerful tool in developing interventions for substance use and other HIV-risk behaviors. Mixed-methods design offers researchers the ability to obtain data that provides both breadth and depth to their research. However, the integration of qualitative data in mixed-methodsresearch has been limited. This paper describes the qualitative design of the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal mixed-method study with an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (N=526) in Los Angeles. Integral to this discussion is how a mixed-methods study can address common challenges such as sampling, representation and integration.
Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of
Empathy is a very familiar term in the helping and caring literature. What appears to link empathy in the helping literature to the aims and goals of qualitativeresearch and, in particular, to the argument underpinning insider/outsider debates, is a discernible common quest. That quest is to be able to hear, feel, understand, and value the stories of others and to convey that felt empathy and understanding back to the client/storyteller/participant. When relevant, the quest also includes conveying that felt understanding to a broader audience. In this article, I highlight commonalities between empathy in professional practice and empathy in qualitativeresearch processes, including the shared experiences and understanding informing research relationships that are discussed as "insider/outsider" status. I review, discuss, and critique relevant literature, and I conclude by suggesting that cultivating empathy in qualitativeresearch training could contribute to facilitating more enriched, insightful research encounters. PMID:21873286
This systematic review aimed to explore the contributions of Brazilian nursing literature about the use of interviews as a data collection technique in research with children. Articles were searched in the Virtual Health Library, using Health Terminology, between 1998 and 2008. Thirteen articles were selected, whose analysis allowed for reflections on the type of study, investigated age range, ethical considerations, data collection techniques, among others. Data indicated that nurses have used interviews isolated or associated with other techniques. Studies need to present the data collection phase in further detail, so as to indicate ways to improve the interview technique with children in nursing research. PMID:20521004
Oliveira, Rosana Beatriz Gonçalves de; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de
|Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…
This paper contains a discussion of the applicability of focus groups to college marketing planning. The author describes the important considerations in focus group research and provides step-by-step guidelines for college marketers to follow in conducting focus groups. The advantages of the technique are illustrated in a real case in which focus groups shed important light on a college marketing
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a personal, reflective account of applying grounded theory, in particular Glaser's approach, in accounting research. It seeks to reduce barriers to adopting the grounded theory approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach taken is providing an overview of Glaser's grounded theory and discussing the authors' application of it, thus discussing their personal
Larissa von Alberti-Alhtaybat; Khaldoon Al-Htaybat
The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…
|Understanding the interactions between people, computer-mediated communication, and online life requires that researchers appropriate a set of methodological tools that would be best suited for capturing and analyzing the phenomenon. However, these tools are not limited to relevant technological forms of data collections and analysis programs; it…
|Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…
Background This study examines research knowledge infrastructures (RKIs) found in health systems. An RKI is defined as any instrument\\u000a (i.e., programs, interventions, tools) implemented in order to facilitate access, dissemination, exchange, and\\/or use of evidence\\u000a in healthcare organisations. Based on an environmental scan (17 key informant interviews) and scoping review (26 studies),\\u000a we found support for a framework that we developed
Moriah E Ellen; John N Lavis; Mathieu Ouimet; Jeremy Grimshaw; Pierre-Olivier Bédard
The purpose of this research was to explore whether qualitativeresearch interviews impacted participants' views of their situations. Forty-five workers who reported handling well changes that affected their work were interviewed to explore their experiences of change, factors that helped and hindered their ability to handle change, and assess the…
Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.
In this paper we discuss the unique influences of ethics assessment procedures on comparative qualitativeresearch. These influences are particularly pronounced when researchers are from different disciplines and in different countries. Focusing on our experience conducting a study on the perceptions of young people regarding HIV\\/AIDS in two countries (Italy and Canada), we describe the impact of the ethics assessment
|Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitativeresearch in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)|
Clinical psychology aims to address the needs of diverse populations, including those from minority ethnic backgrounds. Arguably, one obstacle to developing appropriate psychological services to minority ethnic people is the lack of relevant qualitativeresearch with people who do not speak English. In particular, there is little exploration around working with professional interpreters during the research. This article explores some
|This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…
Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a selective and necessarily truncated history of the place and use of qualitative approaches in the study of children's consumption in order to provide some depth of understanding regarding differences between and commonalities of approaches employed by academic market researchers, social science researchers and, to a lesser extent, market practitioners.
Aims: To describe individuals' perceptions of the activities that take place within the cancer genetics clinic, the relationships between these activities and how these relationships are sustained. Design: Qualitative interview study. Participants: Forty individuals involved in carrying out cancer genetics research in either a clinical (n = 28) or research-only (n = 12) capacity in the UK. Findings: Interviewees perceive
N Hallowell; S Cooke; G Crawford; M Parker; A Lucassen
|Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitativeresearch in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…
Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.
|The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitativeresearch, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…
Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer
Aims to address a gap in the literature about quality criteria for validity and reliability in qualitativeresearch within the realism scientific paradigm. Six comprehensive and explicit criteria for judging realism research are developed, drawing on the three elements of a scientific paradigm of ontology, epistemology and methodology. The first two criteria concern ontology, that is, ontological appropriateness and contingent
The issues surrounding the use and nature of the term 'validity' in qualitativeresearch are controversial and many. In this paper, the author attempts to establish that 'validity' is not a single, fixed or universal concept, but rather a contingent construct, inescapably grounded in the processes and intentions of particular research methodologies and projects. The first section of this work
ecent qualitativeresearch highlights important issues for successful public participation in action to reduce health inequalities. In the UK, the New Labour government has made a sustained commitment to tackling health inequalities and advocates the active engagement of local communities in this agenda.1 This offers a historically unprecedented opportunity, but there remains a paucity of research documenting effective interventions.2 Critically,
In qualitative (detection) food microbiology, the usual measures of repeatability and reproducibility are inapplicable. For such studies, we introduce two new measures: accordance for within laboratory agreement and concordance for between laboratory agreement, and discuss their properties. These measures are based on the probability of finding the same test results for identical test materials within and between laboratories, respectively. The
S. D Langton; R Chevennement; N Nagelkerke; B Lombard
THE recently developed technique of flash exchange gas chromatography1,2 has proved valuable for the determination of trace quantities of volatile aldehydes, ketones and acids. This approach has now been extended to the qualitative analysis of volatile mercaptans3,4 by use of the exchange reaction between mercuric mercaptides and toluene-3,4-dithiol.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis is to articulate the knowledge gained from a review of qualitative studies of patients' experiences of chronic low back pain. METHODS: Meta-ethnographic methodology guided the review of 33 articles representing 28 studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2012. A systematic comparison of the main themes from each study was conducted and 'synthesised' to create superordinate themes. RESULTS: Three overarching interrelated themes were identified: the impact of chronic low back pain on self; relationships with significant others that incorporated two streams - health professionals and the organisation of care and relationships with family and friends; coping with chronic low back pain. Coping strategies were predominantly physical therapies, medication and avoidance behaviours with very few successful strategies reported. Professional and family support, self-efficacy, motivation, work conditions and exercise opportunities influenced pain experiences. Review authors' recommendations included psychological therapies, education, the facilitation of self-management strategies and support groups. DISCUSSION: The review substantiates chronic low back pain as complex, dynamic and multidimensional, underpinned by experiences of persistent distressing pain, loss, and lowered self-worth, stigma, depression, premature aging, fear of the future. Future research should address the paucity of longitudinal studies, loss and issues of ethnicity, gender, ageing. PMID:23585633
One key element in the successful dissemination and utilization of qualitative findings is the well-written research report. In contrast to quantitative research, there is no one style for reporting the findings from qualitativeresearch. Qualitativeresearchers must select from an ar- ray of representational styles and formats those that best fit their research purposes, methods, and data. Qualitativeresearchers must
community contexts, and that the ways that indi- viduals relate to wider social networks and commu- nities have important effects on health and This paper describes qualitativemethods used in a research project for the former Health Educa- well-being. The Government Green Paper Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health (Depart- tion Authority, exploring Putnam's concept of 'social capital' in
|This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methodsresearch design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…
Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.
Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitativeresearchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitativeresearchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis. PMID:22853179
The informatic revolution had a consequence: the fast development of market researchmethods. In the 80's a new group of market researchmethods called CADAC (Computer Assisted DAta Collection) was developed. Computer assisted interviewing has become rapidly popular partly because it provides better data quality and data analysis than traditional methods. CADAC methods can be divided into three main categories:
In addressing what constitutes nursing research in the 1990s, approaches to conducting nursing research and examples of studies are discussed in the context of historical forces. The early studies were characteristically educational in focus and quantitative by design. Nursing research has come a long way in regard to foci of the questions asked, diversity of approaches to knowledge development, and sophistication of researchmethods. Three approaches are described to illustrate the diversity in nursing research: quantitative, qualitative, and triangulation. PMID:1432272
Millor, G K; Haber, J E; Carter, E; Feldman, H R; Hott, J R; Jacobson, L
Mixed methodsresearch is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. Whether you are reading or designing a mixed methodsresearch project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative researchmethods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. In addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated. Mixed methodsresearch is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking advantage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. This ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as therapeutic massage are being studied. Complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient’s body. Additionally, the patient’s experience of the treatment may be an important outcome.
Our study examines the state of qualitative case studies in operations management. Five main operations management journals are included for their impact on the field. They are in alphabetical order: Decision Sciences, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Journal of Operations Management, Management Science, and Production and Operations Management. The qualitative case studies chosen were published between 1992 and
We conducted a systematic search of qualitativeresearch into the individual's experience of chronic low back pain. Two reviewers independently read through 740 unique abstracts. Inter-rater reliability was fair. The final sample comprised 19 articles which we critiqued using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. This article focuses on the critical appraisal. Limitations include a lack of an adequate rationale for the theoretical framework, a lack of an account for the decisions made across recruitment and data collection, and a lack of reflexivity. Finally we discuss and offer recommendations for reflexivity and the explication of qualitative methodology in research articles. PMID:22147063
Newton, Benjamin John; Rothlingova, Zuzana; Gutteridge, Robin; LeMarchand, Karen; Raphael, Jon Howard
Objective To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitativemethods to explore GPs’ experiences of clinical management of multimorbidity or multiple chronic diseases. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex, Social Science Full Text and digital theses/online libraries (database inception to September 2012) to identify literature using qualitativemethods (focus groups or interviews). Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results Of 1805 articles identified, 37 were reviewed in detail and 10 were included, using a total of 275 GPs in 7 different countries. Four areas of difficulty specific to the management of multimorbidity emerged from these papers: disorganisation and fragmentation of healthcare; the inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine; challenges in delivering patient-centred care; and barriers to shared decision-making. A ‘line of argument’ was drawn which described GPs’ sense of isolation in decision-making for multimorbid patients. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the problem areas for GPs in the management of multimorbidity may be classified into four domains. There will be no ‘one size fits all’ intervention for multimorbidity but these domains may be useful targets to guide the development of interventions that will assist and improve the provision of care to multimorbid patients.
Sinnott, Carol; Mc Hugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Bradley, Colin
The paper explores the potential of the Web 2.0 environment for conducting both qualitative and quantitative research. The paper analyzes the emerging Research 2.0 domain using the theoretical framework of Web 2.0 core principles (e.g., web as a platform, harnessing collective intelligence, etc.). These principles, first proposed by Tim O'Reilly, provide a useful lens through which researchers can examine the
Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitativeresearch has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitativeresearch in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitativeresearch can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitativeresearch, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals. PMID:23156206
Exposure assessment research in the Applied Research Program's Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch concentrates primarily on improving self-reports and objective ascertainment of health behaviors and analytical procedures for processing reported information. Major research areas are the development and testing of innovative, technologically sophisticated tools to assess total diet and physical activity, and short questionnaires to assess particular nutrients or food groups. Additional areas of research include cognitive and psychometric research to improve questionnaire design.
The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methodsresearch by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitativeresearch, as well as…
Background This article reports on the impact assessment experience of a funding program of non-commercial clinical and health services research. The aim was to assess the level of implementation of results from a subgroup of research projects (on respiratory diseases), and to detect barriers (or facilitators) in the translation of new knowledge to informed decision-making. Methods A qualitative study was performed. The sample consisted of six projects on respiratory diseases funded by the Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia between 1996 and 2004. Semi-structured interviews to key informants including researchers and healthcare decision-makers were carried out. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed on an individual (key informant) and group (project) basis. In addition, the differences between achieved and expected impacts were described. Results Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most participants indicated changes in health services or clinical practice had resulted from research. The channels used to transfer new knowledge were mainly conventional ones, but also in less explicit ways, such as with the involvement of local scientific societies, or via debates and discussions with colleagues and local leaders. The barriers and facilitators identified were mostly organizational (in research management, and clinical and healthcare practice), although there were also some related to the nature of the research as well as personal factors. Both the expected and achieved impacts enabled the identification of the gaps between what is expected and what is truly achieved. Conclusions In this study and according to key informants, the impact of these research projects on decision-making can be direct (the application of a finding or innovation) or indirect, contributing to a more complex change in clinical practice and healthcare organization, both having other contextual factors. The channels used to transfer this new knowledge to clinical practice are complex. Local scientific societies and the relationships between researchers and decision-makers can play a very important role. Specifically, the relationships between managers and research teams and the mutual knowledge of their activity have shown to be effective in applying research funding to practice and decision-making. Finally the facilitating factors and barriers identified by the respondents are closely related to the idiosyncrasy of the human relations between the different stakeholders involved.
This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…
|R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…
|The authors carried out a 4-year qualitative analysis of a case study in higher education. An undergraduate course based on the principles of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) was designed, implemented, and evaluated. The process was developed by a community of practice, formed by quite a number of researchers coming from the…
Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Anguita-Martinez, Rocio; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra
This paper focuses on the interrelationship between the mechanical and conceptual aspects of qualitative data analysis. The first part of the paper outlines the support role a computer program, HyperQual2, plays in the mechanical analysis process. The second part of the paper argues that the most important aspect of analysis in any research endeavour is conceptual in nature. It provides
As society transforms and is transformed by new technology, so there are new ways in which qualitativeresearchers collect and analyse data and new forms of data to collect. This paper sets in context the contributions in this issue of FQS by examining these developments. The spread of video and photographic technology means that images can be used both as
Graham R. Gibbs; Susanne Friese; Wilma C. Mangabeira
The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitativeresearchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…
This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…
A microsociological research which traced the experience of 120 women (during five years of psychotherapy they undertook to resolve existential problems) used different typologies in the organisation of qualitative data. The major typology, of psychosocial identity was of importance not only in data-ordering, but also in appreciating the changes occurring to individuals during the psychotherapeutic process. The other two typologies
This article focuses on an application of Q methodology (QM) to an applied area of psychological research. It constitutes a complementary sequel to a recent paper in these pages by Watts and Stenner (2005), and outlines how QM can be used to identify patterns and themes in interview transcripts, fieldnotes or naturalistic observation, as a complementary alternative to other qualitative
As an increasing number of researchers have been trained to use programs such as Atlas/ti, NUD*IST, Nvivo, and ETHNOGRAPH their value in analyzing qualitative data has gained greater recognition. Drawing on the experience of two PhD candidates at the University of Tasmania, this paper reflects upon some potential uses of a suite of computer…
Although it has long been understood that a well-constructed data set ought to be filled with complexities and contradictions, observations that challenge or contradict analytic interpretations are not often given sufficiently serious attention in the methodological qualitative health literature. When researchers attempt to produce comprehensive or ?holistic? findings, they all too often set aside or gloss over the negative cases
The article describes Doyle's behavioral model of a firm and demonstrates on the example of an international retail organization its possible application. The article analyses firm's division of competences, values and vision of the organization and the steering wheel consisting of operational objectives of the firm. It presents first results of the qualitativeresearch on the international retail chain. In
A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…
I have conducted a qualitative action research project focusing on student perceptions of the impact of visual culture on teens including popular media. Students especially in high schools are bombarded with visual imagery through various technology sources. While working with high school juniors and seniors I noticed a rise in teen pregnancy and sexual confusion among this population. I wondered
Qualitativeresearch is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…
|In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitativeresearch plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…
|For the past 10 years, qualitativeresearch methodology has become more visible in counseling studies. Results from a content analysis of articles published between 1997 and 2002 in 4 professional journals in the field (Counseling and Values, Journal of Counseling & Development, Professional School Counseling, and The Counseling Psychologist)…
|This article describes a graduate-level qualitativeresearch course informed by transformational learning theory. It presents strategies an interdisciplinary team of instructors used to engage and support students as they entered and moved through the course. The strategies focused on creating a safe, supportive, learner-centered environment,…
Carawan, Lena W.; Knight, Sharon; Wittman, Peggy; Pokorny, Marie; Velde, Beth P.
|This paper explores contributions of qualitativeresearch to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…
Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret
|This article describes experiential-learning approaches to conveying the work and rewards involved in qualitativeresearch. Seminar students interviewed one another, transcribed or took notes on those interviews, shared those materials to create a set of empirical materials for coding, developed coding schemes, and coded the materials using those…