Sample records for qualitative research methods

  1. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing. PMID:8038622

  2. Using qualitative research methods in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelmina C. Savenye; Rhonda S. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATING ISSUES related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods\\u000a to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose\\u000a of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins by describing how qualitative\\u000a research is defined, key characteristics of qualitative research,

  3. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  4. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil

    2003-11-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  5. Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Peters

    2010-01-01

    As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

  6. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

  7. Feminist method and qualitative research about midlife.

    PubMed

    Seibold, C; Richards, L; Simon, D

    1994-02-01

    This paper identifies criteria seen as essential to feminist research. In light of these criteria, issues which have arisen during our current research on women and their experiences of midlife and menopause are discussed. Issues considered include the researchers' responsibilities to participants when exploring sensitive and highly personal issues relating to participants' life experiences, and less clear cut issues such as knowledge construction, power and control. In relation to the latter the balance of power in the research-participant relationship, and the role and responsibilities of the researcher in knowledge construction, are explored. Foucault's notions of knowledge construction and power and control and the feminist researcher's position, are considered in terms of rigour in feminist research and dissemination of research reports. Issues which are seen as problematic and worthy of further debate are: the relations between interviewer and interviewee; the intellectual (the researcher) as the bearer of universal values and as truth teller; and the level of critical activism possible in research studies of this nature. PMID:8188973

  8. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider. PMID:25804178

  9. University Students' Orientation to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    This study aimed to determine whether different orientations toward qualitative and quantitative methods can be found among students. Data were collected during 3 years from different research methodology course students. There were 195 Finnish students and 122 U.S. students who answered a questionnaire about the appreciation of research methods

  10. Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

    1987-01-01

    The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

  11. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  12. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based…

  13. Teaching Qualitative Research Methods through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitative research methods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles the…

  14. On Improving Qualitative Methods in Public Administration Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph S. Brower; Mitchel Y. Abolafia; Jered B. Carr

    2000-01-01

    What do exemplary qualitative accounts look like, and how do they convince readers of their correctness? What sort of standards can be used to assess qualitative research accounts for public administration? To address these questions, the authors examined 72 recent qualitative research journal articles. Proceeding from a set of preliminary guidelines, they worked iteratively between articles and the emergent template

  15. Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Ed

    In this paper the role of qualitative research in special education is examined. The implications of an earlier naturalistic study are cited, an important one being the tendency in the literature to oversimplify the naturalistic paradigm; and the case is made that implementing such a paradigm is a "labor intensive" approach to research in which no…

  16. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  17. Use of Qualitative Methods in Published Health Services and Management Research: A 10-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research. PMID:20675353

  18. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

  19. Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C.; Mays, N.

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research. Images p45-a PMID:7613329

  20. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities. PMID:25203930

  1. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  2. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  3. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and the presence of key methodological components in published reports. PMID:22092040

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  5. The Use of Email Interviewing as a Qualitative Method of Inquiry in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Nalita

    2007-01-01

    This article argues for the potential that email interviewing has as a qualitative method in educational research. The article draws on research that uses email as a way of generating online narratives in order to understand how academics construct their identities. In doing so, the article considers the challenges that email interviewing poses…

  6. Research methods in sport and exercise psychology: quantitative and qualitative issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. H. Biddle; David Markland; David Gilbourne; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Andrew C. Sparkes

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary aspects of research methods in sport and exercise psychology are discussed in this wide-ranging review. After an introduction centred on trends in sport and exercise psychology methods, the review is organized around the major themes of quantitative and qualitative research. Our aim is to highlight areas that may be problematic or controversial (e.g. stepwise statistical procedures), underused (e.g. discriminant

  7. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers. PMID:21179252

  8. Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

  9. Quality in Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive Seale

    1999-01-01

    A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

  10. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Green, Carla A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  11. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research. PMID:24193818

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Make and Support Claims in Physics Education Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Andy

    This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitative methods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduded data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.

  13. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  14. Qualitative Research Methodology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert G.

    Intended to evoke discussion in the research community about the research trend of the 21st century, this paper provides a broad, general definition of qualitative research that covers the many terms currently used under this heading, and discusses seven issues that the research community should address in some manner: (1) new or fad; (2) too many…

  15. The State of Mentoring Research: A Qualitative Review of Current Research Methods and Future Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding mentoring relationships has flourished during the past 20 years. This article reviews the methodology and content of 200 published mentoring articles. Some of the major concerns raised in this review include over reliance on cross-sectional designs and self-report data, a failure to differentiate between different forms of…

  16. Qualitative research on chronic illness: A commentary on method and conceptual development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Conrad

    1990-01-01

    This concluding essay discusses some crucial methodological issues raised by other papers in this issue. It also suggests directions for further conceptual development concerning the qualitative research on chronic illness.

  17. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  18. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  19. Qualitative Research and the Legitimization of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Brent; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Expresses concerns about importing qualitative research methods from education to family therapy. Argues that qualitative researchers cannot establish the trustworthiness of their findings, regardless of the methods they use. Further contends that the legitimacy of research knowledge cannot be determined by researchers, but rather requires the…

  20. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  1. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  2. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.). PMID:25633519

  3. Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

  4. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it. PMID:25851124

  5. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  6. Qualitative research in finance - pedigree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Burton

    Purpose - This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

  7. Levels of Reconstruction as Complementarity in Mixed Methods Research: A Social Theory-Based Conceptual Framework for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Linda J.; Rothe, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson’s metaphysical work on the ‘ways of knowing’. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions. PMID:20948937

  8. Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor DB

    2004-01-01

    Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication with which homeopathic cases are studied. Before going into design issues this paper places the FCS in an historical and academic context and describes the relative merits of the method. Discussion Like any research, the FCS should have a clear focus. This focus can be both "internal", grounded in the discourse of homeopathy and also encompass issues of wider appeal. A selection of possible "internal" and "external" research questions is introduced. Data generation should be from multiple sources to ensure adequate triangulation. This could include the recording and transcription of actual consultations. Analysis is built around existing theory, involves cross-case comparison and the search for deviant cases. The trustworthiness of conclusions is ensured by the application of concepts from qualitative research including triangulation, groundedness, respondent validation and reflexivity. Though homeopathic case studies have been reported in mainstream literature, none has used formal qualitative methods – though some such studies are in progress. Summary This paper introduces the reader to a new strategy for homeopathic research. This strategy, termed the "formal case study", allows for a naturalistic enquiry into the players, processes and outcomes of homeopathic practice. Using ideas from qualitative research, it allows a rigorous approach to types of research question that cannot typically be addressed through clinical trials and numeric outcome studies. The FCS provides an opportunity for the practitioner-researcher to contribute to the evidence-base in homeopathy in a systematic fashion. The FCS can also be used to inform the design of clinical trials through holistic study of the "active ingredients" of the therapeutic process and its clinical outcomes. PMID:15018637

  9. Learning Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Lael

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

  10. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    ?? Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessment of generic features of qualitative research. In using these, account will need to be taken of the particular method of data collection and methodological approach being used. There may be a need for appraisal criteria suited to the different methods of qualitative data collection and to different methodological approaches. These more specific criteria would help to distinguish fatal flaws from more minor errors in the design, conduct, and reporting of qualitative research. There will be difficulties in doing this because some aspects of qualitative research, particularly those relating to quality of insight and interpretation, will remain difficult to appraise and will rely largely on subjective judgement. PMID:15175495

  11. Development of a qualitative exploratory case study research method to explore sustained delivery of cognitive services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Kaae; Birthe Søndergaard; Lotte Stig Haugbølle; Janine Morgall Traulsen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop, apply and evaluate a new research method to establish relationships between structural and process elements of\\u000a the provision of cognitive services. In-depth knowledge about how local organisational structural elements of community pharmacies\\u000a shape the implementation process of cognitive services is needed to develop targeted quality assurance systems to ensure that\\u000a the services are continuously provided to the

  12. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

  13. Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

  14. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no references to qualitative; methodological terms such as thematic analysis or constant comparative methods were used inconsistently; qualitative was a catch-all panacea rather than a methodology with well-argued terms or contextual definition. PMID:21295895

  15. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  16. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Lois R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

  17. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  18. Uncovering Spiritual Resiliency Through Feminist Qualitative Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Blieszner; Janet L. Ramsey

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted in Germany and America explored how spirituality might facilitate resiliency in old women. Believing in the importance of matching research methods with research goals, we used a feminist, qualitative, denominationally specific approach. We proposed that, through such a design, it would be possible to (a) allow the unique experiences of old women to be expressed; (b) identify

  19. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  20. Grant Writing Using Qualitative Methods

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Grant Writing Using Qualitative Methods Michael L. Hecht Distinguished Professor Communication Arts and Sciences Crime, Law, and Justice #12; Section 1: Grants Overview Section 2: Grant Criteria Section 3: Grant Writing Section 4: Grant Reviews & Revision Get Funded! (OK, write proposal) Workshop Outline

  1. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  2. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  3. USING CONCEPT MAPS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Daley

    Despite the huge increase in the number of qualitative research studies conducted, using concept maps as a methodological research strategy has received little attention in recent literature. This paper will discuss the connections between qualitative research and concept maps. Additionally, four strategies for incorporating concept maps in qualitative research will be presented along with sample maps for each strategy. Finally,

  4. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  5. Interviews and the Philosophy of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Interviewing is key to many forms of qualitative educational research; we interview respondents for oral histories, life histories, ethnographies, and case studies (see Tierney & Dilley, 2002, for an overview of interviewing in education). Despite the primacy of verbal data in qualitative research, basic introductions to qualitative research

  6. Qualitative Research--Another Way of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent R.

    Qualitative research is based on the direct observation of human activity and interaction in an ongoing, naturalistic fashion. Qualitative researchers are concerned with the internal life of schools; what is really occurring in classrooms, corridors, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Qualitative researchers look at what people ordinarily take for…

  7. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  8. Getting comfortable as "fish out of water": using qualitative research methods training to enhance the technical capacity of family therapy trainees.

    PubMed

    Charlés, Laurie L; Moebus, Paula; Beechinor, Lisa; Pearce, Tyler; Putney, Heather

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a qualitative research methods training project undertaken in a COAMFTE-accredited family therapy master's-level program. Graduate students were trained to collect research data for a qualitative study on the resilience of families displaced to the United States because of war and politically motivated violence in their country of origin. By involving trainees in a research project with refugees, the project was intended to address a gap in clinicians' training, specific to the refugee population (Miller, Muzurovic, Worthington, Tipping, and Goldman, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 2002; 72: 341). However, the training process was also a way to increase the students' skills at interviewing in complex situations, develop their cultural sensitivity beyond awareness, enhance their capacity for routine self-reflection, and introduce them to basic practices of qualitative research methodology. In this article, we focus on the students' experience of the training and discuss the potential implications of their feedback for family therapy training. PMID:24749482

  9. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  10. Qualitative Research and its Uses in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q

    2008-01-01

    Although relatively uncommon in health care research, qualitative research is now receiving recognition and is increasingly used in health care research with social and cultural dimensions. Unlike quantitative research, which is deductive and tends to analyze phenomena in terms of trends and frequencies, qualitative research seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon through description. It aims to develop concepts that aid in the understanding of natural phenomena with emphasis on the meaning, experiences and views of the participants. Differences among qualitative researchers exist on matters of ontology, epistemology, data collection methods and methods of evaluation. The aim of this article is not to act as a practical guide on how to conduct qualitative research, but is an attempt to give an introduction to qualitative research methods and their use in health-related research. PMID:21654952

  11. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  12. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. ROBLEY

    Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to partic- ipate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to

  13. The ethics of qualitative nursing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois R. Robley

    1995-01-01

    Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe

  14. Research Methodologies in Science Education: Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the concepts and terminology of qualitative research methodologies in the context of science education. Discusses interviewing, observing, validity, reliability, and confirmability. (Author/MM)

  15. Research Methodologies in Science Education: The Qualitative-Quantitative Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the pros and cons of the qualitative and quantitative research methods and discusses the role of assessment objectives on choosing the research methodologies. Presents an example study. Includes 13 references. (Author/YDS)

  16. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  17. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  18. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  19. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  20. Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

  1. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  2. Qualitative to Quantitative and Spectrum to Report: An Instrument-Focused Research Methods Course for First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alyssa C.; Boucher, Michelle A.; Pulliam, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Our Introduction to Research Methods course is a first-year majors course built around the idea of helping students learn to work like chemists, write like chemists, and think like chemists. We have developed this course as a hybrid hands-on/ lecture experience built around instrumentation use and report preparation. We take the product from one…

  3. The Possible Restorative Justice Functions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    2006-01-01

    The author of this essay contends that there is a need to expand the use of qualitative research methods to include healing and human restoration for the researcher as well as for the researched. This will require moving away from obsessions with positivistic conceptions of scientific research and exploring and using other possible functions of…

  4. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  5. Outcomes of Preservice Teachers' Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenstein, Angela; Liberatore, Ileana; Lioi, Teresa; Miro, Evelyn; Weber, Sue; Stoeck, Sheryl

    2001-01-01

    Investigates responses to a qualitative research project (intended to develop reflective teachers with an inquiry stance toward teaching) in which preservice teacher education students research a self-determined question related to teaching. Finds that, although they may no longer use formal research processes, these students continue to act as…

  6. Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

  7. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  8. "Answers," Assemblages, and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…

  9. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  10. How Qualitative Methods Contribute to Understanding Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Andrea; Golin, Carol; Simoni, Jane M.; Luborsky, Mark; Pearson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Strict adherence to medication regimens is generally required to obtain optimal response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, we have made limited progress in developing strategies to decrease the prevalence of nonadherence. As we work to understand adherence in developed countries, the introduction of ART in resource-poor settings raises novel challenges. Qualitative research is a scientific approach that uses methods such as observation, interviews, and verbal interactions to gather rich in-depth information about how something is experienced. It seeks to understand the beliefs, values, and processes underlying behavioral patterns. Qualitative methods provide powerful tools for understanding adherence. Culture-specific influences, medication beliefs, access, stigma, reasons for nonadherence, patterns of medication taking, and intervention fidelity and measurement development are areas ripe for qualitative inquiry. A disregard for the social and cultural context of adherence or the imposition of adherence models inconsistent with local values and practices is likely to produce irrelevant or ineffective interventions. Qualitative methods remain underused in adherence research. We review appropriate qualitative methods for and provide an overview of the qualitative research on ART nonadherence. We discuss the rationales for using qualitative methods, present 2 case examples illustrating their use, and discuss possible institutional barriers to their acceptance. PMID:17133205

  11. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  12. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    PubMed Central

    Kitzinger, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241

  13. Developing students' qualitative muscles in an introductory methods course.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of qualitative research (QR) has coincided with methodological innovations, the proliferation of qualitative textbooks and journals, and the greater availability of qualitative methods courses. In spite of these advances, the pedagogy for teaching qualitative methods has received little attention. This paper provides a philosophical foundation for teaching QR with active learning strategies and shows how active learning is fully integrated into a one-semester course. The course initiates students into qualitative dispositions and skills as students develop study aims and procedures; enter the field to gather data; analyze the full set of student-generated data; and write results in a final report. Conducting a study in one semester is challenging but has proven feasible and disabuses students of the view that QR is simple, unscientific, or non-rigorous. Student reflections on course assignments are integrated into the paper. The strengths and limitations of this pedagogical approach are also described. PMID:25178908

  14. Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, William L.; Goodwin, Laura D.

    This book describes the research process in order to facilitate understanding of the process and its products, especially as they pertain to early childhood education. It examines both quantitative and qualitative research methods, emphasizing ways in which they can be used together to fully study a given phenomenon or topic. Chapter 1 examines…

  15. Enhancing Institutional Assessment Efforts through Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Banta, Trudy W.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the why behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Using Qualitative Methods to Study Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William; Lisboa, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    Basic concepts and procedures of qualitative analysis are discussed, especially as they relate to the study of the features, processes, and effects of friendships. The contributions of the previous chapters are presented according to theory and research on friendship as a developmental process.

  17. A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

  18. The Use of Diaries as a Qualitative Research Method to Investigate Teachers' Perception and Use of Rating Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Jyi-yeon

    2008-01-01

    Whilst diary study is used for pedagogical purposes, course evaluation and basic research on language learners, this study aims to explore the possibility of using it to investigate how teachers perceive and use rating schemes. Three English teachers who worked at various high schools in Korea rated 224 scripts written by 112 Korean high school…

  19. Asking, Witnessing, Interpreting, Knowing: Conducting Qualitative Research in Community Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine H. Stein; Eric S. Mankowski

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community-based qualitative research. Qualitative research activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitative research practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's

  20. Qualitative research in sport and exercise psychology: observations of a non-qualitative researcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    The authors of articles examining quantitative and qualitative research frequently highlight and over-emphasise the differences in these two research paradigms. Differences are typically portrayed as dichotomous vs. differences in emphasis or degree. Additionally, similarities and shared middle ground are often ignored. The above perspective can lead to incomplete, inaccurate and misleading reviews on both types of research. Furthermore, the above

  1. Realising the potential : developing qualitative longitudinal methods for understanding the experience of metastatic colorectal cancer 

    E-print Network

    Carduff, Emma Kathryn

    2013-07-06

    Background Qualitative longitudinal research (QLR) has a long history in the social sciences, where its theoretical basis is well established. Qualitative longitudinal (QL) methods are gaining popularity in health care ...

  2. Mapping the Possibilities of Qualitative Research in Music Education: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using…

  3. Nurse researchers in corrections: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The United States has more people, per capita, in prisons and jails than any other country in the world. Because the prison population is largely composed of people who have been economically and socially disadvantaged, a very high percentage enter correctional facilities in poor health. Because of the large concentrated numbers of women, men, and youth in prisons and jails, an exceptional opportunity exists for nurses and other researchers to conduct creative and innovative research to improve the health care of this hard-to-reach population. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse researchers who have been successful in conducting studies in different correctional settings. A qualitative descriptive design was used, and telephone interviews with 16 participants were completed. The participants described how they established credibility, the challenges they faced, and the unexpected personal and professional rewards they received. Recommendations for potential researchers will hopefully lead to an increase in research with this invisible population. PMID:24256982

  4. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst common issues were identified through the two research approaches, key differences also emerged. The classical, more quantitative approach provided objective measurement of problem frequency, which was compared with owners' perceptions of importance. The qualitative participatory approach provided greater opportunity for researchers to gain detailed understanding of local issues and appreciate how owners defined and prioritised problems affecting them and their animals. Both approaches provided valuable and complementary information that can be used to inform interventions aimed at providing sustainable improvements in the health and wellbeing of working animals and their owners. It is recommended that both quantitative and qualitative approaches are employed as part of detailed needs assessment work prior to defining and prioritising the charity's future interventions. PMID:23419786

  5. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  6. How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

  7. Qualitative Research in the Foreseeable Future: No Study Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  8. Qualitative research in evidence-based practice: a valuable partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Given

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the qualitative research paradigm, with a particular emphasis on the marginalization of qualitative approaches within the current discourse of evidence-based librarianship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents examples of qualitative research in the field of library and information studies, reviews the discourse of EBL as it relates to

  9. Positioning qualitative market research: reflections from theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko de Ruyter; Norbert Scholl

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a number of important issues pertaining to the domain of qualitative market research. Attempts to define what qualitative research is about and discuss some of the difficulties involved in coming up with a clear definition of the qualitative paradigm. Suggests a number of issues relating to theory and practice that warrant the existence of a new journal devoted specifically

  10. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  11. Doing qualitative Weld research in management accounting: Positioning data to contribute to theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Ahrens; Christopher S. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that theory, method, methodology, and knowledge gains in qualitative Weld studies are inter- twined through the ongoing hypothesis development in the Weld. We develop our argument through a discussion of spe- ciWc qualitative Weld studies in management accounting. We emphasise in particular the distinctive role of theory in qualitative research as relating to expression of

  12. Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: a personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2005-09-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences of conducting a qualitative semistructured interview study, after having done predominantly quantitative survey research in the social sciences. The author describes the process of learning how to approach conducting semistructured interviews with female advocates and clinicians who provide services to sexual assault survivors in the community. The author describes making the transition from a logical positivist deductive approach to thinking about and conducting research to a more social constructionist stance in which one learns from participants about their experiences and perspectives in narrative form to discover knowledge and develop theory inductively. PMID:16049103

  13. Interviewing the Investigator: Strategies for Addressing Instrumentation and Researcher Bias Concerns in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation rigor and bias management are major challenges for qualitative researchers employing interviewing as a data generation method in their studies. A usual procedure for testing the quality of an interview protocol and for identifying potential researcher biases is the pilot study in which investigators try out their proposed methods

  14. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  15. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

  16. An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

  17. Quality issues of court reporters and transcriptionists for qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique; Weber, Mary Beth

    2013-05-01

    Transcription is central to qualitative research, yet few researchers identify the quality of different transcription methods. We explored the quality of verbatim transcripts from traditional transcriptionists and court reporters by reviewing 16 transcripts from 8 focus group discussions using four criteria: transcription errors, cost, time of transcription, and effect on study participants. Transcriptionists made fewer errors, captured colloquial dialogue, and errors were largely influenced by the quality of the recording. Court reporters made more errors, particularly in the omission of topical content and contextual detail, and were less able to produce a verbatim transcript; however, the potential immediacy of the transcript was advantageous. In terms of cost, shorter group discussions favored a transcriptionist and longer groups a court reporter. Study participants reported no effect by either method of recording. Understanding the benefits and limitations of each method of transcription can help researchers select an appropriate method for each study. PMID:23512435

  18. Quality Issues of Court Reporters and Transcriptionists for Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Hennink, Monique; Weber, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Transcription is central to qualitative research, yet few researchers identify the quality of different transcription methods. We described the quality of verbatim transcripts from traditional transcriptionists and court reporters by reviewing 16 transcripts from 8 focus group discussions using four criteria: transcription errors, cost and time of transcription, and effect on study participants. Transcriptionists made fewer errors, captured colloquial dialogue, and errors were largely influenced by the quality of the recording. Court reporters made more errors, particularly in the omission of topical content and contextual detail and were less able to produce a verbatim transcript; however the potential immediacy of the transcript was advantageous. In terms of cost, shorter group discussions favored a transcriptionist and longer groups a court reporter. Study participants reported no effect by either method of recording. Understanding the benefits and limitations of each method of transcription can help researchers select an appropriate method for each study. PMID:23512435

  19. Multicultural Counseling and Qualitative Research: Shared Worldview and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Niloufer; Dupuy, Paula

    1996-01-01

    Identifies similarities between multicultural counseling competencies and the basic assumptions and methodology of qualitative research. Examines how various characteristics shared by these two approaches (i.e., using appropriate strategies and skills) are addressed under aspects of qualitative research, such as selection of the research question…

  20. Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

    The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

  1. Product Design Schemes Evaluation Method with Qualitative Weight Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Yingping

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate product design schemes with qualitative information on indices weights, we introduce data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analyze its disadvantages in processing qualitative weight information, and then propose a modified DEA model. In the method, first, evaluation indices are normalized. Secondly, based on the normalized indices and qualitative weight information, we present a DEA model with outputs only and

  2. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Hanson; John W. Creswell; Vicki L. Plano Clark; Kelly S. Petska; J. David Creswell

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods research designs. It defines mixed methods research, discusses its origins and philosophical basis,

  3. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  4. How will we know "good" qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Devers, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitative research will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitative methods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitative research, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitative research results. Images Figure 1 PMID:10591278

  5. Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other authors examining this issue. The analysis demonstrated that the criteria produced by this study may provide useful guidelines for evaluating cross-language research and for novice cross-language researchers designing their first studies. Finally, the study also indicates that researchers attempting cross-language studies need to address the methodological issues surrounding language barriers between researchers and participants more systematically. PMID:18789799

  6. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  7. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  8. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  9. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  10. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  11. Qualitative Evaluation of a Method for Information Systems Engineering Processes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative Evaluation of a Method for Information Systems Engineering Processes Charlotte Hug presents a qualitative evaluation of a method for building information systems engineering processes. It includes the description of the evaluated method, the profiles of the selected subjects and the set up

  12. Can health professionals learn qualitative evaluation methods on the World Wide Web? A case example.

    PubMed

    Steckler, A; Farel, A; Bontempi, J B; Umble, K; Polhamus, B; Trester, A

    2001-12-01

    The Enhancing Data Utilization Skills through Information Technology (EDUSIT) project trained Maternal and Child Health professionals to collect, analyze and interpret data via a year-long web-based course. The overall goal of the project was to strengthen the technology and analytic skills of the public health workforce. This article describes and analyzes a web-based module for training public health professionals to use qualitative research and evaluation methods that was one of six offered within the EDUSIT project. The qualitative module consisted of six units: overview of qualitative methods, planning qualitative studies, conducting field observations, qualitative interviewing, analyzing qualitative data and presenting qualitative findings. Evaluation results found no statistically significant changes in specific knowledge or beliefs about qualitative methods. However, the change in participants' self-efficacy was statistically significant. Participants' self-reports also showed significant changes in perceived skill levels in 'collecting qualitative data through an interview' and 'analyzing and interpreting qualitative data'. Most participants rated each lesson within the qualitative methods module as valuable, and most found the teaching methods used satisfactory, emphasizing the value of both the didactic teaching and the practical exercises and team project. The most common difficulty reported was finding the time to complete the module requirements while also working full-time. Implications of these findings for web-based teaching of public health professionals are discussed. PMID:11780711

  13. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design provides an overview of the five main traditions of qualitative research. The author explains the uniqueness of each approach and its applicability to different types of inquiry. Illustrative examples from public health and social science fields are provided. The book details study design, question development, data collection and analysis, and summarizing and interpreting results, and how the research process differs according to each approach. This resource can serve as a useful guide for public health practitioners and graduate-level students interested in the theory and practice of rigorous qualitative research. PMID:25835019

  14. Innovative Data Collection Strategies in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…

  15. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  16. Research Methods Knowledge Base

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Trochim

    2002-01-01

    This is a comprehensive web-based textbook that addresses all of the topics in a typical introductory undergraduate or graduate course in social research methods. It covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics. The Knowledge Base uses an informal, conversational style to engage both the newcomer and the more experienced student of research. It is a fully hyperlinked text that can be integrated easily into an existing course structure or used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher who simply wants to browse This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.

  17. How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

  18. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  19. Extending the Conversation: Qualitative Research as Dialogic Collaborative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Trena; Woodside, Marianne; Ziegler, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative research often refers to collaboration among the researcher and the participants. Few studies investigate the collaborative process among researchers themselves. Assumptions about the qualitative research process, particularly ways to establish rigor and transparency, are pervasive. Our experience conducting three collaborative…

  20. Qualitative research and outcomes in health, social work and education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline ways in which qualitative research has a contribution to make to research on outcomes in Health, Social Work and Education. It is a methodology paper with a practical purpose. Large tracts of inquiry work (a broad term to cover research, evaluation, policy analysis, and practitioner research) are concerned with questions about the

  1. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

  2. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  3. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jick, Todd D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of triangulation in a study by the author, and argues that triangulation heightens qualitative methods to their deserved prominence while demonstrating that quantitative methods can and should be used in a complementary fashion. (Author/IRT)

  4. Virtual Instruction: A Qualitative Research Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…

  5. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  6. CAQDAS: a supplementary tool for qualitative market research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The

  7. Rethinking Texts: Narrative and the Construction of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri A.; Colyar, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitative research texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…

  8. Barriers to qualitative dementia research: the elephant in the room.

    PubMed

    Carmody, John; Traynor, Victoria; Marchetti, Elena

    2015-07-01

    As our population is aging, the global prevalence of dementia is rising. Recent extensive reviews of the dementia literature highlight a clear need for additional qualitative research to address the experiences of people with dementia and their carers. To date, the vast majority of published dementia research is quantitative in nature and, perhaps not surprisingly, attracts the bulk of government funding. In contrast, qualitative dementia research is poorly resourced and less frequently published. Although a myriad of factors are responsible for this dichotomy, we propose that inadequate funding represents the "elephant in the room" of dementia research. In this article, we describe and emphasize the need for qualitative dementia research, highlight existing barriers, and outline potential solutions. Examples of barriers are provided and theoretical underpinnings are proposed. PMID:25296651

  9. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  10. Teaching qualitative research as a means of socialization to nursing.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Daniella; Tamir, Batya; Man, Michal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to present a model for teaching qualitative research as part of nursing education. The uniqueness of the course model is that it seeks to combine two objectives: (1) initial familiarization of the students with the clinical-nursing environment and the role of the nurse; and (2) understanding the qualitative research approach and inculcation of basic qualitative research skills. The article describes how teaching two central genres in qualitative research - ethnographic and narrative research - constitutes a way of teaching the important skills, concepts, and values of the nursing profession. The article presents the model's structure, details its principal stages, and explains the rationale of each stage. It also presents the central findings of an evaluation of the model's implementation in eight groups over a two-year period. In this way the article seeks to contribute to nursing education literature in general, and to those engaged in clinical training and teaching qualitative research in nursing education in particular. PMID:25799426

  11. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches to social research in human geography -- an impossible mixture?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Philip

    1998-01-01

    The author addresses the potential of a multiple-methods approach in human geography, an approach to social research which has received little explicit attention in the geographical literature to date. The relationship between epistemology and methodology is outlined, and the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative methods are described. Some problems surrounding subjectivity and objectivity in social research are also

  12. Entrepreneurial marketing: a conceptualisation from qualitative research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stokes

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a conceptualisation of “entrepreneurial marketing” based on the practices of successful entrepreneurs. The methodology took account of specific issues in researching entrepreneurs such as lack of common understanding of management terms, and the influence of ego on participants’ responses. Depth interviews used critical incident technique to elicit accounts from entrepreneurs of their marketing practices. Focus groups supplemented individual interviews

  13. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Burke Johnson; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research (mixed research is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods research. In doing this, we briefly review the paradigm “wars”

  14. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  15. Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2004-01-01

    Although many critics are reluctant to accept the trustworthiness of qualitative research, frameworks for ensuring rigour in this form of work have been in existence for many years. Guba's constructs, in particular, have won considerable favour and form the focus of this paper. Here researchers seek to satisfy four criteria. In addressing…

  16. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  17. On the Rhetoric of Qualitative MethodsToward Historically Informed Argumentation in Management Inquiry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelby D. Hunt

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative research is becoming increasingly prominent in management. Such research is commonly contrasted with so-called positivist research, which is described as not only (a) being the same thing as quantitative methods but also (b) being deterministic, (c) involving the search for real causes, (d) adopting a realist ontology, (e) engaging in reification, (f) being functionalist, or (g) being objectivist. This

  18. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods

  19. Listening to History: A Qualitative Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    This study used an oral history method to collect data from contemporary citizens who grew up in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s. The primary purpose of the study was to gather historical evidence from those eras and identify participants' life themes and values. A secondary purpose was to implement interdisciplinary collaboration…

  20. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  1. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  2. Qualitative Research in Adult, Career, and Career-Technical Education. Practitioner File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan; Kerka, Sandra; Wonacott, Michael E.

    Directed at practitioners in adult and career education, this document defines qualitative research, compares qualitative research to quantitative research, describes the "war" between proponents of each kind of research, describes how to assess qualitative research, and explains how to choose and use qualitative techniques. Pitfalls of using…

  3. Using a theory-driven conceptual framework in qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary

    2012-05-01

    The role and merits of highly inductive research designs in qualitative health research are well established, and there has been a powerful proliferation of grounded theory method in the field. However, tight qualitative research designs informed by social theory can be useful to sensitize researchers to concepts and processes that they might not necessarily identify through inductive processes. In this article, we provide a reflexive account of our experience of using a theory-driven conceptual framework, the Normalization Process Model, in a qualitative evaluation of general practitioners' uptake of a free, pilot, language interpreting service in the Republic of Ireland. We reflect on our decisions about whether or not to use the Model, and describe our actual use of it to inform research questions, sampling, coding, and data analysis. We conclude with reflections on the added value that the Model and tight design brought to our research. PMID:22203386

  4. To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

  5. Computer-Based Instruction in Qualitative Research Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, J. S.; Payne, K.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses problems in qualitative-research-practice instruction and describes a computer-based instructional system based on linking domain problems to particular pedagogic mechanisms, and then linking these mechanisms to various implementation decisions. Topics include skill transfer and relational-database management systems. (Author/LRW)

  6. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  7. Thinking about the Nature and Scope of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    In "Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research" (LaRossa, 2012), the author expressed the hope that, by sketching a cognitive map of the writing and reviewing process, authors and reviewers for the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") would be better able to communicate with each other about the…

  8. On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the United States about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, i.e., researchers

  9. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research. PMID:25375998

  10. Spirituality in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Method for a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Andrew; Mason, Michael; Webber, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing research project on contemporary forms of youth and young adult spirituality, highlighting issues in the history and definition of spirituality and in development of appropriate qualitative methods of investigation. Previous research on the topic has been bedevilled by difficulties of definition. "Spirit" and…

  11. Teachers' Responses to Using a Small-Group Delivery Method during Reading Instruction: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy M. Valentine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine teachers' perspectives on transitioning from a predominately whole to small-group delivery method during reading instruction. This study used a qualitative approach and nested itself in an epistemology of constructivism. The research operated under the umbrella of practice ethnography as it closely…

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Assess Diverse Institutional Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on describing how institutional researchers can use qualitative cultural assessments to better understand the role that their campus cultures play in shaping individual and group behaviors and experiences. A special emphasis is given to the implications of institutional diversity in the processes of designing and conducting…

  13. Remaining Open to Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed?Method Designs: An Unscientific Compromise, or Good Research Practice? 1 1 Author note: This paper is based on the Doctoral Research of Keith R. McVilly, which was recognized with Australian Psychological Society's 2005 Thesis Award for a thesis in the field of human relationships. The research was partly funded by an Australian Post Graduate Award, in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. Mcvilly; Roger J. Stancliffe; Trevor R. Parmenter

    2008-01-01

    The tension between quantitative and qualitative research paradigms are discussed together with the important contribution of mixed?method designs, particularly as they are applied in the field of disability studies. Practical issues inherent in research designs involving participants with intellectual disability are explored, including sample building, participant consent, data collection and data analysis. It is concluded, scientific debate needs to move

  14. A QUALITATIVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE HSI DISPLAY COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2013-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation.

  15. Using Qualitative Methods to Evaluate the Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rungchat Chompu-inwai; Toni L. Doolen

    2006-01-01

    This research utilized qualitative methods to study the impact of technology on teaching and learning processes. This study provides a process focused evaluation, rather than a product focused assessment of outcomes. This paper summarizes the data collection methods, the analyses, and the results using an illustrative field study. The goal of the study was to understand the impact of mobile

  16. Recommendations for Internet-Based Qualitative Health Research With Hard-to-Reach Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy A.; Bockting, Walter O.; Simon Rosser, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers new to online qualitative health research frequently have questions about how to transfer knowledge of offline data collection to an online environment. In this article, we present best-practice guidelines derived from the literature and our experience to help researchers determine if an online qualitative study design is appropriate for their research project and, if so, when to begin data collection with a hard-to-reach population. Researchers should reflect on administrative, population, and data collection considerations when deciding between online and offline data collection. Decisions must be made regarding whether to conduct interviews or focus groups, to collect data using asynchronous or synchronous methods, and to use only text or incorporate visual media. Researchers should also reflect on human subjects, recruitment, research instrumentation, additional data collection, and public relations considerations when writing protocols to guide the research team’s response to various situations. Our recommendations direct researchers’ reflection on these considerations. PMID:24623662

  17. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative

  18. Research that Matters: Qualitative Research in the Service of Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & Qualitative Research Conference. It is routine for qualitative researchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…

  19. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  20. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499

  1. Development of a nutrient-dense food supplement for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya using qualitative and quantitative research methods

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Steven Y; Hendricks, Kristy M; Wanke, Christine; Omosa, Gloria; Patta, Shem; Mwero, Ben; Mjomba, Innocent; Queenan, Jeanette; Mwamburi, Mkaya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formative research to facilitate the development, packaging and delivery of a culturally acceptable nutrition intervention for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya for an intervention trial. Design Focus group discussion on three areas: (i) ingredients and form of the nutrition intervention, (ii) packaging and delivery and (iii) monitoring of adherence. Two single-blind taste tests with eleven different porridge formulations of various combinations of maize flour, soyabeans, peanuts, sorghum, mung beans, dried fish, raisins and dried whole milk. Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion was also conducted. Setting Voi, Kenya, community based. Subjects Focus group discussion and two taste tests (twenty-one women aged 16–55 years). Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion (four women enrolled in intervention trial). Results The preferred porridge for taste consisted of maize, soyabeans and peanuts. For animal protein, dried whole milk and dried fish were used. Although the women disliked the taste of dried fish, it was acceptable if added in small undetectable quantities. Sugar over lime was favoured for taste. Women believed they could consume at least two cups of porridge per day without displacing their usual meals. The optimal delivery interval was believed to be every two weeks in individual serving packages. Women who had been consuming porridge for several weeks felt the taste was acceptable for long-term consumption. Conclusions This formative research resulted in the development, packaging and delivery of a nutrient-dense food supplement using local ingredients to meet the dietary needs of the population and acceptable for daily consumption by women in Kenya for evaluation in an intervention trial. PMID:22974548

  2. Linking Quantitative and Qualitative Distance Education Research through Complementarity. ZIFF Papiere 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    This article focuses on the linkage between the quantitative and qualitative distance education research methods. The concept that serves as the conceptual link is termed "complementarity." The definition of complementarity emerges through a simulated study of FernUniversitat's mentors. The study shows that in the case of the mentors, educational…

  3. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    PubMed Central

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  4. Writing Our Way into Shared Understanding: Collaborative Autobiographical Writing in the Qualitative Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapadat, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    From her experience as an instructor, the author finds that it is valuable to engage graduate students in conducting a study within their qualitative methods course. In this article, the author discusses how she used a collaborative autobiographical research approach. Class members generate autobiographical writing to be shared with the group, and…

  5. The Researcher as Instrument: Learning to Conduct Qualitative Research through Analyzing and Interpreting a Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often describe the ambiguities and complexities of extracting meaning from ambiguous and complex data. Although methodological literature provides useful frameworks and heuristics to guide the process of transforming field data into credible findings, learning to analyze and interpret qualitative data also involves a…

  6. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  7. Subjective soundscapes qualitative research in the experience and evaluation of environmental noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, Uwe

    2001-05-01

    If the subjective experience and evaluation of environmental noise shall be considered and integrated into the current soundscape research, the use of qualitative research methods used in sociology and psychology will become necessary. A triangulation of research methods for measuring objective noise and for the subjective evaluation of noises and sounds on the background of subjective meanings of health and healthy living will be a fruitful way to a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of soundscapes in the context of health and quality of life. In this contribution, a selection of qualitative research methods will be presented that allows for analyzing subjective experiences with environmental noise. Interviews focusing on narratives of episodes and situations (e.g., the episodic interview, Flick, 2002) will be outlined. Issues of how to assess the quality of qualitative research and its results will be addressed and finally the benefits and limits of the triangulation of different methods (e.g., interviews and focus groups or interviews and physical measures) will be discussed. Research experiences from the author's recent studies on health concepts of health professionals will be used for illustration.

  8. Proposing an Argument for Research Questions that Could Create Permeable Boundaries within Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Hayes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we discuss how carefully developed research questions may support qualitative researchers by providing boundaries for their study designs. These boundaries could indicate a researcher's epistemological and theoretical connections and support his or her research choices. Although these boundaries are permeable and in flux,…

  9. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

  10. Qualitative Research in Family Therapy: Publication Trends from 1980 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Rhonda A.; Klock, Kathryn; Gale, Jerry E.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, scholars from a variety of disciplines encouraged greater inclusion of qualitative research methodology in the mental health field. Moon, Dillon, and Sprenkle (1990) hoped their paper "Family therapy and qualitative research" would serve as a stimulus for further development of qualitative research in the field of family…

  11. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  12. Engaging High School Students as Co-Researchers in Qualitative Research: Logistical, Methodological and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.; McVea, Kristine L. S. P.; Creswell, John W.; Harter, Lynn; Mickelson, William; McEntarffer, Rob

    This paper explores six phases of a research project designed specifically to engage high school students as co-researchers in a multisite qualitative study exploring perceptions of tobacco use among high school students in four schools. It describes how university researchers collaborated with the high school students and summarizes seven major…

  13. Management Summary of Qualitative Research Report Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is a summary of research findings from a piece of qualitative research conducted between May and July 2010 for the National Literacy Trust to inform the Talk To Your Baby campaign. The objectives of the research were to identify motivating messages to encourage parents to communicate with their children under three, and to understand key ways…

  14. Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

  15. Theory Building through Qualitative Research: Marshalling Opportunities to Advance Cancer Screening Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Craddock Lee, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers lack the resources, time, and/or expertise to include qualitative strategies in their research. In recent years, substantive progress has been made among qualitative methodologists themselves to codify and systematize concept construction and typologies in qualitatively derived theory. These authors discuss the work of Rena Pasick…

  16. Marrow Bone Thinking: A Plea for Strengthened Qualitative Research in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.

    This report discusses the nature of research in the context of distance education and suggests that qualitative research be included as a research methodology for distance education research. Noting that qualitative research represents a shift toward more perceptual, context-embedded interpretive inquiry, the paper argues that it is well suited to…

  17. Re-Examining the Nature of Researcher-Participant Relationships in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busier, Holly-Lynn; Pigeon, Yvette

    A qualitative research conversation needs to include a critical examination of a study's relational dimension. Excerpts are presented from two doctoral dissertations that discuss the nature of the researcher-participant relationships formed through the studies. The first dissertation, "Beyond the Yellow Brick Road: Educational Portraits of…

  18. Using Technology to Enhance Qualitative Research with Hidden Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in technology provide researchers with increased opportunities to locate and conduct research with populations that have historically been inaccessible. This manuscript describes the development of private, voluntary web-based groups, and the process for using web cameras to conduct individual web-based interviews as a method of data…

  19. Revisiting the Benefits Debate: Does Qualitative Social Work Research Produce Salubrious Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.; Shdaimah, Corey S.

    2007-01-01

    Social work discussion about the intersection of therapy and research has been heated. There is ongoing theoretical debate about the fit of qualitative research and social work practice, as well as the proper goals and potential impact of clinical research. In this article, two qualitative researchers report empirical findings and discuss the…

  20. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  1. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided. PMID:26153969

  2. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  3. Qualitative management accounting research: rationale, pitfalls and potential : A comment on Vaivio (2008)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lillis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper's purpose is to provide a commentary on “Qualitative management accounting research: rationale, pitfalls and potential,” a paper by Juhani Vaivio. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is to draw on alternative research paradigms to expand the definition and discussion of qualitative research in management accounting. Findings – The paper endorses many of the prescriptions in Vaivio but expands

  4. Talk to me, please!: The importance of qualitative research to games for health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial provides an overview of the ways in which qualitative research can guide games for health research and its potential contributions. It also provides guidelines for conducting qualitative research, such as using open ended, non-leading questions and digitally recording the sessions....

  5. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  6. Skype interviewing: the new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing. PMID:24746247

  7. Skype interviewing: The new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Taghipour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing. PMID:24746247

  8. Meta-Research: Researching Student Researchers' Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Debra S; And Others

    This paper considers students' attitudes toward research and writing about research and discusses methods used to help students overcome their largely negative attitudes toward research. The paper first states that at Illinois State University in Normal, the course that follows freshman composition is one on academic discourse. The paper reports…

  9. Researching Up: Triangulating Qualitative Research to Influence the Public Debate of "On-Time" College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Tim; Schnee, Emily; VanOra, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: The field of higher education abounds with qualitative research aimed at highlighting the needs, struggles, strengths, and motivations of academically struggling students. However, because of the small-scale nature of these studies, they rarely enter the public debate or impact institutional policy concerning access, remediation,…

  10. Relational Analysis: An Add-On Technique for Aiding Data Integration in Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver C. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    The innovation of “add-on” techniques to supplement existing qualitative methods can be seen as part of a move towards a pluralist, eclectic qualitative psychology. This article presents such a technique, termed Relational Analysis, which can be used to help explore the full spectrum of possible relationships between analytical themes within qualitative data. To this end it employs 10 “key relational

  11. Using Qualitative Research to Generate Questions and Contextualize Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Dorothy A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the strengths of a qualitative study of the effectiveness of environmental impact statements. Notes that the study explores an ill-defined area and relates writing to the situation in which it occurs. (RS)

  12. Using Qualitative Research to Develop Culturally Competent Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Auerbach, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitative research. We agree that qualitative

  13. The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Rouse; Martin Dick

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

  14. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  15. Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

  16. Qualitative risk assessment during polymer mortar test specimens preparation - methods comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Sousa, S. P. B.; Arezes, P.; Swuste, P.; Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Baptista, J. S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer binder modification with inorganic nanomaterials (NM) could be a potential and efficient solution to control matrix flammability of polymer concrete (PC) materials without sacrificing other important properties. Occupational exposures can occur all along the life cycle of a NM and “nanoproducts” from research through scale-up, product development, manufacturing, and end of life. The main objective of the present study is to analyse and compare different qualitative risk assessment methods during the production of polymer mortars (PM) with NM. The laboratory scale production process was divided in 3 main phases (pre-production, production and post-production), which allow testing the assessment methods in different situations. The risk assessment involved in the manufacturing process of PM was made by using the qualitative analyses based on: French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety method (ANSES); Control Banding Nanotool (CB Nanotool); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne method (EPFL); Guidance working safely with nanomaterials and nanoproducts (GWSNN); Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Italy method (ISPESL); Precautionary Matrix for Synthetic Nanomaterials (PMSN); and Stoffenmanager Nano. It was verified that the different methods applied also produce different final results. In phases 1 and 3 the risk assessment tends to be classified as medium-high risk, while for phase 2 the more common result is medium level. It is necessary to improve the use of qualitative methods by defining narrow criteria for the methods selection for each assessed situation, bearing in mind that the uncertainties are also a relevant factor when dealing with the risk related to nanotechnologies field.

  17. Qualitative research and content validity: developing best practices based on science and experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meryl Brod; Laura E. Tesler; Torsten L. Christensen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Establishing content validity for both new and existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures is central to a scientifically\\u000a sound instrument development process. Methodological and logistical issues present a challenge in regard to determining the\\u000a best practices for establishing content validity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding qualitative research to establish content validity\\u000a based on the

  18. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers. PMID:16021938

  19. Literature as Qualitative Inquiry: The Novelist as Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a literary turn in parts of the social sciences. Attention has been given to social science writings as literature. In this article, the author approaches the issue from the opposite direction by engaging with literature as qualitative social inquiry. He does so through a reading of the French novelist Michel…

  20. Data analysis in health-relateD qualitative research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process

  1. Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research

  2. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  3. The future of qualitative research in psychology-a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms. PMID:25796609

  4. The science of context: modes of response for qualitative researchers in education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Demerath

    2006-01-01

    How might qualitative researchers meaningfully operate in a contemporary research climate that holds to such limited conceptions of what constitutes ‘scientific’ research in education? This article discusses implications of scientifically based research (SBR) and identifies several pathways along which researchers may productively work in such a context. These include: (1) Conducting critical inquiry into the socio?intellectual frameworks and institutional networks

  5. Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Juvenile Offenders, Student Engagement, and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Research Directions and Preventionist Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Janay B.; Sharkey, Jill D.; Olivarri, Roger; Tanigawa, Diane A.; Mauseth, Tory

    2010-01-01

    Background factors that correlate with juvenile delinquency are consistent across the interdisciplinary literature base. Yet, information about the process of how risks relate to outcomes, especially within school settings, is limited. Researchers used qualitative methods to examine school and interpersonal experiences from the perspective of…

  7. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

  8. Assessing and demonstrating data saturation in qualitative inquiry supporting patient-reported outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Cicely; Nixon, Annabel; Wild, Diane

    2010-06-01

    In the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) field, strict regulatory requirements must be met for qualitative research that contributes to labeling claims for medicinal products. These requirements not only emphasize the importance of reaching saturation but also of providing documentary evidence that saturation has been reached. This paper reviews qualitative literature for useful definitions of the concept and for practical approaches for assessing saturation. The paper considers approaches in light of the rigorous regulatory requirements for PRO research that are used to support labeling claims for medicinal products and the wider requirements for flexibility and creativity in qualitative research in general. This assessment is facilitated by the use of examples from our past qualitative PRO studies. Based on conclusions from this assessment, we offer preliminary recommendations for future qualitative PRO studies for assessing and documenting saturation. PMID:20545592

  9. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  10. Exploring Culture from a Distance: The Utility of Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…

  11. The Case for Fiction as Qualitative Research: Towards a Non-Referential Ground for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mus, Stijn

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…

  12. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

  13. Bridges to the Future: The Contributions of Qualitative Research to the Sociology of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Considers how qualitative research has enhanced knowledge of four topics in the sociology of education: (1) educational inequality, (2) socialization, (3) identity formation, and (4) school organization and educational policy. Argues that qualitative studies have introduced new voices, perspectives, and themes into traditional understanding. (CAJ)

  14. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  15. How do we talk to each other? Writing qualitative research for quantitative readers.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Linda Liska; Zablotsky, Diane; Guadagno, Mary Ann

    2002-12-01

    The growth of qualitative research holds the potential for vastly enriching our understanding of phenomena in the health sciences. However, the potential of this trend is hampered by a widespread inability of quantitative and qualitative researchers to talk to each other. The authors' concern in this area grows out of our experience reviewing small grant applications for the National Institute on Aging, where they frequently find qualitative research proposals scoring worse than do those using quantitative approaches. This article addresses practical problems in communicating qualitative research to readers whose training and experience is primarily quantitative. Two themes running through the discussion are the need for detail and the explicit tying of methodological strategies to research goals. PMID:12474913

  16. Qualitative methods of structural analysis: Layer-based methods are informationally trivial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis de MESNARD

    2000-01-01

    Some methods of qualitative structural analysis, as MFA, are based on the analysis of layers (flow matrices generated at each iteration when the equilibrium of an input-output model is computed). MFA mixes the analysis of the pure structure of production (the technical coefficients) and of the final demand. I have demonstrated that all column-coefficient matrices (or row-coefficient matrices) computed from

  17. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  18. "The Times They Are a Changing": Undertaking Qualitative Research in Ambiguous, Conflictual, and Changing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacen, Lea; Chaitin, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article explores qualitative research issues that arise when researchers engage in study within their own ambiguous, unstable, conflictual, and rapidly changing society. We explore the topics of the relationship between the researcher and the context, the difficulty in choosing relevant research questions under such conditions, and the…

  19. All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or Comparative Historical project on an issue central to contemporary sociology. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills): Students

  20. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  1. The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular conceptualising more fully the role of young people’s agency and student-led ‘systems’ in constituting school environments and generating health risks. Conclusion Institutional features which may shape student health behaviours such as lack of safety, poor student-staff relationships and lack of student voice are amenable to interventions and should be the subject of future investigation. Future qualitative research should focus on health behaviours which are under-theorised in this context such as physical activity, sexual and mental health. PMID:24007211

  2. Researchers’ Needs for Resource Discovery and Collaboration Tools: A Qualitative Investigation of Translational Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Michael; Zheng, Kai; Hill, Mary; Athey, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical aspect of clinical and translational science (CTS) is interdisciplinary and collaborative research, which increasingly requires a wide range of computational and human resources. However, few studies have systematically analyzed such resource needs of CTS researchers. Objective To improve our understanding of CTS researchers’ needs for computational and human resources in order to build useful and useable supporting informatics tools. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews of 30 CTS researchers from the University of Michigan, followed by qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts. Results The analysis identified three recurring themes: the need for the federation of information, the need to address information overload, and the need to humanize computing, including strong and well-informed views about the use of social networking tools for research collaboration. These findings helped us to narrow down the available design choices for assisting CTS researchers, and helped to identify potential deficiencies of well-known theoretical frameworks used to guide our study, with suggestions for future remedies. Conclusions The user needs identified through the study, along with concrete design suggestions, provided key design, methodological, and theoretical insights, which are being used to guide the design and development of a CTS resource portal. The results and interview instrument should be useful to other institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards that face similar challenges related to helping CTS researchers make more effective use of computational and human resources. PMID:22668750

  3. Lay perspectives on hypertension and drug adherence: systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the findings from individual qualitative studies on patients’ understanding and experiences of hypertension and drug taking; to investigate whether views differ internationally by culture or ethnic group and whether the research could inform interventions to improve adherence. Design Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative research using the 2006 UK Economic and Social Research Council research methods programme guidance. Data sources Medline, Embase, the British Nursing Index, Social Policy and Practice, and PsycInfo from inception to October 2011. Study selection Qualitative interviews or focus groups among people with uncomplicated hypertension (studies principally in people with diabetes, established cardiovascular disease, or pregnancy related hypertension were excluded). Results 59 papers reporting on 53 qualitative studies were included in the synthesis. These studies came from 16 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Tanzania, and Thailand). A large proportion of participants thought hypertension was principally caused by stress and produced symptoms, particularly headache, dizziness, and sweating. Participants widely intentionally reduced or stopped treatment without consulting their doctor. Participants commonly perceived that their blood pressure improved when symptoms abated or when they were not stressed, and that treatment was not needed at these times. Participants disliked treatment and its side effects and feared addiction. These findings were consistent across countries and ethnic groups. Participants also reported various external factors that prevented adherence, including being unable to find time to take the drugs or to see the doctor; having insufficient money to pay for treatment; the cost of appointments and healthy food; a lack of health insurance; and forgetfulness. Conclusions Non-adherence to hypertension treatment often resulted from patients’ understanding of the causes and effects of hypertension; particularly relying on the presence of stress or symptoms to determine if blood pressure was raised. These beliefs were remarkably similar across ethnic and geographical groups; calls for culturally specific education for individual ethnic groups may therefore not be justified. To improve adherence, clinicians and educational interventions must better understand and engage with patients’ ideas about causality, experiences of symptoms, and concerns about drug side effects. PMID:22777025

  4. Qualitative Data Analysis of Issue Interrelations and Interdependencies for E-Government Research Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Bicking, Melanie

    Science and technology roadmapping is currently a popular method to develop long-term strategies for e-government. In the scope of the EC-co-funded research project eGovRTD2020, an innovative methodology has been developed, which combines scenarios and roadmapping to support long-term strategic policy-making for e-government research. This approach bases on systematically analyzing qualitative data throughout the whole roadmapping process based on individual issues and their interrelations. The paper explores the complex analysis of the network of relations and interdependencies between these issues. We introduce a concept for the systematic analysis of interlinks between single issues, which helps improving the quality of analysis and advances the consolidation of results to form well grounded strategic policy-making. A case example extracted from the project serves as proof of concept.

  5. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  6. Qualitative Research in Marriage and Family Therapy: Who is in the Interview?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben K. Beitin

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative interviews are a rich means of gathering information from families. The qualitative interviewer has a choice of\\u000a interviewing individual family members, multiple family members at the same time, or a combination. The configuration of interviewees\\u000a is a choice guided by the epistemology of the researcher, research aims, and questions. This article reviews the literature\\u000a on interviewing different configurations of

  7. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  8. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  9. Quantitative and qualitative research across cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted. PMID:24809790

  10. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this work is to find some unity among existing formulations and solution methods. In doing so, some asymptotic properties of matrix diffusion are derived. Specifically, early-time behavior (short tests) depends only on ?m2RmDm / Lm2, whereas late-time behavior (long tracer tests) depends only on ?mRm, and not on matrix diffusion coefficient or block size and shape. The latter is always true for mean arrival time. These properties help in: (a) analyzing the qualitative behavior of matrix diffusion; (b) explaining one paradox of solute transport through fractured rocks (the apparent dependence of porosity on travel time); (c) discriminating between matrix diffusion and other problems (such as kinetic sorption or heterogeneity); and (d) describing identifiability problems and ways to overcome them. RésuméLa diffusion matricielle est un phénomène reconnu maintenant comme un mécanisme de transport important. Malheureusement, la prise en compte de la diffusion matricielle complique la simulation du transport de soluté. Ce problème a conduit à des formulations simplifiées, en partie à cause de la méthode de résolution. Il s'en est suivi une certaine confusion sur la façon de poser correctement le problème. L'un des objectifs de ce travail est de trouver une certaine unité parmi les formulations et les méthodes de résolution. C'est ainsi que certaines propriétés asymptotiques de la diffusion matricielle ont été dérivées. En particulier, le comportement à l'origine (expériences de traçage courtes) dépend uniquement du terme ?m2RmDm / Lm2, alors que le comportement à long terme (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de ?mRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro ?m2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de ?mRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética

  11. What can qualitative research do for randomised controlled trials? A systematic mapping review

    PubMed Central

    O'Cathain, A; Thomas, K J; Drabble, S J; Rudolph, A; Hewison, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an empirically based framework of the aspects of randomised controlled trials addressed by qualitative research. Design Systematic mapping review of qualitative research undertaken with randomised controlled trials and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data sources MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Social Sciences Citation Index and ASSIA. Eligibility criteria Articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials published between 2008 and September 2010; health research, reported in English. Results 296 articles met the inclusion criteria. Articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some articles focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356); the design, process and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356); the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356); the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356); and the target condition for the trial (9%, 33/356). A minority of the qualitative research was undertaken at the pretrial stage (28%, 82/296). The value of the qualitative research to the trial itself was not always made explicit within the articles. The potential value included optimising the intervention and trial conduct, facilitating interpretation of the trial findings, helping trialists to be sensitive to the human beings involved in trials, and saving money by steering researchers towards interventions more likely to be effective in future trials. Conclusions A large amount of qualitative research undertaken with specific trials has been published, addressing a wide range of aspects of trials, with the potential to improve the endeavour of generating evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. Researchers can increase the impact of this work on trials by undertaking more of it at the pretrial stage and being explicit within their articles about the learning for trials and evidence-based practice. PMID:23794542

  12. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating Children's and…

  13. Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project

    PubMed Central

    Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. PMID:23959758

  14. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

  15. Processes, relationships, settings, products and consumers: the case for qualitative diary research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Patterson

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper makes the case for the use of real diaries as an alternative methodology in marketing research. It is argued that Qualitative Diary Research (QDR) in marketing and consumer research is an innovative way to capture rich insights into processes, relationships, settings, products and consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To illustrate the utility of QDR this paper explores the

  16. Qualitative Research as a Hero's Journey: Six Archetypes to Draw on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villate, Vanessa M.

    2012-01-01

    Is the research process similar to a hero's journey? Just as a hero draws on different archetypes during the journey, a researcher moves through phases and must draw upon different strengths. In this article, the six archetypes that Pearson (1998) links to the hero's journey are described. Then, each phase of a qualitative research study is…

  17. Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

  18. Working in the Interpretive Zone: Conceptualizing Collaboration in Qualitative Research Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, Judith Davidson; Bresler, Liora

    1996-01-01

    Formulates the idea of the "interpretive zone" as a way to describe the space in which collaborative interpretation of research unfolds. Because of the importance of teamwork to qualitative research, the interpretive zone becomes a critical location for future methodological inquiry and examination of the dynamics of group research. (SLD)

  19. Through their eyes: quantitative researchers’ perceptions of qualitative forms of study in sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Brustad

    2011-01-01

    This special issue provides a unique look at contemporary research issues in sport and exercise psychology. Individuals who primarily self-identify as ‘quantitative researchers’ provide their perceptions and insights about the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research in their line of inquiry and situate these perspectives in their own academic histories. A number of recurrent themes emerge that reflect on the

  20. Multiple pathways to knowledge generation: qualitative and quantitative research approaches in sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thelma S. Horn

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative research approaches incorporate different research methodologies but also are structured, evaluated and justified using different philosophical bases. Thus, they may truly involve different ‘ways to know’. The purpose of this article is to present one quantitative scholar’s perceptions as to how the work produced by both sets of researchers can be used to enhance the teaching, advising

  1. Cultivating the qualitative research borderlands: educational poetics and the politics of inclusivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Gitlin

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research has extended the boundaries of legitimate knowledge by including the insights of ‘subjects’, valuing the voices of groups that have been excluded from telling their stories, seeing the complex ways researchers may be positioned in relation to other research participants, and becoming more diverse in their views of validity and reliability. Gitlin argues that these extensions have been

  2. Grounded Theory Method in IS research: Glaser vs. Strauss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakobus Smit; Antony Bryant; Beckett Park; Leeds LS

    Grounded theory, as part of the developing interest in qualitative research, is becoming a popular research strategy in the IS field. At the same time however, the method seems to be changing in its essence as researchers adapt it, use it alongside other methods, or rely on only some of its principles in their quest to explain the world. The

  3. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  4. The Internet as a medium for qualitative research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patsy Clarke

    With an estimated 200 million Internet users, the Internet has created communities that would \\/could not have formed otherwise providing access to interdisciplinary, heterogeneous groups. New modes of contacting research subjects as well as the social mobility provided by the new technologies confronts researchers with the need to revisit concepts such as interview, subject, field site, and informed consent. This

  5. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

  6. Trajectory to a first episode of psychosis: a qualitative research study with families

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Gerson, Ruth; Sills-Shahar, Rachel; Nickou, Connie; McGlashan, Thomas; Malaspina, Dolores; Davidson, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Aim The trajectory in psychotic disorders which leads from a relatively normal premorbid state in young people to a first episode of psychosis is only partly understood. Qualitative research methods can be used to begin to elucidate the temporal unfolding of symptoms leading to a first episode of psychosis, and its impact on families. Methods We conducted open-ended interviews with family members of 13 patients with recent onset non-affective psychotic disorders, which focused on changes observed, effects on the family, explanatory models, help-seeking patterns and future expectations. Standard data analytic methods employed for qualitative research were used. Results Narratives by family members were remarkably similar. First, social withdrawal and mood symptoms developed in previously normal children; these changes were typically ascribed to drugs or stress, or to the ‘storminess’ of adolescence. Coping strategies by family members included prayer and reasoning/persuasion with the young person, and family initially sought help from friends and religious leaders. Entry into the mental health system was then catalysed by the emergence of overt symptoms, such as ‘hearing voices’, or violent or bizarre behaviour. Family members perceived inpatient hospitalization as traumatic or difficult, and had diminished expectations for the future. Conclusions Understanding families’ explanatory models for symptoms and behavioural changes, and their related patterns of help-seeking, may be useful for understanding evolution of psychosis and for the design of early intervention programmes. Dissatisfaction with hospitalization supports the mandate to improve systems of care for recent-onset psychosis patients, including destigmatization and a focus on recovery. PMID:19129931

  7. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  8. Qualitative Directions in Human–Animal Companion Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Shen-Miller

    \\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of

  9. Compatibility of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Studying Child Sexual Abuse in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates how the combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods were necessary in obtaining a clearer understanding of the process of incest in American society. Argues that the exclusive use of one methodology would have obscured important information. (FMW)

  10. Blogging as a Viable Research Methodology for Young People With Arthritis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Objective Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. Methods To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Results Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data obtained provided insights into young people’s experiences of living with arthritis and their use of medicines in the context of their daily lives. Conclusions Web-based research with young people presents opportunities and challenges for researchers. Web-based blogging methodology has the potential to give young people and parents the space and empowerment to express their own ideas and concerns. However, this project suggests that it might not be the best way to engage a large diverse group of young people and might most effectively be combined with other approaches. Despite these limitations, the study provided valuable data about the experience and impact of living with a long-term condition from the perspectives of young people with arthritis. PMID:25749691

  11. Defining infidelity in research and couple counseling: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Moller, Naomi P; Vossler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Infidelity can destroy relationships, but there is long-standing debate in the field about how best to define the construct. A clear definition of infidelity is important theoretically, empirically, and therapeutically; however, research on the topic is limited. This study explores how seven experienced couple counselors define infidelity on the basis of their work with heterosexual couples presenting with this issue. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts and research findings suggest a rich web of conflicting definitions of infidelity for couples counselors and, in their accounts, clients. The findings support an understanding of infidelity as socially constructed and the implications of this for the field are discussed. PMID:24918514

  12. Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

  13. Perfect Match? Qualitative audience research and the community media sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Meadows; Susan Forde; Jacqui Ewart; Kerrie Foxwell; Christine Morris

    2005-01-01

    Griffith University researchers in 2002 presented the final results of a national survey of community radio stations. The final report 'Culture Commitment Community - The Australian Community Radio Sector' contained a wealth of information on the sector and covered many 'station-based' perspectives on issues such as localism, funding and sponsorship, Indigenous and ethnic programming and training. A key criticism of

  14. Barriers to adherence with glaucoma medications: a qualitative research study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Lacey; H Cate; D C Broadway

    2009-01-01

    PurposeGlaucoma is initially asymptomatic, but untreated can result in progressive visual field loss and eventual blindness. With adequate therapy progression can be halted, but poor adherence with medical therapy is a significant issue requiring further research. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the obstacles to, and the motivations for, adherence with glaucoma medication

  15. Doing Qualitative Research Using Your Computer: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to using commonly available everyday technology, including Microsoft software, to manage and streamline research projects. It uses straight-forward, everyday language to walk readers through this process, drawing on a wide range of examples to demonstrate how easy it is to use such software. This guide is…

  16. An Integrative Model for Teaching Qualitative Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Patricia Doyle

    2002-01-01

    This model for teaching quantitative research depicts five processes: build knowledge, formulate hypotheses, develop measures, pick analytical technique, and plan data collection. Exercises designed to integrate these elements are described: diagraming hypotheses, mapping measures onto constructs, matching analysis to hypotheses, matching analysis…

  17. Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

  18. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  19. Qualitative Research in Educational Communications and Technology: A Brief Introduction to Principles and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, qualitative research has emerged as a widely accepted alternative to the quantitative paradigm for performing research in educational communications and technology. As the new paradigm has evolved, it has spawned a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques that have both increased its potential…

  20. Contextualising the Research Process: Using Interviewer Notes in the Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that for the secondary analysis of qualitative data to be effective researchers also need to subject any accompanying interviewer notes to the same secondary analysis process. The secondary analysis of interviewer notes can provide a great deal of insight into the research process and the attitudes, experiences and…

  1. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  2. Expanding Perspectives: Qualitative Research in Higher Education. Second Edition. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.

    Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitative research in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…

  3. Youngsters’ use of public libraries for information: Results of a qualitative research project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Shenton; Pat Dixon

    2002-01-01

    As public libraries straggle to compete with domestic electronic materials for use by young people, more research is needed to explore youngsters’ exploitation of and attitudes to these organisations. This paper investigates such issues by drawing on the results of a qualitative research project sampling 188 English youngsters between four and eighteen years of age. Attention is specifically focused on

  4. Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Healy; Chad Perry

    2000-01-01

    Aims to address a gap in the literature about quality criteria for validity and reliability in qualitative research within the realism scientific paradigm. Six comprehensive and explicit criteria for judging realism research are developed, drawing on the three elements of a scientific paradigm of ontology, epistemology and methodology. The first two criteria concern ontology, that is, ontological appropriateness and contingent

  5. Demand for public transport services: Integrating qualitative and quantitative methods

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    powerful transport mode choice model at hand. The research is carried out in the context of a collaborative of the Swiss Postal Service. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the travel behavior of people in low and structural equations can be built in order to integrate the latent variables into the mode choice context

  6. A discussion of qualitative data analysis in hospitality research with examples from an ethnography of English public houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter John Sandiford; Diane Seymour

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that qualitative Hospitality research is infrequently reported in Hospitality journals and that when such research does appear, the processes of data analysis seldom receive rigorous attention. Different analytic practices are discussed using a real-life example of qualitative research—an ethnography of English pubs—showing some techniques in action and highlighting issues and challenges that often face qualitative researchers. Data

  7. SIMPLIFIED QUALITATIVE METHOD FOR CANAVANINE IN SEEDS AND SPROUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major stored nitrogen compound in alfalfa seeds is canavanine. In order to identify this non-protein amino acid, from seed extract and sprout water, a micro thin-layer chromatography method was developed. Successful separation and identification was achieved using micro silica plates, a 70:30 ...

  8. Continuation Methods for Qualitative Analysis of Aircraft Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    A class of numerical methods for constructing bifurcation curves for systems of coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations is presented. Foundations are discussed, and several variations are outlined along with their respective capabilities. Appropriate background material from dynamical systems theory is presented.

  9. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  10. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  11. Rapid qualitative method for detecting staphylococcal nuclease in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Koupal, A; Deibel, R H

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method for the detection of heat-stable staphylococcal nuclease in foods is described. The procedure consists of an acid precipitation, boiling, and centrifugation followed by enzyme detection in an agar plate containing deoxyribonucleic acid. To test the efficacy of the procedure, purified Staphylococcus aureus nuclease was added to various foods and recovery experiments were performed. Additionally, foods were inoculated and incubated with S. aureus, and the staphylococcal counts were compared with nuclease activity. The results indicate that the procedure possesses merit for a rapid method that can be incorporated into quality control programs. The procedure requires approximately 2.5 h, and it will detect nuclease levels as low as 10 ng/g of food. Images PMID:677882

  12. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Carrera; Xavier Sánchez-Vila; Inmaculada Benet; Agustín Medina; Germán Galarza; Jordi Guimerà

    1998-01-01

    Matrix diffusion has become widely recognized as an important transport mechanism. Unfortunately, accounting for matrix diffusion\\u000a complicates solute-transport simulations. This problem has led to simplified formulations, partly motivated by the solution\\u000a method. As a result, some confusion has been generated about how to properly pose the problem. One of the objectives of this\\u000a work is to find some unity among

  13. Use of qualitative methods across the software development lifecycle in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Househ, Mowafa; Kushniruk, Andre W; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors review and discuss four different qualitative approaches as they are used to evaluate health information systems: (1) grounded theory, (2) ethnography, (3) verbal protocol analysis/usability engineering and (4) action research. The authors describe the historical origins, current uses, strengths and weakness of the three qualitative methodologies that are frequently used in health informatics and they discuss an emerging approach: action research. More importantly, they identify how each of the approaches can be used across the SDLC to inform planning, analysis, design, implementation and support of health information systems. PMID:21335726

  14. Health inequities, HIV, and public health practice: examining the role of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitative research has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitative research in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitative research can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitative research, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals. PMID:23156206

  15. Deconstructing the complexity of substance use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) by optimizing the role of qualitative strategies in a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative data can be a powerful tool in developing interventions for substance use and other HIV-risk behaviors. Mixed-methods design offers researchers the ability to obtain data that provides both breadth and depth to their research. However, the integration of qualitative data in mixed-methods research has been limited. This paper describes the qualitative design of the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal mixed-method study with an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (N=526) in Los Angeles. Integral to this discussion is how a mixed-methods study can address common challenges such as sampling, representation and integration. PMID:20222783

  16. Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Triviño Durán, Laura; Gasch, Angel; Desmond, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation. PMID:25727455

  17. Factors influencing recruitment to research: qualitative study of the experiences and perceptions of research teams

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting the required number of participants is vital to the success of clinical research and yet many studies fail to achieve their expected recruitment rate. Increasing research participation is a key agenda within the NHS and elsewhere, but the optimal methods of improving recruitment to clinical research remain elusive. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that researchers perceive as influential in the recruitment of participants to clinically focused research. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals from three clinical research teams based in London. Sampling was a combination of convenience and purposive. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework method to identify key themes. Results Four themes were identified as influential to recruitment: infrastructure, nature of the research, recruiter characteristics and participant characteristics. The main reason individuals participate in clinical research was believed to be altruism, while logistical issues were considered important for those who declined. Suggestions to improve recruitment included reducing participant burden, providing support for individuals who do not speak English, and forming collaborations with primary care to improve the identification of, and access to, potentially eligible participants. Conclusions Recruiting the target number of research participants was perceived as difficult, especially for clinical trials. New and diverse strategies to ensure that all potentially eligible patients are invited to participate may be beneficial and require further exploration in different settings. Establishing integrated clinical and academic teams with shared responsibilities for recruitment may also facilitate this process. Language barriers and long journey times were considered negative influences to recruitment; although more prominent, these issues are not unique to London and are likely to be important influences in other locations. PMID:24456229

  18. Co-Operative Education: Challenges of Qualitative Research on Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Peter; Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    This paper is concerned with the challenges of qualitative research on workplace learning that occurs within co-operative (co-op) education. Co-op education is extensive in Canada, with an estimated 10% of the student population enrolled in co-op secondary education each year. The context for this study was a veterinary clinic in which four co-op…

  19. Disaggregating Qualitative Data from Asian American College Students in Campus Racial Climate Research and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Truong, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the utility of disaggregating qualitative research and assessment data on Asian American college students. Given the complexity of and diversity within the Asian American population, scholars have begun to underscore the importance of disaggregating data in the empirical examination of Asian Americans, but most of those…

  20. Reflecting on the Strategic Use of CAQDAS to Manage and Report on the Qualitative Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Mark; Woods, Megan

    2005-01-01

    As an increasing number of researchers have been trained to use programs such as Atlas/ti, NUD*IST, Nvivo, and ETHNOGRAPH their value in analyzing qualitative data has gained greater recognition. Drawing on the experience of two PhD candidates at the University of Tasmania, this paper reflects upon some potential uses of a suite of computer…

  1. Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

  2. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  3. Qualitative Methodology in Counseling Research: Recent Contributions and Challenges for a New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrios, Reinaldo; Lucca, Nydia

    2006-01-01

    For the past 10 years, qualitative research methodology has become more visible in counseling studies. Results from a content analysis of articles published between 1997 and 2002 in 4 professional journals in the field (Counseling and Values, Journal of Counseling & Development, Professional School Counseling, and The Counseling Psychologist)…

  4. The Contributions of Qualitative Research to Discussions of Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitative research plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…

  5. Sampling Designs in Qualitative Research: Making the Sampling Process More Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  7. "She's Weird!"--The Social Construction of Bullying in School: A Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research provides opportunities to study bullying and peer harassment as social processes, interactions and meaning-making in the everyday context of particular settings. It offers the possibility of developing a deep understanding of the culture and group processes of bullying and the participants' perspectives on peer harassment as…

  8. In Search of a Culture: Navigating the Dimensions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa's (2012) article on the multidimensional world of qualitative research provides family scientists with a set of innovative tools to guide writing and reviewing. He proffered an engaging challenge: to view the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") as a meeting place of scholars, a thought community (Zerubavel, 1997), even a culture…

  9. Exploration of Children's Health and Self-Care Behavior within a Family Context through Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecke, Janalou

    1990-01-01

    Explored family context for children's health-related learning through qualitative research. Gathered data from one dual-career, middle-class, two-parent family with school-age children. Identified core conceptual category, maintenance of structure and order in family life. Claims relationships are evident between and among this category,…

  10. Giving Voice to Critical Campus Issues. Qualitative Research in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kathleen, Ed.

    This book presents six qualitative research studies written by graduate students in the Higher Education and Student Affairs masters program at the University of Vermont. The papers provide case studies concerning suicide, acquaintance rape, alcohol-related student death, classism, adult children of alcoholics, and multiracial identity. Following…

  11. Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitanova, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

  12. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  13. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  14. What do people do with porn? Qualitative research into the comsumption, use, and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feona Attwood

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews qualitative research into the consumption of pornography and other sexually explicit media emerging from\\u000a a range of subject areas. Taking a critique of quantitative methods and a focus on measuring sexual effects and attitudes\\u000a as a starting point, it considers the proposition that qualitative work is more suited to an examination of the complex social,\\u000a cultural, and

  15. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’?, ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status varied. Participants experienced distress as their notion of self identity shifted and emotions that reflected the various stages of the grief process were evident in participants’ accounts. The process of self-managing lifestyle took place through experiential learning; the level of engagement with lifestyle change reflected an individual’s unique view of the balance needed to manage ‘realistic change’ whilst leading to a life that was perceived as ‘worth living’. Findings highlight the importance of providing person centred care that aligns with both psychological and physical dimensions of recovery which are inextricably linked. PMID:25097066

  16. The Use of Mixed Methods for Therapeutic Massage Research

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony Joseph; Verhoef, Marja J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. Whether you are reading or designing a mixed methods research project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative research methods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. In addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated. Mixed methods research is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking advantage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. This ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as therapeutic massage are being studied. Complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient’s body. Additionally, the patient’s experience of the treatment may be an important outcome. PMID:21589698

  17. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  18. Phenomenography and grounded theory as research methods in computing education research field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Kinnunen; Beth Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and analysis phases and the type of resulting outcomes

  19. An Examination of Research Methods in Mathematics Education (1995-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Lynn C.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Marvin E.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed methods examination of 710 research articles in mathematics education published in six prominent educational journals during the period 1995-2005 finds that 50% of the studies used qualitative methods only, 21% used quantitative methods only, and 29% mixed qualitative and quantitative methods in various ways. Although the number of…

  20. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  1. Metaphors for the Internet Used by Nursing Students in Turkey: A Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senyuva, Emine; Kaya, Hülya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study was conducted within the scope of a qualitative and quantitative study pattern in order to determine nursing students' perceptions of the Internet through metaphors and the variables affecting such metaphors. Method: The study sampling included all undergraduate students (575 individuals) attending a nursing school…

  2. Agent Based Simulation Framework for Quantitative and Qualitative Social Research: Statistics and Nat ural Language Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samer Hassan; Juan Pavón; Millán Arroyo; Carlos León

    Even though Agent Based Social Simulation is beginning to be spread out as a powerful quantitative method for so ciologists, it is still far from attracting qualitative ones. We propose to broaden ABSS horizons with a system that returns outputs useful for both paradig ms. The case used as example is the study of the evolution of religiosit y in

  3. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  4. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a qualitative detection method for peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We designed a universal primer pair CP 03-5’/ CP 03-3’ to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal...

  5. A Specific Qualitative Detection Method for Peanut (Arachis Hypogagea) in Foods Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A qualitative method for detection of peanuts in foods using polymerase chain reaction was developed. A universal primer pair CP 03-5 /CP 03-3 was designed to confirm the validity of the DNAs for PCR. The plant-specific amplified fragments were detected from 13 kinds of plants using the universal pr...

  6. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research

  7. Exploring and Understanding Gender in Education: A Qualitative Research Manual for Education Practitioners and Gender Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Anne; Armstrong, Greg; Attig, George

    2005-01-01

    A methodology is described for conducting qualitative research on gender issues in education. Qualitative research, a critical step for achieving the global Education For All (EFA) goals, will assist identifying the issues, analyzing the contents, and formulating viable policy. "Gender" refers to the social roles and responsibilities that belong…

  8. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  9. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future NPT research, authors should explicate their rationale for choosing NPT as their theoretical framework and, where possible, involve multiple stakeholders including service users to enable analysis of implementation from a range of perspectives. PMID:24383661

  10. Challenges of children with cancer and their mothers: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Reisi-Dehkordi, Negar; Baratian, Hajar; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death in children and adolescents. About 4% of deaths in children of age less than 5 years and 13% of deaths in children of age 5-15 years are due to cancer in Iranian population. The disease can cause many problems, which are usually detected by a psychologist, for the children and their mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the psychological challenges of the children with cancer and their mothers’ experience. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative research conducted through thematic analysis approach. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. Purposive sampling was conducted. The numbers of the children and their mothers participating in this study were 34 and 32, respectively. Results: Data analysis showed that the problems faced by children with cancer and their mothers fell into five main categories. These categories included spiritual, psychological (such as aggression, anxiety, depression), communicational problems, inadequate knowledge (about the disease, its treatment, and treatment complications), and care-related problems. Conclusions: The results showed that lack of awareness and spiritual problems were the most important problems of the patients and their mothers. If necessary knowledge about the disease and its treatment and complications is given to the children and their mothers at the time of diagnosis, and also, spiritual care interventions are administered during treatment, their psychological problems can be notably reduced. PMID:25183971

  11. After the doctorate: a qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community. PMID:23347142

  12. Illumination with a Dim Bulb? What do social scientists learn by employing qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) in the service of multi-method designs?

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Judd, Maya D; Poliandri, Simone

    2012-08-01

    Although there has been much optimistic discussion of integrating quantitative and qualitative findings into sociological analysis, there remains a gap regarding the application of mixed approaches. We examine the potential gains and pitfalls of such integration in the context of the growing analytic power of contemporary qualitative data analysis software (QDAS) programs. We illustrate the issues with our own research in a mixed-methods project examining low fertility in Italy, a project that combines analysis of large nationally representative survey data with qualitative in-depth interviews with women across four (4) cities in Italy. Despite the enthusiasm for mixed-methods research, the available software appears to be underutilized. In addition, we suggest that the sociological research community will want to address several conceptual and inferential issues with these approaches. PMID:23543938

  13. Issues of Conducting Qualitative Research in an Inner-City Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jewelle Taylor Gibbs; Teiahsha Bankhead-Greene

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the use of a combined qualitative and quantitative research methodology to investigate the impact of the verdict and subsequent civil disturbances in the Rodney King police brutality case upon Black youth, ages 15-3Q, in South Central Los Angeles. The study conducted in 1993-1994, focused on the attitudes and experiences of these youth in four institutional

  14. Strategies and tensions in communicating research on sexual and reproductive health, HIV and AIDS: a qualitative study of the experiences of researchers and communications staff

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) and HIV issues are often controversial and neglected, leading to challenges with engaging policy actors. Research evidence is complex, posing further challenges for ensuring that policy and practice are evidence-based. Many health researchers are adopting innovative approaches to engaging stakeholders in their research, yet these experiences are not often shared. This qualitative study focuses on the research communication and policy influencing objectives, strategies and experiences of four research consortia working on SRH, HIV and AIDS. Methods We carried out 22 in-depth interviews with researchers and communications specialists (research actors) from the four consortia and their partners, working in nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Using the ‘framework’ approach to qualitative data analysis, we identified factors that affect the interaction of research evidence with policy and practice. We used the ODI RAPID analytical framework to present these results, adapting this tool by incorporating the actions, strategies and positionality of research actors. Results The characteristics of researchers and their institutions, policy context, the multiplicity of actors, and the nature of the research evidence all play a role in policy influencing processes. Research actors perceived a trend towards increasingly intensive and varied communication approaches. Effective influencing strategies include making strategic alliances and coalitions and framing research evidence in ways that are most attractive to particular policy audiences. Tensions include the need to identify and avoid unnecessary communication or unintended impacts, challenges in assessing and attributing impact and the need for adequate resources and skills for communications work. Conclusions We contend that the adapted RAPID framework can serve as a tool for research actors to use in resolving these tensions, through facilitating a reflexive approach to considering their own combination of attributes, skills, networks and objectives and the ways these relate to policy contexts, actors and processes. PMID:21679385

  15. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions.

  16. Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. Reference Books in International Education, Volume 35. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 927.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with reference to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…

  17. Whatever happened to the third paradigm? Exploring mixed methods research designs in sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aidan P. Moran; James J. Matthews; Kate Kirby

    2011-01-01

    In the past, quantitative and qualitative approaches to research were portrayed as being incompatible, if not mutually exclusive. More recently, however, researchers have explored the possible complementarity of these approaches through mixed methods research (MMR) – the so-called third research paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and implications of mixed methods designs for research in

  18. Cultural Science and Qualitative Educational Research: Work "in the First Place" on the Morality of Classroom Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebody, Peter; Freiberg, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The state of qualitative research in education is addressed in this paper in terms of three categories of scientific inquiry (following Heap, 1992) and the varying place and function of qualitative work in each of these categories. The argument is put that one of these categories of inquiry, specifically cultural human sciences, offers the…

  19. Cultural science and qualitative educational research: work ‘in the first place’ on the morality of classroom life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Freebody; Jill Freiberg

    2006-01-01

    The state of qualitative research in education is addressed in this paper in terms of three categories of scientific inquiry (following Heap, 1992) and the varying place and function of qualitative work in each of these categories. The argument is put that one of these categories of inquiry, specifically cultural human sciences, offers the educational enterprise distinctive theoretical and analytic

  20. A Method for Qualitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; Livo, K. Erik; Lundeen, Sarah; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd; Sarture, Charles; McCubbin, Ian; Roberts, Dar; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne; Pearson, Neil; The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Team

    2010-01-01

    A method is described to create qualitative images of thick oil in oil spills on water using near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data. The method uses simple 'three-point-band depths' computed for each pixel in an imaging spectrometer image cube using the organic absorption features due to chemical bonds in aliphatic hydrocarbons at 1.2, 1.7, and 2.3 microns. The method is not quantitative because sub-pixel mixing and layering effects are not considered, which are necessary to make a quantitative volume estimate of oil.

  1. Qualitative research on dementia in ethnically diverse communities: fieldwork challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Chris; Leone, Desiree; Santalucia, Yvonne; Adams, Jon; Ferrerosa-Rojas, Jorge Enrique; Kourouche, Fatima; Gava, Silvana; Wu, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Australia, like other ethnically diverse societies, needs to provide culturally appropriate health care to all its citizens. One way of facilitating this is to ensure that health services research adequately reflects the circumstances and needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities within the population. This article discusses the fieldwork phase of a qualitative research project on dementia caregiving in 4 CALD communities in south west Sydney, Australia. Rather than focusing on the study results-which have been published elsewhere-this article presents and discusses crucial fieldwork issues that arose in the conduct of the project, particularly regarding participant recruitment and facilitation of focus groups. In being transparent about some of the difficulties encountered and how these were managed, we offer suggestions for other researchers wanting to include CALD communities in a meaningful way in their research projects. PMID:23512998

  2. Articulating the strategies for maximising the inclusion of people with dementia in qualitative research studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathy; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to understand the experience of living with dementia from the perspective of the person with dementia so that services can be appropriately constructed. This review paper, drawing on prior work, identifies key strategies for the meaningful inclusion of persons with dementia within qualitative research studies, it examines the articulation of these strategies and shares how these strategies were operationalised within one national research study in Ireland. Strategies within the literature were categorised and then synthesized into a guide consisting of four main areas; gaining COnsent, maximizing Responses, Telling the story, and Ending on a high (CORTE). The CORTE guideline was used to as a tool for analysing relevant research reports. CORTE is a synthesized account of grouped strategies that could be used to maximize the meaningful involvement of persons with dementia and can also provide a guide for reporting the strategies used so that researchers can learn from each other. PMID:24403314

  3. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative

  4. Assessment of children's capacity to consent for research: a descriptive qualitative study of researchers' practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E Gibson; Elaine Stasiulis; Shawna Gutfreund; Maria McDonald; Lauren Dade

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers'

  5. Standardizing research methods for prognostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdar Uckun; Kai Goebel; Peter J. F. Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Prognostics and health management (PHM) is a maturing system engineering discipline. As with most maturing disciplines, PHM does not yet have a universally accepted research methodology. As a result, most component life estimation efforts are based on ad-hoc experimental methods that lack statistical rigor. In this paper, we provide a critical review of current research methods in PHM and contrast

  6. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single context of combining qualitative methods and randomised controlled trials. Health services researchers could further contribute to the development of mixed methods research in the contexts of instrument development, survey and fieldwork, and non-randomised evaluations. PMID:17570838

  7. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Ponterotto

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective. Counseling researchers are urged to locate their inquiry approaches within identifiable research paradigms, and examples of \\

  8. The use of multiple qualitative methods to characterize communication events between physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Harrod, Molly; Holtz, Bree; Hofer, Timothy; Kuhn, Latoya; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of communication to patient safety in hospital settings, we know surprisingly little about communication patterns between physicians and nurses, particularly on general medical-surgical units. Poor communication is the leading cause of preventable adverse events in hospitals, as well as a major root cause of sentinel events. The literature provides little guidance on what qualitative methods are best for capturing different types of communication events and patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for identifying and characterizing communication events between physicians and nurses to better understand communication patterns on general medical-surgical units. We used a sequential qualitative mixed method design beginning with general observation, progressing to shadowing and focus groups of physicians and nurses who worked on two medical-surgical units at one academically affiliated U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. Each data collection method (observation, shadowing, and focus groups) had its own advantages and disadvantages for capturing communication events and patterns. Through observation we were able to see the "what": communication activities. Shadowing was most useful for understanding "how" physicians and nurses communicated. Focus groups helped answer "why" certain patterns emerged and allowed us to further explore communication events within a group setting. By using all three methods we were able to more thoroughly characterize communication events than by using a single method alone, providing a more holistic picture of how communication occurs on an inpatient medical-surgical unit. PMID:24483246

  9. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  10. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non-adherence. This affects physical outcomes and care relationships. There is a need for clinicians to engage with patients in honest conversations about treatment disruptions and the ‘adhere-ability’ of recommended regimens. Patient-centred practice requires management plans which optimise outcomes and minimise disruptions. PMID:26024379

  11. How do Patients, Politicians, Physiotherapists and Other Health Professionals View Physiotherapy Research in Switzerland? A Qualitative Study†

    PubMed Central

    Schoeb, Veronika; Rau, Barbara; Nast, Irina; Schmid, Stefan; Barbero, Marco; Tal, Amir; Kool, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2002, the professional education for Swiss physiotherapists has been upgraded to a tertiary educational level. With this change, the need for research related to professional practice has become more salient. The elaboration of research priorities is seen as a possible way to determine the profession's needs, to help coordinate research collaborations and to address expectations regarding physiotherapy. There is still limited evidence about stakeholders' views with regard to physiotherapy research. The objective of this study was to investigate key stakeholders' opinions about research in physiotherapy in Switzerland. Methods Focus groups with patients, health professionals, researchers and representatives of public health organizations were conducted, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with politicians, health insurers and medical doctors from three linguistic regions in Switzerland. An interview guide was elaborated. Data were transcribed and analysed using inductive content analysis (Atlas-ti 6®). Results Eighteen focus groups and 23 interviews/written commentaries included 134 participants with various research experiences and from different settings. Fourteen categories were defined reflecting three themes: identity, interdisciplinarity and visibility. Stakeholders had positive views about the profession and perceived physiotherapists' important role now and in the future. Yet, they also felt that physiotherapy was not sufficiently recognized in society and not visible enough. A stronger professional identity would be key to enhancing interdisciplinary work. Conclusions Results of this qualitative study provide insights into key aspects for moving the physiotherapy profession forward. Identity is at the heart of physiotherapy, not necessarily in terms of research priorities but in the definition of domains of competence and future positioning. Identity is also tightly connected to Interdisciplinarity as this might threaten the existence of the profession. Stakeholders outside the profession insist on the importance of visibility. The results of this study can help stakeholders reflect on the future of physiotherapy and elaborate research priorities. © 2013 The Authors. Physiotherapy Research International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23780913

  12. New Regularization-Renormalization Method in Quantum Electrodynamics and Qualitative Calculation on Lamb Shift

    E-print Network

    Guang-jiong Ni; Haibin Wang

    1997-08-25

    A simple but effective method for regularization-renormalization (R-R) is proposed for handling the Feynman diagram integral (FDI) at one loop level in quantum electrodynamics (QED). The divergence is substituted by some constants to be fixed via experiments. So no counter term, no bare parameter and no arbitrary running mass scale is involved. Then the Lamb Shift in Hydrogen atom can be calculated qualitatively and simply as $\\Delta E(2S_{1/2})- \\Delta E(2P_{1/2})=996.7 MHz$ versus the experimental value $1057.85 MHz$.

  13. Design Issues in Qualitative Research: The Case of Knowledge Utilization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Gwaltney, Margaret K.

    The purpose of this review was to examine research designs in studying knowledge utilization. The results are based on 32 studies of knowledge utilization, and the report describes the various types of research designs and their strengths and weaknesses. Survey research methods are appropriate for dealing with either of two aspects of a…

  14. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective.…

  15. Exploring the Nature of the Researcher-Practitioner Relationship in Qualitative Educational Research Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ke

    2011-01-01

    This literature review looks at the way in which the researcher-practitioner relationship is described in research publications. The main finding of this review points to: a limited description and discussion of the relationship; a similarly limited, sometimes confusing, understanding of the notion of collaboration; as well as limited…

  16. Method as Ruse: Foucault and Research Method

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Marvin L.

    1994-04-01

    Realism In RelrOspect. VOIJderb,ltntema. esse. . LAw Review 14(1):317-330. 46 i -~ i L I \\ i \\ \\ \\ I. l f I I METHOD AS RUSE: FOUCAULT AND RESEARCH METHOD Marvin L. Cooke Tulsa Junior College Mid-American Review ofSociology, 1994. Vol XVIII. No. 1&2: 47~S... designed to gel at the meaning of th.ngs as the other sees it -- one subverts Ihe indeterminism of Ihe idealist epistemology with the determinism of realism. The realisl requirements of isomorphism hetween data and an independent reality is imposed on Ihe...

  17. Research Design Decisions: An Integrated Quantitative and Qualitative Model for Decision-Making Researchers (You Too Can Be Lord of the Rings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Wright, Phillip C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a concentric research design model based on need for research which transcends individuals' historic or experiential bias concerning choice of study design, tools, and data reduction strategies. Describes the following "rings": theory/knowledge orientation; theory versus applied research; quantitative versus qualitative research

  18. A qualitative method for prediction of amine oxidation in methanol and water.

    PubMed

    Bäcktorp, Carina; Örnskov, Eivor; Evertsson, Emma; Remmelgas, Johan; Broo, Anders

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a predictive method, based on quantum chemical calculations, that qualitatively predicts N-oxidation by hydrogen peroxides in drug structures. The method uses linear correlations of two complementary approaches to estimate the activation barrier without calculating it explicitly. This method can therefore be automated as it avoids demanding transition state calculations. As such, it may be used by chemists without experience in molecular modeling and provide additional understanding to experimental findings. The predictive method gives relative rates for N,N-dimethylbenzylamine and N-methylmorpholine in good agreement with experiments. In water, the experimental rate constants show that N,N-dimethylbenzylamine is oxidized three times faster than N-methylmorpholine and in methanol it is two times faster. The method suggests it to be two and five times faster, respectively. The method was also used to correlate experimental with predicted activation barriers, linear free-energy relationships, for a test set of tertiary amines. A correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.74 was obtained, where internal diagnostics in the method itself allowed identification of outliers. The method was applied to four drugs: caffeine, azelastine, buspirone, and clomipramine, all possessing several nitrogens. Both overall susceptibility and selectivity of oxidation were predicted, and verified by experiments. PMID:25712623

  19. Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jason Justice

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

  20. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lisa M; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Petticrew, Mark; Hart, Graham J

    2009-01-01

    Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia). Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years). Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural). Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted interventions and the combined provision of information, life skills, support and access to youth-friendly services. Interventions should aim to counter negative perceptions of modern contraceptive methods and the dual role of condoms for contraception and STI prevention should be exploited, despite the challenges involved. PMID:19228420

  1. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  2. Influences on visit retention in clinical trials: Insights from qualitative research during the VOICE trial in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although significant progress has been made in clinical trials of women-controlled methods of HIV prevention such as microbicides and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), low adherence to experimental study products remains a major obstacle to being able to establish their efficacy in preventing HIV infection. One factor that influences adherence is the ability of trial participants to attend regular clinic visits at which trial products are dispensed, adherence counseling is administered, and participant safety is monitored. We conducted a qualitative study of the social contextual factors that influenced adherence in the VOICE (MTN-003) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, focusing on study participation in general, and study visits in particular. Methods The research used qualitative methodologies, including in-depth interviews (IDI), serial ethnographic interviews (EI), and focus group discussions (FGD) among a random sub-sample of 102 female trial participants, 18 to 40 years of age. A socio-ecological framework that explored those factors that shaped trial participation and adherence to study products, guided the analysis. Key codes were developed to standardize subsequent coding and a node search was used to identify texts relating to obstacles to visit adherence. Our analysis includes coded transcripts from seven FGD (N?=?40), 41 IDI, and 64 serial EI (N?=?21 women). Results Women’s kinship, social, and economic roles shaped their ability to participate in the clinical trial. Although participants expressed strong commitments to attend study visits, clinic visit schedules and lengthy waiting times interfered with their multiple obligations as care givers, wage earners, housekeepers, and students. Conclusions The research findings highlight the importance of the social context in shaping participation in HIV prevention trials, beyond focusing solely on individual characteristics. This points to the need to focus interventions to improve visit attendance by promoting a culture of active and engaged participation. PMID:25065834

  3. Music as a method of coping with cancer: A qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR-Based Detection Methods for Authorized Genetically Modified Cotton Events in India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rashmi; Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative diagnostics for all five commercialized genetically modified (GM) cotton events for insect resistance in India is being reported for the first time in this paper. The cost-effective and robust multiplex PCR (MPCR)-based detection assay, distinguishing the insect resistant transgenic Bt cotton events, viz., MON531, MON15985, Event 1, GFM-cry1A, and MLS-9124, has been developed. This decaplex PCR assay targets nine transgenic elements, viz., sequences of four transgenes, three transgene constructs, and two event-specific sequences along with one endogenous reference gene. The LOD of the qualitative MPCR assay was up to 0.1%. A quantitative detection method for four widely commercially cultivated GM cotton events, namely, MON531, MON15985, Event 1, and GFM-cry1A, covering 99.5% of the total area under GM cultivation in the country, is also reported. A construct-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed for quantification of these GM cotton events with LOQ <0.05% and LOD <0.025%. The developed assays will be of great use to screen for the presence/absence of authorized GM cotton events in unknown samples and to check the authenticity of GM cotton seed samples. PMID:25902979

  5. Qualitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinary Interaction between Data Analysis Specialists and Novice Clinical Researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilherme Roberto Zammar; Jatin Shah; Ana Paula Bonilauri Ferreira; Luciana Cofiel; Kenneth W. Lyles; Ricardo Pietrobon; Erik von Elm

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe inherent complexity of statistical methods and clinical phenomena compel researchers with diverse domains of expertise to work in interdisciplinary teams, where none of them have a complete knowledge in their counterpart's field. As a result, knowledge exchange may often be characterized by miscommunication leading to misinterpretation, ultimately resulting in errors in research and even clinical practice. Though communication has

  6. Qualitative evaluations and comparisons of six night-vision colorization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Reese, Kristopher; Blasch, Erik; McManamon, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Current multispectral night vision (NV) colorization techniques can manipulate images to produce colorized images that closely resemble natural scenes. The colorized NV images can enhance human perception by improving observer object classification and reaction times especially for low light conditions. This paper focuses on the qualitative (subjective) evaluations and comparisons of six NV colorization methods. The multispectral images include visible (Red-Green- Blue), near infrared (NIR), and long wave infrared (LWIR) images. The six colorization methods are channel-based color fusion (CBCF), statistic matching (SM), histogram matching (HM), joint-histogram matching (JHM), statistic matching then joint-histogram matching (SM-JHM), and the lookup table (LUT). Four categries of quality measurements are used for the qualitative evaluations, which are contrast, detail, colorfulness, and overall quality. The score of each measurement is rated from 1 to 3 scale to represent low, average, and high quality, respectively. Specifically, high contrast (of rated score 3) means an adequate level of brightness and contrast. The high detail represents high clarity of detailed contents while maintaining low artifacts. The high colorfulness preserves more natural colors (i.e., closely resembles the daylight image). Overall quality is determined from the NV image compared to the reference image. Nine sets of multispectral NV images were used in our experiments. For each set, the six colorized NV images (produced from NIR and LWIR images) are concurrently presented to users along with the reference color (RGB) image (taken at daytime). A total of 67 subjects passed a screening test ("Ishihara Color Blindness Test") and were asked to evaluate the 9-set colorized images. The experimental results showed the quality order of colorization methods from the best to the worst: CBCF < SM < SM-JHM < LUT < JHM < HM. It is anticipated that this work will provide a benchmark for NV colorization and for quantitative evaluation using an objective metric such as objective evaluation index (OEI).

  7. A Mixed Method Approach to Quality of Life Research: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Heather; Williams, Allison; Abonyi, Sylvia; Crooks, Valorie

    2008-01-01

    Increased use of qualitative and quantitative methods in quality of life projects necessitates an examination of how to effectively work within a mixed method framework. The research objectives of this paper are to (1) operationalize the two goals of mixed method research (confirmation and comprehension) and (2) develop a strategy for using mixed…

  8. Noninvasive methods in arterosclerosis research

    SciTech Connect

    Hegyeli, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of techniques examined includes Doppler imaging, echocardiography, nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography scanning, subtraction radiography, strain gauge plethysmography, and ultrasound. For each of these methods, the authors consider the theoretical bases, practical pros and cons, and clinical and research applications. Detailed attention is devoted to comparison of these techniques with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, speed, and quality of images and data.

  9. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  10. Qualitative Inquiry in an Age of Educationalese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Tefera, Adai A.

    2014-01-01

    In this introduction we reflect on two key questions that initiated this special issue on qualitative inquiry: What can qualitative researchers do to regain their post-paradigm-wars cache? How do we avoid distracting "science wars" in the future? We suggest that the strong tendency to narrow the research methods accepted as…

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Methods for Event-specific Detection of Genetically Modified Cotton Mon1445 and Mon531

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litao Yang; Aihu Pan; Kewei Zhang; Changsong Yin; Bingjun Qian; Jianxiu Chen; Cheng Huang; Dabing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the DNA sequences of the junctions between recombinant and cotton genomic DNA of the two genetically modified (GM)\\u000a cotton varieties, herbicide-tolerance Mon1445 and insect-resistant Mon531, event-specific primers and probes for qualitative\\u000a and quantitative PCR detection for both GM cotton varieties were designed, and corresponding detection methods were developed.\\u000a In qualitative PCR detection, the simplex and multiplex PCR detection

  12. Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013

  13. [Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in immunosuppressed patients using qualitative and quantitative molecular methods].

    PubMed

    Yalinay Cirak, Meltem; Külah, Canan; Aydin, Ayla; Türet, Sevgi; Rota, Seyyal

    2002-04-01

    In this study, blood samples collected from 101 immunosuppressive patients were investigated for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, with qualitative nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leukocytes obtained from these samples with quantitative hybrid capture assay (HCA). CMV-DNA was found positive in 32 (31.7%) and negative in 45 (44.5%) patients with both of the methods, and the agreement between the methods were estimated as 76.2%. The number of samples, which were PCR positive and HCA negative, were 24 (23.7%), while there were no samples which were PCR negative and HCA positive. All of the 56 CMV-DNA positive patients detected by PCR, were found positive for CMV-IgG, and 7 of them were also CMV-IgM positive. As a result, it was concluded that PCR is a practical and reliable method especially for the routine procedures for the investigation of CMV-DNA, however in cases which necessitate the detection of viral load, hybridization may be the preferable method. PMID:12652870

  14. Access to cardiac rehabilitation among South Asian patients by referral method: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Keerat; Leung, Yvonne W.; Safai, Parissa; Stewart, Donna E.; Anand, Sonia; Gupta, Milan; Parsons, Cynthia; Grace, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES South Asians (SA) suffer an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective, SA are among the least likely to participate. ‘Automatic’ referral increases CR utilization and may reduce access inequalities. METHODS This study qualitatively explored whether CR referral knowledge/access varied by referral method among SA patients. Participants were SA cardiac patients from Ontario hospitals. Each hospital refers to CR through one of four methods: automatically through paper or electronically; through discussion with allied health professionals (liaison referral); or through usual referral at physician discretion. Data was collected via interviews and analyzed using Interpretive-descriptive analysis. RESULTS Four themes emerged: 1) importance of pre-discharge CR discussions with health care providers; 2) limited knowledge of CR; 3) ease of referral process as facilitator of CR attendance; 4) participants’ need for personal autonomy over decision to attend CR. CONCLUSION Liaison referral was perceived to be the most suitable method of referral for participants. It facilitated communication between patients and providers, ensuring improved CR understanding. Automatic referral may be less suited for this population, due to reduced patient-provider communication. PMID:20450019

  15. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best to involve individuals and communities in promoting ethical conduct of global health research in resource poor settings. PMID:21961798

  16. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research

  17. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works. Engineers need more quantitative information. In order to apply geophysical methods to engineering design works, quantitative interpretation is very important. The presentation introduces several case studies from different countries around the world (Fig. 2) from the integrated and quantitative points of view.

  18. Control Banding Nanotool: Evaluation of a qualitative risk assessment method for the control of nanoparticulate exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S; Swuste, P

    2009-01-27

    Control Banding strategies offer a simplified control of worker exposures when there is an absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry fits this classification as there are overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks posed by nanomaterials. Many experts have suggested Control Banding as a solution for these issues. A recent survey shows a majority of nanomaterial users are not performing a basic risk assessment of their product in use. A Control Banding Nanotool has been developed and implemented to afford a qualitative risk assessment toward the control of nanoparticle exposures. The international use of the Control Banding Nanotool reflects on both its need and its possibilities. By developing this dynamic Control Banding Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of Control Banding appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations. This success can be seen in providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them, and initiating an appropriate discussion of these risks with nonexperts. Experts have requested standardization of toxicological parameters, affording better utility and consistency of research. This database of toxicological research findings should be harnessed and presented in a format feeding directly into the Control Banding Nanotool severity and probability risk matrix. Making the latest research available for experts and practitioners alike will provide the best protection of workers in the nanotechnology industries. This presentation will also show the science behind the simplified Control Banding Nanotool approach, its structure, weighting of risks, utility for exposure mitigation, and the research needs to bolster its effectiveness.

  19. Post-16 Physics and Chemistry Uptake: Combining Large-Scale Secondary Analysis with In-Depth Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

  20. Traversing the qualitative–quantitative divide using mixed methods: some reflections and reconciliations for sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry R. McGannon; Amanda N. Schweinbenz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide commentary on one prevalent theme found in many of the articles within the current special issue: the notion of moving beyond a qualitative–quantitative divide using mixed methods to help navigate and\\/or reconcile this divide. This commentary highlights several key controversial issues in mixed methods literature within the social sciences in order to

  1. RESEARCH Open Access The gray zone of the qualitative assessment of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IVC 18%). Results: In total, 114 patients were assessed for inclusion, and 97 (63 men and 34 women) wereIVC by an intensivist were 80.7% and 93.7%, respectively. A qualitative evaluation detected all quantitative dIVCs >40 qualitative evaluation errors were noted for quantitative dIVCs of between 0 and 10%. The average of positive

  2. Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology : A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Goulding

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection

  3. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. H. Graneheim; B. Lundman

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to

  4. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems

    PubMed Central

    Corrrigan, Mairead; Cupples, Margaret E; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Leathem, Claire S; Clerkin, Pauline; Murphy, Andrew W

    2006-01-01

    Background Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. Methods In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration, integrating role plays into behaviour change training, providing more practical information about stress management and removing self-monitoring of lifestyle change. Conclusion Qualitative research is integral to developing the design detail of a complex intervention and tailoring its components to address individuals' needs in different healthcare systems. The findings highlight how qualitative research may be a valuable component of the preparation for complex interventions and their evaluation. PMID:16848896

  5. Writing Educational Biography: Explorations in Qualitative Research. Critical Education Practice; Volume 13. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1098.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kridel, Craig, Ed.

    This collection examines many influences of biographical inquiry in education and discusses methodological issues from the perspectives of veteran and novice biographers. The section on qualitative research and educational biography contains the following chapters: "Musings on Life Writing: Biography and Case Studies in Teacher Education" (Robert…

  6. Using Peer Debriefing in the Final Stage of Evaluation with Implications for Qualitative Research: Three Impressionist Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joanne; And Others

    This paper discusses the use of peer debriefing to assist evaluators in their efforts to address project-end dilemmas and presents the implications of findings in this area for program evaluators and qualitative researchers. Peer debriefing has been defined as the process of exposing oneself to a disinterested peer to explore aspects of the…

  7. Improving mental and neurological health research in Latin America: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fiestas, Fabián; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Bustamante, Inés; Alarcón, Renato D; Mari, Jair J; Razzouk, Denise; Olifson, Sylvie; Mazzotti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence is essential to inform policies, interventions and programs, and yet research activities in mental and neurological (MN) health have been largely neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Many challenges have been identified in the production and utilization of research evidence in Latin American countries, and more work is needed to overcome this disadvantageous situation. This study aims to address the situation by identifying initiatives that could improve MN health research activities and implementation of their results in the Latin American region. Methods Thirty-four MN health actors from 13 Latin American countries were interviewed as part of an initiative by the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization to explore the status of MN health research in low- and middle-income countries in Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Results A variety of recommendations to increase MN health research activities and implementation of their results emerged in the interviews. These included increasing skilled human resources in MN health interventions and research, fostering greater participation of stakeholders in the generation of research topics and projects, and engendering the interest of national and international institutions in important MN health issues and research methodologies. In the view of most participants, government agencies should strive to have research results inform the decision-making process in which they are involved. Thus these agencies would play a key role in facilitating and funding research. Participants also pointed to the importance of academic recognition and financial rewards in attracting professionals to primary and translational research in MN health. In addition, they suggested that institutions should create intramural resources to provide researchers with technical support in designing, carrying out and disseminating research, including resources to improve scientific writing skills. Conclusion Fulfillment of these recommendations would increase research production in MN health in Latin American countries. This, in turn, will raise the profile of these health problems, and consequently will underscore the need of continued high-quality and relevant research, thus fostering a virtuous cycle in the decision-making process to improve MN health care. PMID:19747380

  8. Environmental and individual factors affecting menu labeling utilization: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a prominent public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast-food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study used focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the use of these menu labels among low-income minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were held at various community organizations throughout New York City over a 9-month period in 2011. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few participants used menu labels, despite awareness. The most frequently cited as barriers to menu label use included: price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding about caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  9. Building Better Theory by Bridging the Quantitative–Qualitative Divide &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali K. Shah; Kevin G. Corley

    2006-01-01

    abstract Qualitative methods for data collection and analysis are not mystical, but they are powerful, particularly when used to build new or refine existing theories. This article provides an introduction to qualitative methods and an overview of tactics for ensuring rigor in qualitative research useful for the novice researcher, as well as more experienced researchers interested in expanding their methodological

  10. Qualitative Research and the Radical Right: Cats and Dogs and Other Natural Enemies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Cannella, Gaile S.

    This investigation was conducted to explore contemporary critiques that challenge the growing body of scholarly research that would reveal and support diverse understandings of the world. Principal methods for this deconstruction of contemporary critiques include document analysis of writing that examines content and author location and context…

  11. Qualitative research to identify racialist discourse: towards equity in nursing curricula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Hagey; Robert W MacKay

    2000-01-01

    Professional curriculum planning is beginning to address issues of equity. The authors report on findings from a research initiative to begin to integrate antiracism into an undergraduate curriculum. Theory and methods of Essed, Fanon, Frankenberg, Hall, van Dijk and Woodward are synthesized for interpreting racialist discourse. The findings support the principle of normalizing accountability for discourse practices which construct whiteness

  12. Developing Investigative Entry Points: Exploring the Use of Quantitative Methods in English Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraner, Kristin L.; Robbins, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although many research questions in English education demand the use of qualitative methods, this paper will briefly explore how English education researchers and doctoral students may use statistics and quantitative methods to inform, complement, and/or deepen their inquiries. First, the authors will provide a general overview of the survey areas…

  13. Autoethnography as a Method for Reflexive Research and Practice in Vocational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper overviews the qualitative research method of autoethnography and its relevance to research in vocational psychology and practice in career development. Autoethnography is a reflexive means by which the researcher-practitioner consciously embeds himself or herself in theory and practice, and by way of intimate autobiographic account,…

  14. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice in Educational Research: Methods at the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle, Ed.; Hunter, Cheryl A., Ed.; Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book provides new ways of thinking about educational processes, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Concrete examples of research techniques are provided for those conducting research with marginalized populations or about marginalized ideas. This volume asserts theoretical models related to research methods and the study of…

  15. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  16. Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives

    E-print Network

    Klahr, David

    Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives The purpose of this course, and experimental design; (2) understanding the special methodological challenges of developmental research; (3 about a research topic; (6) designing and conducting a research project with young children; (7

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities 

    E-print Network

    Trexler, Grant 1961-

    2012-11-16

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating...

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    E-print Network

    Trexler, Grant 1961-

    2012-11-16

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating...

  19. Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP356043-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Tao Xu; Nan Zhang; Yun Bo Luo; Zhi Fang Zhai; Ying Shang; Xing Hua Yan; Juan Juan Zheng; Kun Lun Huang

    With the increasing development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), labeling regulations have been introduced, which\\u000a require appropriate detection methods. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection,\\u000a especially for event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods, which have become the internationally agreed\\u000a state-of-art. This paper describes the character and event-specific quantitative detection method of DP-356043-5

  20. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. PMID:23418918

  1. Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Mahdad, Elahe; Craker, Lyle

    2013-12-01

    Sweet basil, a plant that is extensively cultivated in some countries, is used to enhance the flavour of salads, sauces, pasta and confectioneries as both a fresh and dried herb. To determine the effect of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the plant and essential oil of basil, two landraces, Purple and Green, were dried in sunlight, shade, mechanical ovens at 40 °C and 60 °C, a microwave oven at 500 W and by freeze-drying. For comparison, the essential oils of all samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The highest essential oil yields (v/w on dry weight basis) were obtained from shade-dried tissue in both landraces followed by the freeze-dried sample of the purple landrace and the fresh sample of green landrace. Increasing the drying temperature significantly decreased the essential oil content of all samples. Significant changes in the chemical profile of the essential oils from each of the landrace were associated with the drying method, including the loss of most monoterpene hydrocarbons, as compared with fresh samples. No significant differences occurred among several constituents in the extracted essential oils, including methyl chavicol (estragole), the major compound in the oil of both landraces, whether the plants were dried in the shade or sun, oven at 40 °C or freeze-dried, as compared with a fresh sample. The percentage methyl chavicol in the oil, however, decreased significantly when the plant material was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. In addition, linalool, the second major compound in the purple landrace, and geranial and neral, major compounds in the green landrace, decreased significantly when the plant tissue was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. PMID:23870979

  2. High Accuracy Optical Flow Method Based on a Theory for Warping: Implementation and Qualitative\\/Quantitative Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Faisal; John Barron

    2007-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a 2D optical flow al- gorithm published in the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2004) by Brox et al. (1) (best paper award) and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of it for a number of synthetic and real im- age sequences. Their optical flow method combines three assumptions: a brightness constancy assumption, a gradient

  3. Evaluating Student-Generated Film as a Learning Tool for Qualitative Methods: Geographical ‘Drifts’ and the City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Film as a tool for learning offers considerable opportunity for enhancing student understanding. This paper reflects on the experiences of a project that required students to make a short film demonstrating their practical understanding of qualitative methods. In the psychogeographical tradition, students were asked to ‘drift’ across the urban environment and record their own experiences of the places encountered. The

  4. A Review of Qualitative Data Gathering Methods and Their Applications To Support Organizational Strategic Planning Processes. Study Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Phillip C.; Geroy, Gary D.

    Exploring existing methodologies to determine whether they can be adapted or adopted to support strategic goal setting, this paper focuses on information gathering techniques as they relate to the human resource development professional's input into strategic planning processes. The information gathering techniques are all qualitative methods and…

  5. A method of qualitative reasoning for model-based problem solving and its application to a nuclear plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Kakusho

    1996-01-01

    Model-based expert systems are expected to contribute to overcoming the difficulties of conventional rule-based systems. This paper describes the modeling of mechanical systems and a method of qualitative reasoning based on causal specifications. The causal specifications represent a component's local causal properties, following the principles for reusability and composability. It contributes to providing intuitive causal ordering of complex behavior originated

  6. Translating infection prevention evidence into practice using quantitative and qualitative research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Krein; Russell N. Olmsted; Timothy P. Hofer; Christine Kowalski; Jane Banaszak-Holl; Sanjay Saint

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists, using the valid methods of applied epidemiology-surveillance, benchmarking, intervention, evaluation-have largely been responsible for dramatically reducing the incidence of health care- associated infections over the past several decades. However, we believe that the field of infection control can-and should-also be a leader in understanding how research findings can be efficiently and effectively translated into

  7. Model-based and Qualitative Reasoning in Biomedicine

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Peter

    Model-based and Qualitative Reasoning in Biomedicine Working notes of the workshop held during-based and Qualitative Reason- ing in Biomedicine, which was held during the European Conference on Artificial Intelli various researchers involved in the development and use of model-based and qualitative reasoning methods

  8. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology. PMID:23521381

  9. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider-defined solutions to problems in living faced by their clients. PMID:15333130

  10. Facilitating the Recruitment of Minority Ethnic People into Research: Qualitative Case Study of South Asians and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Aziz; Halani, Laila; Bhopal, Raj; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Partridge, Martyn R.; Car, Josip; Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders. Methods and Findings Interviews were conducted with 36 researchers (19 UK and 17 US) from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and ten community leaders from a range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds, followed by self-completion questionnaires. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated where necessary, and transcribed. The Framework approach was used for analysis. Barriers to ethnic minority participation revolved around five key themes: (i) researchers' own attitudes, which ranged from empathy to antipathy to (in a minority of cases) misgivings about the scientific importance of the question under study; (ii) stereotypes and prejudices about the difficulties in engaging with minority ethnic populations; (iii) the logistical challenges posed by language, cultural differences, and research costs set against the need to demonstrate value for money; (iv) the unique contexts of the two countries; and (v) poorly developed understanding amongst some minority ethnic leaders of what research entails and aims to achieve. US researchers were considerably more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities, which appeared to a large extent to reflect the longer-term impact of the National Institutes of Health's requirement to include minority ethnic people. Conclusions Most researchers and community leaders view the broadening of participation in research as important and are reasonably optimistic about the feasibility of recruiting South Asians into asthma studies provided that the barriers can be overcome. Suggested strategies for improving recruitment in the UK included a considerably improved support structure to provide academics with essential contextual information (e.g., languages of particular importance and contact with local gatekeepers), and the need to ensure that care is taken to engage with the minority ethnic communities in ways that are both culturally appropriate and sustainable; ensuring reciprocal benefits was seen as one key way of avoiding gatekeeper fatigue. Although voluntary measures to encourage researchers may have some impact, greater impact might be achieved if UK funding bodies followed the lead of the US National Institutes of Health requiring recruitment of ethnic minorities. Such a move is, however, likely in the short- to medium-term, to prove unpopular with many UK academics because of the added “hassle” factor in engaging with more diverse populations than many have hitherto been accustomed to. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19823568

  11. Understanding and managing cancer-related weight loss and anorexia: insights from a systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christine; Burden, Sorrel T; Cheng, Huilin; Molassiotis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the existing qualitative literature in order to develop the evidence base for understanding and managing weight loss and anorexia, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. A systematic search was performed to retrieve English language studies using electronic search and manual checks of selected reference lists. Keywords included qualitative, cancer cachexia, weight loss, anorexia, appetite, malnutrition, food, eating, and drinking. The selection and appraisal of papers were undertaken by two reviewers. Twenty-one qualitative articles were included in the review. There were three major findings emerging from the previous qualitative studies including ‘the multidimensionality of weight loss and anorexia experience’, ‘patients and caregivers' responses to coping with weight loss and anorexia’, and ‘clinical assessment and management of weight loss and anorexia’. The literature review revealed the multidimensional nature of cachexia and weight loss experience by patients and caregivers, which was not recognized and adequately managed by healthcare professionals. Future research in this area would be helpful in enabling a deeper understanding of the complexity of cachexia and weight loss experience in order to move forward to develop an optimal model of supportive care for patients and caregivers.

  12. Writes of Passage: Writing up Qualitative Data as a Threshold Concept in Doctoral Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Robin; Simpson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is an essential skill for all doctoral students, yet it is one that receives relatively little attention in training and supervision. This article explores extensive feedback from participants in a series of workshops for doctoral candidates engaged with writing up qualitative data. The themes arising from the data analysis are…

  13. Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Arai

    Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy

  14. Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Arai

    2007-01-01

    Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy

  15. Examining Foundations of Qualitative Research: A Review of Social Work Dissertations, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the treatment of epistemology and methodological rigor in qualitative social work dissertations. Template-based review was conducted on a random sample of 75 dissertations completed between 2008 and 2010. For each dissertation, we noted the presence or absence of four markers of epistemology: theory, paradigm, reflexivity, and…

  16. Foucauldian Scientificity: Rethinking the Nexus of Qualitative Research and Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2006-01-01

    This essay calls for qualitative policy analysis that can engage strategically with the increased calls for the usefulness of social policy toward the improvement of educational practice. Michel Foucault's concept of scientificity is used as a tool against the "repositivization" at work in neo-liberal times and its "rage for accountability" where…

  17. A Case Study of a Case Study: Analysis of a Robust Qualitative Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A unique multi-part qualitative study methodology is presented from a study which tracked the transformative journeys of four career-changing women from STEM fields into secondary education. The article analyzes the study's use of archived writing, journaling, participant-generated photography, interviews, member-checking, and reflexive analytical…

  18. The Digital Revolution in Qualitative Research: Working with Digital Audio Data Through Atlas.Ti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Gibson; Peter Callery; Malcolm Campbell; Andy Hall; Dave Richards

    2005-01-01

    Modern versions of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) are enabling the analysis of audio sound files instead of relying solely on text-based analysis. Along with other developments in computer technologies such as the proliferation of digital recording devices and the potential for using streamed media in online academic publication, this innovation is increasing the possibilities of systematically using

  19. Death of Mixed Methods? Or the Rebirth of Research as a Craft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jennifer E.; Gorard, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The classification by many scholars of numerical research processes as quantitative and other research techniques as qualitative has prompted the construction of a third category, that of "mixed methods", to describe studies that use elements from both processes. Such labels might be helpful in structuring our understanding of phenomena. But they…

  20. Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 157.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II, Ed.; Dennis, Rutledge M., Ed.

    The contributions in this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative, and comparative and historical research to show how research sensitive to ethnic issues can best be conducted. Rethinking and revising traditional methodologies and applying new ones can portray racial and ethnic issues as they really exist. The…

  1. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical…

  2. Mixed-Methods Approaches to Contextually Grounded Research in Settings of Armed Conflict and Natural Disaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Miller

    \\u000a This chapter examines the integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the development of culturally grounded\\u000a mental health, and psychosocial assessment tools for use with populations displaced by armed conflict or natural disaster.\\u000a After first arguing for the importance of grounding our assessment tools in local cultural contexts, the author then describes\\u000a the unique and complementary contributions that qualitative

  3. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Uptake of Interventions for Malaria in Pregnancy in Africa: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Straus, Lianne; Andrew, Erin V. W.; Meñaca, Arantza; Pool, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy (MiP) results in adverse birth outcomes and poor maternal health. MiP-related morbidity and mortality is most pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa, where recommended MiP interventions include intermittent preventive treatment, insecticide-treated bednets and appropriate case management. Besides their clinical efficacy, the effectiveness of these interventions depends on the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and the wider community, which are shaped by social and cultural factors. Although these factors have been studied largely using quantitative methods, qualitative research also offers important insights. This article provides a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on social and cultural factors relevant to uptake of MiP interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A systematic search strategy was employed: literature searches were undertaken in several databases (OVID SP, IS Web of Knowledge, MiP Consortium library). MiP-related original research, on social/cultural factors relevant to MiP interventions, in Africa, with findings derived from qualitative methods was included. Non-English language articles were excluded. A meta-ethnographic approach was taken to analysing and synthesizing findings. Thirty-seven studies were identified. Fourteen concentrated on MiP. Others focused on malaria treatment and prevention, antenatal care (ANC), anaemia during pregnancy or reproductive loss. Themes identified included concepts of malaria and risk in pregnancy, attitudes towards interventions, structural factors affecting delivery and uptake, and perceptions of ANC. Conclusions Although malaria risk is associated with pregnancy, women's vulnerability is often considered less disease-specific and MiP interpreted in locally defined categories. Furthermore, local discourses and health workers' ideas and comments influence concerns about MiP interventions. Understandings of ANC, health worker-client interactions, household decision-making, gender relations, cost and distance to health facilities affect pregnant women's access to MiP interventions and lack of healthcare infrastructure limits provision of interventions. Further qualitative research is however required: many studies were principally descriptive and an in-depth comparative approach is recommended. PMID:21799859

  4. Teaching Qualitative Coding in Undergraduate Field Method Classes: An Exercise Based on Personal Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalp, Marybeth C.; Grant, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise that is centered upon an article by Simon Davis that focused on examining personal advertisements in "The Vancouver Sun" newspaper during the 1980s. States that students analyze this article, replicate his analysis, pursue their own questions, and learn about qualitative analysis software. Discusses the benefits of the…

  5. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2015-05-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC) by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect (derived from a 5 m × 5 m DEM), surficial geology, permafrost distribution, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g., 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  6. Getting Research to the Policy Table: A Qualitative Study With Public Health Researchers on Engaging With Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Siddiqi, Sameer; Quinn, Emilee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little attention has been given to how researchers can best provide evidence to policy makers so that it informs policy making. The objectives of this study were to increase understanding about the current state of public health nutrition and obesity researcher practices, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to communicating and engaging with policy makers, and to identify best practices and suggest improvements. Methods Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2013 with public health nutrition and obesity researchers who were highly involved in communicating research to policy makers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify common themes. Results Study participants described wide variation in practices for communicating and engaging with policy makers and had mixed beliefs about whether and when researchers should engage. Besides a lack of formal policy communication training, barriers noted were promotion and tenure processes and a professional culture that does not value communicating and engaging with policy makers. Study participants cited facilitators to engaging with policy makers as ranging from the individual level (eg, desire to make a difference, relationships with collaborators) to the institutional level (eg, training/mentorship support, institutional recognition). Other facilitators identified were research- and funding-driven. Promising strategies suggested to improve policy engagement were more formal training, better use of intermediaries, and learning how to cultivate relationships with policy makers. Conclusion Study findings provide insights into the challenges that will need to be overcome and the strategies that might be tried to improve communication and engagement between public health researchers and policy makers. PMID:25927604

  7. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  8. "Research protocol: a synthesis of qualitative studies on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with dependency in the elderly and their families leads us to explore the life experience of those involved together with the processes of adaptation to this condition. A number of original studies have been published which, following a qualitative methodology, have dealt with both dimensions. Methods/Design Objectives: 1) To present a synthesis of the qualitative evidence available on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families; 2) to conduct an in-depth study into the experiences and strategies developed by both to optimise their living conditions; 3) to enable standards of action/intervention to be developed in the caregiving environment. A synthesis of qualitative studies is projected with an extensive and inclusive bibliography search strategy. The primary search will focus on the major databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, PSICODOC, Cochrane Library, JBI, EMBASE, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative, CUIDATGE, British Nursing Index, SSCI). The secondary search will be conducted in articles taken from the references to studies identified in the articles and reports and the manual search in congresses and foundation papers. Article quality will be assessed by the guide proposed by Sandelowski & Barroso and data extraction done using the QARI data extraction form proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice. The synthesis of the findings will be based on the principles and procedures of grounded theory: coding, identification and relationship between categories, and synthesis using constant comparison as a strategy. Discussion This synthesis of qualitative evidence will enable us to detect health needs as perceived by the receivers in their own interaction contexts. PMID:20738846

  9. Accessing health services through the back door: a qualitative interview study investigating reasons why people participate in health research in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. Methods This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. Results A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.’ Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a “trial and error” process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Conclusions Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical/health procedures as either research or treatment. Those with low health status may be more vulnerable to potential coercion, suggesting the need for a more cautious approach to obtaining consent. Our findings also indicate the need for boundary work in order to better differentiate treatment and research. It is important however to acknowledge a categorical ambiguity; it is not always the case that people are misinformed about the possible benefits of research procedures (i.e., therapeutic misconception); our participants were aware that the primary purpose of research is to gain new knowledge yet they also identified a range of actual health benefits arising from their participation. PMID:24119203

  10. Qualitative research to identify racialist discourse: towards equity in nursing curricula.

    PubMed

    Hagey, R; MacKay, R W

    2000-02-01

    Professional curriculum planning is beginning to address issues of equity. The authors report on findings from a research initiative to begin to integrate antiracism into an undergraduate curriculum. Theory and methods of Essed, Fanon, Frankenberg, Hall, van Dijk and Woodward are synthesized for interpreting racialist discourse. The findings support the principle of normalizing accountability for discourse practices which construct whiteness and otherness in their representations. Essentialist discourse practices are implicated in the perpetuation of racism, ableism, heterosexism, ageism, etc. Hence, the ideal of equity is expanded to include the enactment of non-essentialist discourse. The logic is revealed as either/or; either equity or dominance through normalized perpetuation of essential categories assigning negative value to others constructing difference, marginalization, problematization, exclusion and containment. The confused, middle or neutral position is one of condoning racism and other forms of dominance. PMID:10687809

  11. Research Methods--Researching Peers and Familiar Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the research methods literature examining the benefits and pitfalls of doing educational research in familiar settings and among peers. The review encompasses educational literature and material from anthropology and sociology. The impact of structural differences between researcher and researched is discussed, noting problems of antipathy…

  12. Mixed Methods in CAM Research: A Systematic Review of Studies Published in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Holmes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mixed methods research uses qualitative and quantitative methods together in a single study or a series of related studies. Objectives. To review the prevalence and quality of mixed methods studies in complementary medicine. Methods. All studies published in the top 10 integrative and complementary medicine journals in 2012 were screened. The quality of mixed methods studies was appraised using a published tool designed for mixed methods studies. Results. 4% of papers (95 out of 2349) reported mixed methods studies, 80 of which met criteria for applying the quality appraisal tool. The most popular formal mixed methods design was triangulation (used by 74% of studies), followed by embedded (14%), sequential explanatory (8%), and finally sequential exploratory (5%). Quantitative components were generally of higher quality than qualitative components; when quantitative components involved RCTs they were of particularly high quality. Common methodological limitations were identified. Most strikingly, none of the 80 mixed methods studies addressed the philosophical tensions inherent in mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Conclusions and Implications. The quality of mixed methods research in CAM can be enhanced by addressing philosophical tensions and improving reporting of (a) analytic methods and reflexivity (in qualitative components) and (b) sampling and recruitment-related procedures (in all components). PMID:24454489

  13. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to the general readership of peer-reviewed biomedical and health services journals. Furthermore, existing guidelines for publishing mixed methods studies are not well known or applied by researchers and journal editors. Accordingly, this paper is intended to serve as a concise, practical resource for readers interested in core principles and practices of mixed methods research. We briefly describe mixed methods approaches and present illustrations from published biomedical and health services literature, including in cardiovascular care, summarize standards for the design and reporting of these studies, and highlight four central considerations for investigators interested in using these methods. PMID:23322807

  14. Trends and Shifts in Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Lesh, Richard

    This chapter overviews trends and shifts in research methods in mathematics and science education. It summarizes shifts in some basic assumptions about the role of research in mathematics and science education, background factors that support the proclivities of the researchers represented in the book, foreground factors that the researchers in…

  15. Becoming a Researcher: A Qualitative Study of the Apprenticeship Model in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Emma M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on doctoral education, little is known about how doctoral students learn to do research across the disciplines. Even though there is a lack of empirical research on the pedagogy of research in doctoral education, much of the literature anecdotally and metaphorically attributes students' learning to traditional…

  16. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-02-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022

  17. A Review of Psychological Momentum in Sports: Why qualitative research is needed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Crust; Mark Nesti

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable research into psychological momentum in sports, researchers and theorists still appear to be divided on whether the concept is real or illusionary (Burke, Edwards, Weigard & Weinberg, 1997). This seems to be based on inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between perceived momentum and actual performance. Researchers have predominantly employed quantitative approaches, which, it is argued, has limited the

  18. Improving design and conduct of randomised trials by embedding them in qualitative research: ProtecT (prostate testing for cancer and treatment) study

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Jenny; Mills, Nicola; Smith, Monica; Brindle, Lucy; Jacoby, Ann; Peters, Tim; Frankel, Stephen; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie

    2002-01-01

    Problem Recruitment to randomised trials is often difficult, and many important trials are not mounted because recruitment is thought to be “impossible.” Design Controversial ProtecT (prostate testing for cancer and treatment) trial embedded within qualitative research. Background and setting Screening for prostate cancer is hotly debated, and evidence from trials about the effectiveness of treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, and monitoring) is lacking. Mounting a treatment trial is controversial because of past failures and concerns that differences in complications of treatment but not survival make randomisation unacceptable to patients and clinicians, particularly for a trial including monitoring. Strategy for change In-depth interviews explored interpretation of study information. Audiotape recordings of recruitment appointments enabled scrutiny of content and presentation of study information by recruiters. Initial qualitative findings showed that recruiters had difficulty discussing equipoise and presenting treatments equally; they unknowingly used terminology that was misinterpreted by participants. Findings were used to determine changes to content and presentation of information. Effects of change Changes to the order of presenting treatments encouraged emphasis on equivalence, misinterpreted terms were avoided, the non-radical arm was redefined, and randomisation and clinical equipoise were presented more convincingly. The randomisation rate increased from 40% to 70%, all treatments became acceptable, and the three arm trial became the preferred design. Lessons learnt Changes to information and presentation resulted in efficient recruitment acceptable to patients and clinicians. Embedding this controversial trial within qualitative research improved recruitment. Such methods probably have wider applicability and may enable even the most difficult evaluative questions to be tackled. PMID:12364308

  19. Crossing Anxious Borders: Teaching across the Quantitative--Qualitative "Divide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttrell, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about teaching and learning across the so-called quantitative-qualitative divide in light of current debates in the US about the definition and quality of educational research. It draws on the author's research and teaching experiences, her role in the redesign of qualitative methods coursework and participation in a school-wide…

  20. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  1. 'Horses for Courses': the differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Anthony C; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Landorf, Karl

    2002-03-01

    Some clinicians may feel dissociated from, and intimidated by the ever-increasing emphasis on research. However, with an understanding of some of the basic principles and key terms, research can feel less daunting. It is the aim of this article, the second in a series of three focusing on understanding research, to introduce clinicians to the different approaches to research, to improve understanding of what the approaches mean, and to highlight when a particular approach may be appropriate. Furthermore, the article will provide an explanation of some of the common terms used within clinical research. This should aid the clinician in applying good, simple, scientific principles to evaluating clinical research evidence. PMID:11904331

  2. Beyond the Quantitative and Qualitative Divide: Research in Art Education as Border Skirmish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Graeme

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes a research project that utilizes a coherent conceptual model of art education research incorporating the demand for empirical rigor and providing for diverse interpretive frameworks. Briefly profiles the NUD*IST (Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) software system that can organize and retrieve complex…

  3. Knowledge and Perception on Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptive Methods in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Addissie, Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six in-depth interviews with family planning providers were conducted. Content analysis was used to synthesize the data. Result. Participants' knowledge on long acting and permanent contraceptives is limited to recognizing the name of the methods. Most of the participants are not able to identify permanent methods as a method of contraception. They lack basic information on how these methods work and how they can use it. Women had fears and rumors about each of these methods. They prefer methods which do not require any procedure. Family planning providers stated as they have weakness on counseling of all contraceptive choices. Conclusion. There are personal barriers and knowledge gaps on these contraceptive methods. Improving the counseling service program can help women to increase knowledge and avoid misconceptions of each contraceptive choice. PMID:25140252

  4. The experiences of commercial kidney donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Cross, Nicholas B; Batabyal, Pikli; Craig, Jonathan C

    2012-11-01

    Commercial transplantation has expanded because of the shortage of kidneys for transplantation. This study aims to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of living commercial kidney donors. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases to April 2011 and consulted experts to identify unpublished studies. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Seven studies involving over 676 commercial kidney donors were included. Three major themes were identified: desperation (the participants' decision to sell their kidney was forced by poverty, debt, or to fulfill a family obligation); despair (destroyed body integrity, shame and secrecy, dehumanized and dispirited, loss of livelihood, heightened sense of vulnerability, disappointment, and regret); and debasement (deception by brokers and recipients, victimized by the hospital, stigmatized by community, and rejected by family). Commercial kidney transplantation is reported to result in ramifications for the donors' mental, physical, and social well-being. Not only do they remain in poverty, they lose dignity, sense of purpose, respect, relationships, and livelihood. Review of this published literature supports the need for effective implementation of the WHO guiding principles and legislated regulation to deter potential recipients and healthcare providers from pursuing commercial transplantation. PMID:22830975

  5. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  6. Mixed Methods Analysis and Information Visualization: Graphical Display for Effective Communication of Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Dickinson, Wendy B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce various graphical methods that can be used to represent data in mixed research. First, we present a broad taxonomy of visual representation. Next, we use this taxonomy to provide an overview of visual techniques for quantitative data display and qualitative data display. Then, we propose what we call "crossover" visual…

  7. Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Webb, C

    1993-03-01

    The literature relating to feminist research both within and beyond nursing is reviewed in this paper. Feminist research is located within a post-positivist paradigm, and various definitions are considered. The distinctive methodological approach of feminist research is discussed, and interviewing and ethnography are evaluated as suitable methods for use in feminist research. Oakley's (1981) paper on interviewing women is subjected to criticism. A final section examines attempts by three sets of writers to propose evaluation criteria for feminist research. The review concludes that a number of paradoxes and dilemmas in feminist research have yet to be resolved. PMID:8450137

  8. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is considerable clinician and researcher interest in whether the outcomes for patients with low back pain, and the efficiency of the health systems that treat them, can be improved by 'subgrouping research'. Subgrouping research seeks to identify subgroups of people who have clinically important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies. Discussion The proposed method framework proposes six phases for studies of subgroups: studies of assessment methods, hypothesis-setting studies, hypothesis-testing studies, narrow validation studies, broad validation studies, and impact analysis studies. This framework extends and relabels a classification system previously proposed by McGinn et al (2000) as suitable for studies of clinical prediction rules. This extended classification, and its descriptive terms, explicitly anchor research findings to the type of evidence each provides. The inclusive nature of the framework invites appropriate consideration of the results of diverse research designs. Method pathways are described for studies designed to test and quantify prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and examples are discussed. The proposed method framework is presented as a roadmap for conversation amongst researchers and clinicians who plan, stage and perform subgrouping research. Summary This article proposes a research method framework for studies of subgroups in low back pain. Research designs and statistical methods appropriate for sequential phases in this research are discussed, with an emphasis on those suitable for hypothesis-setting studies of subgroups of people seeking care. PMID:20598153

  9. Qualitative failure of a multiconfiguration method in prolate spheroidal coordinates in calculating dissociative photoionization of H2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; Lawler, Keith V.; McCurdy, C. William

    2015-06-01

    A formulation of a multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method with nuclear motion is tested by application to a three-body breakup problem, the dissociative photoionization cross section of the H2+ ion. The representation of the wave function in terms of a set of Slater determinants used for all nuclear geometries, with a prescribed parametric dependence upon the nuclear geometry such that the cusps follow the nuclei, times a complete basis expansion in the nuclear degrees of freedom shows promise as a method for treating nonadiabatic electronic and nuclear motion in molecules. However, the method used here for diatomics, in which the parametric dependence is prescribed through the choice of prolate spheroidal coordinates, produces qualitatively incorrect steplike behavior in the calculated cross section near onset. Modifications to the prolate spheroidal coordinate system that would improve this nonadiabatic diatomic MCTDHF representation are proposed.

  10. Quality of Life Concerns in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Qualitative Research Investigation 

    E-print Network

    Puckett, Stevie

    2013-06-13

    Although young adult (YA) survivors of child cancer comprise a unique group from a developmental standpoint, in most treatment and research settings either child or general adult measures of quality of life (QL) are used to measure adjustment...

  11. A Qualitative Case Study Approach To Examine Information Resources Management. (Utilisation d'une Approche Qualitative par Methode de cas pour Etudier la Gestion des Ressources D'information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates how a qualitative approach was used to study the complex and poorly defined concept of information resources management. Explains the general approach to data collection, its advantages and limitations, and the process used to analyze the data. Presents results, along with lessons learned through using method. (Author/AEF)

  12. Visionlearning: Research Methods: The Practice of Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-10-01

    This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the "scientific method" does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. It is appropriate for introductory physics courses and for teachers seeking content support in research practices. Editor's Note: Secondary students often cling to the notion that scientific research follows a stock, standard "scientific method". They may be unaware of the differences between experimental research, correlative studies, observation, and computer-based modeling research. In this resource, they can glimpse each methodology in the context of a real study done by respected scientists. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.

  13. Consent, including advanced consent, of older adults to research in care homes: a qualitative study of stakeholders’ views in South Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Care home residents, especially those lacking capacity to provide consent for themselves, are frequently excluded from research, thus limiting generalisability of study findings. We set out to explore stakeholders’ views about the ethical and practical challenges associated with recruiting care home residents into research studies. Methods Qualitative individual interviews with care home residents (n?=?14), their relatives (n?=?14), and general practitioners (GPs) (n?=?10), and focus groups (n?=?2) with care home staff. Interviews focused on the issues of older adults consenting to research in care homes, including advanced consent, in general and through reference to a particular study on the use of probiotics to prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea. Data were analysed using a thematic approach incorporating themes that had been identified in advance, and themes derived from the data. Researchers discussed evidence for themes, and reached consensus on the final themes. Results Respondents were generally accepting of low risk observational studies and slightly less accepting of low risk randomised trials of medicinal products. Although respondents identified some practical barriers to informed consent, consenting arrangements were considered workable. Residents and relatives varied in the amount of detail they wanted included in information sheets and consent discussions, but were generally satisfied that an advanced consent model was acceptable and appropriate. Opinions differed about what should happen should residents lose capacity during a research study. Conclusions Research staff should be mindful of research guidance and ensure that they have obtained an appropriate level of informed consent without overwhelming the participant with unnecessary detail. For research involving medicinal products, research staff should also be more explicit when recruiting that consent is still valid should an older person lose capacity during a trial provided the individual did not previously state a wish to be withdrawn if they lose capacity, and provided they do not indicate objection or resistance after loss of capacity. PMID:23937972

  14. Net benefits: assessing the effectiveness of clinical networks in Australia through qualitative methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the 21st century, government and industry are supplementing hierarchical, bureaucratic forms of organization with network forms, compatible with principles of devolved governance and decentralization of services. Clinical networks are employed as a key health policy approach to engage clinicians in improving patient care in Australia. With significant investment in such networks in Australia and internationally, it is important to assess their effectiveness and sustainability as implementation mechanisms. Methods In two purposively selected, musculoskeletal clinical networks, members and stakeholders were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions regarding key factors relating to network effectiveness and sustainability. We adopted a three-level approach to evaluating network effectiveness: at the community, network, and member levels, across the network lifecycle. Results Both networks studied are advisory networks displaying characteristics of the ‘enclave’ type of non-hierarchical network. They are hybrids of the mandated and natural network forms. In the short term, at member level, both networks were striving to create connectivity and collaboration of members. Over the short to medium term, at network level, both networks applied multi-disciplinary engagement in successfully developing models of care as key outputs, and disseminating information to stakeholders. In the long term, at both community and network levels, stakeholders would measure effectiveness by the broader statewide influence of the network in changing and improving practice. At community level, in the long term, stakeholders acknowledged both networks had raised the profile, and provided a ‘voice’ for musculoskeletal conditions, evidencing some progress with implementation of the network mission while pursuing additional implementation strategies. Conclusions This research sheds light on stakeholders’ perceptions of assessing clinical network effectiveness at community, network, and member levels during the network’s timeline, and on the role of networks and their contribution. Overall, stakeholders reported positive momentum and useful progress in network growth and development, and saw their networks as providing valuable mechanisms for meeting instrumental goals and pursuing collaborative interests. Network forms can prove their utility in addressing ‘wicked problems,’ and these Australian clinical networks present a practical approach to the difficult issue of clinician engagement in state-level implementation of best practice for improving patient care and outcomes. PMID:23122000

  15. CAM Use and Suggestions for Medical Care of Senior Citizens: A Qualitative Study Using the World Café Method

    PubMed Central

    Stöckigt, B.; Teut, M.; Witt, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years). Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies. PMID:24023586

  16. [Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica].

    PubMed

    Robles-Silva, Leticia

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400

  17. Foucault, the subject and the research interview: a critique of methods.

    PubMed

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. PMID:23176320

  18. Qualitative methods in a randomised controlled trial: the role of an integrated qualitative process evaluation in providing evidence to discontinue the intervention in one arm of a trial of a decision support tool

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, M J; Thomson, R G; May, C R; Rapley, T; Heaven, B R; Graham, R H; Kaner, E F; Stobbart, L; Eccles, M P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand participants' experiences and understandings of the interventions in the trial of a computerised decision support tool in patients with atrial fibrillation being considered for anti?coagulation treatment. Design Qualitative process evaluation carried out alongside the trial: non?participant observation and semistructured interviews. Participants 30 participants aged >60?years taking part in the trial of a computerised decision support tool. Results Qualitative evidence provided the rationale to undertake a decision to discontinue one arm of the trial on the basis that the intervention in that arm, a standard gamble values elicitation exercise was causing confusion and was unlikely to produce valid data on participant values. Conclusions Qualitative methods used alongside a trial allow an understanding of the process and progress of a trial, and provide evidence to intervene in the trial if necessary, including evidence for the rationale to discontinue an intervention arm of the trial. PMID:17545351

  19. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up. PMID:25839206

  20. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  1. "I Am Not the Same after My ERASMUS": A Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    No data has been found about the influences of the ERASMUS program on Turkish pre-service teachers of English who participated in the ERASMUS Mobility Program. Thus, in this study the researcher aims to evaluate the ERASMUS Mobility Program regarding its contributions to the progress of Turkish pre-service teachers of English and the problems they…

  2. On interviewing people with pets: reflections from qualitative research on people with long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sara; Ziebland, Sue

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that pets are associated with physiological, psychological and social benefits for humans. Much of this research has come from western countries, where there have been consistent calls for greater engagement with pet ownership and health. Drawing on a secondary analysis of 61 in-depth interviews with people, or carers of people, with long-term conditions, we explore how pets feature in people's narrative accounts of their experiences. Our findings demonstrate the multifaceted nature of people's relationships with pets, and the embedded and embodied ways in which human-nonhuman interactions are played out in narratives of chronic illness. Our study differs from other work on pets and health in that, by returning to the interview video recordings, we were able to explore the sometimes three-way interactions, the co(a)gency, between participants, pets and researchers. Pets were often presented as important family members, yet the researchers' responses to the presence or talk about pets was often markedly different from their reactions to other household members. We conclude with cautioning against the downgrading of pets in narrative health research. Narrative approaches may invite participants to talk about what is important to them, yet they clearly have limitations in practice. PMID:25601065

  3. Designing a Qualitative Research for Evaluation of English for Academic Purposes Activity in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based teacher education provides new knowledge within the knowledge triangle of education, research and innovation. Communicative competence is of the greatest importance which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission, 2004). The successful…

  4. Qualitative Meta-Analysis on the Hospital Task: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennifer; Sharma, Sashi

    2014-01-01

    The "law of large numbers" indicates that as sample size increases, sample statistics become less variable and more closely estimate their corresponding population parameters. Different research studies investigating how people consider sample size when evaluating the reliability of a sample statistic have found a wide range of…

  5. Representing Refugee Youth in Qualitative Research: Questions of Ethics, Language and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorstensson Dávila, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks conceptually and methodologically about the ethics and politics of doing research with newcomer refugee youth and issues of representation. Feminist poststructuralist paradigms across a variety of fields have critically examined notions of experience, agency, and identity to in order to encompass more fluid understandings of…

  6. From Drawings to Diagrams: Maintaining Researcher Control during Graphic Elicitation in Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Atkins, Tunde; O'Brien, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Graphic elicitation, i.e. asking participants to draw, is an interview technique used to focus the interviewee on the given topic or gain extra meaning not covered verbally as part of the interview. This study analyses two interview contexts which included visual elicitation. It describes a successful example in which the researcher maintained…

  7. Directing and Chairing EFL Doctoral Students' Qualitative Research Dissertations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ya-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Writing a dissertation to fulfill the requirement for the completion of Ph.D. programs has always been the most challenging task for doctoral students. It is especially true for EFL students who not only need to struggle with the research process, but also the English language. One way to avoid being an ABD (All But Dissertation or All But Dead),…

  8. Implementation of 5S management method for lean healthcare at a health center in Senegal: a qualitative study of staff perception

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Shogo; Sow, Seydou; Castro, Marcia C.; Matsuno, Rui; Tsuru, Akiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Background 5S is a lean method for workplace organization; it is an abbreviation representing five Japanese words that can be translated as sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. The 5S management method has been recognized recently as a potential solution for improving the quality of government healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries. Objective To assess how the 5S management method creates changes in the workplace and in the process and outcomes of healthcare services, and how it can be applicable in a resource-poor setting, based on data from a pilot intervention of the 5S program implemented in a health facility in Senegal. Design In this qualitative study, we interviewed 21 health center staff members 1 year after the pilot intervention. We asked them about their views on the changes brought on by the 5S program in their workplace, daily routines, and services provided. We then transcribed interview records and organized the narrative information by emerging themes using thematic analysis in the coding process. Results Study participants indicated that, despite resource constraints and other demotivating factors present at the health center, the 5S program created changes in the work environment, including fewer unwanted items, improved orderliness, and improved labeling and directional indicators of service units. These efforts engendered changes in the quality of services (e.g. making services more efficient, patient-centered, and safe), and in the attitude and behavior of staff and patients. Conclusions The pilot intervention of the 5S management method was perceived to have improved the quality of healthcare services and staff motivation in a resource-poor healthcare facility with a disorderly work environment in Senegal. Quantitative and qualitative research based on a larger-scale intervention would be needed to elaborate and validate these findings and to identify the cost-effectiveness of such intervention in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25854781

  9. A Qualitative Study about Performance Based Assesment Methods Used in Information Technologies Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Information Technologies teachers' views and usage cases on performance based assesment methods (PBAMs) are examined. It is aimed to find out which of the PBAMs are used frequently or not used, preference reasons of these methods and opinions about the applicability of them. Study is designed with the phenomenological design…

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Application of uncertainty visualization methods

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Application of uncertainty visualization methods to meteorological trajectories of uncertainty visualiza- tion to air parcel trajectories generated from a global meteorological model. We derive visualization of trajectories. Our work enables efficient visual pruning of unlikely results, especially

  11. What Difference Does Patient and Public Involvement Make and What Are Its Pathways to Impact? Qualitative Study of Patients and Researchers from a Cohort of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Louise; Gamble, Carrol; Preston, Jennifer; Buck, Deborah; Hanley, Bec; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is advocated in clinical trials yet evidence on how to optimise its impact is limited. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of the impact of PPI within trials and factors likely to influence its impact. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers and PPI contributors accessed through a cohort of randomised clinical trials. Analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method, elements of content analysis and informant triangulation. Results We interviewed 21 chief investigators, 10 trial managers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. The accounts of informants within the same trials were largely in agreement. Over half the informants indicted PPI had made a difference within a trial, through contributions that influenced either an aspect of a trial, or how researchers thought about a trial. According to informants, the opportunity for PPI to make a difference was influenced by two main factors: whether chief investigators had goals and plans for PPI and the quality of the relationship between the research team and the PPI contributors. Early involvement of PPI contributors and including them in responsive (e.g. advisory groups) and managerial (e.g. trial management groups) roles were more likely to achieve impact compared to late involvement and oversight roles (e.g. trial steering committees). Conclusion Those seeking to enhance PPI in trials should develop goals for PPI at an early stage that fits the needs of the trial, plan PPI implementation in accordance with these goals, invest in developing good relationships between PPI contributors and researchers, and favour responsive and managerial roles for contributors in preference to oversight-only roles. These features could be used by research funders in judging PPI in trial grant applications and to inform policies to optimise PPI within trials. PMID:26053063

  12. A systematic review of mixed methods research on human factors and ergonomics in health care.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2015-11-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research. PMID:26154228

  13. Implications of gender for alcohol treatment research: a quantitative and qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, T J

    1992-09-01

    Previous reviews of alcohol treatment research have indicated that in the majority of studies there are no sex differences in treatment outcome. The current meta-analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of trends of sex difference in treatment outcome. The results indicated that women had better treatment outcomes than men in the first 12 months after treatment while men showed greater improvement than women in follow-ups after 12 months. However, the estimated differences were small and derived from a heterogeneous sample of studies. Evidence from the studies in the meta-analysis is used to highlight the importance of gender-related factors which may impact on the processes and outcomes of treatment. In particular, sex differences in physiological responses to alcohol, in social norms for alcohol, and in socio-cultural experiences are considered important areas for future investigation in alcohol treatment research. PMID:1392550

  14. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  15. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  16. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  17. Using Qualitative Methods for Revising Items in the Hispanic Stress Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Padilla, Amado M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress in the development of measures to assess psychosocial stress experiences in the general population, a lack of culturally informed assessment instruments exist to enable clinicians and researchers to detect and accurately diagnosis mental health concerns among Hispanics. The Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI) was developed…

  18. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  19. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  20. Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mansour, H; Zaki, N; Abdelhai, R; Sabry, N; Silverman, H; El-Kamary, S S

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception. PMID:26074215

  1. Seeking consent to genetic and genomic research in a rural Ghanaian setting: A qualitative study of the MalariaGEN experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeking consent for genetic and genomic research can be challenging, particularly in populations with low literacy levels, and in emergency situations. All of these factors were relevant to the MalariaGEN study of genetic factors influencing immune responses to malaria in northern rural Ghana. This study sought to identify issues arising in practice during the enrolment of paediatric cases with severe malaria and matched healthy controls into the MalariaGEN study. Methods The study used a rapid assessment incorporating multiple qualitative methods including in depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations of consent processes. Differences between verbal information provided during community engagement processes, and consent processes during the enrolment of cases and controls were identified, as well as the factors influencing the tailoring of such information. Results MalariaGEN participants and field staff seeking consent were generally satisfied with their understanding of the project and were familiar with aspects of the study relating to malaria. Some genetic aspects of the study were also well understood. Participants and staff seeking consent were less aware of the methodologies employed during genomic research and their implications, such as the breadth of data generated and the potential for future secondary research. Moreover, trust in and previous experience with the Navrongo Health Research Centre which was conducting the research influenced beliefs about the benefits of participating in the MalariaGEN study and subsequent decision-making about research participation. Conclusions It is important to recognise that some aspects of complex genomic research may be of less interest to and less well understood by research participants and that such gaps in understanding may not be entirely addressed by best practice in the design and conduct of consent processes. In such circumstances consideration needs to be given to additional protections for participants that may need to be implemented in such research, and how best to provide such protections. Capacity building for research ethics committees with limited familiarity with genetic and genomic research, and appropriate engagement with communities to elicit opinions of the ethical issues arising and acceptability of downstream uses of genome wide association data are likely to be important. PMID:22747883

  2. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily M Godfrey; Nancy P Chin; Stephen L Fielding; Kevin Fiscella; Ann Dozier

    2011-01-01

    Background  More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive\\u000a methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating,\\u000a sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a

  3. New Regularization-Renormalization Method in Quantum Electrodynamics and Qualitative Calculation on Lamb Shift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-jiong Ni; Haibin Wang

    1997-01-01

    A simple but effective method for regularization-renormalization (R-R) is proposed for handling the Feynman diagram integral (FDI) at one loop level in quantum electrodynamics (QED). The divergence is substituted by some constants to be fixed via experiments. So no counter term, no bare parameter and no arbitrary running mass scale is involved. Then the Lamb Shift in Hydrogen atom can

  4. System designer assessments of role play as a design method: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Seland

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a system designer perspective on advantages, limitations and applicability of role play as a system development method. The empirical material is obtained through discussions, interviews and written comments from 62 system designers who have taken part in one of seven workshops on role play in the period 2002 to 2005. The system designers included system

  5. Young women's continued use of oral contraceptives over other hormonal methods: findings from a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M Williamson; Katie Buston; Helen Sweeting

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundLong-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) have become more commonly promoted in the UK, but most young women still rely on the contraceptive pill. Here, we describe young women's accounts of hormonal contraceptive use to explore why this might be the case.MethodsIn-depth interviews with twenty 20-year-old women from eastern Scotland in the UK.ResultsAll but one woman reported use of the pill. It

  6. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  7. Qualitative Assessment of the Challenges to the Treatment of Idiopathic Clubfoot by the Ponseti Method in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Gadhok, Karan; Belthur, Mohan V; Aroojis, Alaric J; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Ranade, Ashish S.; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ponseti method of clubfoot treatment has been shown to be a very safe, effective and minimally invasive technique when performed in medical centers in Europe and North America. However, only a limited number of studies have helped identify the challenges for effective treatment with the Ponseti method in India. In this study a qualitative approach was used through distribution of questionnaires, personal interviews and focus groups with orthopedic surgeons (in urban centers) and parents of patients with clubfoot. The following factors were evaluated: (i) physician education, (ii) alternative methods of treatment/modification of the Ponseti technique, (iii) compliance by parents, (iv) treatment in underserved areas, (v) culture, (vi) community knowledge of clubfoot, and (vii) the health care system in India. The results showed that all of the factors evaluated hindered outcomes for patients; however, parent's compliance with bracing, lack of proper rural clubfoot treatment clinics, poverty and physician education were the most prominent challenges. The results of this study can be used to implement specific strategies to improve the diffusion and implementation of the Ponseti method for treating clubfoot throughout India. PMID:23576934

  8. Writing for Change: Research as Public Pedagogy and Arts-Based Activism. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In its analysis of the potential and realities of narrative inquiry, "Writing for Change" is both theoretical and highly practical, offering a way to conceptualize this kind of research and providing concrete suggestions as to how it might be conducted. With its emphasis on arts-based activist education, the book also contributes to current…

  9. A Critical Analysis of the Common Elements of a High School Social Justice Curriculum: Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this article is high school social justice curriculum [SJC]. Three socially-just focused studies were critically analyzed. Sample sizes in these studies varied from n = 12 to n = 55. It is the author's belief, based on the research of others (Kerssen-Griep & Eifler, 2008) that an effective SJC should consist of the following elements:…

  10. Soil and sediment screening methods: Hazardous waste sites where qualitative ecological risk assessments were performed

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, M.; Thornhill, G. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    At three Army posts, ecological risk assessments were performed as part of environmental investigations at various hazardous waste locations. At all three posts, surface water, sediment, and soil media were ecological receptor pathways, and no quantitative ecological data were to be collected. Without established screening criteria or models for soil and sediment, a method of screening chemical constituents as potential risk chemicals had to be established. The methods used involved a series of screens, assumptions, and models. Chemicals of potential ecological concern were compared to background and frequency of detection in samples as an initial screen. Ingestion dosages for the unscreened chemicals were calculated using a simplistic model of exposure concentration x daily ingestion rate x appropriate unit conversion factors; where daily ingestion of soil/sediment is a percentage of the ecological receptor body weight, amount of the contaminated media consumed is based on home range and area of contamination, and an assumed percentage of the chemical ingested is absorbed by the GI tract. The dosage also depended upon the areal extent and level of contamination, and whether the exposure was surficial (e.g., nonburrowing) or subsurface (e.g., burrowing). Dosages were compared to literature values to determine if an effect level may be exceeded by biota at the site. Whenever possible, LOELs and chronic values were used.

  11. The promotion of oral health within the Healthy School context in England: a qualitative research study

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Emma; Pine, Cynthia M; Harris, Rebecca V

    2009-01-01

    Background Healthy Schools programmes may assist schools in improving the oral health of children through advocating a common risk factor approach to health promotion and by more explicit consideration of oral health. The objectives of this study were to gain a broad contextual understanding of issues around the delivery of oral health promotion as part of Healthy Schools programmes and to investigate the barriers and drivers to the incorporation of oral health promoting activities in schools taking this holistic approach to health promotion. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with coordinators of Healthy Schools programmes in the Northwest of England. Interview transcripts were coded using a framework derived from themes in the interview schedule. Results All 22 Healthy Schools coordinators participated and all reported some engagement of their Healthy Schools scheme with oral health promotion. The degree of this engagement depended on factors such as historical patterns of working, partnerships, resources and priorities. Primary schools were reported to have engaged more fully with both Healthy Schools programmes and aspects of oral health promotion than secondary schools. Participants identified healthy eating interventions as the most appropriate means to promote oral health in schools. Partners with expertise in oral health were key in supporting Healthy Schools programmes to promote oral health. Conclusion Healthy Schools programmes are supporting the promotion of oral health although the extent to which this is happening is variable. Structures should be put in place to ensure that the engagement of Healthy Schools with oral health is fully supported. PMID:19146677

  12. ‘Membership matters’: applying Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA) to qualitative data using Computer?Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew King

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and outlines a methodology that may be unfamiliar to some qualitative researchers: Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA). The first section of the paper explains the basic principles of MCA and why it is a valid method for exploring the power of categorisations in texts and talk. Additionally, it explains why MCA differs from other forms of qualitative data

  13. ‘‘Time after time’’: A Quali-T method for assessing music's impact on well-being

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the question of how to produce ecologically valid assessments of music's role as a health technology. To address this question, I consider critically some of the standard quantitative instruments used to assess well-being and quality of life. I suggest that these instruments do not lend themselves well to the production of ecologically valid assessments and understandings for two reasons: (1) the process of data elicitation is removed from everyday meanings and practices and therefore risks producing data that is an artifact of the situation in which it is elicited (2) standard, quantitative instruments are not neutral but are rather discursive texts that are inevitably imbued with a politics of expertise and an image of the health care client. For these reasons, I suggest that we consider the question of how to develop ecologically valid, client-centered assessment measures. To that end, I introduce a third critique of the standard quantitative instruments, namely that they are associated with, and promote, an ontology of wellness/illness that downplays the temporally variable and situationally emergent nature of both wellness/illness and musical interventions themselves. As an alternative mode of assessment, I suggest that we reconsider the value of singular case studies and I describe a set of principles that can assist researchers to produce ecologically valid assessments. To this end I introduce the concept of the musical event as a more ecologically valid means for illuminating the specific mechanisms by which music aids well-being. I suggest that the case study approach is temporally sensitive, that it lends itself to an emergent ontology of wellness/illness, and that it is client-centered (and can also be user-led). PMID:23930990

  14. Qualitative validation of a liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry screening method for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

    2013-02-01

    A multiclass wide-scope screening of organic contaminants in natural and waste water has been developed and validated for qualitative purposes, i.e. detection and reliable identification of compounds detected in samples at a certain level of concentration. The screening is based on the use of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and has been applied to water samples of different origin and matrix composition (surface water, ground water and effluent urban wastewater). Water samples were spiked with a standard mixture of around 150 organic contaminants from different chemical families (including a number of relevant metabolites/transformation products (TPs), at 0.1 and 1 ?g/L concentration levels. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, sample extracts were analyzed by LC-QTOF MS and the accurate-mass full-spectrum data were processed for qualitative analysis. The presence of at least two ions (typically the (de)protonated molecule and one fragment ion) accurate-mass measured was used for the reliable identification. The screening detection limit (SDL) and the limit of identification (LOI) were established as the main parameters of the screening method. Nearly all compounds could be detected at the lowest concentration tested, but identification was problematic for some compounds at 0.1 ?g/L level, especially in wastewater samples. The screening procedure was finally applied to different water samples using a home-made database of around 1100 organic contaminants. It allowed the detection and identification of several antibiotics, anti-inflammatory/analgesics drugs and lipid regulators. Cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine were also frequently detected. In addition, triazine herbicides and their TPs, and fungicides like thiabendazol, carbendazim or imazalil, were also identified in some of the samples. PMID:23313303

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of human biomarkers by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Cernat, R.; Popescu, A.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    The hypothesis that blood, urine and other body fluids and tissues can be sampled and analyzed to produce clinical information for disease diagnosis or therapy monitoring is the basis of modern clinical diagnosis and medical practice. The analysis of breath air has major advantages because it is a non-invasive method, represents minimal risk to personnel collecting the samples and can be often sampled. Breath air samples from the human subjects were collected using aluminized bags from QuinTron and analyzed using the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) technique. LPAS is used to detect traces of ethylene in breath air resulting from lipid peroxidation in lung epithelium following the radiotherapy and also traces of ammonia from patients subjected to hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure. In the case of patients affected by cancer and treated by external radiotherapy, all measurements were done at 10P(14) CO2 laser line, where the ethylene absorption coefficient has the largest value (30.4 cm-1 atm-1), whereas for patients affected by renal failure and treated by standard dialysis, all measurements were performed at 9R(30) CO2 laser line, where the ammonia absorption coefficient has the maximum value of 57 cm-1 atm-1. The levels of ethylene and ammonia in exhaled air, from patients with cancer and renal failure, respectively, were measured and compared with breath air contents from healthy humans. Human gas biomarkers were measured at sub-ppb (parts per billion) concentration sensitivities. It has been demonstrated that LPAS technique will play an important role in the future of exhaled breath air analysis. The key attributes of this technique are sensitivity, selectivity, fast and real time response, as well as its simplicity.

  16. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Small-Scale Disease Management Pilot Programs. Population Health Management, vol. 12, no. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominick Esposito; Erin Fries Taylor; Marsha Gold

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating 10 small interventions that participated in the Medicaid Value Program, which sought to improve quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. The approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. The collective experiences suggest that well-conceived efforts to integrate care across the

  17. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  18. Experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about facilitator factors of role-modeling process: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the key strategies in students’ learning is the influence of models on them. Understanding the factors affecting the implementation of role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. This study aimed to understand the experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about the facilitator factors in the role-modeling process. Material and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out by using thematic analysis method and purposeful sampling. Data were collected until saturation by using three focus group discussions (n = 20) and two individual interviews with nursing instructors, as well as six semi-structured face-to-face interviews with role model instructors from five nursing faculties of Tehran universities in 2011. Results: Six themes, “effort for humanistic and professional growth of students,” “individual and managerial empowerment of instructor,” “instructor and student's modeling,” “motivation and effort of student,” “strategies governing the education system,” and “appropriate facilities and equipment,” were extracted as the facilitating factors. Conclusions: For development of role-modeling process in nursing education, paying attention to personal and environmental factors, especially effort for professional and humanistic growth of nursing students is necessary. PMID:24949062

  19. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  20. Assessment Accommodations on Tests of Academic Achievement for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie; Leppo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of the research on assessment accommodations for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. There were 16 identified studies that analyzed the impact of factors related to student performance on academic assessments across different educational settings, content areas, and types of assessment…