Science.gov

Sample records for qualitative und quantitative

  1. [Quantitative and qualitative nursing research].

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Sansoni, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this article is to open a discussion on Nursing research methods. Authors give some thoughts on qualitative nursing research and underlining the difference between positivistic and teleological vision. Relationship between inductive and deductive thinking is discussed. PMID:10474458

  2. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  3. Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    1992-01-01

    In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis: Interpretation of Electropherograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    In this chapter the basic information on qualitative and quantitative analysis in CE is provided. Migration time and spectral data are described as the most important parameters used for identification of compounds. The parameters that negatively influence qualitative analysis are briefly mentioned. In the quantitative analysis section the external standard and internal standard calibration methods are described. Variables influencing peak height and peak area in capillary electrophoresis are briefly summarized. Also, a discussion on electrodisperssion and its influence on a observed peak shape is provided.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative reasoning about thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorstad, Gordon; Forbus, Ken

    1989-01-01

    One goal of qualitative physics is to capture the tacit knowledge of engineers and scientists. It is shown how Qualitative Process theory can be used to express concepts of engineering thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown how to integrate qualitative and quantitative knowledge to solve textbook problems involving thermodynamic cycles, such as gas turbine plants and steam power plants. These ideas were implemented in a program called SCHISM. Its analysis of a sample textbook problem is described and plans for future work are discussed.

  6. Getting Over the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the qualitative-quantitative debate, and suggests that educational researchers learn to live with the necessary tensions resulting from accepting elements of each approach. The proposed critical educational research model is illustrated through examples that go beyond a positivist-interpretivist split. (SLD)

  7. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  8. Integrated regional assessment: qualitative and quantitative issues

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-19

    Qualitative and quantitative issues are particularly significant in integrated regional assessment. This chapter examines the terms “qualitative” and “quantitative” separately and in relation to one another, along with a discussion of the degree of interdependence or overlap between the two. Strategies for integrating the two general approaches often produce uneasy compromises. However, integrated regional assessment provides opportunities for strong collaborations in addressing specific problems in specific places.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Reineke, James B; Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, which encompasses the internalization and sorting of plasma membrane (PM) lipids and proteins to distinct membrane-bound intracellular compartments, is a highly regulated and fundamental cellular process by which eukaryotic cells dynamically regulate their PM composition. Indeed, endocytosis is implicated in crucial cellular processes that include proliferation, migration, and cell division as well as maintenance of tissue homeostasis such as apical-basal polarity. Once PM constituents have been taken up into the cell, either via clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) or clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE), they typically have two fates: degradation through the late-endosomal/lysosomal pathway or returning to the PM via endocytic recycling pathways. In this review, we will detail experimental procedures that allow for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of endocytic recycling of transmembrane proteins internalized by CDE and CIE, using the HeLa cervical cancer cell line as a model system. PMID:26360033

  10. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of glenohumeral motion.

    PubMed

    Hill, A M; Bull, A M J; Wallace, A L; Johnson, G R

    2008-02-01

    Joint modelling plays an important role in qualitative and quantitative descriptions of both normal and abnormal joints, as well as predicting outcomes of alterations to joints in orthopaedic practice and research. Contemporary efforts in modelling have focussed upon the major articulations of the lower limb. Well-constrained arthrokinematics can form the basis of manageable kinetic and dynamic mathematical predictions. In order to contain computation of shoulder complex modelling, glenohumeral joint representations in both limited and complete shoulder girdle models have undergone a generic simplification. As such, glenohumeral joint models are often based upon kinematic descriptions of inadequate degrees of freedom (DOF) for clinical purposes and applications. Qualitative descriptions of glenohumeral motion range from the parody of a hinge joint to the complex realism of a spatial joint. In developing a model, a clear idea of intention is required in order to achieve a required application. Clinical applicability of a model requires both descriptive and predictive output potentials, and as such, a high level of validation is required. Without sufficient appreciation of the clinical intention of the arthrokinematic foundation to a model, error is all too easily introduced. Mathematical description of joint motion serves to quantify all relevant clinical parameters. Commonly, both the Euler angle and helical (screw) axis methods have been applied to the glenohumeral joint, although concordance between these methods and classical anatomical appreciation of joint motion is limited, resulting in miscommunication between clinician and engineer. Compounding these inconsistencies in motion quantification is gimbal lock and sequence dependency. PMID:17509885

  11. Overview of Student Affairs Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Emily J.; Noldon, Denise F.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research in student affairs research, noting that many student affairs professionals question the value of more traditional quantitative approaches to research, though they typically have very good people skills that they have applied to being good qualitative researchers.…

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Variables in a Selective Admissions Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramet, Pamela; Terragina, Lorraine

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of the quantitative and qualitative variables that were the best predictors of successful completion of a bachelor's degree in physical therapy supports continued use of qualitative measures such as interviews and does not support certain traditional quantitative variables. (MSE)

  13. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

  14. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  15. Quantitative and Qualitative Simulation in Computer Based Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Albert; Roberts, Burce

    1983-01-01

    Computer-based systems combining quantitative simulation with qualitative tutorial techniques provide learners with sophisticated individualized training. The teaching capabilities and operating procedures of Steamer, a simulated steam plant, are described. (Author/MBR)

  16. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  17. Research Methodologies in Science Education: The Qualitative-Quantitative Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the pros and cons of the qualitative and quantitative research methods and discusses the role of assessment objectives on choosing the research methodologies. Presents an example study. Includes 13 references. (Author/YDS)

  18. When Quantitative Details Impair Qualitative Understanding of Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explored why interspersing quantitative details through a multimedia lesson detracts from learners' qualitative understanding. Three experimental conditions were created. In each, participants had to study a qualitative text on the formation, propagation, and dispersion of ocean waves. In the concise condition no…

  19. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  20. A comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-02-13

    Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the public, and political pressures all affect the manner in which risk assessments are carried out. This paper surveys some risk matrix techniques, examining the uses and applicability for each. Limitations and problems for each technique are presented and compared to the others. Risk matrix approaches vary from purely qualitative axis descriptions of accident frequency vs consequences, to fully quantitative axis definitions using multi-attribute utility theory to equate different types of risk from the same operation.

  1. Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    The current debate about quantitative and qualitative research methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that the connection is not so much logical as rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a…

  2. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  3. Qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of the osmoregulation system in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Morven, a computational framework which can perform qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative simulation of dynamical systems using the same model formalism, is applied to study the osmotic stress response pathway in yeast. First the Morven framework itself is briefly introduced in terms of the model formalism employed and output format. We then built a qualitative model for the biophysical process of the osmoregulation in yeast, and a global qualitative-level picture was obtained through qualitative simulation of this model. Furthermore, we constructed a Morven model based on existing quantitative model of the osmoregulation system. This model was then simulated qualitatively, semi-quantitatively, and quantitatively. The obtained simulation results are presented with an analysis. Finally the future development of the Morven framework for modelling the dynamic biological systems is discussed. PMID:25864377

  4. Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

  5. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation Methods in Substance Abuse Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Some specific opportunities and techniques are described for combining and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods from the design stage of a substance abuse program evaluation through implementation and reporting. The multiple problems and requirements of such an evaluation make integrated methods essential. (SLD)

  6. Early Child Grammars: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Morphosyntactic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legendre, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a series of 5 analyses of spontaneous production of verbal inflection (tense and person-number agreement) by 2-year-olds acquiring French as a native language. A formal analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results is developed using the unique resources of Optimality Theory (OT; Prince & Smolensky, 2004). It is…

  7. On the Distinction Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. L.

    Quantitative and qualitative research are differing modes of measurement, one using numbers and the other not. The assignment of numerals to represent properties enables a researcher to distinguish minutely between different properties. The major issue dividing these approaches to empirical research represents a philosophical dispute which has…

  8. Employing quantitative and qualitative methods in one study.

    PubMed

    Mason, S A

    There is an apparent lack of epistemological rigour when quantitative and qualitative methods are combined in the same study, because they reflect opposing positivist and interpretive perspectives. When and how to use methodological pluralism is discussed in this article. PMID:8400784

  9. Resolving the Quantitative-Qualitative Dilemma: A Critical Realist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2007-01-01

    The philosophical issues underpinning the quantitative-qualitative divide in educational research are examined. Three types of argument which support a resolution are considered: pragmatism, false duality and warranty through triangulation. In addition a number of proposed strategies--alignment, sequencing, translation and triangulation--are…

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Change in the Dynamics of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yeou-Teh; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Newell, Karl M.

    2006-01-01

    The experiments examined qualitative and quantitative changes in the dynamics of learning a novel motor skill (roller ball task) as a function of the manipulation of a control parameter (initial ball speed). The focus was on the relation between the rates of change in performance over practice time and the changing time scales of the evolving…

  11. What Good Is Polarizing Research into Qualitative and Quantitative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…

  12. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  13. Empirically derived phenotypic subgroups – qualitative and quantitative trait analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Marsha A; Wyszynski, Diego F; Panhuysen, Carolien I; Ma, Qianli; Yip, Agustin; Farrell, John; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2003-01-01

    Background The Framingham Heart Study has contributed a great deal to advances in medicine. Most of the phenotypes investigated have been univariate traits (quantitative or qualitative). The aims of this study are to derive multivariate traits by identifying homogeneous groups of people and assigning both qualitative and quantitative trait scores; to assess the heritability of the derived traits; and to conduct both qualitative and quantitative linkage analysis on one of the heritable traits. Methods Multiple correspondence analysis, a nonparametric analogue of principal components analysis, was used for data reduction. Two-stage clustering, using both k-means and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, was used to cluster individuals based upon axes (factor) scores obtained from the data reduction. Probability of cluster membership was calculated using binary logistic regression. Heritability was calculated using SOLAR, which was also used for the quantitative trait analysis. GENEHUNTER-PLUS was used for the qualitative trait analysis. Results We found four phenotypically distinct groups. Membership in the smallest group was heritable (38%, p < 1 × 10-6) and had characteristics consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia. We found both qualitative and quantitative LOD scores above 3 on chromosomes 11 and 14 (11q13, 14q23, 14q31). There were two Kong & Cox LOD scores above 1.0 on chromosome 6 (6p21) and chromosome 11 (11q23). Conclusion This approach may be useful for the identification of genetic heterogeneity in complex phenotypes by clarifying the phenotype definition prior to linkage analysis. Some of our findings are in regions linked to elements of atherogenic dyslipidemia and related diagnoses, some may be novel, or may be false positives. PMID:14975083

  14. Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.

  15. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in assessing hospital learning environments.

    PubMed

    Chan, D S

    2001-08-01

    Clinical education is a vital component in the curricula of pre-registration nursing courses and provides student nurses with the opportunity to combine cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills. Clinical practice enables the student to develop competencies in the application of knowledge, skills, and attitudes to clinical field situations. It is, therefore, vital that the valuable clinical time be utilised effectively and productively. Nursing students' perception of the hospital learning environment were assessed by combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory, based on the theoretical framework of learning environment studies, was developed and validated. The quantitative and qualitative findings reinforced each other. It was found that there were significant differences in students' perceptions of the actual clinical learning environment and their preferred learning environment. Generally, students preferred a more positive and favourable clinical environment than they perceived as being actually present. PMID:11470103

  16. Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

    2004-11-01

    An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

  17. [Qualitative and quantitative EEG-findings in schizophrenia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-03-01

    The results of the qualitative but particularly the quantitative EEG-studies indicate that 1. The EEG of adult schizophrenics is characterized by an appearance of excessive fast activity along with some slow waves and the lack of alpha-activity. 2. Excessive fast activity and lack of alpha-waves have also been found in the EEGs of psychotic children and most interestingly in children whose parents (particularly the mother) are schizophrenic (high risk children). 3. Based on the studies during sleep and investigations with neuroleptics, it was established that the origin of the excess fast activity in schizophrenia cannot be the muscle potential. Particularly the excess fast activity in high risk children for schizophrenia goes against the muscle potential hypothesis. 4. The quantitative EEG changes seen in schizophrenia show similarity to those seen after hallucinogenic compounds particularly after anticholinergic hallucinogenics. 5. All neuroleptics (major tranquilizers) produce quantitative EEG alterations which are almost diametrically opposite to those seen in schizoprenia. PMID:416942

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents from latrines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianming; Aoll, Jackline; Niclass, Yvan; Velazco, Maria Inés; Wünsche, Laurent; Pika, Jana; Starkenmann, Christian

    2013-07-16

    More than 2.5 billion people defecate in the open. The increased commitment of private and public organizations to improving this situation is driving the research and development of new technologies for toilets and latrines. Although key technical aspects are considered by researchers when designing new technologies for developing countries, the basic aspect of offending malodors from human waste is often neglected. With the objective of contributing to technical solutions that are acceptable to global consumers, we investigated the chemical composition of latrine malodors sampled in Africa and India. Field latrines in four countries were evaluated olfactively and the odors qualitatively and quantitatively characterized with three analytical techniques. Sulfur compounds including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl-mono-(di;tri) sulfide are important in sewage-like odors of pit latrines under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, in Nairobi for example, paracresol and indole reached concentrations of 89 and 65 μg/g, respectively, which, along with short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid (13 mg/g) explained the strong rancid, manure and farm yard odor. This work represents the first qualitative and quantitative study of volatile compounds sampled from seven pit latrines in a variety of geographic, technical, and economic contexts in addition to three single stools from India and a pit latrine model system. PMID:23829328

  19. Extrapolation of carcinogenicity between species: Qualitative and quantitative factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S. Univ. of California, Berkeley ); Manley, N.B.; Ames, B.N. )

    1992-12-01

    Prediction of human cancer risk from the results of rodent bioassays requires two types of extrapolation: a qualitative extrapolation from short-lived rodent species to long-lived humans, and a quantitative extrapolation from near-toxic doses in the bioassay to low-level human exposures. Experimental evidence on the accuracy of prediction between closely related species tested under similar experimental conditions (rats, mice, and hamsters) indicates that: (1) if a chemical is positive in one species, it will be positive in the second species about 75% of the time; however, since about 50% of test chemicals are positive in each species, by chance alone one would expect a predictive value between species of about 50%. (2) If a chemical induces tumors in a particular target organ in one species, it will induce tumors in the same organ in the second species about 50% of the time. Similar predictive values are obtained in an analysis of prediction from humans to rats or from humans to mice for known human carcinogens. Limitations of bioassay data for use in quantitative extrapolation are discussed, including constraints on both estimates of carcinogenic potency and of the dose-response in experiments with only two doses and a control. Quantitative extrapolation should be based on an understanding of mechanisms of carcinogenesis, particularly mitogenic effects that are present at high and not low doses.

  20. Composition of fingermark residue: a qualitative and quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Girod, Aline; Ramotowski, Robert; Weyermann, Céline

    2012-11-30

    This article describes the composition of fingermark residue as being a complex system with numerous compounds coming from different sources and evolving over time from the initial composition (corresponding to the composition right after deposition) to the aged composition (corresponding to the evolution of the initial composition over time). This complex system will additionally vary due to effects of numerous influence factors grouped in five different classes: the donor characteristics, the deposition conditions, the substrate nature, the environmental conditions and the applied enhancement techniques. The initial and aged compositions as well as the influence factors are thus considered in this article to provide a qualitative and quantitative review of all compounds identified in fingermark residue up to now. The analytical techniques used to obtain these data are also enumerated. This review highlights the fact that despite the numerous analytical processes that have already been proposed and tested to elucidate fingermark composition, advanced knowledge is still missing. Thus, there is a real need to conduct future research on the composition of fingermark residue, focusing particularly on quantitative measurements, aging kinetics and effects of influence factors. The results of future research are particularly important for advances in fingermark enhancement and dating technique developments. PMID:22727572

  1. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments

    PubMed Central

    Conners, Erin E.; West, Brooke S.; Roth, Alexis M.; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, ‘place’, including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  2. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; West, Brooke S; Roth, Alexis M; Meckel-Parker, Kristen G; Kwan, Mei-Po; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Clapp, John D; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC), whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1) Participatory mapping; 2) Quantitative interviews; 3) Sex work venue field observation; 4) Time-location-activity diaries; 5) In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions. PMID:27191846

  3. A Qualitative-Quantitative H-NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John S.; Leary, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment combining qualitative and quantitative information from hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Reviews theory, discusses the experimental approach, and provides sample results. (JM)

  4. Is qualitative and quantitative metabarcoding of dung fauna biodiversity feasible?

    PubMed

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Rohner, Patrick T; Bernasconi, Marco V; Haugstetter, Johannes; Buser, Andres

    2016-08-01

    In biodiversity assessments, especially of small-bodied organisms for which taxonomic expertise is lacking, identification by genetic barcoding may be a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional identification of species by morphology, ecology, and behavior. The authors tested the feasibility and accuracy of such an approach using dung insects of practical relevance in ecotoxicological assessments of veterinary pharmaceutical residues in the environment. They produced 8 known mixtures that varied in absolute and relative composition of small-bodied and large-bodied species to see whether mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 barcoding picks up all species qualitatively and quantitatively. As demonstrated before in other contexts, such metabarcoding of large numbers of dung insect specimens is principally possible using next-generation sequencing. The authors recovered most species in a sample (low type I error), at minimum permitting analysis of species richness. They obtained even quantitative responses reflecting the body size of the species, although the number of specimens was not well detected. The latter is problematic when calculating diversity indices. Nevertheless, the method yielded too many closely related false positives (type II error), thus generally overestimating species diversity and richness. These errors can be reduced by refining methods and data filtering, although this requires bioinformatics expertise often unavailable where such research is carried out. Identification by barcoding foremost hinges on a good reference database, which does not yet exist for dung organisms but would be worth developing for practical applications. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1970-1977. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26450644

  5. Quantitative and qualitative profiling of mitochondrial DNA length heteroplasmy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Chung, Ukhee; Yoo, Ji-Eun; Park, Myung Jin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of mitochondrial DNA length heteroplasmy for the first hypervariable segment (HV1) and second hypervariable segment (HV2) regions were performed using size-based separation of fluorescently-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by capillary electrophoresis. In this report, the relative proportions of length heteroplasmies in individuals were determined, and each length variant in the heteroplasmic mtDNA mixture was identified. The study demonstrated that 36% and 69% of Koreans show length heteroplasmy in the HV1 and HV2 regions, respectively. Electropherograms revealed that length heteroplasmy in the HV1 region resulted in over 5 length variants in an individual. The peak patterns of length heteroplasmy in the HV1 region were classified into five major types. In the HV2 region, length heteroplasmy resulted in 3-6 length variants in an individual, and showed seven variant peak patterns. The increased knowledge concerning mtDNA length heteroplasmy is believed to not only offer a useful means of determining genetic identity due to increased mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity by allowing mtDNAs to be classified into several peak patterns, but also represent a promising tool for the diagnosis of several common diseases which are etiologically or prognostically associated with mtDNA polymorphisms. PMID:14730565

  6. Qualitation and Quantitation on Microplasma Jet for Bacteria Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Du, ChangMing; Liu, Ya; Huang, YaNi; Li, ZiMing; Men, Rui; Men, Yue; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a self-made microplasma jet system was used to conduct the qualitation and quantitation of inactivation with Escherichia coli as the target bacteria. The logarithmic concentration and the size of antimicrobial rings served as the evaluation parameters, respectively. The effect of various parameters on inactivation effect was studied. The results showed that the majority of bacteria had been inactivated in 30 s. The inactivation effect enhanced and then weakened with the increase of air flow rate, and receded as the extension of treatment distance. The effect with different carrier gases showed as follows: oxygen > air > nitrogen > argon. Meanwhile, the effect of different components of microplasma was studied in the optimum conditions (The flow rate was 5 L/min; inactivation distance was 2 cm). The results showed that electrically neutral active species was the main factor of inactivation rather than heating effect, ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. Finally the experiments of thallus change proved that microplasma jet had etching effect on cell membrane. It also found that microplasma could degrade organic material like protein. Furthermore, the images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the change of cell morphology step by step in the whole process of inactivation. PMID:26732987

  7. Food intake of very obese persons: quantitative and qualitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Hershcopf, R J; Zumoff, B

    1992-02-01

    To document the caloric intake of very obese persons and investigate the food choices and dietary composition that maintain severe obesity, we studied the self-selected food intake required to maintain stable weight in two groups of very obese subjects: 11 inpatients with a mean weight 181% above desirable body weight and 35 outpatients with a mean weight 125% above desirable body weight. Qualitative and quantitative food intake were evaluated using records obtained on the hospital metabolic ward for the inpatients and using self-recorded food records for the outpatients. Absolute caloric intake in both groups was greater in proportion to the degree of obesity (deviation from desirable body weight); caloric intake per unit of lean body mass (kilocalories per gram urinary creatinine) was constant regardless of the degree of obesity and was essentially the same as that of normal nonobese persons. Food records indicated that the obese subjects maintained their high caloric intake by consuming mostly foods of high caloric density, with occasional binge eating. They largely avoided foods of low intrinsic energy density and modified-calorie foods, ie, foods with decreased fat, nonnutritive sweeteners, or fillers. By substituting foods of lower caloric density for usual food choices from the same food group, obese persons could decrease caloric intake by 20% and increase potential for notable weight loss. PMID:1737901

  8. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  9. Qualitative and quantitative fracture analyses of high-strength ceramics.

    PubMed

    Øilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2009-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the applicability and repeatability of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the fracture patterns of four different high-strength ceramics. Ten bar-shaped specimens of four high-strength ceramics with different material composition and fabrication methods had been fractured by three-point bending in water (n = 40). Commonly used fractographic patterns for brittle materials, such as mirror and mist, were used to characterize and quantify the fractured surfaces of these specimens. The analyses were performed twice, on separate occasions, by the same operator. Assessment of the association between fractographic patterns and fracture stress was carried out, and repeatability assessments of the measurements were performed. The fracture initiator site and the common fractographic markers surrounding this site were found in all specimens. Statistically significant correlations were found between certain fracture patterns and stress at fracture. The repeatability of the measurements of the different fractographic patterns varied among the materials. Fracture analyses seem applicable as a tool to determine the fracture initiation site and to estimate the force vectors involved in the fracture of dental high-strength ceramics. PMID:19320729

  10. Qualitation and Quantitation on Microplasma Jet for Bacteria Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Du, ChangMing; Liu, Ya; Huang, YaNi; Li, ZiMing; Men, Rui; Men, Yue; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a self-made microplasma jet system was used to conduct the qualitation and quantitation of inactivation with Escherichia coli as the target bacteria. The logarithmic concentration and the size of antimicrobial rings served as the evaluation parameters, respectively. The effect of various parameters on inactivation effect was studied. The results showed that the majority of bacteria had been inactivated in 30 s. The inactivation effect enhanced and then weakened with the increase of air flow rate, and receded as the extension of treatment distance. The effect with different carrier gases showed as follows: oxygen > air > nitrogen > argon. Meanwhile, the effect of different components of microplasma was studied in the optimum conditions (The flow rate was 5 L/min; inactivation distance was 2 cm). The results showed that electrically neutral active species was the main factor of inactivation rather than heating effect, ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. Finally the experiments of thallus change proved that microplasma jet had etching effect on cell membrane. It also found that microplasma could degrade organic material like protein. Furthermore, the images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the change of cell morphology step by step in the whole process of inactivation. PMID:26732987

  11. Qualitation and Quantitation on Microplasma Jet for Bacteria Inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changming; Liu, Ya; Huang, Yani; Li, Ziming; Men, Rui; Men, Yue; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a self-made microplasma jet system was used to conduct the qualitation and quantitation of inactivation with Escherichia coli as the target bacteria. The logarithmic concentration and the size of antimicrobial rings served as the evaluation parameters, respectively. The effect of various parameters on inactivation effect was studied. The results showed that the majority of bacteria had been inactivated in 30 s. The inactivation effect enhanced and then weakened with the increase of air flow rate, and receded as the extension of treatment distance. The effect with different carrier gases showed as follows: oxygen > air > nitrogen > argon. Meanwhile, the effect of different components of microplasma was studied in the optimum conditions (The flow rate was 5 L/min inactivation distance was 2 cm). The results showed that electrically neutral active species was the main factor of inactivation rather than heating effect, ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. Finally the experiments of thallus change proved that microplasma jet had etching effect on cell membrane. It also found that microplasma could degrade organic material like protein. Furthermore, the images of scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the change of cell morphology step by step in the whole process of inactivation.

  12. Depression and Substance Abuse in Two Divergent High School Cultures: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods explored the relationships among depression and substance use across suburban (164 students) and inner-city (242 students) high schools. Qualitative analyses suggest that quantitative differences in these relationships may be related to the meanings of depression and substance use in the cultural context. (SLD)

  13. Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

  14. On Becoming a Bi-Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    The fervent debate over the last 100 years about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms has resulted in a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves as in competition with each other. This polarization has promoted "uni-researchers," researchers who restrict themselves exclusively to either…

  15. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created

  16. Leadership and Culture-Building in Schools: Quantitative and Qualitative Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sashkin, Marshall; Sashkin, Molly G.

    Understanding effective school leadership as a function of culture building through quantitative and qualitative analyses is the purpose of this paper. The two-part quantitative phase of the research focused on statistical measures of culture and leadership behavior directed toward culture building in the school. The first quantitative part…

  17. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  18. Compatibility of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Studying Child Sexual Abuse in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates how the combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods were necessary in obtaining a clearer understanding of the process of incest in American society. Argues that the exclusive use of one methodology would have obscured important information. (FMW)

  19. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE FETAL NEOCORTEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative neuropathological changes that occur in the fetal brain following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos [(O,O'diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate], a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. Two cohort...

  20. Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis or Dogmas Die Hard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    Employs a pragmatic philosophical perspective to argue that there is no incompatibility at either the level of practice or that of epistemology between qualitative and quantitative methods of educational research. (FMW)

  1. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-07-10

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ/sub 6/-CoQ/sub 10/, using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard.

  2. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  3. Integrating a Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of the Quality of Academic Life: Political and Logistical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to assess quality of academic life at Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) resulted in a plan to merge qualitative and quantitative measures and uncovered political, logistical, and fiscal issues in collection and use of the two kinds of data. Although qualitative databases are costly, they are also very useful in different ways. (Author/MSE)

  4. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

  5. Qualitative Research on College Students: Philosophical and Methodological Comparisons with the Quantitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes and contrasts philosophical and methodological assumptions, goals, and data collection methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research on college student behavior. Provides brief illustrations of two qualitative studies of college students using interview methods, ethnomethodology, and conversation analysis. (Author/NB)

  6. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  7. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  8. [Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order. PMID:21261123

  9. From "Quantitative" to "Qualitative" Educational Planning in Development Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the expansion and reform of educational programs of the developing nations by UNESCO in the early 1960s. Summarizes the economic quantitative approach utilized by UNESCO to problems of educational planning, including the response of the World Bank to this orientation. Describes the effects of external educational financing on world…

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  11. Qualitative Versus Quantitative Social Support as a Predictor of Depression in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chwalisz, Kathleen D.; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between qualitative and quantitative indicators of social support in the prediction of depression. Quantitative indicators were examined with regard to their direct effects on depression as well as their indirect effects through their relationship to perceived social support. Subjects were 301…

  12. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, so that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, R R; Stedman, D H

    1979-06-01

    We have developed a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, varepsilon=310 (atm cm)(-1), where I/Io=exp(-varepsiloncl) such that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis. PMID:18699586

  14. Qualitative and quantitative processing of side-scan sonar data

    SciTech Connect

    Dwan, F.S.; Anderson, A.L.; Hilde, T.W.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Modern side-scan sonar systems allow vast areas of seafloor to be rapidly imaged and quantitatively mapped in detail. The application of remote sensing image processing techniques can be used to correct for various distortions inherent in raw sonography. Corrections are possible for water column, slant-range, aspect ratio, speckle and striping noise, multiple returns, power drop-off, and for georeferencing. The final products reveal seafloor features and patterns that are geometrically correct, georeferenced, and have improved signal/noise ratio. These products can be merged with other georeferenced data bases for further database management and information extraction. In order to compare data collected by different systems from a common area and to ground truth measurements and geoacoustic models, quantitative correction must be made for calibrated sonar system and bathymetry effects. Such data inversion must account for system source level, beam pattern, time-varying gain, processing gain, transmission loss, absorption, insonified area, and grazing angle effects. Seafloor classification can then be performed on the calculated back-scattering strength using Lambert's Law and regression analysis. Examples are given using both approaches: image analysis and inversion of data based on the sonar equation.

  15. Measuring teamwork in primary care: Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith Belle; Ryan, Bridget L; Thorpe, Cathy; Markle, Emma K R; Hutchison, Brian; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the triangulation of qualitative dimensions, reflecting high functioning teams, with the results of standardized teamwork measures. The study used a mixed methods design using qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess teamwork in 19 Family Health Teams in Ontario, Canada. This article describes dimensions from the qualitative phase using grounded theory to explore the issues and challenges to teamwork. Two quantitative measures were used in the study, the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and the Providing Effective Resources and Knowledge (PERK) scale. For the triangulation analysis, the mean scores of these measures were compared with the qualitatively derived ratings for the dimensions. The final sample for the qualitative component was 107 participants. The qualitative analysis identified 9 dimensions related to high team functioning such as common philosophy, scope of practice, conflict resolution, change management, leadership, and team evolution. From these dimensions, teams were categorized numerically as high, moderate, or low functioning. Three hundred seventeen team members completed the survey measures. Mean site scores for the TCI and PERK were 3.87 and 3.88, respectively (of 5). The TCI was associated will all dimensions except for team location, space allocation, and executive director leadership. The PERK was associated with all dimensions except team location. Data triangulation provided qualitative and quantitative evidence of what constitutes teamwork. Leadership was pivotal in forging a common philosophy and encouraging team collaboration. Teams used conflict resolution strategies and adapted to the changes they encountered. These dimensions advanced the team's evolution toward a high functioning team. PMID:25730503

  16. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  17. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone’s mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young’s modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young’s modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone’s structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  18. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R(2)=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R(2)=0.67) and BV/TV (R(2)=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R(2)=0.92 for BV/TV and R(2)=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  19. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in the study of poverty and adolescent development: separation or integration?

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. Quantitative research has the merits of objectivity, good predictive and explanatory power, parsimony, precision and sophistication of analysis. Qualitative research, in contrast, provides a detailed, holistic, in-depth understanding of social reality and allows illumination of new insights. With the pragmatic considerations of methodological appropriateness, design flexibility, and situational responsiveness in responding to the research inquiry, a mixed methods approach could be a possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches and offers an alternative strategy to study the impact of economic disadvantage on family processes and adolescent development. PMID:21870673

  20. Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research

    PubMed Central

    SALE, JOANNA E. M.; LOHFELD, LYNNE H.; BRAZIL, KEVIN

    2015-01-01

    Health care research includes many studies that combine quantitative and qualitative methods. In this paper, we revisit the quantitative-qualitative debate and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. In addition, we discuss the implications stemming from our view, that the paradigms upon which the methods are based have a different view of reality and therefore a different view of the phenomenon under study. Because the two paradigms do not study the same phenomena, quantitative and qualitative methods cannot be combined for cross-validation or triangulation purposes. However, they can be combined for complementary purposes. Future standards for mixed-methods research should clearly reflect this recommendation. PMID:26523073

  1. Qualitative and quantitative procedures for health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lohman, P H

    1999-07-16

    Numerous reactive mutagenic electrophiles are present in the environment or are formed in the human body through metabolizing processes. Those electrophiles can directly react with DNA and are considered to be ultimate carcinogens. In the past decades more than 200 in vitro and in vivo genotoxic tests have been described to identify, monitor and characterize the exposure of humans to such agents. When the responses of such genotoxic tests are quantified by a weight-of-evidence analysis, it is found that the intrinsic potency of electrophiles being mutagens does not differ much for the majority of the agents studied. Considering the fact that under normal environmental circumstances human are exposed to low concentration of about a million electrophiles, the relation between exposure to such agents and adverse health effects (e.g., cancer) will become a 'Pandora's box'. For quantitative risk assessment it will be necessary not only to detect whether the agent is genotoxic, but also understand the mechanism of interaction of the agent with the DNA in target cells needs to be taken into account. Examples are given for a limited group of important environmental and carcinogenic agents for which such an approach is feasible. The groups identified are agents that form cross-links with DNA or are mono-alkylating agents that react with base-moieties in the DNA strands. Quantitative hazard ranking of the mutagenic potency of these groups of chemical can be performed and there is ample evidence that such a ranking corresponds with the individual carcinogenic potency of those agents in rodents. Still, in practice, with the exception of certain occupational or accidental exposure situations, these approaches have not be successful in preventing cancer death in the human population. However, this is not only due to the described 'Pandora's box' situation. At least three other factors are described. Firstly, in the industrial world the medical treatment of cancer in patients

  2. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. PMID:25542704

  3. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  5. [Effects of calcinogenic plants--qualitative and quantitative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Mello, J R; Habermehl, G G

    1998-01-01

    Different research methods demonstrated the presence of variable quantities of Vitamin D as well as its metabolites in calcinogenic plants. Most of the experiments indicated that the active component most probably should be the metabolite 1,25 (OH)2D3 linked as a glycoside. By this research it was achieved to evaluate the presence of elements with Vitamin D-like activity in the calcinogenic plants Solanum malacoxylon, Cestrum diurnum, Trisetum flavescens and Nierembergia veitchii by testing different extracts of the above plants by oral application to rachitic chicks within the research model "Strontium added Alimentation". After the oral administration of the extracts, the serum was analysed to determine the level of the elements calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. The results gained with chicks demonstrated the presence of substances with Vitamin D-like activity in the 4 plants. Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum as well contained substances of hydrosoluble character with elevated activity which was indicated by the significant high levels of calcium and phosphorus combined with a reduced activity of the alkaline phosphatase. This indicated the presence of 1,25 (OH)2D3 in both plants. The hydrosoluble character of the active substance in both plants is most probably explained as a compound of the metabolite 1,25 (OH)2D3, combined as a glycoside in the position O-25 of the molecule. Nierembergia veitchii and Trisetum flavescens contained only minor concentration of elements with hydrosoluble characteristics. The results of the 4 analysed plants were evaluated quantitatively as follows: Solanum malycoxylon--82,800 IU of Vitamin D/kg, Cestrum diurnum--63,200 IU of Vitamin D/kg, Nierembergia veitchii--16,400 IU/kg and Trisetum flavescens 12,000 Vitamin D IU/kg. All concentrations are calcinogenic. PMID:9499629

  6. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, A.

    1971-01-01

    A better understanding of the physico-chemical principles underlying the formation of calculus has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves five simple qualitative tests followed by the quantitative determination of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and oxalate. These data are used to calculate the composition of the stone in terms of calcium oxalate, apatite, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Analytical results and derived values for five representative types of calculi are presented. PMID:5551382

  7. Qualitative and quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of bronze objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankova, V.; Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Penkova, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of solids, liquids and gases. In this work, the method was applied for investigation of archaeological bronze objects. The analytical information obtained by LIBS was used for qualitative determination of the elements in the material used for manufacturing of the objects under study. Quantitative chemical analysis was also performed after generating calibration curves with standard samples of similar matrix composition. Quantitative estimation of the elemental concentration of the bulk of the samples was performed, together with investigation of the surface layer of the objects. The results of the quantitative analyses gave indications about the manufacturing process of the investigated objects.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  9. Radiation dose to positron emission tomography technologists during quantitative versus qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McCormick, V A; Miklos, J A

    1993-05-01

    Positron emission tomography technologists were monitored with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during qualitative and quantitative studies. Doses to technologists during specific tasks were also measured. The technologists received at least twice as much radiation during the quantitative as the qualitative studies. The average dose per study for qualitative studies was 0.017 mSv (1.7 mrem) shallow and 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) deep. The average dose per study for the quantitative studies was 0.05 mSv (5 mrem) shallow and 0.04 mSv (4 mrem) deep. The average dose per study was based on the TLD dose accumulated over studies conducted over four 2-mo and one 1-mo intervals. The dose incurred by the technologists each time they drew a radioactive dose was 0.002 mSv (0.2 mrem) shallow and 0.001 mSv (0.1 mrem) deep. The doses received during injection were 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) shallow and 0.007 mSv (0.7 mrem) deep. Doses received during blood sampling were 0.016 mSv (1.6 mrem) shallow and 0.014 mSv (1.4 mrem) deep. During quantitative studies, the technologist received a much greater dose than during its qualitative counterpart due to the blood sampling process and increased time in the room with the radioactive patient. PMID:8478709

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  11. Linking Quantitative and Qualitative Distance Education Research through Complementarity. ZIFF Papiere 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    This article focuses on the linkage between the quantitative and qualitative distance education research methods. The concept that serves as the conceptual link is termed "complementarity." The definition of complementarity emerges through a simulated study of FernUniversitat's mentors. The study shows that in the case of the mentors, educational…

  12. The Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Classes when Delivered via Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Klass, Patricia H.

    This study examined whether new streamed Internet audio and video technology could be used for primary instruction in off-campus research classes. Several different off-campus student cohorts at Illinois State university enrolled in both a fall semester qualitative research methods class and a spring semester quantitative research methods class.…

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  14. Effects of Suggestopedic Elements on Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi; Lawson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    In a 10-week time-series investigation of a class of 12 students, this study looked at whether Suggestopedia affects more sophisticated language skills than recall. Both quantitative and qualitative measures were included to address the criticism that Suggestopedia affects memory skills alone. Findings suggest that Suggestopedia can positively…

  15. Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

  16. Listener Perceptions of Stuttering across Two Presentation Modes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles; Brouwer, Kyle; Susca, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare participants' quantitative and qualitative judgments of various forms and frequencies of stuttering, during either audiovisual or audio-only presentation modes. A total of 64 participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned and exposed to only one of the…

  17. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe

    2008-01-01

    Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…

  18. Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashhadi, Azam

    R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

  19. Online versus Paper Evaluations: Differences in Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, William B.; Civitano, Adele; Steiner-Grossman, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine if differences exist in the quantitative and qualitative data collected with paper and online versions of a medical school clerkship evaluation form. Data from six-and-a-half years of clerkship evaluations were used, some collected before and some after the conversion from a paper to an online evaluation system. The…

  20. Impact of Personality on Academic Performance of MBA Students: Qualitative versus Quantitative Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional core Masters in Business Administration (MBA) curriculum consists of a broad range of courses that can be considered as a whole, or divided into qualitative and quantitative courses. Regression models were developed with "QualGPA" and "QuantGPA" as response variables, and gender, pre-MBA academic indicators, and…

  1. Specific Language Impairment Affects the Early Spelling Process Quantitatively but Not Qualitatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39…

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  3. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  4. 17 CFR 229.305 - (Item 305) Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 305) Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk. 229.305 Section 229.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND...

  5. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  6. Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

  7. The Eudaimonic and Hedonic Components of Happiness: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Brdar, Ingrid; Freire, Teresa; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Wissing, Marie P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new project developed by a cross-country team of researchers, with the aim of studying the hedonic and eudaimonic components of happiness through a mixed method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 666 participants in Australia, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain,…

  8. Student Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Information on Rate MyPprofessors.com for Course Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Matthew W.; Prus, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether students used qualitative information, quantitative information, or both when making course selection decisions. Participants reviewed information on four hypothetical courses in an advising context before indicating their likelihood to enroll in those courses and ranking them according to preference. Modeled…

  9. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  12. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

  13. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  14. Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)

  15. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  16. Business Scenario Evaluation Method Using Monte Carlo Simulation on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samejima, Masaki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Komoda, Norihisa

    We propose a business scenario evaluation method using qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. In order to evaluate business factors with qualitative causal relations, we introduce statistical values based on propagation and combination of effects of business factors by Monte Carlo simulation. In propagating an effect, we divide a range of each factor by landmarks and decide an effect to a destination node based on the divided ranges. In combining effects, we decide an effect of each arc using contribution degree and sum all effects. Through applied results to practical models, it is confirmed that there are no differences between results obtained by quantitative relations and results obtained by the proposed method at the risk rate of 5%.

  17. Suppression of irrelevant activation in the horizontal and vertical Simon task differs quantitatively not qualitatively.

    PubMed

    Töbel, Lisa; Hübner, Ronald; Stürmer, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    The Simon effect is usually explained by the assumption that the irrelevant stimulus location automatically activates the corresponding response. In the case of incongruent stimulus-response assignments automatically activated responses therefore have to be suppressed to ensure correct responses. This account, however, has been called into question for other than horizontally arranged visual Simon tasks. We investigated whether there is a qualitative or quantitative difference in suppression of irrelevant activation between horizontally and vertically arranged Simon tasks, using delta-function analyses. Sequential analyses revealed suppression after incongruent trials in both tasks, supporting the idea of a quantitative rather than a qualitative difference between the tasks. We conclude that automatic response activation is weaker in vertical tasks resulting in lower inhibitory demands as compared to horizontal tasks. PMID:25113126

  18. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  19. Making Sense of Qualitative and Quantitative Findings in Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    VOILS, CORRINE I.; SANDELOWSKI, MARGARETE; BARROSO, JULIE; HASSELBLAD, VICTOR

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings is increasingly promoted, but many of the conceptual and methodological issues it raises have yet to be fully understood and resolved. In this article, we describe how we handled issues encountered in efforts to synthesize the findings in forty-two reports of studies of antiretroviral adherence in HIV-positive women in the course of an ongoing study to develop methods to synthesize qualitative and quantitative research findings in common domains of health-related research. Working with these reports underscored the importance of looking past method claims and ideals and directly at the findings themselves, differentiating between aggregative syntheses in which findings are assimilated and interpretive syntheses in which they are configured, and understanding the judgments involved in designating relationships between findings as confirmatory, divergent, or complementary. PMID:18677415

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Farris, M Heath; Ford, Kara A; Doyle, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest. PMID:27166738

  1. Qualitative and quantitative methods to determine miscibility in amorphous drug-polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Dave, Vivek; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-09-18

    Amorphous drug-polymer systems or amorphous solid dispersions are commonly used in pharmaceutical industry to enhance the solubility of compounds with poor aqueous solubility. The degree of miscibility between drug and polymer is important both for solubility enhancement as well as for the formation of a physically stable amorphous system. Calculation of solubility parameters, Computational data mining, Tg measurements by DSC and Raman mapping are established traditional methods used to qualitatively detect the drug-polymer miscibility. Calculation of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, computational analysis of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data, solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Atomic Forced Microscopy (AFM) have been recently developed to quantitatively determine the miscibility in amorphous drug-polymer systems. This brief review introduces and compiles these qualitative and quantitative methods employed in the evaluation of drug-polymer miscibility. Combination of these techniques can provide deeper insights into the true miscibility of the drug-polymer systems. PMID:26006307

  2. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lauren E; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24-0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31-0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Quality of Life of Individuals With Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Ashley M.; Mandal, Konoy; Lundgren, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of a broad range of life domains using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Method: Forty-eight individuals seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder (mean age = 29.8 years, female = 100%, white = 96.4%) from 2007 to 2009 completed the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; a medical chart review confirmed diagnosis and treatment history. Patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) and bulimia nervosa (n = 24) were compared. Body mass index (kg/m2), treatment history, number of comorbid psychiatric conditions, and eating disorder severity were used to predict quality of life. Finally, an inductive content analysis was performed on qualitative QOLI responses to contextualize the quantitative findings. Results: Participants with anorexia nervosa, compared to those with bulimia nervosa, reported significantly less satisfaction with the domain of relatives (F1,46 = 5.35; P = .025); no other significant group differences were found. The only significant predictor of QOLI global score was number of previous treatments (F1,41 = 8.67; P = .005; R2 = 0.175). Content analysis of qualitative data yielded complementary findings to the quantitative data; interesting group differences emerged for satisfaction with health with implications for measuring quality of life domains. Conclusions: Across several life domains, individuals seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appear to have similar levels of satisfaction, as evidenced by numeric and descriptive responses. Satisfaction with relatives, however, appears to differ between groups and suggests a specific target for intervention among patients in treatment for anorexia nervosa (eg, a family-based intervention such as the Maudsley approach). The use of quantitative and qualitative assessments, such as the QOLI, provides more clinically meaningful, contextualized information about quality of life than

  5. Quantitative and qualitative beta diversity measures lead to different insights into factors that structure microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Catherine A; Hamady, Micah; Kelley, Scott T; Knight, Rob

    2007-03-01

    The assessment of microbial diversity and distribution is a major concern in environmental microbiology. There are two general approaches for measuring community diversity: quantitative measures, which use the abundance of each taxon, and qualitative measures, which use only the presence/absence of data. Quantitative measures are ideally suited to revealing community differences that are due to changes in relative taxon abundance (e.g., when a particular set of taxa flourish because a limiting nutrient source becomes abundant). Qualitative measures are most informative when communities differ primarily by what can live in them (e.g., at high temperatures), in part because abundance information can obscure significant patterns of variation in which taxa are present. We illustrate these principles using two 16S rRNA-based surveys of microbial populations and two phylogenetic measures of community beta diversity: unweighted UniFrac, a qualitative measure, and weighted UniFrac, a new quantitative measure, which we have added to the UniFrac website (http://bmf.colorado.edu/unifrac). These studies considered the relative influences of mineral chemistry, temperature, and geography on microbial community composition in acidic thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park and the influences of obesity and kinship on microbial community composition in the mouse gut. We show that applying qualitative and quantitative measures to the same data set can lead to dramatically different conclusions about the main factors that structure microbial diversity and can provide insight into the nature of community differences. We also demonstrate that both weighted and unweighted UniFrac measurements are robust to the methods used to build the underlying phylogeny. PMID:17220268

  6. Downscaling SSPs in Bangladesh - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Barbour, E.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.; Lázár, A. N.; Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  7. Downscaling SSPs in the GBM Delta - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Andrew; Barbour, Emily; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Munsur Rahman, Md.; Hutton, Craig; Lazar, Attila

    2016-04-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Protein Complex Prediction Through Proteome-Wide Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Simone; Priami, Corrado; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent progress in proteomics most protein complexes are still unknown. Identification of these complexes will help us understand cellular regulatory mechanisms and support development of new drugs. Therefore it is really important to establish detailed information about the composition and the abundance of protein complexes but existing algorithms can only give qualitative predictions. Herein, we propose a new approach based on stochastic simulations of protein complex formation that integrates multi-source data--such as protein abundances, domain-domain interactions and functional annotations--to predict alternative forms of protein complexes together with their abundances. This method, called SiComPre (Simulation based Complex Prediction), achieves better qualitative prediction of yeast and human protein complexes than existing methods and is the first to predict protein complex abundances. Furthermore, we show that SiComPre can be used to predict complexome changes upon drug treatment with the example of bortezomib. SiComPre is the first method to produce quantitative predictions on the abundance of molecular complexes while performing the best qualitative predictions. With new data on tissue specific protein complexes becoming available SiComPre will be able to predict qualitative and quantitative differences in the complexome in various tissue types and under various conditions. PMID:26492574

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of uroliths in dogs: definitive determination of chemical type.

    PubMed

    Bovee, K C; McGuire, T

    1984-11-01

    Effective treatment and prevention of urolithiasis depends on accurate determination of the chemical nature of the uroliths. A widely used qualitative chemical procedure was compared with quantitative crystallographic analysis of 272 canine uroliths. Agreement between the 2 methods was 78%. Qualitative analysis failed to detect 62% of calcium-containing uroliths and 83% of carbonate apatite uroliths. Qualitative analysis gave false-positive results for urates in 55% of cystine uroliths. Mixed uroliths comprising 6% of the total could not be classified without quantitative analysis. Silicate, cystine, and urate uroliths generally were of pure composition. Crystallographic analysis indicated the following distribution of major types: struvite, 69%; calcium oxalate, 10%; urate, 7%; silicate, 3.5%; cystine, 3.2%; calcium phosphate, 1%; and mixed, 6%. Among dogs with struvite uroliths, 66% had positive results of bacterial culturing from the urinary bladder. Six breeds (Miniature Schnauzer, Welsh Corgi, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Pekingese, and Pug) had a significantly higher risk for urolithiasis, compared with other breeds. The German Shepherd Dog had a significantly lowered risk, compared with other breeds. Two breeds had significant relationship to a specific type of urolith: Miniature Schnauzer for oxalate, and Dalmatian for urate (P less than 0.001). It was concluded that quantitative analysis, using crystallography, was superior for the detection of calcium oxalate, carbonate apatite, cystine, urate, and mixed uroliths. PMID:6511641

  10. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

    2006-09-01

    Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

  11. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  12. Developmental modeling effects on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of motor performance.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, P; Stiehl, J; Weiss, M R

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate and extend previous developmental modeling research by examining the qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of motor performance. Eighty females of two age groups (5-0 to 6-6 and 7-6 to 9-0 years) were randomly assigned to conditions within a 2 x 2 x 2 (Age x Model Type x Rehearsal) factorial design. Children received either verbal instructions only (no model) or a visual demonstration with experimenter-given verbal cues (verbal model) of a five-part dance skill sequence. Children were either prompted to verbally rehearse before skill execution or merely asked to reproduce the sequence without prompting. Both quantitative (order) and qualitative (form) performances were assessed. Results revealed a significant age main effect for both order and form performance, with older children performing better than younger children. A model type main effect was also found for both order and form performance. The verbal model condition produced better qualitative performance, whereas the no model condition resulted in better quantitative scores. These results are discussed in terms of differential coding strategies that may influence task components in modeling. PMID:2132893

  13. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation.

    PubMed

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A; van Weeren, Rene; Helminen, Heikki J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-01-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation. PMID:21198207

  14. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  15. Quantitative and qualitative 5-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in skull base meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Valdés, Pablo A.; Erkmen, Kadir; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Wilson, Brian C.; Harris, Brent T.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Object Complete resection of skull base meningiomas provides patients with the best chance for a cure; however, surgery is frequently difficult given the proximity of lesions to vital structures, such as cranial nerves, major vessels, and venous sinuses. Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative assessment of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence following the exogenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has demonstrated utility in malignant glioma resection but limited use in meningiomas. Here the authors demonstrate the use of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance in resecting a skull base meningioma and elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages provided by both quantitative and qualitative fluorescence methodologies in skull base meningioma resection. Methods A 52-year-old patient with a sphenoid wing WHO Grade I meningioma underwent tumor resection as part of an institutional review board–approved prospective study of fluorescence-guided resection. A surgical microscope modified for fluorescence imaging was used for the qualitative assessment of visible fluorescence, and an intraoperative probe for in situ fluorescence detection was utilized for quantitative measurements of PpIX. The authors assessed the detection capabilities of both the qualitative and quantitative fluorescence approaches. Results The patient harboring a sphenoid wing meningioma with intraorbital extension underwent radical resection of the tumor with both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent regions. The patient underwent a complete resection without any complications. Some areas of the tumor demonstrated visible fluorescence. The quantitative probe detected neoplastic tissue better than the qualitative modified surgical microscope. The intraoperative probe was particularly useful in areas that did not reveal visible fluorescence, and tissue from these areas was confirmed as tumor following histopathological

  16. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  17. Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

  18. Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Advances in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative and qualitative environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Jaume; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes the advances in environmental analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) during the last decade and discusses different aspects of their application. LC-HRMS has become a powerful tool for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of organic pollutants, enabling their quantitation and the search for metabolites and transformation products or the detection of unknown compounds. LC-HRMS provides more information than low-resolution (LR) MS for each sample because it can accurately determine the mass of the molecular ion and its fragment ions if it can be used for MS-MS. Another advantage is that the data can be processed using either target analysis, suspect screening, retrospective analysis, or non-target screening. With the growing popularity and acceptance of HRMS analysis, current guidelines for compound confirmation need to be revised for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Furthermore, new commercial software and user-built libraries are required to mine data in an efficient and comprehensive way. The scope of this critical review is not to provide a comprehensive overview of the many studies performed with LC-HRMS in the field of environmental analysis, but to reveal its advantages and limitations using different workflows. PMID:26138893

  20. Early detection of cervical cancer among Native American women: a qualitative supplement to a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Messer, L; Steckler, A; Dignan, M

    1999-08-01

    The North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year (1989-1995) National Cancer Institute-funded, community-based, early detection of cervical cancer intervention implemented among two Native American tribes in North Carolina: the eastern band of the Cherokee Indians and the Lumbee. The initial quantitative analysis of the intervention showed modest effects and found that the intervention had different effects in the two communities. Due to the equivocal findings, a retrospective qualitative study was conducted. The qualitative study found that two types of factors influenced the intervention's results. The first were project and intervention characteristics, and the second were community and cultural factors over which the project had no control. The community and cultural factors took two forms: enhancers, which contributed to greater intervention effect, and attenuators, which created barriers to success. Examples of each factor are presented, and implications for cervical cancer detection among Native American women are discussed. PMID:10435237

  1. A combined algorithm for T-wave alternans qualitative detection and quantitative measurement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T-wave alternans (TWA) provides a noninvasive and clinically useful marker for the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Current most widely used TWA detection algorithms work in two different domains: time and frequency. The disadvantage of the spectral analytical techniques is that they treat the alternans signal as a stationary wave with a constant amplitude and a phase. They cannot detect non-stationary characteristics of the signal. The temporal domain methods are sensitive to the alignment of the T-waves. In this study, we sought to develop a robust combined algorithm (CA) to assess T-wave alternans, which can qualitatively detect and quantitatively measure TWA in time domain. Methods The T wave sequences were extracted and the total energy of each T wave within the specified time-frequency region was calculated. The rank-sum test was applied to the ranked energy sequences of T waves to detect TWA qualitatively. The ECG containing TWA was quantitatively analyzed with correlation method. Results Simulation test result proved a mean sensitivity of 91.2% in detecting TWA, and for the SNR not less than 30 dB, the accuracy rate of detection achieved 100%. The clinical data experiment showed that the results from this method vs. spectral method had the correlation coefficients of 0.96. Conclusions A novel TWA analysis algorithm utilizing the wavelet transform and correlation technique is presented in this paper. TWAs are not only correctly detected qualitatively in frequency domain by energy value of T waves, but the alternans frequency and amplitude in temporal domain are measured quantitatively. PMID:23311454

  2. High-resolution mass spectrometry for integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative and qualitative high-resolution (HR) dependent and independent acquisition schemes on a QqTOF MS (with resolving power 20,000-40,000) were investigated for the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in biological fluids. High-resolution selected reaction monitoring (HR-SRM) was found to be linear over three orders of magnitude for quantitative analysis of paracetamol in human plasma, offering a real alternative to triple quadrupole LC-SRM/MS. Metabolic stability of talinolol in microsomes was characterized by use of three different acquisition schemes: (i) information-dependent acquisition (IDA) with a TOF MS experiment as survey scan and product-ion scan as dependent scan; (ii) MS(ALL) by collecting TOF mass spectra with and without fragmentation by alternating the collision energy of the collision cell between a low (i.e., 10 eV) and high setting (i.e., 40 eV); and (iii) a novel independent acquisition mode referred to as "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra" (SWATH) or "global precursor ions scan mode" (GPS) in which sequential precursor ions windows (typically 20 u) are used to collect the same spectrum precursor and fragment ions using a collision energy range. SWATH or GPS was found to be superior to IDA or MS(ALL) in combination with UHPLC for qualitative analysis but requires a rapidly acquiring mass spectrometer. Finally, the GPS concept was used for QUAL/QUAN analysis (i.e. integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis) of bosentan and its metabolites in urine over a concentration range from 5 to 2,500 ng mL(-1). PMID:22203371

  3. Combining qualitative and quantitative data: The use of subjective judgment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In risk assessments of high level waste disposal problems, the paucity or absence of data makes it necessary to rely on expert opinion information. This information is usually in the form of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative information (data). Regardless of which methods are used to handle this mixture, certain issues such as granularity and conditionality cannot be ignored. These issues are discussed as they impact some of the major methods in current use. Examples of how to handle this data mixture are provided for some of the classical methods and for some of the newer, cognitive and data-based methods. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces. PMID:23367251

  5. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  6. Combining quantitative and qualitative measures of uncertainty in model-based environmental assessment: the NUSAP system.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Jeroen P; Craye, Matthieu; Funtowicz, Silvio; Kloprogge, Penny; Ravetz, Jerry; Risbey, James

    2005-04-01

    This article discusses recent experiences with the Numeral Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree (NUSAP) system for multidimensional uncertainty assessment, based on four case studies that vary in complexity. We show that the NUSAP method is applicable not only to relatively simple calculation schemes but also to complex models in a meaningful way and that NUSAP is useful to assess not only parameter uncertainty but also (model) assumptions. A diagnostic diagram can be used to synthesize results of quantitative analysis of parameter sensitivity and qualitative review (pedigree analysis) of parameter strength. It provides an analytic tool to prioritize uncertainties according to quantitative and qualitative insights in the limitations of available knowledge. We show that extension of the pedigree scheme to include societal dimensions of uncertainty, such as problem framing and value-laden assumptions, further promotes reflexivity and collective learning. When used in a deliberative setting, NUSAP pedigree assessment has the potential to foster a deeper social debate and a negotiated management of complex environmental problems. PMID:15876219

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Iranian Researchers’ Scientific Production in Dentistry Subfields

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers’ scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. Methods: This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. Results: 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P < 0. 0001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of published articles in the first ten- year (1993-2003) and that of the second one (2004-2013), in favor of the latter (P = 0. 001). Conclusions: The distribution frequencies of scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields. PMID:26635439

  8. Two approaches to improving mental health care: positivist/quantitative versus skill-based/qualitative.

    PubMed

    Luchins, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The quality improvement model currently used in medicine and mental health was adopted from industry, where it developed out of early 20th-century efforts to apply a positivist/quantitative agenda to improving manufacturing. This article questions the application of this model to mental health care. It argues that (1) developing "operational definitions" for something as value-laden as "quality" risks conflating two realms, what we measure with what we value; (2) when measurements that are tied to individuals are aggregated to establish benchmarks and goals, unwarranted mathematical assumptions are made; (3) choosing clinical outcomes is problematic; (4) there is little relationship between process measures and clinical outcomes; and (5) since changes in quality indices do not relate to improved clinical care, management's reliance on such indices provides an illusory sense of control. An alternative model is the older, skill-based/qualitative approach to knowing, which relies on "implicit/ expert" knowledge. These two approaches offer a series of contrasts: quality versus excellence, competence versus expertise, management versus leadership, extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards. The article concludes that we need not totally dispense with the current quality improvement model, but rather should balance quantitative efforts with the older qualitative approach in a mixed methods model. PMID:23179033

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Determination and Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Poultry Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yamatogi, R S; Oliveira, H C; Possebon, F S; Pantoja, J C F; Joaquim, J G F; Pinto, J P A N; Araújo, J P

    2016-06-01

    Poultry products are important in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, mainly Salmonella. This genus causes millions of foodborne diseases worldwide every year. Cross-contamination by food sources in human cases of salmonellosis and the increase in resistant strains have become important issues. A qualitative and quantitative Salmonella detection method was utilized in a poultry slaughterhouse in São Paulo State, Brazil. We collected 33 samples from different batches of carcasses. Each sample was analyzed at three process points: postbleeding, postdefeathering, and postchilling. A fourth point, retail simulation, was added to simulate retail market storage at 5°C for 72 h. The qualitative methods revealed 100% (33 samples) contamination at postbleeding, 39% (13 samples) contamination at postdefeathering, 58% (19 samples) contamination at postchilling, and 30% (10 samples) contamination at the retail simulation. The quantitative results, determined by the most-probable-number (MPN) technique, ranged from <0.03 to >2,400 MPN/g. We identified 23 Salmonella serovars; the most prevalent were Mbandaka, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis. Resistance to nalidixic acid was significantly more common (P < 0.05) than resistance to other antimicrobial agents. Five multidrug-resistant strains were identified. This study contributes important epidemiological data and demonstrates the need to improve sanitary conditions in slaughterhouses. PMID:27296598

  10. Quantitative and qualitative research across cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted. PMID:24809790

  11. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. PMID:27340214

  12. The qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size dependent road deposited sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Hua, Pei; Krebs, Peter

    2015-02-01

    This study showcases the qualitative and quantitative source apportionments of size-dependent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road deposited sediment by means of molecular diagnostic ratio (MDR) and positive matrix factorisation (PMF) approaches. The MDR was initially used to narrow the PAH source candidates. PMF modelling was subsequently used to provide more precise source apportionment with the assistance of a multiple linear regression analysis. Through a combined qualitative and quantitative source apportionment, different potential source contributors were identified at different size fractions. Explicitly, three major contributors to sorption at the size fraction of 1000-400 μm were tentatively identified as incineration (26%), coal combustion (53%) and gasoline-powered vehicle (20%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 400-100 μm were identified as gasoline-powered vehicle (25%), surface pavement (15%), diesel-powered vehicle (37%) and industrial boiler (24%). Four major contributors to the size fraction of 100-63 μm were identified as cogeneration emission (13%), diesel-powered vehicle (28%), tire debris (45%) and wood combustion (14%). The potential contributors in the size fraction 63-0.45 μm were identified as diesel-powered vehicle (21%), heterogeneous sources (41%) and biomass burning (38%). In addition, the highest ∑16PAH concentration was found in the smallest size fraction of 63-0.45 μm, which is also where the highest BaPE and TEF values for potential risk assessment occurred. PMID:25310884

  13. A front-of-pack nutrition logo: a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Mallant, Sanne F; Mol, Zinzi L; Brug, Johannes; Temminghoff, Marcel; Feunekes, Gerda I; Jansen, Leon; Verhagen, Hans; Seidell, Jacob C

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to perform a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation of the introduction of the Choices logo, a front-of-pack nutrition logo on products with a favorable product composition, adopted by many food producers, retail and food service organizations, conditionally endorsed by the Dutch government, validated by scientists, and in the process of international dissemination. An online questionnaire was sent to adult consumers 4 months after the introduction of the logo (n = 1,032) and 1 year later (n = 1,127). Additionally, seven consumer focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to provide more insight into the questionnaire responses. Quantitative analyses showed that exposure to the logo had significantly increased. Elderly and obese respondents reported to be more in need of a logo than younger and normal-weight individuals. Women perceived the logo more attractive and credible than men did. Further qualitative analyses indicated that the logo's credibility would improve if it became known that governmental and scientific authorities support it. Elderly respondents indicated that they needed a logo due to health concerns. Consumers interested in health reported that they used the logo. Further research focusing on specific target groups, forming healthful diets, and health outcomes is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the Choices logo. PMID:19851915

  14. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  15. Extension trial of qigong for fibromyalgia: a quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, Jana; Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  16. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  17. Quantitative amd Qualitative Sources of Affect: How Unexpectedness and Valence Relate to Pleasantness and Preference. Technical Report No. 293.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Ortony, Andrew

    Optimal-level theories maintain that the quality of affect is a function of a quantitative arousal potential dimension. An alternative view is that the quantitative dimension merely modulates preexisting qualitative properties and is therefore only responsible for changes in the degree of affect. Thus, the quality of affect, whether it is positive…

  18. The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

  19. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  20. Using quantitative risk information in decisions about statins: a qualitative study in a community setting

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background A large literature informs guidance for GPs about communicating quantitative risk information so as to facilitate shared decision making. However, relatively little has been written about how patients utilise such information in practice. Aim To understand the role of quantitative risk information in patients’ accounts of decisions about taking statins. Design and setting This was a qualitative study, with participants recruited and interviewed in community settings. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 participants aged >50 years, all of whom had been offered statins. Data were analysed thematically, using elements of the constant comparative method. Results Interviewees drew frequently on numerical test results to explain their decisions about preventive medication. In contrast, they seldom mentioned quantitative risk information, and never offered it as a rationale for action. Test results were spoken of as objects of concern despite an often-explicit absence of understanding, so lack of understanding seems unlikely to explain the non-use of risk estimates. Preventive medication was seen as ‘necessary’ either to treat test results, or because of personalised, unequivocal advice from a doctor. Conclusion This study’s findings call into question the assumption that people will heed and use numerical risk information once they understand it; these data highlight the need to consider the ways in which different kinds of knowledge are used in practice in everyday contexts. There was little evidence from this study that understanding probabilistic risk information was a necessary or valued condition for making decisions about statin use. PMID:25824187

  1. NOTE: An innovative phantom for quantitative and qualitative investigation of advanced x-ray imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarot, C. B.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Haycocks, T.; Moseley, D. J.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-11-01

    Development, characterization, and quality assurance of advanced x-ray imaging technologies require phantoms that are quantitative and well suited to such modalities. This note reports on the design, construction, and use of an innovative phantom developed for advanced imaging technologies (e.g., multi-detector CT and the numerous applications of flat-panel detectors in dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT) in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. The design addresses shortcomings of existing phantoms by incorporating criteria satisfied by no other single phantom: (1) inserts are fully 3D—spherically symmetric rather than cylindrical; (2) modules are quantitative, presenting objects of known size and contrast for quality assurance and image quality investigation; (3) features are incorporated in ideal and semi-realistic (anthropomorphic) contexts; and (4) the phantom allows devices to be inserted and manipulated in an accessible module (right lung). The phantom consists of five primary modules: (1) head, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to brain lesions; (2) left lung, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to lung modules; (3) right lung, an accessible hull in which devices may be placed and manipulated; (4) liver, featuring conrast-detail spheres approximate to metastases; and (5) abdomen/pelvis, featuring simulated kidneys, colon, rectum, bladder, and prostate. The phantom represents a two-fold evolution in design philosophy—from 2D (cylindrically symmetric) to fully 3D, and from exclusively qualitative or quantitative to a design accommodating quantitative study within an anatomical context. It has proven a valuable tool in investigations throughout our institution, including low-dose CT, dual-energy radiography, and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiation therapy and surgery.

  2. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  3. An innovative phantom for quantitative and qualitative investigation of advanced x-ray imaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Chiarot, C B; Siewerdsen, J H; Haycocks, T; Moseley, D J; Jaffray, D A

    2005-11-01

    Development, characterization, and quality assurance of advanced x-ray imaging technologies require phantoms that are quantitative and well suited to such modalities. This note reports on the design, construction, and use of an innovative phantom developed for advanced imaging technologies (e.g., multi-detector CT and the numerous applications of flat-panel detectors in dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT) in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. The design addresses shortcomings of existing phantoms by incorporating criteria satisfied by no other single phantom: (1) inserts are fully 3D--spherically symmetric rather than cylindrical; (2) modules are quantitative, presenting objects of known size and contrast for quality assurance and image quality investigation; (3) features are incorporated in ideal and semi-realistic (anthropomorphic) contexts; and (4) the phantom allows devices to be inserted and manipulated in an accessible module (right lung). The phantom consists of five primary modules: (1) head, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to brain lesions; (2) left lung, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to lung modules; (3) right lung, an accessible hull in which devices may be placed and manipulated; (4) liver, featuring contrast-detail spheres approximate to metastases; and (5) abdomen/pelvis, featuring simulated kidneys, colon, rectum, bladder, and prostate. The phantom represents a two-fold evolution in design philosophy--from 2D (cylindrically symmetric) to fully 3D, and from exclusively qualitative or quantitative to a design accommodating quantitative study within an anatomical context. It has proven a valuable tool in investigations throughout our institution, including low-dose CT, dual-energy radiography, and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiation therapy and surgery. PMID:16237228

  4. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment. PMID:26152227

  5. Causality and Causal Inference in Social Work: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the goals of social work requires matching a specific solution to a specific problem. Understanding why the problem exists and why the solution should work requires a consideration of cause and effect. However, it is unclear whether it is desirable for social workers to identify cause and effect, whether it is possible for social workers to identify cause and effect, and, if so, what is the best means for doing so. These questions are central to determining the possibility of developing a science of social work and how we go about doing it. This article has four aims: (1) provide an overview of the nature of causality; (2) examine how causality is treated in social work research and practice; (3) highlight the role of quantitative and qualitative methods in the search for causality; and (4) demonstrate how both methods can be employed to support a “science” of social work. PMID:25821393

  6. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the fat in human, feline and canine kidneys.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J.; Scott, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    While xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in humans tends to be rich in birefringent fat, this variety cannot be demonstrated microscopically in the feline morphological counterpart of the condition, which is, however, rich in readily stainable fat. Since normal feline kidney is rich in such lipid, a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the lipid in human, feline and canine kidney was carried out in an attempt to throw further light on the possible origin of the birefringent fat in the human disease. No significant difference could be found in the amount of cholesterol in the 3 species. Despite its visual prominence in feline kidneys, human kidney was richer in neutral fat and the percentage of total lipid formed by cholesterol was greater in humans than in the other species. The results suggested that cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis may occur in those kidneys unusually rich in cholesterol. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:836763

  7. A quantitative and qualitative method to control chemotherapeutic preparations by Fourier transform infrared-ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process. PMID:23014899

  8. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative In Vitro Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatase Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ip, Laura Ren Huey; Gewinner, Christina Anja

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides compromise a family of eight membrane lipids which play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways. Signaling through phosphoinositides has been shown in a variety of cellular functions such cell proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. Phospholipid phosphatases regulate cell signaling by modifying the concentration of phosphoinositides and their dephosphorylated products. To understand the role of individual lipid phosphatases in phosphoinositide turnover and functional signaling, it is crucial to determine the substrate specificity of the lipid phosphatase of interest. In this chapter we describe how the substrate specificity of an individual lipid phosphatase can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured in an in vitro radiometric assay. In addition, we specify the different expression systems and purification methods required to produce the necessary yield and functionality in order to further characterize these enzymes. The outstanding versatility and sensitivity of this assay system are yet unmatched and are therefore currently considered the standard of the field. PMID:26552675

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorov, N. B.; Popov, A. M.; Zaytsev, S. M.; Labutin, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative histopathological comparisons of multielectrode balloon and thermal balloon endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Ryan, Thomas P.; Kuk-Nagle, Karen; Soto, Cindi; Vancaillie, Thierry G.; Garza-Leal, Jose

    1998-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative histopathologic techniques were used to compare the distribution, severity and depths of acute thermal lesions formed by in vivo placement of three different intracavitary thermal balloon instruments in the uteri of 19 women scheduled for hysterectomy. Thermal damage reflected by (1) Nitro Blue Tetrazolium stains separating `living' from `dead' tissues, (2) red zone formation and the (3) presence of a clear zone observed in histologic slides extended into the myometrium. One hysterectomy specimen removed 4 days after treatment showed superficial slough of the endometrium but solid, coagulation necrosis of the deeper endometrium and adjacent myometrium. The treatment effect and success of intracavitary thermal coagulation may be related to a delicate balance of complete irradiation of endometrium versus fibrous stricture and intracavitary adhesions of the uterus.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fish crop in relation to environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.K.; He, X.Q.

    1987-02-01

    The effects of environmental quality on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of fish crop are reviewed with reference to fisheries in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and coastal waters ranging from the temperate zone to subtropical areas in mainland China. The mechanism of these effects is discussed, and the insidiousness of long-term exposure to low-concentration pollutants to fish stock is stressed. Regarding the assessment of the effect of pollution on fish, most of our information has been derived from laboratory studies, in which the antagonistic or synergistic action between multiple pollutants was scarcely taken into consideration. One has to be cautious when the results of laboratory experiments are extrapolated to the realistic natural environment. It is advocated that surveys and tests concerning the relation between environmental quality and fish life be made on natural waters in addition to laboratory studies, and the effects be elucidated at the individual level, population level, and the ecosystem level.

  13. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  14. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Adriana E. S.; Smart, Simon M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  15. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Edwin C; Ford, Adriana E S; Smart, Simon M; Henrys, Peter A; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  16. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence in Meningioma: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurements In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Simmons, Nathan E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence has shown promise as a surgical adjunct for maximizing the extent of surgical resection in gliomas. To date, the clinical utility of 5-ALA in meningiomas is not fully understood, with most descriptive studies using qualitative approaches to 5-ALA-PpIX. OBJECTIVE To assess the diagnostic performance of 5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence during surgical resection of meningioma. METHODS ALA was administered to 15 patients with meningioma undergoing PpIX fluorescence-guided surgery at our institution. At various points during the procedure, the surgeon performed qualitative, visual assessments of fluorescence by using the surgical microscope, followed by a quantitative fluorescence measurement by using an intra-operative probe. Specimens were collected at each point for subsequent neuropathological analysis. Clustered data analysis of variance was used to ascertain a difference between groups, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess diagnostic capabilities. RESULTS Red-pink fluorescence was observed in 80% (12/15) of patients, with visible fluorescence generally demonstrating a strong, homogenous character. Quantitative fluorescence measured diagnostically significant PpIX concentrations (CPpIx) in both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent tissues, with significantly higher CPpIx in both visibly fluorescent (P < .001) and tumor tissue (P = .002). Receiver operating characteristic analyses also showed diagnostic accuracies up to 90% for differentiating tumor from normal dura. CONCLUSION ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance is a potential and promising adjunct in accurately detecting neoplastic tissue during meningioma resective surgery. These results suggest a broader reach for PpIX as a biomarker for meningiomas than was previously noted in the literature. PMID:23887194

  17. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour. PMID:24839538

  18. The quantitative and qualitative recovery of Campylobacter from raw poultry using USDA and Health Canada methods.

    PubMed

    Sproston, E L; Carrillo, C D; Boulter-Bitzer, J

    2014-12-01

    Harmonisation of methods between Canadian government agencies is essential to accurately assess and compare the prevalence and concentrations present on retail poultry intended for human consumption. The standard qualitative procedure used by Health Canada differs to that used by the USDA for both quantitative and qualitative methods. A comparison of three methods was performed on raw poultry samples obtained from an abattoir to determine if one method is superior to the others in isolating Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses. The average percent of positive samples was 34.72% (95% CI, 29.2-40.2), 39.24% (95% CI, 33.6-44.9), 39.93% (95% CI, 34.3-45.6) for the direct plating US method and the US enrichment and Health Canada enrichment methods, respectively. Overall there were significant differences when comparing either of the enrichment methods to the direct plating method using the McNemars chi squared test. On comparison of weekly data (Fishers exact test) direct plating was only inferior to the enrichment methods on a single occasion. Direct plating is important for enumeration and establishing the concentration of Campylobacter present on raw poultry. However, enrichment methods are also vital to identify positive samples where concentrations are below the detection limit for direct plating. PMID:25084671

  19. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. PMID:27260451

  20. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  1. The qualitative-quantitative debate: moving from positivism and confrontation to post-positivism and reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Clark, A M

    1998-06-01

    Critiques of logical positivism form the foundation for a significant number of nursing research papers, with the philosophy being inappropriately deemed synonymous with empirical method. Frequently, proposing an alternative method to those identified with the quantitative paradigm, these critiques are based on a poor foundation. This paper highlights an alternative philosophy to positivism which can also underpin empirical inquiry, that of post-positivism. Post-positivism is contrasted with positivism, which is presented as an outmoded and rejected philosophy which should cease to significantly shape inquiry. Though some acknowledgement of post-positivism has occurred in the nursing literature, this has yet to permeate into mainstream nursing research. Many still base their arguments on a positivistic view of science. Through achievement of a better understanding of post-positivism and greater focus on explicating the philosophical assumptions underpinning all research methods, the distinctions that have long been perceived to exist between qualitative and quantitative methodologies can be confined to the past. Rather methods will be selected solely on the nature of research questions. PMID:9663876

  2. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods. PMID:26304356

  3. The ALICE Data Quality Monitoring: qualitative and quantitative review of three years of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Haller, Barthélémy; Bellini, Francesca; Telesca, Adriana; Foka, Yiota; Alice Dqm Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the complexity of ALICE in terms of number of detectors and performance requirements, Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) plays an essential role in providing online feedback on the data being recorded. It intends to provide shifters with precise and complete information to quickly identify problems, and as a consequence to ensure acquisition of high quality data. This paper presents a review of the ALICE DQM system during the first three years of LHC operations from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. We start by presenting the DQM software and tools before moving on to the various analyses carried out. An overview of the produced monitoring quantities is given, presenting the diversity of usage and flexibility of the DQM. Well-prepared shifters and experts, in addition to a precise organisation, were required to ensure smooth and successful operations. The description of the measures taken to ensure both aspects and an account of the DQM shifters' job are followed by a summary of the evolution of the system. We then give a quantitative review of the final setup of the system used during the whole year 2012. We conclude the paper with use cases where the DQM proved to be very valuable, scalable and efficient and with the plans for the coming years.

  4. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-d-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26551795

  5. A new method for robust quantitative and qualitative analysis of real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Shain, Eric B.; Clemens, John M.

    2008-01-01

    An automated data analysis method for real-time PCR needs to exhibit robustness to the factors that routinely impact the measurement and analysis of real-time PCR data. Robust analysis is paramount to providing the same interpretation for results regardless of the skill of the operator performing or reviewing the work. We present a new method for analysis of real-time PCR data, the maxRatio method, which identifies a consistent point within or very near the exponential region of the PCR signal without requiring user intervention. Compared to other analytical techniques that generate only a cycle number, maxRatio generates several measurements of amplification including cycle numbers and relative measures of amplification efficiency and curve shape. By using these values, the maxRatio method can make highly reliable reactive/nonreactive determination along with quantitative evaluation. Application of the maxRatio method to the analysis of quantitative and qualitative real-time PCR assays is shown along with examples of method robustness to, and detection of, amplification response anomalies. PMID:18603594

  6. The evolution of medical imaging from qualitative to quantitative: opportunities, challenges, and approaches (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs), which are defined as "objectively measured characteristics derived from in vivo images as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or response to a therapeutic intervention"1. To evolve qualitative imaging assessments to the use of QIBs requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QIB applications relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informatics as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QIBs will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response (and the heterogeneity of that response) and outcome. Such non-invasive quantitative measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research and will contribute significantly to the goals of precision medicine. This presentation will focus on 1) outlining the opportunities for QIB applications, with examples to demonstrate applications in both research and patient care, 2) discussing key challenges in the implementation of QIB applications, and 3) providing overviews of efforts to address such challenges from federal, scientific, and professional organizations, including, but not limited to, the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. 1Sullivan, Obuchowski, Kessler, et al. Radiology, epub August 2015.

  7. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27041659

  8. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help

  9. Chronic spinal compression model in minipigs: a systematic behavioral, qualitative, and quantitative neuropathological study.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D; Marsala, Martin

    2012-02-10

    The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4-9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 kg) at a velocity of 3 cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4-9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2 kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5 kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5 kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used to study

  10. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil. PMID:26971405

  11. Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2004-01-01

    In this new edition, the author explains quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and incorporates the viewpoints of various research paradigms (postpositivist, constructivist, transformative, and pragmatic) into descriptions of these methods. Special emphasis is provided for conducting research in culturally complex communities. Each chapter…

  12. OMICS DATA IN THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MODE OF ACTION IN SUPPORT OF IRIS ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge and information generated using new tools/methods collectively called "Omics" technologies could have a profound effect on qualitative and quantitative characterizations of human health risk assessments.

    The suffix "Omics" is a descriptor used for a series of e...

  13. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  14. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  15. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  16. Two-Year College Libraries in Alabama: A Comparison in Terms of ACRL Quantitative and Qualitative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Deborah J.

    The results of three surveys conducted by the Alabama Junior College Library Association (AJCLA) in November 1988 are used as the basis for comparative analysis in this report on 25 public and private 2-year college libraries and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) qualitative and quantitative standards. Results indicate that,…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Training on Need-Supportive Teaching in Physical Education: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelterman, N.; Vansteenkiste, M.; Van Keer, H.; De Meyer, J.; Van den Berghe, L.; Haerens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated 35 physical education teachers' appreciation of a continuous professional development (CPD) training on need-supportive teaching, embedded in Self-Determination Theory, using qualitative (i.e. focus groups) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaire). The findings suggest that teachers highly valued opportunities for…

  18. Hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation to analyze the market position from data with two qualitative and p-2 quantitative variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginanjar, Irlandia

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the market position will be easier, efficient, and informative when based on a perceptual map, that can display objects and characteristics. With perceptual map we can identify the information about the objects similarity, the characteristics relationships, and relationship between the object and the characteristics. Characteristics of the object are usually more than two variables, those variables that sometimes are qualitative and some are quantitative. Based on that this paper introduce a method of analysis called hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation (HCAC), this method is the incorporation of correspondence analysis (CA) with biplot of correlation, where the mapped of two qualitative variables is using CA, and for quantitative variables is using correlations. HCAC produces a perceptual map that displays the object, the qualitative characteristics, and quantitative characteristics in a single map, without changing the quantitative data into qualitative data, so that the information obtained is more complete. A reference for mapping quality is counted from the first and second cumulative percent of eigenvalues where resulting from CA.

  19. Parenting Self-Efficacy among Japanese Mothers: Qualitative and Quantitative Perspectives on Its Association with Childhood Memories of Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2002-01-01

    Used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how 40 Japanese mothers from working-class and middle-class backgrounds supported their child's transition to first grade. Found that mothers reported higher self-efficacy if they had one child, if their child was a boy, and if they had memories of being more frequently rejected by their own…

  20. Quantitative 3D breast magnetic resonance imaging fibroglandular tissue analysis and correlation with qualitative assessments: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Mema, Eralda; Guo, Xiaotao; Mango, Victoria; Desperito, Elise; Ha, Jason; Wynn, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) has been linked to breast cancer risk based on mammographic density studies. Currently, the qualitative assessment of FGT on mammogram (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to intra and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to develop an objective quantitative FGT measurement tool for breast MRI that could provide significant clinical value. Methods An IRB approved study was performed. Sixty breast MRI cases with qualitative assessment of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT were randomly selected for quantitative analysis from routine breast MRIs performed at our institution from 1/2013 to 12/2014. Blinded to the qualitative data, whole breast and FGT contours were delineated on T1-weighted pre contrast sagittal images using an in-house, proprietary segmentation algorithm which combines the region-based active contours and a level set approach. FGT (%) was calculated by: [segmented volume of FGT (mm3)/(segmented volume of whole breast (mm3)] ×100. Statistical correlation analysis was performed between quantified FGT (%) on MRI and qualitative assessments of mammographic breast density and MRI FGT. Results There was a significant positive correlation between quantitative MRI FGT assessment and qualitative MRI FGT (r=0.809, n=60, P<0.001) and mammographic density assessment (r=0.805, n=60, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between qualitative MRI FGT assessment and mammographic density assessment (r=0.725, n=60, P<0.001). The four qualitative assessment categories of FGT correlated with the calculated mean quantitative FGT (%) of 4.61% (95% CI, 0–12.3%), 8.74% (7.3–10.2%), 18.1% (15.1–21.1%), 37.4% (29.5–45.3%). Conclusions Quantitative measures of FGT (%) were computed with data derived from breast MRI and correlated significantly with conventional qualitative assessments. This quantitative technique may prove to be a valuable tool in clinical use by

  1. Accumulation patterns of Cr in Callitriche organs--qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Augustynowicz, Joanna; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna; Wróbel, Paweł; Kołton, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromium accumulation in the shoots of Callitriche cophocarpa. This globally distributed, submersed macrophyte exhibits outstanding Cr phytoremediation capacity in an aquatic environment. Cr was applied separately for 7 days at two stable forms as Cr(VI) and Cr(III), known from their diverse physicochemical properties and toxicities. The maps of Cr depositions in young leaves, mature leaves, and stems were obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF). The detailed analysis of XRF maps was done based on Image-Pro PLUS (Media Cybernetics) software. Cr was accumulated either in trichomes or vascular bundles in respect to the element speciation and the plant organ. The concentration of Cr significantly increased in the following order: Cr(VI) mature leaves < Cr(VI) young leaves = Cr(VI) stems < Cr(III) young leaves ≤ Cr(III) mature leaves ≤ Cr(III) stems. The observed differences in distribution and accumulation of Cr were correlated with the different reduction potential of Cr(VI) by particular plant organs. The reduction of Cr(VI) is considered the main detoxification mechanism of the highly toxic Cr(VI) form. The unique L-band electron resonance spectrometer (L-band EPR) was applied to follow the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the studied material. PMID:26438365

  2. Systematic prevention of overweight and obesity in adults: a qualitative and quantitative literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Kremers, S; Reubsaet, A; Martens, M; Gerards, S; Jonkers, R; Candel, M; de Weerdt, I; de Vries, N

    2010-05-01

    To date, most interventions aimed at preventing obesity have underemphasized the application of systematic intervention development, implementation and evaluation. The present review provides a thorough insight in factors promoting implementation and/or effectiveness in interventions aimed at preventing overweight/obesity among adults. A total of 46 studies evaluating interventions aimed at preventing obesity were reviewed, followed by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The Intervention Mapping protocol and the Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention (EnRG) were applied to analyse and classify the included studies. The interventions were categorized by setting (workplace, community, health care) and target group (ethnic minorities, pregnant women, [pre]menopausal women, smokers, people with intellectual disabilities). Generally, interventions were found to have potential in changing energy balance-related behaviours and anthropometric outcomes. Effect sizes for changes in body mass index ranged between -0.09 and 0.45. When the programme goal specifically aimed at weight management, the intervention was found to be more successful than interventions with programme goals that were aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease or improving general health status. Although a considerable part of studies included motivational interventions, only some actually assessed the effects on potential cognitive mediators. A general lack of reporting underlying theoretical models for behaviour change was observed as well as the inclusion of linkage groups and strategies to promote empowerment. PMID:19538441

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lysine acetylation and methylation in yeast histone H3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangling

    2008-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in cell functions and the modification patterns vary significantly among different organisms. It is important that histone modification patterns be identified. Flowing our previous work-identification of acetylation and methylation sites of histone H3 in a typical transcription most inactive chromatin isolated from chicken erythrocytes, here, we report using mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze histone modification pattern of H3 in a typical transcription most active chromatin isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compared the modification patterns of histone H3 between these two functionally opposite chromatins and observed that acetylation level at K9, K14, K27, K56 and methylation level at K4 and K79 are significantly higher in S. cerevisiae than in chicken erythrocytes, methylation at K9 is higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae and methylation level at K36 is unchanged in these two chromatins. Contrary to other sites, acetylation levels at K18 and K23 are higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae. Our data revealed the difference of acetylation and methylation pattern of individual H3 lysine between two distinct chromatins, one with more inactive form versus the other with more active form.

  4. Sucrose quantitative and qualitative analysis from tastant mixtures based on Cu foam electrode and stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hui, Guohua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Jian; Zheng, Le

    2016-04-15

    Quantitative and qualitative determination of sucrose from complex tastant mixtures using Cu foam electrode was investigated in this study. Cu foam was prepared and its three-dimensional (3-D) mesh structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cu foam was utilized as working electrode in three-electrode electrochemical system. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning results exhibited the oxidation procedure of sucrose on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results indicated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sucrose from four tastant mixtures with low limit of detection (LOD) of 35.34 μM, 49.85 μM, 45.89 μM, and 26.81 μM, respectively. The existence of quinine, NaCl, citric acid (CA) and their mixtures had no effect on sucrose detection. Furthermore, mixtures containing different tastants could be discriminated by non-linear double-layered cascaded series stochastic resonance (DCSSR) output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak parameters of CV measurement data. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener analysis of commercial food. PMID:26675854

  5. A qualitative and quantitative examination of the antecedents of customer incivility.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. PMID:26641484

  6. Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. . Paper Products Division)

    1994-07-01

    Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

  7. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of surface and volumetric properties of objects for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.

    1995-10-01

    Recently advanced computational theories of 3D shape representation for recognition have focused on the alternative of viewer-centered vs. object-centered representation. Both approaches rely on establishing a correspondence between image data and the prototypical knowledge of object shape. This paper discusses the mathematical structures needed for organizing prototypical knowledge of object shape in a way that naturally relies to perceptual categories and thus allows for a flexible and efficient recognition process. The representational schema consists of a configuration of boundary based constituent parts which build the reference frame for qualitative and quantitative shape attributes. The decomposition into constituent parts maximizes convexity regions of the bounding surface and relies on extending the local classification into elliptic, hyperbolic, plane and parabolic to globally convex and nonconvex surface regions. The surface type of the parts guides and is preserved in a subsequent part approximation through generalized cones as volumetric primitives. This approach allows for a consistent characterization of surface and volumetric properties of object shape. A secondary segmentation into sub-parts and associated features is defined by the surface type and the type of change in cross section area along the axis. The two segmentation levels allows for a detailed and elaborate shape description. We show examples of shape description and discuss the representation in relation to the viewer-centered and object centered approaches to recognition.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a pilot integrative coping and resiliency program for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Bonnie; Earley, Michael; Audia, Donna; D'Adamo, Christopher; Berman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Stress, fatigue, and burnout are common maladies among healthcare employees. To address this problem, a holistic integrative self-care program for healthcare practitioners was designed, implemented, and evaluated. A total of 84 participants, recruited via presentations, flyers, and word of mouth, completed the 8-week program. The experiential course, entitled Healing Pathways, combined training in Reiki, guided imagery, yoga, toning, meditation, intuitive scanning, creative expression, and mentorship to foster more empowered and resilient individuals. We measured the effectiveness of the program via mixed methods consisting of qualitative interviews providing in-depth feedback and quantitative analysis demonstrating statistically significant benefit. Participants reported significantly lower levels of stress and significantly increased confidence in their ability to cope at treatment conclusion (8 weeks) and long-term follow-up (12 months). These findings suggest that an integrative wellness and resiliency program, coupled with individual mentorship, may improve coping, decrease stress, and improve functioning and well-being for nurses and other health care providers. PMID:23294820

  10. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of two rubella virus-specific IgG antibody immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Nicholas P; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Vierkant, Robert A; O'Byrne, Megan M; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-08-01

    Monitoring circulating rubella IgG antibody concentration in children and in women of child-bearing age is an important step in maintaining high levels of rubella immunity and preventing congenital rubella syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Beckman Coulter Access Rubella IgG assay against the Dade Behring Enzygnost Anti-Rubella-Virus/IgG EIA assay in serum of children (n = 342) immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella-II (MMR-II) vaccine. We found that the two assays had a high qualitative (96%), and quantitative correlation 0.93 (0.92, 0.95), based on a protective antibody concentration of > or =15 IU/mL. The mean rubella antibody concentration measured by both assays was >37 IU/mL; however, 10% of our study participants had low concentrations of circulating rubella-specific antibodies. These findings might indicate a need for additional monitoring of antibody levels as these children reach child-bearing age, or potentially a need for a third dose of vaccine to increase seroconversion. PMID:20712479

  11. Efficient Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Antigen-induced Immune Responses*

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of immunization strategies used in therapeutic antibody or vaccine development, it is critical to assess the quality of immunization-induced polyclonal antibody responses. Here, we developed a workflow that uses sensitive methods to quantitatively and qualitatively assess immune responses against foreign antigens with regard to antibody binding affinity and epitope diversity. The application of such detailed assessments throughout an immunization campaign can significantly reduce the resources required to generate highly specific antibodies. Our workflow consists of the following two steps: 1) the use of surface plasmon resonance to quantify antigen-specific antibodies and evaluate their apparent binding affinities, and 2) the recovery of serum IgGs using an automated small scale purification system, followed by the determination of their epitope diversity using hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry. We showed that these methods were sensitive enough to detect antigen-specific IgGs in the nanogram/μl range and that they provided information for differentiating the antibody responses of the various immunized animals that could not be obtained by conventional methods. We also showed that this workflow can guide the selection of an animal that produces high affinity antibodies with a desired epitope coverage profile, resulting in the generation of potential therapeutic monoclonal antibody clones with desirable functional profiles. We postulate that this workflow will be an important tool in the development of effective vaccines to combat the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens. PMID:27288409

  12. An efficient framework for qualitative and quantitative analysis of magnetically actuated, rigid microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkati, Farshad; Cheang, U. Kei; Kim, Minjun; Fu, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Artificial microswimmers or microrobots have been actively investigated for possible applications in microactuation, drug-delivery, in situ sensing and diagnostics, and microtransport and assembly. We describe simple achiral, rigid microswimmers actuated by rotating magnetic fields, and elucidate the the minimal conditions for propulsion. We present an efficient method for analyzing the propulsion of such swimmers, which is capable of predicting the speed and direction of swimming as well as the swimmer's rotational dynamics. The method assumes knowledge of the swimmer's geometry and magnetic dipole moment,which can be measured from its response to an impulsive change in the direction of the magnetic field. The method only requires a single calculation of the swimmer's mobility matrix using a boundary element method such as the method of regularized Stokeslets. We validate our method by finding good agreement with experiment for both qualitative and quantitative predictions. The method described can be easily applied to rigid swimmers with arbitrary geometries which are rotated by external magnetic fields.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative examination of particle-particle interactions using colloidal probe nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kim, Hae-Won; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy (CPN), the study of the nano-scale interactive forces between a specifically prepared colloidal probe and any chosen substrate using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), can provide key insights into physical interactions present within colloidal systems. Colloidal systems are widely existent in several applications including, pharmaceuticals, foods, paints, paper, soil and minerals, detergents, printing and much more.1-3 Furthermore, colloids can exist in many states such as emulsions, foams and suspensions. Using colloidal probe nanoscopy one can obtain key information on the adhesive properties, binding energies and even gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of the colloids present within. Additionally, colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used with biological cells to aid in drug discovery and formulation development. In this paper we describe a method for conducting colloidal probe nanoscopy, discuss key factors that are important to consider during the measurement, and show that both quantitative and qualitative data that can be obtained from such measurements. PMID:25080136

  14. Efficient Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Antigen-induced Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danlin; Frego, Lee; Lasaro, Marcio; Truncali, Kristopher; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel; Singh, Sanjaya

    2016-07-29

    To determine the effectiveness of immunization strategies used in therapeutic antibody or vaccine development, it is critical to assess the quality of immunization-induced polyclonal antibody responses. Here, we developed a workflow that uses sensitive methods to quantitatively and qualitatively assess immune responses against foreign antigens with regard to antibody binding affinity and epitope diversity. The application of such detailed assessments throughout an immunization campaign can significantly reduce the resources required to generate highly specific antibodies. Our workflow consists of the following two steps: 1) the use of surface plasmon resonance to quantify antigen-specific antibodies and evaluate their apparent binding affinities, and 2) the recovery of serum IgGs using an automated small scale purification system, followed by the determination of their epitope diversity using hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry. We showed that these methods were sensitive enough to detect antigen-specific IgGs in the nanogram/μl range and that they provided information for differentiating the antibody responses of the various immunized animals that could not be obtained by conventional methods. We also showed that this workflow can guide the selection of an animal that produces high affinity antibodies with a desired epitope coverage profile, resulting in the generation of potential therapeutic monoclonal antibody clones with desirable functional profiles. We postulate that this workflow will be an important tool in the development of effective vaccines to combat the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens. PMID:27288409

  15. Computer-assisted qualitative and quantitative analyses of energy-related complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Stamoudis, V.C.; Picel, K.C.

    1985-10-24

    Recent advances in the efficiency of gas chromatography (GC) columns and improvements in instrument hardware and computer software have facilitated rapid and accurate analysis of complex organic mixtures. By applying manufacturer-supplied software (calibrated-peak methods) and custom software based on retention indices (RI) (Demirgian, 1984; Stamoudis and Demirgian, 1985), most of the classes of chemicals in these mixtures can be rapidly analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Sample prefractionation is essential because it produces simpler mixtures for GC analysis, and it separates constituents by chemical class, which aids automated identification. In the analysis of any new material, existing sample preparation procedures are validated for the material or modified to produce well-resolved chemical class fractions. Representative samples and their subfractions are characterized by GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) before analysis by computer-assisted GC. During our studies of the toxicological interactions of chemicals in complex mixtures, we have isolated, subfractionated, and characterized the neutral components of a variety of energy-related materials. Here we present chemical characterization and mutagenicity data of selected fractions from three coal-gasification by-product tars, two from pilot-plant gasifiers, and one from a commercial scale gasifier, and analogous data for aromatic subfractions from two additional pilot gasifiers, as well as one from the commercial gasifier. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of urine component in the toilet set using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, So Hyun; Park, Kwang Suk; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Won Jin

    2004-07-01

    As a part of non-invasive and unaware measurement of physiological signal in the house of live-alone person, Raman spectroscopy was applied for urine component analysis in the toilet set. 785nm, 250-300mW output solid state diode laser and 2048 element linear silicon TE cooled CCD array were incorporated for this system. Several tests were performed for setting up Raman spectroscopy in non-constrained situation: toilet set in the house. The effect of dark current, integration time, warming up time of laser, property of probe and interference of water in the toilet were tested and controlled for appropriate measurement in this environment. The spectra were obtained immediately when the subject uses the toilet set, and they can be transmitted to the server though Bluetooth. Those spectra were pre-processed for removing or correcting the effect of undesired light scattering, sample path-length difference and baseline-effect. The preprocessed data were enhanced for more exact result of multivariate analysis. The training data was prepared for predicting unknown component and its concentration by using multivariate methods. Several kinds of multivariate methods: PCA, PCR, PLS were performed to validate what is the fittest method in this environment. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy"s spectra obtained in the house's toilet set, we could know the component and its concentration of urine which can be index of disease.

  17. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, A. Z.; Reba, M. N. M.; Roslan, N.; Room, M. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping.

  18. Challenges of interdisciplinary research: reconciling qualitative and quantitative methods for understanding human-landscape systems.

    PubMed

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research. PMID:23892682

  19. Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of Particle-particle Interactions Using Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kim, Hae-Won; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal Probe Nanoscopy (CPN), the study of the nano-scale interactive forces between a specifically prepared colloidal probe and any chosen substrate using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), can provide key insights into physical interactions present within colloidal systems. Colloidal systems are widely existent in several applications including, pharmaceuticals, foods, paints, paper, soil and minerals, detergents, printing and much more.1-3 Furthermore, colloids can exist in many states such as emulsions, foams and suspensions. Using colloidal probe nanoscopy one can obtain key information on the adhesive properties, binding energies and even gain insight into the physical stability and coagulation kinetics of the colloids present within. Additionally, colloidal probe nanoscopy can be used with biological cells to aid in drug discovery and formulation development. In this paper we describe a method for conducting colloidal probe nanoscopy, discuss key factors that are important to consider during the measurement, and show that both quantitative and qualitative data that can be obtained from such measurements. PMID:25080136

  1. Qualitative and quantitative comparative analyses of 3D lidar landslide displacement field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Benjamin D.

    Landslide ground surface displacements vary at all spatial scales and are an essential component of kinematic and hazards analyses. Unfortunately, survey-based displacement measurements require personnel to enter unsafe terrain and have limited spatial resolution. And while recent advancements in LiDAR technology provide the ability remotely measure 3D landslide displacements at high spatial resolution, no single method is widely accepted. A series of qualitative metrics for comparing 3D landslide displacement field measurement methods were developed. The metrics were then applied to nine existing LiDAR techniques, and the top-ranking methods --Iterative Closest Point (ICP) matching and 3D Particle Image Velocimetry (3DPIV) -- were quantitatively compared using synthetic displacement and control survey data from a slow-moving translational landslide in north-central Colorado. 3DPIV was shown to be the most accurate and reliable point cloud-based 3D landslide displacement field measurement method, and the viability of LiDAR-based techniques for measuring 3D motion on landslides was demonstrated.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of four species of Curcuma rhizomes using twice development thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Guan, J; Yang, F Q; Liu, H G; Cheng, X J; Li, S P

    2008-11-01

    The rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma longa are used as Ezhu or Jianghuang in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Due to their similar morphological characters, it is difficult to distinguish their origins of raw materials used in clinic. In this study, a simple, rapid and reliable twice development TLC method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the four species of Curcuma rhizomes. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60F(254) plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (80:4:0.8, v/v/v) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase for twice development. The TLC markers were colorized with 1% vanillin-H(2)SO(4) solution. The four species of Curcuma were easily discriminated based on their characteristic TLC profiles, and simultaneous quantification of eight compounds, including bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumine, curcumenol, curcumol, curdione, furanodienone and curzerene, in Curcuma were also performed densitometrically at lambda(scan)=518nm and lambda(reference)=800 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (r(2)>0.9905) within test ranges. Therefore, the developed TLC method can be used for quality control of Curcuma rhizomes. PMID:18722068

  3. Quantitative and qualitative processes of change during staff-coaching sessions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M W J; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T

    2013-05-01

    Staff training is one of the interventions that managers can embed in their organizations to help staff improve their professional competences related to challenging behaviour of clients with intellectual disabilities. Individual coaching adds learning opportunities that are feasible but difficult to achieve in an in-service setting. In the present study, we have followed the coaching process of three staff members. Based on differences in the Linell balance of power across sessions, we explored the question: do different coaching processes have similar patterns in the development of dominance and coherence in interactions between coach and staff? Additionally, a qualitative approach was conducted to illustrate and enrich the meaning of quantitative outcomes. Processes were different regarding the balance of power at the start of the coaching, probably due to differences in resistance and insecurity. As a consequence of different starting points and differences in learning styles, each coaching process had its unique development over time. At the end, all dyads were comparable in the sense that all dyads were highly satisfied about the outcomes and process of coaching. This is in line with similar levels of power at the end of the coaching sessions suggesting equal contributions and leadership. The present findings suggest some relevant competencies of coaches within health-care services. Due to the small number of participants, the results have to be interpreted with caution. The present study provides suggestions for future research and clinical practice. PMID:23474998

  4. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives. PMID:24072502

  5. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  6. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  7. Object orientated automated image analysis: quantitative and qualitative estimation of inflammation in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Apfeldorfer, Coralie; Ulrich, Kristina; Jones, Gareth; Goodwin, David; Collins, Susie; Schenck, Emanuel; Richard, Virgile

    2008-01-01

    Historically, histopathology evaluation is performed by a pathologist generating a qualitative assessment on thin tissue sections on glass slides. In the past decade, there has been a growing interest for tools able to reduce human subjectivity and improve workload. Whole slide scanning technology combined with object orientated image analysis can offer the capacity of generating fast and reliable results. In the present study, we combined the use of these emerging technologies to characterise a mouse model for chronic asthma. We monitored the inflammatory changes over five weeks by measuring the number of neutrophils and eosinophils present in the tissue, as well as, the bronchiolar associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) area on whole lungs sections. We showed that inflammation assessment could be automated efficiently and reliably. In comparison to human evaluation performed on the same set of sections, computer generated data was more descriptive and fully quantitative. Moreover optimisation of our detection parameters allowed us to be to more sensitive and to generate data in a larger dynamic range to traditional experimental evaluation, such as bronchiolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cell counts obtained by flow cytometry. We also took advantage of the fact that we could increase the number of samples to be analysed within a day. Such optimisation allowed us to determine the best study design and experimental conditions in order to increase statistical significance between groups. In conclusion, we showed that combination of whole slide digital scanning and image analysis could be fully automated and deliver more descriptive and biologically relevant data over traditional methods evaluating histopathological pulmonary changes observed in this mouse model of chronic asthma. PMID:18673504

  8. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN)

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA) measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN) assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively. PMID:26610569

  9. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  10. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  12. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN).

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Hans; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA) measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN) assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively. PMID:26610569

  13. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues using temperature modulated SnO(2) gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Pi, Zongxin; Yu, Zengliang

    2004-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues (acephate and trichlorphon) using temperature modulated SnO(2) gas sensor were studied. The testing method employed only a single SnO(2)-based gas sensor in a rectangular temperature mode to perform the qualitative analysis of pure pesticide vapor and a binary vapor mixture in the air. Experimental results showed that in the range 250-300 degrees C and at the modulating frequency of 20mHz the high selectivity of the sensor could be achieved. The quantitative analysis of the pure pesticide vapor and their mixture were performed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The higher harmonics of the FFT characterized the non-linear properties of the response at the sensor surface. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics exhibited characteristic variations that depend on the concentration and the kinetics of pesticide species on the sensor surface. PMID:18969637

  15. Quantitative and qualitative effects of N10-methylfolate on high-affinity folate binding in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Holm, J; Hansen, S I; Lyngbye, J

    1984-01-01

    N10-methylfolate acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of high-affinity [3H] folate binding in human leukocytes, while methotrexate had no effect. Furthermore, folate binding changed into a non-cooperative type in the presence of N10-methylfolate. Hence, in qualitative and quantitative respects, the substrate specificity characteristics of leukocyte folate binding resemble those of other high-affinity folate binding systems. PMID:6500843

  16. Assessment of Riboflavin as a Tracer Substance: Comparison of a Qualitative to a Quantitative Method of Riboflavin Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Abigail J.; Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Parinello, Christina M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Raby, Wilfred N.; Bisaga, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Background Noncompliance with medications may have major impacts on outcomes measured in research, potentially distorting the validity of controlled clinical trials. Riboflavin is frequently used in trials as a marker of adherence. It can be combined with study medication and is excreted in urine where it fluoresces under UV light. This study compares qualitative visual inspection of fluorescence to quantitative fluorometric analysis of riboflavin concentration in its ability to detect the presence of riboflavin in urine. Methods Twenty-four volunteers received 0 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg doses of riboflavin under single-blind conditions, with 20 also receiving a 100 mg dose. Five serial urine samples were collected over the following 36 hours. Quantitative measurement of riboflavin by fluorometric analysis and qualitative assessment of each sample using visual inspection were performed. Results The overall false positive rate for qualitative assessment was 53%. For quantitative assessment, a riboflavin concentration of 900 ng/mL was established to classify positive samples. More than 80% of samples were positive 2 to 24 hours following ingestion of 25 mg and 50 mg, and less than 80% were positive at 36 hours. At least 95% of observations for the 100 mg dose were above 900 ng/mL at all timepoints. Conclusions Quantitative fluorometric assessment is superior to qualitative visual inspection alone in determining medication adherence. The combination of 25–50 mg of daily riboflavin and a cut-off level of 900 ng/mL allows for the acceptable sensitivity of missing detection of non-compliant participants while preserving a high level of power to detect all cases of medication compliance. PMID:22921475

  17. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brett D; Dierberg, Kerry; Šćepanović, Milena; Mitrović, Mihajlo; Vuksanović, Miloš; Milić, Ljiljana; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings. PMID:15715917

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MR Imaging Helps Subtype Hepatocellular Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Tse, Justin R; Naini, Bita V; Lu, David S K; Raman, Steven S

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To determine which clinical variables and gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features are associated with histologically proved hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) genotypic subtypes. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, clinical information and MR images of 49 histologically proved HCAs from January 2002 to December 2013 (21 patients; mean age, 39 years; age range, 15-59 years) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Qualitative and quantitative imaging features, including the signal intensity ratio relative to liver in each phase, were studied. HCA tissues were stained with subtype-specific markers and subclassified by a pathologist. Clinical and imaging data were correlated with pathologic findings and compared by using Fisher exact or t test, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results Forty-nine HCAs were subclassified into 14 inflammatory, 20 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α-mutated, one β-catenin-activated, and 14 unclassified lesions. Intralesional steatosis was exclusively seen in HNF-1α-mutated lesions. Marked hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was seen in 12 of 14 (86%) inflammatory lesions compared with four of 21 (19%) HNF-1α-mutated, seven of 14 (50%) unclassified, and zero of one (0%) β-catenin-activated lesion. Two large lesions (one β-catenin-activated and one unclassified) transformed into hepatocellular carcinomas and were the only lesions to enhance with marked heterogeneity. In the hepatobiliary phase, all HCA subtypes were hypoenhancing compared with surrounding liver parenchyma, and they reached their nadir signal intensity by 10 minutes after the administration of contrast material before plateauing. HNF-1α-mutated lesions had the lowest lesion signal intensity ratio of 0.47 ± 0.09, compared with 0.73 ± 0.18 for inflammatory lesions (P = .0004), 0.82 for

  19. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, affecting more than 130,000 Americans every year1. Determining tumor margins prior to surgical resection is essential to providing optimal treatment and reducing recurrence rates. Colorectal cancer recurrence can occur in up to 20% of cases, commonly within three years after curative treatment. Typically, when colorectal cancers are resected, a margin of normal tissue on both sides of the tumor is required. The minimum margin required for colon cancer is 5 cm and for the lower rectum 2 cm. However, usually more normal tissue is taken on both sides of the tumor because the blood supply to the entire segment is removed with the surgery and therefore the entire segment must be removed. Anastomotic recurrences may result from inadequate margins. Pathologists look at the margins to ensure that there is no residual tumor and this is usually documented in the pathology report. We have developed a portable, point-of-care fiber bundle microendoscopy imaging system for detection of abnormalities in colonic epithelial microstructure. The system comprises a laptop, a modified fiber bundle image guide with a 1mm active area diameter and custom LabVIEW interface, and is approved for imaging surgically resected colon tissue at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. The microendoscopy probe provides high-resolution images of superficial epithelial histology in real-time to assist surgical guidance and to localize occult regions of dysplasia which may not be visible. Microendoscopy images of freshly resected human colonic epithelium were acquired using the microendoscopy device and subsequently mosaicked using custom post-processing software. Architectural changes in the glands were mapped to histopathology H&E slides taken from the precise location of the microendoscopy images. Qualitatively, glandular distortion and placement of image guide was used to map normal and dysplastic areas of

  20. 35Year Research History of Cytotoxicity and Cancer: a Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, characterized by irregular cell growth. Cytotoxicity or killing tumor cells that divide rapidly is the basic function of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, these agents can damage normal dividing cells, leading to adverse effects in the body. In view of great advances in cancer therapy, which are increasingly reported each year, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the papers published between 1981 and December 2015, with a closer look at the highly cited papers (HCPs), for a better understanding of literature related to cytotoxicity in cancer therapy. Online documents in the Web of Science (WOS) database were analyzed based on the publication year, the number of times they were cited, research area, source, language, document type, countries, organizationenhanced and funding agencies. A total of 3,473 publications relevant to the target key words were found in the WOS database over 35 years and 86% of them (n=2,993) were published between 20002015. These papers had been cited 54,330 times without self citation from 1981 to 2015. Of the 3,473 publications, 17 (3,557citations) were the most frequently cited ones between 2005 and 2015. The topmost HCP was about generating a comprehensive preclinical database (CCLE) with 825 (23.2%) citations. One third of the remaining HCPs had focused on drug discovery through improving conventional therapeutic agents such as metformin and ginseng. Another 33% of the HCPs concerned engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendritic polymers, PTX/SPIOloaded PLGAs and cell derived NPs to increase drug effectiveness and decrease drug toxicity in cancer therapy. The remaining HCPs reported novel factors such as miR205, Nrf2 and p27 suggesting their interference with development of cancer in targeted cancer therapy. In conclusion, analysis of 35year publications and HCPs on cytotoxicity in cancer in the present report provides opportunities for

  1. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each

  2. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  3. The Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cohorts' Early Enrollment in Physics: concurrent with enrollment in mathematics, biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Robert Bruce Rodes

    Cohorts of 48 entering biological science majors was recruited in the fall of 2007 and again in 2008 and 2009 for the Interdisciplinary Science Experience (ISE). These ISE students enrolled in their own sections of standard courses of physics, chemistry, and biology. In these courses average ISE student out-performed their non-cohort peers by up to a full letter grade. A qualitative analysis of ISE student interviews illuminates the student experience and shows how the ISE students perceived themselves to be different than their non-cohort peers. Quantitative modeling of student performance shows that higher grades are correlated with multiple factors. These factors includes admissions characteristics such as high school GPA, and SAT scores, as well as demographic information. These trends support and elaborate on the selection narratives told by participants. Additionally the quantitative model found that higher student performance is predicted by structural aspects of the ISE program, specifically the timing of course, enrolling as a freshmen in many of their courses, and the sequencing of physics and chemistry courses. There is a statistically significant benefit to student performance in general and organic chemistry courses associated with completing the first quarter of the Physics for Bio-Science majors prior to enrollment. Further the combination of quantitative and qualitative data suggest that there is a epistemological transfer of problem solving skills and outlook from the physics to the chemistry courses.

  4. [Study of qualitative and quantitative of dietary fibre composition in dry breakfasts and food supplements, contains wheaten brain].

    PubMed

    Berketova, L V

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quanitative composition of 15 samples of dry breakfasts and 19 variants food supplements, containing wheaten brain, was studied with a help of enzyme method, based on hydrolysis of protein and starch by enzymes, analogous with enzymes of digestive tract homo. It is shown, that the common contents of dietary fibres in samples of dry breakfasts is in limits from 11 up to 39%. Greatest contents IDF is observed in samples of breakfasts with addition of a thistle from 21 up to 35%, and greatest contents SDF with addition (see text for symbol) and beet - 9% and 7% accordingly. The common contents of dietary fibres in samples biologically active additives is in limits from 26 up to 73% that is caused by qualitative and quantitative structure of initial raw material. Group IDF in biologically active additive has made from 23 up to 69%, and contents SDF changes from 1% up to 19%. PMID:16729757

  5. Laser under ultrastrong light-matter interaction: Qualitative aspects and quantitative influences by level and mode truncations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Motoaki; Ogawa, Tetsuo

    2016-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) in the ultrastrong light-matter interaction regime under the two-level and single-mode approximations. The conventional picture of the laser is broken under the ultrastrong interaction. Instead, we must explicitly discuss the dynamics of the electric field and of the magnetic one distinctively, which make the "laser" qualitatively different from the conventional laser. We found that the laser generally accompanies odd-order harmonics of the electromagnetic fields both inside and outside the cavity and a synchronization with an oscillation of atomic population. A bistability is also demonstrated. However, since our model is quite simplified, we got quantitatively different results from the Hamiltonians in the velocity and length forms of the light-matter interaction, while the appearance of the multiple harmonics and the bistability is qualitatively reliable.

  6. Tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigrams after maximal coronary artery vasodilation with intravenous dipyridamole: comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, D.A.; Collins, S.M.; Go, R.T.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Van Kirk, O.C.; Marcus, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    Eighty-six patients had thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigrams after intense coronary artery dilation with i.v. dipyridamole. Tomographic and planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams were obtained in each patient. Tomographic scintigrams were interpreted using quantitative or visual criteria; planar scintigrams were assessed using visual criteria only. When visual criteria were used, interobserver variability was 40% for tomographic scintigrams and 44% for planar scintigrams. In the 24 patients with normal or nonsignificant CAD, quantitative analysis of the tomograms (range approach) indicated that one of 24 (4%) had a positive image (specificity 96%%); in contrast, when visual criteria were used to interpret the tomographic or planar /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, eight of 24 (33%) had positive scintigrams (specificity 67%). In the 51 abnormal patients, the sensitivity of detecting CAD was 46 of 51 (90%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted quantitatively, 39 of 51 (76%) for tomographic scintigrams interpreted visually and 41 of 51 (80%) for planar scintigrams assessed visually. The tomographic imaging procedure (quantitative interpretation) also demonstrated a high sensitivity (89%) and specificity (100%) in 28 patients (10 normal and 18 CAD), with a clinical diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris. Overall, the predictive accuracy of an abnormal scintigram with quantitative tomographic imaging (98%) was significantly better (p<0.05) than either qualitative planar or pinhole imaging. (JMT)

  7. What Are the Issues Confronting Infertile Women? A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerli, Katja; Znoj, Hansjorg; Berger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a stressful experience, yet little is known about the specific issues confronting infertile women. In the present study, researchers sought to identify themes important to infertile women and examine possible associations with mental health levels. Using qualitative content analysis, researchers analyzed the email messages of 57…

  8. A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tina Rye

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…

  9. A Quantitative vs. a Qualitative Approach to the Teaching of English Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azabdaftari, Behrooz

    1981-01-01

    Briefly describes hypotheses that teachers teaching learners to write a composition in a second language should be concerned with quality or quantity. Concludes attention to quality cannot but be rewarding, all students can benefit from qualitative approach, and a positive attitude toward language activity is a major factor contributing to…

  10. From Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again: Philosophical and Methodological Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    Allegations by a resigning employee of intimidation, cover-up, unethical behavior, legal violations, waste, and mismanagement were investigated at a major university, relying on confidential interviews and a review of relevant documentation. The case study of this evaluation illustrates the advantages of a mix of qualitative and quantitative…

  11. Criteria of Career Success among Chinese Employees: Developing a Multidimensional Scale with Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenxia; Sun, Jianmin; Guan, Yanjun; Li, Yuhui; Pan, Jingzhou

    2013-01-01

    The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure on the criteria of career success in a Chinese context. Items on the criteria of career success were obtained using a qualitative approach among 30 Chinese employees; exploratory factor analysis was conducted to select items and determine the factor structure among a new sample of…

  12. The emotional coaching model: quantitative and qualitative research into relationships, communication and decisions in physical and sports rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Respizzi, Stefano; Covelli, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The emotional coaching model uses quantitative and qualitative elements to demonstrate some assumptions relevant to new methods of treatment in physical rehabilitation, considering emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects in patients, whether or not they are sportsmen. Through quantitative tools (Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale, Emotional Interview Test, Previous Re-Injury Test, and reports on test scores) and qualitative tools (training contracts and relationships of emotional alliance or "contagion"), we investigate initial assumptions regarding: the presence of a cognitive and emotional mental state of impasse in patients at the beginning of the rehabilitation pathway; the curative value of the emotional alliance or "emotional contagion" relationship between healthcare provider and patient; the link between the patient's pathology and type of contact with his own body and emotions; analysis of the psychosocial variables for the prediction of possible cases of re-injury for patients who have undergone or are afraid to undergo reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Although this approach is still in the experimental stage, the scores of the administered tests show the possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative tools to investigate and develop a patient's physical, mental and emotional resources during the course of his rehabilitation. Furthermore, it seems possible to identify many elements characterizing patients likely to undergo episodes of re-injury or to withdraw totally from sporting activity. In particular, such patients are competitive athletes, who fear or have previously undergone ACL reconstruction. The theories referred to (the transactional analysis theory, self-determination theory) and the tools used demonstrate the usefulness of continuing this research in order to build a shared coaching model treatment aimed at all patients, sportspeople or otherwise, which is not only physical but also emotional, cognitive and

  13. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative

  14. The emotional coaching model: quantitative and qualitative research into relationships, communication and decisions in physical and sports rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    RESPIZZI, STEFANO; COVELLI, ELISABETTA

    2015-01-01

    The emotional coaching model uses quantitative and qualitative elements to demonstrate some assumptions relevant to new methods of treatment in physical rehabilitation, considering emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects in patients, whether or not they are sportsmen. Through quantitative tools (Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale, Emotional Interview Test, Previous Re-Injury Test, and reports on test scores) and qualitative tools (training contracts and relationships of emotional alliance or “contagion”), we investigate initial assumptions regarding: the presence of a cognitive and emotional mental state of impasse in patients at the beginning of the rehabilitation pathway; the curative value of the emotional alliance or “emotional contagion” relationship between healthcare provider and patient; the link between the patient’s pathology and type of contact with his own body and emotions; analysis of the psychosocial variables for the prediction of possible cases of re-injury for patients who have undergone or are afraid to undergo reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Although this approach is still in the experimental stage, the scores of the administered tests show the possibility of integrating quantitative and qualitative tools to investigate and develop a patient’s physical, mental and emotional resources during the course of his rehabilitation. Furthermore, it seems possible to identify many elements characterizing patients likely to undergo episodes of re-injury or to withdraw totally from sporting activity. In particular, such patients are competitive athletes, who fear or have previously undergone ACL reconstruction. The theories referred to (the transactional analysis theory, self-determination theory) and the tools used demonstrate the usefulness of continuing this research in order to build a shared coaching model treatment aimed at all patients, sportspeople or otherwise, which is not only physical but also emotional, cognitive

  15. Transient segregation behavior in Cd1-xZnxTe with low Zn content-A qualitative and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, M.; Jurisch, M.

    2015-06-01

    The paper analyzes experimental compositional profiles in Vertical Bridgman (VB, VGF) grown (Cd,Zn)Te crystals, found in the literature. The origin of the observed axial ZnTe-distribution profiles is attributed to dendritic growth after initial nucleation from supercooled melts. The analysis was done by utilizing a boundary layer model providing a very good approximation of the experimental data. Besides the discussion of the qualitative results also a quantitative analysis of the fitted model parameters is presented as far as it is possible by the utilized model.

  16. Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina

    2012-12-01

    In exercise and cognition research, few studies have investigated whether and how the qualitative aspects of physical exercise may impact cognitive performance in the short or long term. This commentary, after recalling the evidence on the "dose-response" relationship, shifts the focus to intersections between different research areas that are proposed to shed light on how qualitative exercise characteristics can be used to obtain cognitive benefits. As concerns the acute exercise area, this commentary highlights the applied relevance of developmental and aging studies investigating the effects of exercise bouts differing in movement task complexity and cognitive demands. As regards the chronic exercise area, potential links to research on cognitive expertise in sport, functional ability in aging, and life skills training during development are discussed. "Gross-motor cognitive training" is proposed as a key concept with relevant implications for intervention strategies in childhood and older adulthood. PMID:23204358

  17. Exploratory data analysis groupware for qualitative and quantitative electrophoretic gel analysis over the Internet-WebGel.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Myrick, J M; Lakshmanan, Y; Shue, M J; Patrick, J L; Hornbeck, P V; Thornwal, G C; Partin, A W

    1999-12-01

    Many scientists use quantitative measurements to compare the presence and amount, of various proteins and nucleotides among series of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) electrophoretic gels. These gels are often scanned into digital image files. Gel spots are then quantified using stand-alone analysis software. However, as more research collaborations take place over the Internet, it has become useful to share intermediate quantitative data between researchers. This allows research group members to investigate their data and share their work in progress. We developed a World Wide Web group-accessible software system, WebGel, for interactively exploring qualitative and quantitative differences between electrophoretic gels. Such Internet databases are useful for publishing quantitative data and allow other researchers to explore the data with respect to their own research. Because intermediate results of one user may be shared with their collaborators using WebGel, this form of active data-sharing constitutes a groupware method for enhancing collaborative research. Quantitative and image gel data from a stand-alone gel image processing system are copied to a database accessible on the WebGel Web server. These data are then available for analysis by the WebGel database program residing on that server. Visualization is critical for better understanding of the data. WebGel helps organize labeled gel images into montages of corresponding spots as seen in these different gels. Various views of multiple gel images, including sets of spots, normalization spots, labeled spots, segmented gels, etc. may also be displayed. These displays are active and may be used for performing database operations directly on individual protein spots by simply clicking on them. Corresponding regions between sets of gels may be visually analyzed using Flicker-comparison (Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 122-140) as one of the WebGel methods for qualitative analysis. Quantitative exploratory data

  18. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und Priorität von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder ändert, als nur für ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadäquaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und Gültigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber für materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollständigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit Richtungsänderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder Wellenlängen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; Nichtlokalität; Unschärfen bei Bestimmung komplementärer also auf identischen Information beruhender Größen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle Qualität seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primäre direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. Nachgefügt wurde noch eine Gegenüberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  19. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  20. Standardizing evaluation of pQCT image quality in the presence of subject movement: qualitative versus quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Farr, Joshua N; Schiferl, Daniel J; Going, Scott B

    2014-02-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is an essential tool for assessing bone parameters of the limbs, but subject movement and its impact on image quality remains a challenge to manage. The current approach to determine image viability is by visual inspection, but pQCT lacks a quantitative evaluation. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) examine the reliability of a qualitative visual inspection scale and (2) establish a quantitative motion assessment methodology. Scans were performed on 506 healthy girls (9-13 years) at diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. Scans were rated for movement independently by three technicians using a linear, nominal scale. Quantitatively, a ratio of movement to limb size (%Move) provided a measure of movement artifact. A repeat-scan subsample (n = 46) was examined to determine %Move's impact on bone parameters. Agreement between measurers was strong (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.732 for tibia, 0.812 for femur), but greater variability was observed in scans rated 3 or 4, the delineation between repeat and no repeat. The quantitative approach found ≥95% of subjects had %Move <25 %. Comparison of initial and repeat scans by groups above and below 25% initial movement showed significant differences in the >25 % grouping. A pQCT visual inspection scale can be a reliable metric of image quality, but technicians may periodically mischaracterize subject motion. The presented quantitative methodology yields more consistent movement assessment and could unify procedure across laboratories. Data suggest a delineation of 25% movement for determining whether a diaphyseal scan is viable or requires repeat. PMID:24077875

  1. Mhc supertypes confer both qualitative and quantitative resistance to avian malaria infections in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Sepil, Irem; Lachish, Shelly; Hinks, Amy E.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are believed to play a key role in the genetic basis of disease control. Although numerous studies have sought links between Mhc and disease prevalence, many have ignored the ecological and epidemiological aspects of the host–parasite interaction. Consequently, interpreting associations between prevalence and Mhc has been difficult, whereas discriminating alleles for qualitative resistance, quantitative resistance and susceptibility remains challenging. Moreover, most studies to date have quantified associations between genotypes and disease status, overlooking the complex relationship between genotype and the properties of the Mhc molecule that interacts with parasites. Here, we address these problems and demonstrate avian malaria (Plasmodium) parasite species-specific associations with functional properties of Mhc molecules (Mhc supertypes) in a wild great tit (Parus major) population. We further show that correctly interpreting these associations depends crucially on understanding the spatial variation in risk of infection and the fitness effects of infection. We report that a single Mhc supertype confers qualitative resistance to Plasmodium relictum, whereas a different Mhc supertype confers quantitative resistance to Plasmodium circumflexum infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate common functional properties of Plasmodium-resistance alleles in passerine birds, suggesting this is a model system for parasite–Mhc associations in the wild. PMID:23516242

  2. Quantitative & qualitative analysis of endothelial cells of donor cornea before & after penetrating keratoplasty in different pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aruna K.R.; Gupta, Roopam K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endothelial cells of the donor cornea are known to be affected quantitatively and qualitatively in different pathological conditions after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and this has direct effect on the clarity of vision obtained after PK. This study was undertaken to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in donor endothelial cells before and after PK in different pathological conditions. Methods: A prospective investigational analysis of 100 consecutive donor corneas used for penetrating keratoplasty between June 2006 and June 2008, was conducted. The patients were evaluated on the first day, at the end of first week, first month, third and six months and one year. Results: A decrease was observed in endothelial cell count in all pathological conditions. After one year of follow up the loss was 33.1 per cent in corneal opacity, 45.9 per cent in acute infective keratitis (AIK), 58.5 per cent in regrafts, 28.5 per cent in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK), 37 per cent in descemetocele, 27 per cent in keratoconus and 35.5 per cent in aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK) cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The endothelial cell loss was highest in regraft cases which was significant (P<0.05), while the least endothelial cell loss was seen in keratoconus cases. The cell loss was associated with increase in coefficient of variation (CV), i.e. polymegathism and pleomorphism. Inspite of this polymegathism and pleomorphism, the clarity of the graft was maintained. PMID:27121519

  3. Birds and bats diverge in the qualitative and quantitative components of seed dispersal of a pioneer tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacomassa, Fábio André F.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2010-09-01

    Although the overlap in fruit diet between birds and bats is low, they sometimes consume and compete for fruits of the same plant species. What is poorly known is how birds and bats compare with each other in relation to the effectiveness of seed dispersal. In this paper we contrasted birds and bats in relation to quantitative (the amount of fruits removed from plants) and qualitative (germination performance of seeds) components of the seed dispersal of Solanum granuloso- leprosum, a pioneer, small-seeded tree of open areas and forest edges in south Brazil. We tagged fruits on the plants and monitored their removal by day and night. We compared the final percent of germination and speed of germination of seeds ingested by birds and bats with non-ingested, control seeds. While bats removed more fruits than birds, performing better in the quantitative component, birds improved the germination performance of seeds, an aspect of the qualitative component of seed dispersal effectiveness. Although bats are more likely to deposit seeds in highly disturbed sites that favor the recruitment of pioneer plant species, birds frequent forest edges, which is also suitable habitat for S. granuloso- leprosum, We concluded that birds and bats are not 'redundant' seed dispersers for S. granuloso- leprosum because in conjunction they may enhance its recruitment by diversifying the microsites where seeds are deposited, performing in addition different ecological functions in terms of quantity and quality of dispersal.

  4. Amorphous solid dispersions of piroxicam and Soluplus(®): Qualitative and quantitative analysis of piroxicam recrystallization during storage.

    PubMed

    Lust, Andres; Strachan, Clare J; Veski, Peep; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko; Kogermann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from amorphous to crystalline form is the primary stability issue in formulating amorphous solid dispersions (SDs). The aim of the present study was to carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of the physical solid-state stability of the SDs of poorly water-soluble piroxicam (PRX) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene-glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus(®)). The SDs were prepared by a solvent evaporation method and stored for six months at 0% RH/6 °C, 0% RH/25 °C, 40% RH/25 °C and 75% RH/25 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy equipped with attenuated total reflection accessory (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were used for characterizing the physical solid-state changes and drug-polymer interactions. The principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Raman spectra collected during storage. When stored at 0% RH/6 °C and at 0% RH/25 °C, PRX in SDs remained in an amorphous form since no recrystallization was observed by ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA and MCR-ALS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy enabled to detect the recrystallization of amorphous PRX in the samples stored at higher humidity. PMID:25843761

  5. Quantitative and qualitative control of cytotoxic preparations by HPLC-UV in a centralized parenteral preparations unit.

    PubMed

    Delmas, A; Gordien, J B; Bernadou, J M; Roudaut, M; Gresser, A; Malki, L; Saux, M C; Breilh, D

    2009-07-12

    The constantly growing incidence of cancer and long-term treatment are leading to an increasing number of cytotoxic preparations in hospital pharmacies. Security and quality standards of cytotoxic preparations are essential to assure treatment efficiency and limit iatrogenic toxicity. In order to secure the process of cytotoxic preparations; we decided to install a quantitative and qualitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) control of cytotoxic preparations carried inside our pharmacotechnic unit. A 100 microl sample of each preparation was assayed by HPLC with ultraviolet/visible-diode array detection, which enabled the identification of all cytotoxic agents thanks to their characteristic UV spectra. We developed rapid and specific HPLC assays that determined qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of 21 different cytotoxic agents in less than 3.5 min. A fifteen per cent tolerance from the theoretical concentration was chosen in agreement with preparation and dosage bias, and a first period control of more than 4400 preparations revealed that around 7.7% preparations did not conform. The main objective of these controls was to avoid the administration of defective chemotherapies to patients and finally to use their results to identify error factors; as a result we will take corrective measures in order to reduce error frequency. PMID:19362442

  6. Are qualitative and quantitative sleep problems associated with delinquency when controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision?

    PubMed

    Backman, Heidi; Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Aronen, Eeva T

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, including both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and delinquent behaviour while controlling for psychopathic features of adolescents and parental supervision at bedtime. We analysed data from a nationally representative sample of 4855 Finnish adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, 51% females). Sleep problems, hours of sleep and delinquency were evaluated via self-report. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device - Self-Report. In negative binomial regressions, gender and sleep-related variables acted as predictors for both property and violent crime after controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision at bedtime. The results suggest that both sleep problems (at least three times per week, at least for a year) and an insufficient amount of sleep (less than 7 h) are associated with property crime and violent behaviour, and the relationship is not explained by gender, degree of parental supervision at bedtime or co-occurring psychopathic features. These results suggest that sleep difficulties and insufficient amount of sleep are associated with delinquent behaviour in adolescents. The significance of addressing sleep-related problems, both qualitative and quantitative, among adolescents is thus highlighted. Implications for a prevention technique of delinquent behaviour are discussed. PMID:25847544

  7. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service. PMID:19669176

  8. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were successfully separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily...

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Relations between Motivation and Critical-Analytic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, David B.; Wigfield, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine two kinds of factors that affect students' motivation to engage in critical-analytic thinking. The first, which includes ability beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goal orientations, influences the "quantitative" relation between motivation and critical-analytic thinking; that is, whether students are…

  10. A Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry into the Attitudes toward Science of Nonscience College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Luanne; Swartz, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative outcomes from the Attitudes toward Science Inventory, as well as interview results, indicate that nonscience college majors have high anxiety levels in combination with low levels of motivation when confronted with science material. Further, these attitudes toward science change with exposure to introductory, science instruction with…

  11. French behind Bars: A Qualitative and Quantitative Examination of College French Teaching in Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ann Masters

    1994-01-01

    One instructor's experiences teaching French to prison inmates is recounted. Descriptions of the students, instructional environment, limitations of the textbook, and student creativity are accompanied by a quantitative analysis of the inmates' academic achievement. Their grades did not differ noticeably from those of students taught by the author…

  12. Transcending the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide with Mixed Methods Research: A Multidimensional Framework for Understanding Congruence and Completeness in the Study of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLafferty, Charles L., Jr.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative research dominates published literature in the helping professions. Mixed methods research, which integrates quantitative and qualitative methodologies, has received a lukewarm reception. The authors address the iterative separation that infuses theory, praxis, philosophy, methodology, training, and public perception and propose a…

  13. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of under-balcony acoustics with real and simulated arrays of multiple sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youngmin

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively identify the acoustics of the under-balcony areas in music performance halls under realistic conditions that are close to an orchestral performance in consideration of multiple music instrumental sources and their diverse sound propagation patterns. The study executed monaural and binaural impulse response measurements with an array of sixteen directional sources (loudspeakers) for acoustical assessments. Actual measurements in a performance hall as well as computer simulations were conducted for the quantitative assessments. Psycho-acoustical listening tests were conducted for the qualitative assessments using the music signals binaurally recorded in the hall with the same source array. The results obtained from the multiple directional source tests were analyzed by comparing them to those obtained from the tests performed with a single omni-directional source. These two sets of results obtained in the under-balcony area were also compared to those obtained in the main orchestra area. The quantitative results showed that the use of a single source conforming to conventional measurement protocol seems to be competent for measurements of the room acoustical parameters such as EDTmid, RTmid, C80500-2k, IACCE3 and IACCL3. These quantitative measures, however, did not always agree with the results of the qualitative assessments. The primary reason is that, in many other acoustical analysis respects, the acoustical phenomena shown from the multiple source measurements were not similar to those shown from the single source measurements. Remarkable differences were observed in time-domain impulse responses, frequency content, spectral distribution, directional distribution of the early reflections, and in sound energy density over time. Therefore, the room acoustical parameters alone should not be the acoustical representative characterizing a performance hall or a specific area such as the under

  14. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  15. The use of semi-structured interviews for collection of qualitative and quantitative data in hydrological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozovic, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    To build an accurate, robust understanding of the environment, it is important to not only collect information describing its physical characteristics, but also the drivers which influence it. As environmental change, from increasing CO2 levels to decreasing water levels, is often heavily influenced by human activity, gathering information on anthropogenic as well as environmental variables is extremely important. This can mean collecting qualitative, as well as quantitative information. In reality studies are often bound by financial and time constraints, limiting the depth and detail of the research. It is up to the researcher to determine what the best methodology to answer the research questions is likely to be. Here we present a methodology of collecting qualitative and quantitative information in tandem for hydrological studies through the use of semi-structured interviews. This is applied to a case study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, North India, one of the most intensely irrigated areas of the world. Here, decreasing water levels exacerbated by unchecked water abstraction, an expanding population and government subsidies, have put the long term resilience of the farming population in doubt. Through random selection of study locations, combined with convenience sampling of the participants therein, we show how the data collected can provide valuable insight into the drivers which have led to the current water scenario. We also show how reliable quantitative information can, using the same methodology, be effectively and efficiently extracted for modelling purposes, which along with developing an understanding of the characteristics of the environment is vital in coming up with realistic and sustainable solutions for water resource management in the future.

  16. Normal Cerebellar Development by Qualitative and Quantitative MR Imaging: From the Fetus to the Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    This article presents an overview of published studies using conventional and quantitative MR imaging to describe normal development of the cerebellum prenatally and postnatally through 18 years of age. Normal cerebellar development and maturational processes are described here within the context of MR imaging morphology, microstructure, metabolism, and functional connectivity. In addition, strengths and weaknesses of these reviewed studies are critically appraised and new directions for future cerebellar MR imaging investigation are made. PMID:27423797

  17. Growth of the developing mouse heart: an interactive qualitative and quantitative 3D atlas.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bouke A; van den Berg, Gert; de Boer, Piet A J; Moorman, Antoon F M; Ruijter, Jan M

    2012-08-15

    Analysis of experiments aimed at understanding the genetic mechanisms of differentiation and growth of the heart, calls for detailed insights into cardiac growth and proliferation rate of myocytes and their precursors. Such insights in mouse heart development are currently lacking. We quantitatively assessed the 3D patterns of proliferation in the forming mouse heart and in the adjacent splanchnic mesoderm, from the onset of heart formation till the developed heart at late gestation. These results are presented in an interactive portable document format (Suppl. PDF) to facilitate communication and understanding. We show that the mouse splanchnic mesoderm is highly proliferative, and that the proliferation rate drops upon recruitment of cells into the cardiac lineage. Concomitantly, the proliferation rate locally increases at the sites of chamber formation, generating a regionalized proliferation pattern. Quantitative analysis shows a gradual decrease in proliferation rate of the ventricular walls with progression of development, and a base-to-top decline in proliferation rate in the trabecules. Our data offers clear insights into the growth and morphogenesis of the mouse heart and shows that in early development the phases of tube formation and chamber formation overlap. The resulting interactive quantitative 3D atlas of cardiac growth and morphogenesis provides a resource for interpretation of mechanistic studies. PMID:22617458

  18. Microscopic identification of Chinese medicinal materials based on X-ray phase contrast imaging: from qualitative to quantitative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Liang, Z.; Tan, H.; Ni, L.; Zhao, Z.; Xiao, T.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    Although a variety of methods, ranging from simple morphological examination to physical and chemical analysis, and DNA molecular biology, exist for authenticating Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs), no methods can achieve both the source species identification and quality evaluation of CMMs simultaneously. Furthermore, the methods that are currently available for the identification of CMMs, including both optical and electronic microscopy, usually entail strict requirements for sample preparation or testing environment, such as the slicing of super-thin sections, or processing with specific chemical reagents. These treatments not only damage the CMMs but may also cause some of the original microstructures to be missed. Additionally, they may even yield false results. Owing to the unique penetrating character of X-rays, X-ray phase contrast imaging(XPCI) can be used to realize the inner microstructures of CMMs through nondestructive imaging. With the higher flux and luminance of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facility, XPCI can provides clearer and finer microstructures of CMMs, which are mainly composed of C, H, O, and N elements, with better spatial and density resolutions. For more than ten years, the X-ray imaging group at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has investigated the microstructures of CMMs by XPCI and they have established and developed a quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT for investigating the characteristic microstructures of CMMs. During this period, a variety of typical CMMs have been investigated, from two-dimensional (2D) radiography to three-dimensional (3D) micro-CT, from qualitative to quantitative. Taken together, these results verify that quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT is a practical tool for the microscopic investigation of CMMs. Additionally, further efforts are being made to find the relationship between the microstructures' quantitative factors and active chemical components. At present

  19. Some qualitative and quantitative aspects of the fast-rotating clinostat as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Briegleb, W

    1992-10-01

    In 1958 the geneticist H.J. Muller proposed an extension of the principle of the (slow) plant clinostat which --to a certain extent--abolishes g effects on plant growth (geotropism). Muller predicted that a feeling of weightlessness would be experienced by a human being attached to a clinostat platform, the rotation speed of which is enhanced compared to that of the plant clinostat. This method (called fast-rotating or fast clinostat) was developed by the author in the mid 1960s to investigate the effects of weightlessness on small living objects. This chapter describes the method qualitatively on the basis of a macroscopic functional model and of empirical results obtained using a fast-rotating clinostat microscope. Some practical hints in using the slow and fast clinostat principles are given. PMID:11537638

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes of a 1:1 Multidisciplinary Weight Management Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Desley; Haboubi, Nadim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity management in Wales includes the provision of a 1:1 Multidisciplinary Weight Management Clinic (MDWMC). Strategic management of obesity in Wales is guided by The All Wales Obesity Pathway and recommends MDWMCs for people with obesity who have one or more co-morbidities and who have tried several interventions without success, or who have complex emotional relationships with food. No known previous studies have included a qualitative evaluation of a MDWMC. Objectives: To conduct a service evaluation of a 1:1 Multi-disciplinary Weight Management Clinic to evaluate associated physiological benefits and qualitative data about the service. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 180 patients attending the MDWMC at Aneurin Bevan Hospital, Ebbw Vale, Wales. Results: The MDWMC supports weight loss with 95% of patients reporting loss. For those for whom baseline data was available 73% lost at least 5% of initial body weight. Eighty-eight percent of patients prefer individual appointments and over 90% of patients who see each team member find consultations useful. Sixty-nine percent of patients report improved health mainly due to a decrease in obesity-related symptoms, and of patients taking obesity-related medication 48% report a reduction in dose of medication for asthma, 42% report a reduction in dose of antidepressants, and 36% report a reduction in dose for medication for diabetes. Of employed patients, 30% report a reduction of days taken off work due to sickness. Ninety-six percent of patients would recommend the clinic to others. Conclusions: A 1:1 Multi-disciplinary Weight Management Clinic provides value in reducing obesity and symptoms of obesity-related diseases. It also is a treatment choice favoured by patients.

  1. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone program

    PubMed Central

    Tzemis, Despina; Al-Qutub, Diana; Amlani, Ashraf; Kesselring, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background In August 2012, the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone (BCTHN) program was introduced to help to reduce opioid overdose and its consequences. This study evaluates the BCTHN program, identifying the successes and challenges of implementing a provincial program in Canada. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed the records of the BCTHN administrative program to report on program outcomes (participation and overdose reversals). Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 40 clients in Vancouver; 12 individual interviews were completed with service providers, police officers and parents of people who use opioids from both the Vancouver and Interior regions of British Columbia. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and a qualitative descriptive approach. Results As of March 13, 2014, the BCTHN program had been implemented at 40 sites, trained 1318 participants in overdose prevention, recognition and response, distributed 836 kits to clients and received reports of 85 overdose reversals. Stakeholders were supportive of the program, and clients reported greater confidence in response to overdose. Service providers found the program training materials easy to use and that training increased client engagement. Some of the challenges included difficulty in identifying physician willing to prescribe, recruitment of some at-risk populations (e.g., long-term opioid users and patients with chronic pain), and clients’ reluctance to call 911. We also found that the police had some misconceptions about BCTHN. Interpretation The BCTHN program was easy to implement, empowering for clients and was responsible for reversing 85 overdoses in its first 20 months. We suggest communities across Canada should consider implementing take-home naloxone programs and evaluate their findings. PMID:25295235

  2. Transition to injecting drug use in Iran: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative evidence

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Shadloo, Behrang; Malekinejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use has been increasing over the past decade in Iran. This study aims to review the epidemiological and qualitative evidence on factors that facilitate or protect against transition to injection in Iran. Methods Five international (Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO), one regional (IMEMR) and three Iranian (Iranmedex, Iranpsych, IranDoc) databases were searched and key experts were contacted. Two trained researchers screened documents to identify relevant studies and independently extracted data using a pre-specified protocol. A thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data and a random effect meta-analysis model was used to determine age of first injection. Results A total of 39 documents from 31 studies met the eligibility criteria; more than 50% were conducted between 2006 and 2008. The weighted mean age of first injection was 25.8 years (95% Confidence Interval: 25.3–26.2). Overall, drug users had used drugs for 6 to 7 years before starting to inject. Heroin was the first drug of injection in the majority of cases. Factors influencing transition to injection included 1) individual (pleasure-seeking behavior and development of drug dependency), 2) social network (role of peer drug users in first injection use), and 3) environmental (the economic efficiency associated with injection and the wide availability of injectable form of drugs in the market). Conclusion Harm reduction policies in Iran have almost exclusively focused on drug injectors. However, given the extent of non-injection drug use, evidence from this study can provide insight on points of interventions for preventing transition to injection use. PMID:26210009

  3. Clinical significance of quantitative and qualitative detection of BK and JC virus in blood and urine of renal transplantation recipients

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liangwei; Qu, Qingshan; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate value of quantitative and qualitative detection of BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) in timely diagnosing polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) occurring inrenal transplantation recipients. Methods: We collected 306 cases of urine specimen and 310 cases of blood specimen from 306 patients who underwent renal transplant. Levels of BKV and JCV in blood and urine were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Detection rate of BKV DNA was 33.3% (102/306) in urine and 34.8% (108/310); while that of JCV DNA was 30.7% (94/306) and 33.5% (104/310) respectively. The lowest detectable limit of BCK and JCV detection for patients who underwent renal transplant was 2×103 copies/ml, suggesting high specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: Real-time quantitative PCR is able to monitor BCV and JCV in renal transplant recipients in a convenient and rapid way, thus it is beneficial for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment of PVAN. PMID:27182256

  4. [Self-perception of oral health and impact on quality of life among the elderly: a quantitative-qualitative approach].

    PubMed

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2011-07-01

    A qualitative-quantitative approach was used in this study to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between self-perception, impact on quality of life and oral health among the elderly. Clinical examination and recorded interviews with objective and discursive questions were conducted with 45 institutionalized elderly people. Descriptive analyses of quantitative data were made. The interviews were transcribed and a systematic reading of the interviews was carried out selecting the components related to the categories under analysis. Photographic images of the oral clinical status were correlated with participants' speech. Quantitative analysis revealed: an average of 4.8 teeth; DMFT were 29.9; 57.7 % were toothless; 60% believed they did not need dental care; 75% suffered a great impact on quality of life due to oral health conditions, despite the fact that 67% evaluated their oral health positively. Underestimation of symptoms, lack of hope and resignation due to limitations regarding poor clinical status were detected. Most elderly people viewed such limitations as a consequence of aging and not as a problem that may be solved. This reality can be changed through information and guidance for elderly people. PMID:21808919

  5. Tentative method for the qualitative detection and quantitative assessment of air contamination by drugs.

    PubMed

    Buogo, A; Eboli, V

    1972-06-01

    A method for detecting and measuring air contamination by drugs is described which uses an electrostatic bacterial air sampler, sprayers for micronizing drugs, and Mueller-Hinton medium seeded with a highly susceptible strain of Sarcina lutea. Three antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, aminosidine) and a sulfonamide (sulfapyrazine) were identified by pretreating portions of medium, showing no bacterial growth, with penicillinase or p-aminobenzoic acid solution and subsequently determining how both drug(-) susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were affected by this pretreatment. Quantitative determinations were also attempted by measuring the size of the inhibition zones. PMID:4483536

  6. Tentative Method for the Qualitative Detection and Quantitative Assessment of Air Contamination by Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Buogo, A.; Eboli, V.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring air contamination by drugs is described which uses an electrostatic bacterial air sampler, sprayers for micronizing drugs, and Mueller-Hinton medium seeded with a highly susceptible strain of Sarcina lutea. Three antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, aminosidine) and a sulfonamide (sulfapyrazine) were identified by pretreating portions of medium, showing no bacterial growth, with penicillinase or p-aminobenzoic acid solution and subsequently determining how both drug- susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were affected by this pretreatment. Quantitative determinations were also attempted by measuring the size of the inhibition zones. Images PMID:4483536

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Transient Fetal Compartments during Prenatal Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Vasung, Lana; Lepage, Claude; Radoš, Milan; Pletikos, Mihovil; Goldman, Jennifer S.; Richiardi, Jonas; Raguž, Marina; Fischi-Gómez, Elda; Karama, Sherif; Huppi, Petra S.; Evans, Alan C.; Kostovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13–40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study. High-resolution T1 weighted MR images were acquired on 19 fetal brain hemispheres. MR images were processed using in-house software (MNI-ACE toolbox). Delineation of fetal compartments was performed semi-automatically by co-registration of MRI with histological sections of the same brains, or with the age-matched brains from Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection. Growth trajectories of transient fetal compartments were reconstructed. The composition of telencephalic wall was quantitatively assessed. Between 13 and 25 PCW, when the intensity of neuronal proliferation decreases drastically, the relative volume of proliferative (ventricular and subventricular) compartments showed pronounced decline. In contrast, synapse- and extracellular matrix-rich subplate compartment continued to grow during the first two trimesters, occupying up to 45% of telencephalon and reaching its maximum volume and thickness around 30 PCW. This developmental maximum coincides with a period of intensive growth of long cortico-cortical fibers, which enter and wait in subplate before approaching the cortical plate. Although we did not find significant age related changes in mean thickness of the cortical plate, the volume, gyrification index, and surface area of the cortical plate continued to exponentially grow during the last phases of prenatal development. This cortical expansion coincides developmentally with the

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Transient Fetal Compartments during Prenatal Human Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Vasung, Lana; Lepage, Claude; Radoš, Milan; Pletikos, Mihovil; Goldman, Jennifer S; Richiardi, Jonas; Raguž, Marina; Fischi-Gómez, Elda; Karama, Sherif; Huppi, Petra S; Evans, Alan C; Kostovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study. High-resolution T1 weighted MR images were acquired on 19 fetal brain hemispheres. MR images were processed using in-house software (MNI-ACE toolbox). Delineation of fetal compartments was performed semi-automatically by co-registration of MRI with histological sections of the same brains, or with the age-matched brains from Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection. Growth trajectories of transient fetal compartments were reconstructed. The composition of telencephalic wall was quantitatively assessed. Between 13 and 25 PCW, when the intensity of neuronal proliferation decreases drastically, the relative volume of proliferative (ventricular and subventricular) compartments showed pronounced decline. In contrast, synapse- and extracellular matrix-rich subplate compartment continued to grow during the first two trimesters, occupying up to 45% of telencephalon and reaching its maximum volume and thickness around 30 PCW. This developmental maximum coincides with a period of intensive growth of long cortico-cortical fibers, which enter and wait in subplate before approaching the cortical plate. Although we did not find significant age related changes in mean thickness of the cortical plate, the volume, gyrification index, and surface area of the cortical plate continued to exponentially grow during the last phases of prenatal development. This cortical expansion coincides developmentally with the

  10. Quantitative and qualitative insights into the experiences of children with Rett syndrome and their families.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a mutation in the MECP2 gene. It is associated with severe functional impairments and medical comorbidities such as scoliosis and poor growth. The population-based and longitudinal Australian Rett Syndrome Database was established in 1993 and has supported investigations of the natural history of Rett syndrome and effectiveness of treatments, as well as a suite of qualitative studies to identify deeper meanings. This paper describes the early presentation of Rett syndrome, including regression and challenges for families seeking a diagnosis. We discuss the importance of implementing strategies to enhance daily communication and movement, describe difficulties interpreting the presence of pain and discomfort, and argue for a stronger evidence base in relation to management. Finally, we outline a framework for understanding quality of life in Rett syndrome and suggest areas of life to which we can direct efforts in order to improve quality of life. Each of these descriptions is illustrated with vignettes of child and family experiences. Clinicians and researchers must continue to build this framework of knowledge and understanding with efforts committed to providing more effective treatments and supporting the best quality of life for those affected. PMID:27491552

  11. Researchers’ views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616

  12. Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A.; Dai, Y.; Miao, C.; Di, Z.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

  13. Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. D.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A. Z.; Dai, Y. J.; Miao, C. Y.; Di, Z. H.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y. W.

    2013-02-01

    Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of a LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e. sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e. insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistence with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

  14. The ACCE method: an approach for obtaining quantitative or qualitative estimates of residual confounding that includes unmeasured confounding

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors.  Method:  A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of  “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors.  Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s) that substantially predicts treatment exposure.  Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s) and outcome. Results:  Several hypothetical examples are provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met.  Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding. Limitations:  Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1) predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2) minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3) adjusting for the association of the introduced variable(s) with outcome, and 4) deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach). Conclusions:  To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method's basic approach is

  15. Investigating the Needs and Concerns of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults: The Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology

    PubMed Central

    OREL, NANCY A.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research on the specific needs and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults is lacking. This article describes the results of both quantitative studies (i.e., LGBT Elders Needs Assessment Scale) and qualitative studies (i.e., focus groups and in-depth interviews with lesbian, gay, or bisexual [LGB] older adults and LGB grandparents) that specifically sought to investigate the unique needs and concerns of LGBT elders. The results identified 7 areas (medical/health care, legal, institutional/housing, spiritual, family, mental health, and social) of concern and the recognition that the needs and concerns of LGBT older adults be addressed across multiple domains, rather than in isolation. PMID:24313253

  16. Investigating the needs and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults: the use of qualitative and quantitative methodology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research on the specific needs and concerns of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults is lacking. This article describes the results of both quantitative studies (i.e., LGBT Elders Needs Assessment Scale) and qualitative studies (i.e., focus groups and in-depth interviews with lesbian, gay, or bisexual [LGB] older adults and LGB grandparents) that specifically sought to investigate the unique needs and concerns of LGBT elders. The results identified 7 areas (medical/health care, legal, institutional/housing, spiritual, family, mental health, and social) of concern and the recognition that the needs and concerns of LGBT older adults be addressed across multiple domains, rather than in isolation. PMID:24313253

  17. Reading for deaf and hearing readers: qualitatively and/or quantitatively similar or different? A nature versus nurture issue.

    PubMed

    LaSasso, Carol J; Crain, Kelly L

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss whether the covert reading process differs qualitatively and/or quantitatively for hearing and deaf peers and whether formal reading instruction should be different for deaf and hearing students. The authors argue that hearing status (deaf, hearing) is less important in learning to read than environmental factors, including: (a) the richness of the early linguistic environment leading to an age-appropriate L1 prior to formal reading instruction and (b) clear, complete visual access to the instructional language (e.g., English, Spanish, American Sign Language) used to deliver curriculum via conventional or English Language Learner methods. In U.S. schools attended by 89% of deaf students, English is "regularly" used as the language of instruction (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2013, p. 11). Of the available communication systems for conveying English conversationally (oral-aural methods, Manually Coded English sign systems, Cued Speech), only Cued Speech is structurally capable of affording clear, complete visual access to English. PMID:26012170

  18. Effect of qualitative and quantitative variation in allelochemicals on a generalist insect: Iridoid glycosides and the southern armyworm.

    PubMed

    Puttick, G M; Bowers, M D

    1988-01-01

    The behavioral and physiological effects of plant allelochemicals have been difficult to demonstrate; it is not often clear whether the compounds are deterrent, toxic, or both. In this study, we compared the qualitative and quantitative effects of several iridoid glycosides on a generalist lepidopteran herbivore,Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae). Larval growth and survivorship and larval preference or avoidance were measured on artificial diets containing different iridoid glycosides at different concentrations. We also tested the toxicity/deterrence of these compounds. We found that iridoid glycosides retarded larval growth significantly at relatively low concentrations and that they were usually avoided in preference tests. The toxicity/ deterrence test did not always reflect the results of these other tests. The merits of using a variety of methods for determining deterrence and/or toxicity of plant allelochemicals are discussed. PMID:24277013

  19. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

  20. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. PMID:25186561

  1. Quantitative sputum cell counts to monitor bronchitis: A qualitative study of physician and patient perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D’silva, Liesel; Neighbour, Helen; Gafni, Amiram; Radford, Katherine; Hargreave, Frederick E; Nair, Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Many common diseases affecting the airways are characterized by airway inflammation. The measurement of this inflammation has a significant role in the management of these diseases. Quantitative sputum cell counts provide a measurement of the type and severity of inflammation present. Sputum cell counts are used in routine clinical practice in some centres but their use is not widespread. The present study used a standardized questionnaire to determine both patients’ and physicians’ attitudes toward the use of sputum cell counts. The use of sputum cell counts was well accepted by patients and physicians. Ninety per cent of patients were satisfied with the test. Sixty per cent of family physicians were satisfied with the test and 80% were in favour of it being funded by the government. The authors recommend more widespread use of sputum cell counts to guide the management of airway diseases. PMID:23457675

  2. Spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse: seeking quantitative answers to qualitative questions.

    PubMed

    Walters, G D

    2000-08-01

    A quantitative review of the substance abuse literature revealed a mean general prevalence of spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs abuse of 26.2% when a broad definition of remission was employed and 18.2% when a narrow definition was implemented. From the results of this review, it was concluded that few meaningful differences exist between spontaneous remitters and persons who either continue misusing substances or remit through treatment on pre-remission measures of prior drug involvement. Of the factors cited by self-remitters as important in facilitating their desistance from substances, the present review found that health concerns, pressure from friends and family, and extraordinary events were instrumental in initiating spontaneous remission, while social support, non-drug-using friendships, willpower, and identity transformation were pivotal in maintaining change. Evidence is presented to indicate that spontaneous remission from alcohol and illicit drugs and spontaneous remission from tobacco smoking may differ in several key respects. PMID:10976668

  3. Qualitative vs. quantitative atopic dermatitis criteria - in historical and present perspectives.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Thyssen, J P; Maibach, H I

    2016-04-01

    This review summarizes historical aspects, clinical expression and pathophysiology leading to coining of the terms atopy and atopic dermatitis, current diagnostic criteria and further explore the possibility of developing quantitative diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis (AD) based on the importance of atopic features - subjective, objective, and those derived from laboratory tests - the new partly promising AD biomarkers. 'Atopy', introduced in 1923, denoted 'the sense of a strange disease without a precise place in the body'. A decade later, Sulzberger and Hill, first defined 'atopic dermatitis'. The pioneering well-recognized criteria, 'Hanifin & Rajka' (Acta Derm Venereol, 92, 1980, 44), were developed empirically on 'clinical experience' and expert consensus. As opposed to the widely used, rather anamnestic 'UK Criteria' (1994), they have few formal validation studies, but appear to well embrace various atopic phenotypes. Pruritus, xerosis, typical morphology/distribution of dermatitis and tendency to a relapsing/chronic course are common basic features in AD criteria, whereas skin sensitivity, heredity and various ill-defined atopic stigmata also seem to comprise the atopic phenomenon. Specific pheno- and endotypes are now emerging potentially enabling us to better classify patients with AD, but the influence of these on the diagnosis of AD is so far unclear. Few diagnostic models use quantitative scoring systems to establish AD cases from normal population, which, however, may be useful to better study and manage this disease. Long-term prospective observational studies, from which few are available at this point, along with interventional studies, are a perquisite and will provide the best option to improve our understanding of its complex characteristics and etiology. PMID:26538253

  4. Stereology of the neocortex in Odontocetes: qualitative, quantitative, and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Kern, A; Siebert, U; Cozzi, B; Hof, P R; Oelschläger, H H A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the quantitative morphology of the neocortex (gray matter) in 2 toothed whale (odontocete) species (harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena; bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus) with stereological methods. The 4 primary projection areas (motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual fields) are analyzed for their cell densities in layers III and V with standard design-based stereology methods. Along cortical areas M1, S1, A1, and V1 in Tursiops, neuron density is always higher in layer III than in layer V, whereas the data in Phocoena are variable. Moreover, neuron density in layer III is generally around 1.5 times higher in Tursiops than in Phocoena. Maximal density values are seen in layer III of A1 and V1 in Tursiops and the ratio of layer III/layer V density is maximal in A1 of this species. Thus, layer III could have a higher capacity in the bottlenose dolphin with regard to intrinsic connectivity. Extant knowledge on toothed whale neurobiology and behavior suggests that quantitative/stereological differences between the 2 odontocete species regarding the neuron density of standard cortical units may be correlated with specific adaptations to their respective habitats. In contrast to layers V and VI which mainly serve as an executive system, layer III could represent an intermediate level in sensory and premotor processing which works more tangentially in the cortices via horizontal connections with other cortical areas, respectively. The generally higher density of cortical layer III in Tursiops suggests a higher connectivity of this layer in view of the more agile and complicated behavior of these gregarious animals including versatile phonation by complex sound and ultrasound signals. PMID:21358169

  5. Quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis of super resolution images from a low cost scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Echegaray, Sebastian; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter; Bauman, Wendall

    2011-03-01

    The lurking epidemic of eye diseases caused by diabetes and aging will put more than 130 million Americans at risk of blindness by 2020. Screening has been touted as a means to prevent blindness by identifying those individuals at risk. However, the cost of most of today's commercial retinal imaging devices makes their use economically impractical for mass screening. Thus, low cost devices are needed. With these devices, low cost often comes at the expense of image quality with high levels of noise and distortion hindering the clinical evaluation of those retinas. A software-based super resolution (SR) reconstruction methodology that produces images with improved resolution and quality from multiple low resolution (LR) observations is introduced. The LR images are taken with a low-cost Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). The non-redundant information of these LR images is combined to produce a single image in an implementation that also removes noise and imaging distortions while preserving fine blood vessels and small lesions. The feasibility of using the resulting SR images for screening of eye diseases was tested using quantitative and qualitative assessments. Qualitatively, expert image readers evaluated their ability of detecting clinically significant features on the SR images and compared their findings with those obtained from matching images of the same eyes taken with commercially available high-end cameras. Quantitatively, measures of image quality were calculated from SR images and compared to subject-matched images from a commercial fundus imager. Our results show that the SR images have indeed enough quality and spatial detail for screening purposes.

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors on Child Passenger Safety among Expectant Mothers and Parents of Newborns: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregnant women were also interviewed to learn about their views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data collected. Results Of a total of 242 parents of newborns recruited in the quantitative survey, 202 (83.5%) parents had heard of child safety seats and 149 (61.6%) parents reported they would use child safety seats for their babies. Parents’ knowledge, car ownership, occupation, and income were significantly associated with their decision regarding use of child safety seats. Three themes were identified from the qualitative interview of 30 pregnant women: (1) the pregnant women perceived child passenger safety as important; (2) the car ownership and price and quality of child safety seats were major influencing factors of their decisions on use of child safety seats; and (3) lack of awareness and lack of laws requiring use were perceived to contribute to low use of child safety seats in China. Conclusion Lack of knowledge and awareness on child passenger safety were found to be two most important factors associated with low use of child safety seats. Effective interventions are urgently needed to improve parents’ knowledge before laws are enacted and implemented. PMID:26735974

  7. Remarkable quantitative and qualitative differences in HDL after niacin or fenofibrate therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Masana, Luís; Cabré, Anna; Heras, Mercedes; Amigó, Núria; Correig, Xavier; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Real, José T; Ascaso, Juan F; Quesada, Helena; Julve, Josep; Palomer, Xavier; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Girona, Josefa; Plana, Núria; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    HDL-increasing drugs such as fenofibrate and niacin have failed to decrease the cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Drug-mediated quantitative and qualitative HDL modifications could be involved in these negative results. To evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effects of niacin and fenofibrate on HDL in patients with type 2 diabetes, a prospective, randomised controlled intervention trial was conducted. Thirty type 2 diabetic patients with low HDL were randomised to receive either fenofibrate (FFB) or niacin + laropiprant (ERN/LPR) as an add-on to simvastatin treatment for 12 weeks according to a crossover design. At the basal point and after each intervention period, physical examinations and comprehensive standard biochemical determinations and HDL metabolomics were performed. Thirty nondiabetic patients with normal HDL were used as a basal control group. ERN/LRP, but not FFB, significantly increased HDL cholesterol. Neither ERN/LRP nor FFB reversed the HDL particle size or particle number to normal. ERN/LRP increased apoA-I but not apoA-II, whereas FFB produced the opposite effect. FFB significantly increased Preβ1-HDL, whereas ERN/LRP tended to lower Preβ1-HDL. CETP and LCAT activities were significantly decreased only by ERN/LRP. PAF-AH activity in HDL and plasma decreased with the use of both agents. Despite their different actions on antioxidant parameters, none of the treatments induced detectable antioxidant improvements. ERN/LRP and FFB had strikingly different effects on HDL quantity and quality, as well as on HDL cholesterol concentrations. When prescribing HDL cholesterol increasing drugs, this differential action should be considered. PMID:25528430

  8. Quantitative and qualitative toxicological evaluation of thiol-ene "click" chemistry-based polyanhydrides and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Halimatu S; Snyder, Brittany L; Samways, Damien S K; Shipp, Devon A

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative toxicological analyses of crosslinked, surface-eroding polyanhydrides (PAHs) made from thiol-ene "click" polymerizations are reported. The cytotoxicity of these PAHs was investigated against three skin-based cell types; melanoma (A-375), human dermal fibroblast adult (HDFa), and 3T3-J2 (mouse fibroblast) cells, thus providing insight into the potential for these PAHs to be used in dermal drug delivery applications. Apoptosis was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using MTT assay and fluorescence microscopic imaging as indication of cytotoxicity. Upon exposure of A-375 and HDFa cells to high concentrations (4000 mg/L) of crosslinked PAH, the respective morphologies remained relatively unchanged compared with nonexposed cells. The 3T3-J2 cell type was more sensitive towards the PAH, exhibiting minimal deformation of cell morphology at 4000 mg/L. The MTT assay and fluorescence imaging revealed that this PAH and its degradation products are highly cytocompatible at high concentrations and cytotoxicity observed is dosage/time dependent. Further, the PAH did not induce inhibition of tested cells' proliferation at high polymer concentration up to 2000 mg/L. The IC50 (concentration of the crosslinked PAH required to inhibit 50% cell viability) for HDFa and A-375 cells was determined to be 4300 ± 70 and 8500 ± 50 mg/L, respectively. The high cytocompatibility of this type of crosslinked PAH, in addition to their degradation products, towards these skin cells (standard and cancer cell types) suggests that the polymer may be viable for dermal-based drug delivery to normal and cancerous diseased tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1936-1945, 2016. PMID:27012532

  9. A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of AgNORs in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Unicystic Ameloblastoma and Multicystic Ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivasvas; Ramprasad, V V S; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Namala, Srilekha; Badavath, Kiran Kumar Naik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: A comparative evaluation of proliferation activity in unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) using silver staining technique. Settings and Design: In the present study 21 histopathologically confirmed paraffin blocks,7 each of UA, MA and KCOT were selected and stained with silver nitrate. Materials and Methods: For quantitative analysis, 100 cells were counted at 1000x magnification for AgNORs and the mean value was calculated. Qualitative analysis of AgNORs included normal (oval shaped) and abnormal groups (bean shaped) in the lesion. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of data was done by a specialist statistician using two way ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Tukey’s test in advanced excel. Results: The AgNOR count was more in KCOT when compared to MA and UA with the pattern of distribution of AgNORs more in basal than in the parabasal layer in KCOT. The qualitative analysis showed small to large oval AgNOR’s in KCOT and few clusters in MA whereas in UA irregular clusters were seen. Conclusion: This concludes the expediency of AgNOR staining in reflecting the high proliferation rate and a more aggressive behavior of KCOT in comparison to MA and UA which signifies requirement of a more hostile surgical approach in KCOT to avoid recurrences following different treatment modalities. PMID:25386440

  10. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-03-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5μgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100μgkg(-1), resulting in a 10μgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples. PMID:26717834

  11. The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic

  12. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    PubMed

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Flower Pigments in Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos atrosanguineus, and its Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Amamiya, Kotarou; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from the black flowers of Cosmos atrosanguineus cultivar 'Choco Mocha', together with three minor anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucoside, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside. A chalcone, butein 4'-O-glucoside and three minor flavanones were isolated from the red flowers of C. atrosanguineis x C. sulphureus cultivar 'Rouge Rouge'. The anthocyanins and chalcone accumulation of cultivar 'Choco Mocha' and its hybrid cultivars 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge', 'Rouge Rouge' and 'Noel Rouge' was surveyed by quantitative HPLC. Total anthocyanins of black flower cultivars 'Choco Mocha' and 'Brown Rouge' were 3-4-folds higher than that of the red flower cultivar 'Noel Rouge'. On the other hand, total chalcone of 'Noel Rouge' was 10-77-folds higher compared with those of other cultivars, 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge' and 'Rouge Rouge'. It was shown that the flower color variations from red to black of Chocolate Cosmos and its hybrids are due to the difference in the relative amounts of anthocyanins and chalcone. PMID:26996024

  14. Qualitative and quantitative saponin contents in five sea cucumbers from the Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Gerbaux, Pascal; Flammang, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To avoid predation, holothuroids produce feeding-deterrent molecules in their body wall and viscera, the so-called saponins. Five tropical sea cucumber species of the family Holothuriidae were investigated in order to study their saponin content in two different organs, the body wall and the Cuvierian tubules. Mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI- and ESI-MS) were used to detect and analyze saponins. The smallest number of saponins was observed in Holothuria atra, which contained a total of four congeners, followed by Holothuria leucospilota, Pearsonothuria graeffei and Actinopyga echinites with six, eight and ten congeners, respectively. Bohadschia subrubra revealed the highest saponin diversity (19 congeners). Saponin mixtures also varied between the two body compartments within a given animal. A semi-quantitative approach completed these results and showed that a high diversity of saponins is not particularly correlated to a high saponin concentration. Although the complexity of the saponin mixtures described makes the elucidation of their respective biological roles difficult, the comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how these molecules may act as predator repellents. PMID:20161976

  15. Qualitative, quantitative and temporal study of cutting agents for cocaine and heroin over 9 years.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Bonadio Pont, Federica; Garcia Gongora, Juan Manuel; Gasté, Laëtitia; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Forensic laboratories mainly focus on the qualification and the quantitation of the illicit drug under analysis as both aspects are used for judiciary purposes. Therefore, information related to cutting agents (adulterants and diluents) detected in illicit drugs is limited in the forensic literature. This article discusses the type and frequency of adulterants and diluents detected in more than 6000 cocaine specimens and 3000 heroin specimens, confiscated in western Switzerland from 2006 to 2014. The results show a homogeneous and quite unchanging adulteration for heroin, while for cocaine it could be characterised as heterogeneous and relatively dynamic. Furthermore, the results indicate that dilution affects more cocaine than heroin. Therefore, the results provided by this study tend to reveal differences between the respective structures of production or distribution of cocaine and heroin. This research seeks to promote the systematic analysis of cutting agents by forensic laboratories. Collecting and processing data related to the presence of cutting agents in illicit drug specimens produces relevant information to understand and to compare the structure of illicit drug markets. PMID:26448535

  16. Formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers photosensitized by pyridopsoralens: Quantitative and qualitative distribution within DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Moysan, A.; Viari, A.; Vigny, P. ); Voituriez, L.; Cadet J. ); Moustacchi, E.; Sage, E. )

    1991-07-23

    As after irradiation with 254-nm UV light, exposure of thymidine and three isomeric pyridopsoralen derivatives to UVA radiation, in the dry state, leads to the formation of the six diastereomers of cyclobutadithymidine as the predominant reaction. This unexpected photosensitized reaction, which also gives rise to both 5R* and 5S* diastereomers of 5,6-dihydro-5-({alpha}-thymidylyl)thymidine (or spore photoproduct), is selective since (2+2) dimerization of 2{prime}-deoxycytidine was not detected under the same experimental conditions. The cis-syn isomer of cyclobutadithymine was also found to be produced within isolated DNA following UVA irradiation in aqueous solutions containing 7-methylpyrido (3,4-c)psoralen. Quantitatively, this photoproduct represents about one-fifth of the overall yield of the furan-side pyridopsoralen (2+2) photocycloadducts the thymine. DNA sequencing methodology was used to demonstrate that pyridopsoralen-photosensitized DNA is a substrate for T4 endonuclease V and Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme, two enzymes acting specifically on cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. The formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers concomitant to that of thymine-furocoumarin photoadducts and their eventual implication in the photobiological effects of the pyridopsoralens are discussed.

  17. Disentangling the Complexity of HGF Signaling by Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Modeling.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Lorenza A; Samaga, Regina; Maiwald, Tim; Rho, Seong-Hwan; Bonefas, Sandra; Raue, Andreas; Iwamoto, Nao; Kienast, Alexandra; Waldow, Katharina; Meyer, Rene; Schilling, Marcel; Timmer, Jens; Klamt, Steffen; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    Signaling pathways are characterized by crosstalk, feedback and feedforward mechanisms giving rise to highly complex and cell-context specific signaling networks. Dissecting the underlying relations is crucial to predict the impact of targeted perturbations. However, a major challenge in identifying cell-context specific signaling networks is the enormous number of potentially possible interactions. Here, we report a novel hybrid mathematical modeling strategy to systematically unravel hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which critically contribute to liver regeneration. By combining time-resolved quantitative experimental data generated in primary mouse hepatocytes with interaction graph and ordinary differential equation modeling, we identify and experimentally validate a network structure that represents the experimental data best and indicates specific crosstalk mechanisms. Whereas the identified network is robust against single perturbations, combinatorial inhibition strategies are predicted that result in strong reduction of Akt and ERK activation. Thus, by capitalizing on the advantages of the two modeling approaches, we reduce the high combinatorial complexity and identify cell-context specific signaling networks. PMID:25905717

  18. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the carotenoids during development of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Lavens, P; Van Steenberge, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Criel, G R; De Leenheer, A P

    1988-04-01

    In order to study the biological fate of all-trans- and cis-canthaxanthin in the brine shrimp Artemia, a quantitative method was developed for the determination of both carotenoids and their metabolic precursors in encysted embryos (cysts), nauplii, whole animals, organs, and subcellular fractions. This method is based on nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography, two new exhaustive extraction procedures, and the determination of proteins in the extracted residue. Hydration of Artemia cysts caused a reversible conversion of part of the all-trans- to cis-canthaxanthin. During further pre-emergence embryonic development, there was little change in the levels of both isomers. After hatching of cysts, cis-canthaxanthin was progressively isomerized to the all-trans form, while the total (all-trans + cis) canthaxanthin to protein ratio tended to remain constant. Cis-canthaxanthin rapidly became undetectable in animals fed on algae and reappeared in females at an advanced stage of the reproductive cycle. All-trans-canthaxanthin remained present during the whole Artemia life cycle in addition to its metabolic precursors echinenone and beta-carotene. The carotenoid distribution in organs and subcellular fractions indicated high affinity of cis-canthaxanthin for the female reproductive system, oocytes in general, and yolk in particular. A role for cis-canthaxanthin is suggested at an early developmental stage, i.e., in cysts, before hatching. PMID:3392466

  19. Swept source optical coherence tomography for quantitative and qualitative assessment of dental composite restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Mayoral, Juan Ricardo; Hariri, Ilnaz; Bakhsh, Turki A.; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for quantitative evaluation of dental composite restorations. The system (Santec, Japan) with a center wavelength of around 1300 nm and axial resolution of 12 μm was used to record data during and after placement of light-cured composites. The Fresnel phenomenon at the interfacial defects resulted in brighter areas indicating gaps as small as a few micrometers. The gap extension at the interface was quantified and compared to the observation by confocal laser scanning microscope after trimming the specimen to the same cross-section. Also, video imaging of the composite during polymerization could provide information about real-time kinetics of contraction stress and resulting gaps, distinguishing them from those gaps resulting from poor adaptation of composite to the cavity prior to polymerization. Some samples were also subjected to a high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) assessment; it was found that differentiation of smaller gaps from the radiolucent bonding layer was difficult with 3D μCT. Finally, a clinical imaging example using a newly developed dental SS-OCT system with an intra-oral scanning probe (Panasonic Healthcare, Japan) is presented. SS-OCT is a unique tool for clinical assessment and laboratory research on resin-based dental restorations. Supported by GCOE at TMDU and NCGG.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  1. Qualitative insight and quantitative analysis of the effect of temperature on the coercivity of a magnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Mariia; Bessarab, Pavel F.; Uzdin, Valery M.; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of a magnetic system to an applied field can be understood qualitatively by considering variations in the energy surface characterizing the system and estimated quantitatively with rate theory. In the system analysed here, Fe/Sm-Co spring magnet, the width of the hysteresis loop is reduced to a half when temperature is raised from 25 K to 300 K. This narrowing can be explained and reproduced quantitatively without invoking temperature dependence of model parameters as has typically been done in previous data analysis. The applied magnetic field lowers the energy barrier for reorientation of the magnetization but thermal activation brings the system over the barrier. A 2-dimensional representation of the energy surface is developed and used to gain insight into the transition mechanism and to demonstrate how the applied field alters the transition path. Our results show the importance of explicitly including the effect of thermal activation when interpreting experiments involving the manipulation of magnetic systems at finite temperature.

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  3. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to identifying migration chronology in a continental migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) equipped with solar-powered global positioning system satellite transmitters to evaluate two individual level approaches for quantifying migration chronology. The first approach defined migration based on individual movements among geopolitical boundaries (state, provincial, international), whereas the second method modeled net displacement as a function of time using nonlinear models. Differences in migration chronologies identified by each of the approaches were examined with analysis of variance. The geopolitical method identified mean autumn migration midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 13 November 2011, whereas the net displacement method identified midpoints at 15 November 2010 and 14 November 2011. The mean midpoints for spring migration were 3 April 2011 and 20 March 2012 using the geopolitical method and 31 March 2011 and 22 March 2012 using the net displacement method. The duration, initiation date, midpoint, and termination date for both autumn and spring migration did not differ between the two individual level approaches. Although we did not detect differences in migration parameters between the different approaches, the net displacement metric offers broad potential to address questions in movement ecology for migrating species. Ultimately, an objective definition of migration chronology will allow researchers to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the extrinsic factors that drive migration at the individual and population levels. As a result, targeted

  6. Levels of Reconstruction as Complementarity in Mixed Methods Research: A Social Theory-Based Conceptual Framework for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Linda J.; Rothe, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson’s metaphysical work on the ‘ways of knowing’. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions. PMID:20948937

  7. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources. PMID:26874107

  8. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  9. Quantitative and qualitative trapping of arsines deployed to assess loss of volatile arsenic from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Mestrot, Adrien; Uroic, M Kalle; Plantevin, Thomas; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-11-01

    Arsenic volatilization in the environment is thought to be an important pathway for transfer from terrestrial pools to the atmosphere. However, this phenomenon is not well characterized due to inherent sampling issues in trapping, quantifying and qualifying these arsine gases; including arsine (AsH(3)), monomethyl arsine (MeAsH(2)), dimethyl arsine (Me(2)AsH) and trimethyl arsine (TMAs). To quantify and qualify arsines in air we developed a novel technique based on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel filled tubes. The method was characterized by measuring the recovery of trapped arsines after elution of this chemo-trap with hot boiling diluted nitric acid. Results from three separate experiments, measured by ICP-MS, showed that the method is reproducible and quantitative. Arsine species recovery ranged from 80.1 to 95.6%, with limit of detection as low as 3.8 ng per chemo-trap tube. Moreover, HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of hot boiling water eluted traps showed that the corresponding oxy ions of the arsines were formed with the As-C bonds of the molecule intact, hence, allowing qualification of trapped arsine species. A microcosm study examining volatile arsenic evolution from field contaminated Bangladeshi paddy soils (24.2 mg/kg arsenic) was used to show the application of silver nitrate chemo-trapping approach. Traps were placed on the inlet and the outlet of microcosms containing the soils that were either (cattle derived) manured or not, or flooded or not, in a factorial design. The headspace was purged with air at a flow rate of 12 mL/min. Results showed that as much as 320 ng of arsenic (0.014% of total soil content) could be emitted in a 3 week period for manured and flooded soils and that TMAs was the dominant species evolved, with lesser quantities of Me(2)AsH. No volatile arsenic evolution was observed for nonmanured treatments, and arsine release from the nonflooded, manured treatment was much less than the flooded treatment. PMID:19924955

  10. Multivariate processing strategies for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analysis based on infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Boyong

    2007-12-01

    Airborne passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is gaining increased attention in environmental applications because of its great flexibility. Usually, pattern recognition techniques are used for automatic analysis of large amount of collected data. However, challenging problems are the constantly changing background and high calibration cost. As aircraft is flying, background is always changing. Also, considering the great variety of backgrounds and high expense of data collection from aircraft, cost of collecting representative training data is formidable. Instead of using airborne data, data generated from simulation strategies can be used for training purposes. Training data collected under controlled conditions on the ground or synthesized from real backgrounds can be both options. With both strategies, classifiers may be developed with much lower cost. For both strategies, signal processing techniques need to be used to extract analyte features. In this dissertation, signal processing methods are applied either in interferogram or spectral domain for features extraction. Then, pattern recognition methods are applied to develop binary classifiers for automated detection of air-collected methanol and ethanol vapors. The results demonstrate, with optimized signal processing methods and training set composition, classifiers trained from ground-collected or synthetic data can give good classification on real air-collected data. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry is emerging as a promising tool for noninvasive blood glucose detection. In combination with multivariate calibration techniques, NIR spectroscopy can give quick quantitative determinations of many species with minimal sample preparation. However, one main problem with NIR calibrations is degradation of calibration model over time. The varying background information will worsen the prediction precision and complicate the multivariate models. To mitigate the needs for frequent recalibration and

  11. Newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a quantitative and qualitative exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban slums in Bangladesh. This paper describes newborn care practices in urban slums in Dhaka and provides program recommendations. Methods A quantitative baseline survey was conducted in six urban slum areas to measure newborn care practices among recently delivered women (n = 1,256). Thirty-six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore newborn care practices among currently pregnant women (n = 18) and women who had at least one delivery (n = 18). Results In the baseline survey, the majority of women gave birth at home (84%). Most women reported having knowledge about drying the baby (64%), wrapping the baby after birth (59%), and cord care (46%). In the in-depth interviews, almost all women reported using sterilized instruments to cut the cord. Babies are typically bathed soon after birth to purify them from the birth process. There was extensive care given to the umbilical cord including massage and/or applying substances, as well as a variety of practices to keep the baby warm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare; most women reported first giving their babies sweet water, honey and/or other foods. Conclusion These reported newborn care practices are similar to those in rural areas of Bangladesh and to urban and rural areas in the South Asia region. There are several program implications. Educational messages to promote providing newborn care immediately after birth, using sterile thread, delaying bathing, and ensuring dry cord care and exclusive breastfeeding are needed. Programs in urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve social support for women

  12. Value of Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Circulating Cell-Free DNA as Diagnostic Tools for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenjun; Mao, Yilei; Ge, Penglei; Yang, Huayu; Xu, Haifeng; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are potential methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results have been variable. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these published results and evaluate the use of circulating cfDNA values for HCC diagnosis. All articles that met our inclusion criteria were assessed using QUADAS guidelines after the literature research. We also investigated 3 subgroups in this meta-analysis: qualitative analysis of abnormal concentrations of circulating cfDNA; qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations; and multiple analyses combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. We synthesized these published results and calculated accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios [PLRs/NLRs], diagnostic odds ratios [DORs], and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). Data were pooled using bivariate generalized linear mixed model. Furthermore, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined. A total of 2424 subjects included 1280 HCC patients in 22 studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and CIs of quantitative analysis were 0.741 (95% CI: 0.610–0.840), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.718–0.927), 4.970 (95% CI: 2.694–9.169), 0.304 (95% CI: 0.205–0.451), 16.347 (95% CI: 8.250–32.388), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.89), respectively. For qualitative analysis, the values were 0.538 (95% CI: 0.401–0.669), 0.944 (95% CI: 0.889–0.972), 9.545 (95% CI: 5.298–17.196), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.372–0.646), 19.491 (95% CI: 10.458–36.329), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84–0.90), respectively. After combining with AFP assay, the

  13. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of climate change on a combined sewer overflow and its receiving water body.

    PubMed

    Bi, Eustache Gooré; Monette, Frédéric; Gachon, Philippe; Gaspéri, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-08-01

    Projections from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the southern part of the province of Québec, Canada, suggest an increase in extreme precipitation events for the 2050 horizon (2041-2070). The main goal of this study consisted in a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of the 20 % increase in rainfall intensity that led, in the summer of 2013, to overflows in the "Rolland-Therrien" combined sewer system in the city of Longueuil, Canada. The PCSWMM 2013 model was used to assess the sensitivity of this overflow under current (2013) and future (2050) climate conditions. The simulated quantitative variables (peak flow, Q(CSO), and volume discharged, VD) served as the basis for deriving ecotoxicological risk indices and event fluxes (EFs) transported to the St. Lawrence (SL) River. Results highlighted 15 to 500% increases in VD and 13 to 148% increases in Q(CSO) by 2050 (compared to 2013), based on eight rainfall events measured from May to October. These results show that (i) the relationships between precipitation and combined sewer overflow variables are not linear and (ii) the design criteria for current hydraulic infrastructure must be revised to account for the impact of climate change (CC) arising from changes in precipitation regimes. EFs discharged into the SL River will be 2.24 times larger in the future than they are now (2013) due to large VDs resulting from CC. This will, in turn, lead to excessive inputs of total suspended solids (TSSs) and tracers for numerous urban pollutants (organic matter and nutrients, metals) into the receiving water body. Ecotoxicological risk indices will increase by more than 100% by 2050 compared to 2013. Given that substantial VDs are at play, and although CC scenarios have many sources of uncertainty, strategies to adapt this drainage network to the effects of CC will have to be developed. PMID:25869430

  14. Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

  15. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a rapid method with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant proanthocyanidins (PAs) directly from crude plant extracts. The method utilizes a range of cone voltages to achieve the depolymeriza...

  16. Genetics correlation and path coefficient analysis of cotton yield with some contributing quantitative and qualitative traits in Upland Cotton (Gosspypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many quantitative and qualitative traits interact to affect lint yield in upland cotton. Breeders should be aware of these traits and their interactions before embarking on a breeding program to improve lint yield. In this study, twelve diverse germplasm lines of upland cotton were used to investiga...

  17. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, Enhanced Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version--Access Card Package. Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    "Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research" offers a truly balanced, inclusive, and integrated overview of the processes involved in educational research. This text first examines the general steps in the research process and then details the procedures for conducting specific types…

  18. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. PMID:24880991

  19. Normal qualitative and quantitative Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial SPECT: spectrum of intramyocardial distribution during exercise and at rest.

    PubMed

    Lette, J; Caron, M; Cerino, M; McNamara, D; Metayer, S; D'Aoust, S; Eybalin, M C; Levesseur, A; Grégoire, J; Arsenault, A

    1994-04-01

    Exercise myocardial perfusion imaging with Tc-99m sestaMIBI is routinely used to detect underlying coronary stenoses. Ischemia is diagnosed in regions that display decreased tracer uptake during exercise as compared to rest. Tc-99m sestaMIBI SPECT images of 42 healthy volunteers were assessed both qualitatively (tomographic slices) and quantitatively (sectored polar map) for potential sources of misinterpretation. On the myocardial tomographic slices, the most common culprit artifacts were diaphragmatic attenuation and bowel interposition, which caused fixed or reversible "perfusion defects" in the inferior and posterior regions (in 19/35 abnormal segments), and artifacts related to the presence and shift of hot spots (observed in 11/28 men; in women, they were more difficult to demonstrate because of the overriding effect of breast attenuation). Hot spots shifts between exercise and rest usually resulted in pseudo-reversible defects in the anterolateral and lateral walls. The quantified polar map display of the myocardium showed a physiologic decrease in sestaMIBI activity in the basal anterolateral and basal posterolateral areas in men during exercise. There are many normal variants that may mimic coronary artery disease on tomographic sestaMIBI images. Before reporting an area of decreased activity as either a fixed or reversible perfusion defect, the interpreter should ensure that it does not represent an artifact or a normal variation in the intramyocardial distribution of sestaMIBI during exercise. PMID:8004868

  20. Chemical Basis for Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between ABO Blood Groups and Subgroups: Implications for Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, M; Tao, K; Zou, L; Meloncelli, P J; Lowary, T L; Suzuki, K; Boland, D; Larsen, I; Burch, M; Shaw, N; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Afzali, B; Kim, D H; Mengel, M; Shapiro, A M J; West, L J

    2015-10-01

    Blood group ABH(O) carbohydrate antigens are carried by precursor structures denoted type I-IV chains, creating unique antigen epitopes that may differ in expression between circulating erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Characterization of such differences is invaluable in many clinical settings including transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies were generated and epitope specificities were characterized against chemically synthesized type I-IV ABH and related glycans. Antigen expression was detected on endomyocardial biopsies (n = 50) and spleen (n = 11) by immunohistochemical staining and on erythrocytes by flow cytometry. On vascular endothelial cells of heart and spleen, only type II-based ABH antigens were expressed; type III/IV structures were not detected. Type II-based ABH were expressed on erythrocytes of all blood groups. Group A1 and A2 erythrocytes additionally expressed type III/IV precursors, whereas group B and O erythrocytes did not. Intensity of A/B antigen expression differed among group A1 , A2 , A1 B, A2 B and B erythrocytes. On group A2 erythrocytes, type III H structures were largely un-glycosylated with the terminal "A" sugar α-GalNAc. Together, these studies define qualitative and quantitative differences in ABH antigen expression between erythrocytes and vascular tissues. These expression profiles have important implications that must be considered in clinical settings of ABO-incompatible transplantation when interpreting anti-ABO antibodies measured by hemagglutination assays with reagent erythrocytes. PMID:26014598

  1. Qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils: A literature-based database on contact allergens used for safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2016-10-01

    The risks related to the use of essential oils are difficult to ascertain at present, due in part to the large number of different oils available on the market, making it difficult for the risk assessor. Essential oils may contain skin allergens in significant amounts, and could thus pose a risk to the consumer. The aim of our study was to collect as much qualitative and quantitative data as possible on allergens present in essential oils. 11 types of essential oils, with 25 respective subspecies, were taken into account based on a previous survey. Based on the literature, 517 dosages were recorded from 112 publications, providing precious information for probabilistic exposure assessment purposes. 22 substances recognized as established allergens were found in the essential oils we included. Of these, 11 are also found in cosmetics as fragrance components. These results are of major importance regarding co-exposure to fragrance allergens. Moreover, this could lead to regulatory measures for essential oils in the future, as it is the case for cosmetic products, in order to better protect consumers against skin allergy. PMID:27375057

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific polysaccharides in Dendrobium huoshanense by using saccharide mapping and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Han, Bang-Xing; Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-10

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific polysaccharides from ten batches of Dendrobium huoshanense were performed using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and saccharide mapping based on polysaccharides analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results showed that molecular weights, the radius of gyrations, and contents of specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense were ranging from 1.16×10(5) to 2.17×10(5)Da, 38.8 to 52.1nm, and 9.9% to 19.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the main monosaccharide compositions were Man and Glc. Indeed, the main glycosidic linkages were β-1,4-Manp and β-1,4-Glcp, and substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 and O-3 of 1,4-linked Manp. Moreover, results showed that PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates of specific polysaccharides were similar, which are helpful to better understand the specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense and beneficial to improve their quality control. These approaches could also be routinely used for quality control of polysaccharides in other medicinal plants. PMID:27424197

  3. Qualitative and quantitative changes in exoskeletal proteins synthesized throughout the molt cycle of the Bermuda land crab

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, L.A.; Skinner, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    During the premolt period in Crustacea, a single layer of epidermal cells that underlies the exoskeleton is thought to be responsible for the degradation of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of a new one. In order to identify molt-specific proteins and their temporal appearance, they cultured epidermis and associated integumentary tissue from the gill chambers of crab in vitro in the presence of one of three radiolabeled amino acids. Autoradiographs of (/sup 35/S)Met-labeled tissues indicate a low level of synthesis in epidermal cells of intermolt animals; synthesis increases during premolt and stage B of postmolt. Label is also found in the innermost layer of the old exoskeleton while it is being degraded and in new exoskeletal layers during their synthesis. Fluorographs of gels of integumentary proteins show marked quantitative changes in 44 and 56 kD proteins late in premolt. Qualitative changes include synthesis of 46 and 48 kD proteins during late premolt and three proteins (all of approx. 170 kD) detectable only in postmolt. Solubilized gel slices of (/sup 3/H)Leu-labeled proteins indicate maximum synthesis at an earlier premolt stage than seen in Met-labeled proteins. Other proteins of 20, 24, 29, 32, and 96 kD are synthesized in a stage-dependent manner while (/sup 3/H)Tyr labels small proteins that appear only in late premolt.

  4. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT. PMID:24847347

  5. The education and practice program for medical students with quantitative and qualitative fit test for respiratory protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Byun, JunSu; Cho, YounMo; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Baek, Jung-Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan; Kim, Hyunwook

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis infection is prevalent in Korea and health care workers are vulnerable to tuberculosis infection in the hospital. The aims of this study were to develop and validate an education program that teaches senior medical students how to wear and choose the proper size and type of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), which may help reduce the risk of contracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients. Overall, 50 senior medical students participated in this education program. Methods of choosing the proper type of RPE, performing a fit check of the RPE, and choosing a suitable mask size were taught by certified instructors using the real-time quantitative fit test (QNFT). The validity of education program was evaluated with qualitative fit test (QLFT) before and after the education as pass or fail. The education program was effective, as shown by the significantly pass rate (increased 30 to 74%) in the QLFT after the education program (p<0.05). Among study participants, changing mask size from medium to small significantly increased the pass rate (p<0.001). Incorporation of this program into the medical school curriculum may help reduce risk of MTB infection in medical students working in the hospital. PMID:26538001

  6. CD28 costimulatory signals in T lymphocyte activation: Emerging functions beyond a qualitative and quantitative support to TCR signalling.

    PubMed

    Porciello, Nicla; Tuosto, Loretta

    2016-04-01

    CD28 is one of the most important co-stimulatory receptors necessary for full T lymphocyte activation. By binding its cognate ligands, B7.1/CD80 or B7.2/CD86, expressed on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells (APC), CD28 initiates several signalling cascades, which qualitatively and quantitatively support T cell receptor (TCR) signalling. More recent data evidenced that human CD28 can also act as a TCR-independent signalling unit, by delivering specific signals, which regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokines. Despite the enormous progresses made in identifying the mechanisms and molecules involved in CD28 signalling properties, much remains to be elucidated, especially in the light of the functional differences observed between human and mouse CD28. In this review we provide an overview of the current mechanisms and molecules through which CD28 support TCR signalling and highlight recent findings on the specific signalling motifs that regulate the unique pro-inflammatory activity of human CD28. PMID:26970725

  7. Apparatus and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical properties of turbid media using frequency-domain photon migration

    DOEpatents

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tsay, Tsong T.; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lara O.; Haskell, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid.

  8. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  9. Apparatus and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical properties of turbid media using frequency-domain photon migration

    DOEpatents

    Tromberg, B.J.; Tsay, T.T.; Berns, M.W.; Svaasand, L.O.; Haskell, R.C.

    1995-06-13

    Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid. 14 figs.

  10. Quality of Quality Accounts: transparency of public reporting of Never Events in England. A semi-quantitative and qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Wahid, Nazurah NN Abdul; Moppett, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the quality of reporting and investigation into surgical Never Events in public reports. Design Semi-quantitative and qualitative review of published Quality Accounts for three years (2011/2–2013/14). Data on Never Events were compared with previously collated Never Events rates. Quality of reported investigations was assessed using the London Protocol. Setting English National Health Service. Participants All English acute hospital trusts. Main outcome measures Quality of Never Event reporting. Results Quality Accounts were available for all Trusts for all three years, of which 342 referred to years when a surgical Never Event had occurred. A total of 125 of 342 (37%) accounts failed to report any or all Never Events that had occurred; 13/342 (4%) provided full disclosure; 197 (58%) reported that some investigation had taken place. Of these 197, 61 (31%) were limited in scope; 61 (31%) were categorised as detailed reports. Task and Technology factors were the commonest factor (103/211 (49%)) Identified in investigations, followed by Individual factors (48/211 (23%)). Team and Work environment factors were identified in 29/211 (14%) and 23/211 (11%), respectively. Organisational and Management 5/211 (2%) factors were rarely identified, and the Institutional context was never discussed. Conclusions Reporting of Never Events and their investigations by English NHS Trusts in their Quality Accounts is neither consistently transparent nor adequate. As with clinical error, the true root causes are likely to be organisational rather than individual. PMID:26933157

  11. Characterization of human metabolism and disposition of levo-tetrahydropalmatine: Qualitative and quantitative determination of oxidative and conjugated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weibin; Shen, Guolin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhu, Mingshe; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is a tetrahydroprotoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid and has been used as an analgesic agent in China for over 50 years. Recent studies revealed that l-THP was effective in the treatment of drug addiction. However, the plasma metabolic profile, mass balance and clearance pathways of l-THP in human remain unknown. In the present study, an analytical strategy was developed for qualitative and quantitative investigation of metabolism and disposition of l-THP in human. Detection and structural characterization of l-THP metabolites were performed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Selected major metabolites in plasma, urine and feces determined by liquid chromatography with UV detection were further quantified using a triple quadruple mass spectrometry and reference standards. A total of 20 metabolites were identified, most of which were formed via demethylation, mono-hydroxylation, and glucuronidation and sulfonation of desmethyl metabolites. Five major metabolites accounted for over 10% of the parent drug concentration in plasma. Major urinary and fecal metabolites and the parent drug that were monitored for 72h accounted for 46.3% of the dose, while only 0.16% of the dose was the unchanged drug. Multiple demethylations followed by glucuronide and sulfate conjugations and renal excretion were the major drug clearance pathways of l-THP in human. PMID:27343900

  12. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene LAT52 used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of genetically modified tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-05-28

    One tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) gene, LAT52, has been proved to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) tomato detection in a previous study. Herein are reported the results of a collaborative ring trial for international validation of the LAT52 gene as endogenous reference gene and its analytical systems; 14 GMO detection laboratories from 8 countries were invited, and results were finally received from 13. These data confirmed the species specificity by testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, less allelic variation and stable single copy number of the LAT52 gene, among 12 different tomato cultivars. Furthermore, the limit of detection of LAT52 qualitative PCR was proved to be 0.1%, which corresponded to 11 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA, and the limit of quantification for the quantitative PCR system was about 10 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Additionally, the bias between the test and true values of 8 blind samples ranged from 1.94 to 10.64%. All of these validated results indicated that the LAT52 gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM tomato and its derivates. PMID:18442244

  13. COTS-Based Fault Tolerance in Deep Space: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of a Bus Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Ann T.; Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon

    2000-01-01

    Using COTS products, standards and intellectual properties (IPs) for all the system and component interfaces is a crucial step toward significant reduction of both system cost and development cost as the COTS interfaces enable other COTS products and IPs to be readily accommodated by the target system architecture. With respect to the long-term survivable systems for deep-space missions, the major challenge for us is, under stringent power and mass constraints, to achieve ultra-high reliability of the system comprising COTS products and standards that are not developed for mission-critical applications. The spirit of our solution is to exploit the pertinent standard features of a COTS product to circumvent its shortcomings, though these standard features may not be originally designed for highly reliable systems. In this paper, we discuss our experiences and findings on the design of an IEEE 1394 compliant fault-tolerant COTS-based bus architecture. We first derive and qualitatively analyze a -'stacktree topology" that not only complies with IEEE 1394 but also enables the implementation of a fault-tolerant bus architecture without node redundancy. We then present a quantitative evaluation that demonstrates significant reliability improvement from the COTS-based fault tolerance.

  14. The education and practice program for medical students with quantitative and qualitative fit test for respiratory protective equipment

    PubMed Central

    MYONG, Jun-Pyo; BYUN, JunSu; CHO, YounMo; SEO, Hye-Kyung; BAEK, Jung-Eun; KOO, Jung-Wan; KIM, Hyunwook

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis infection is prevalent in Korea and health care workers are vulnerable to tuberculosis infection in the hospital. The aims of this study were to develop and validate an education program that teaches senior medical students how to wear and choose the proper size and type of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), which may help reduce the risk of contracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients. Overall, 50 senior medical students participated in this education program. Methods of choosing the proper type of RPE, performing a fit check of the RPE, and choosing a suitable mask size were taught by certified instructors using the real-time quantitative fit test (QNFT). The validity of education program was evaluated with qualitative fit test (QLFT) before and after the education as pass or fail. The education program was effective, as shown by the significantly pass rate (increased 30 to 74%) in the QLFT after the education program (p<0.05). Among study participants, changing mask size from medium to small significantly increased the pass rate (p<0.001). Incorporation of this program into the medical school curriculum may help reduce risk of MTB infection in medical students working in the hospital. PMID:26538001

  15. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  16. A quantitative and qualitative inquiry of the impact of a residential environmental education program on student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Mary Claire

    Quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilized in a two-phase design approach to describe the impact of a residential environmental education program on student learning and provide a profile of program participants. In phase one, within a nonequivalent pre-posttest control group design, fourth and fifth-grade students (N = 490) were administered learner-outcome-based instruments in terms of ecological knowledge and environmental attitude. The treatment group consisted of students who participated in the 4-6th grade level curriculum of the residential environmental education program at Cuyahoga Valley Environmental Education Center. A teacher survey was implemented to provide a profile of the teachers participating in the residential program with their students. Major findings indicate a statistically significant impact on student ecological knowledge (p ≤.05); no statistically significant impact on environmental attitude was found. Data collected from the teacher survey provided a profile of the contact teachers who participated in the study. Eighty-eight percent of these primarily fourth and fifth grade teachers teach science. The majority have a Master's Degree and all have had some coursework related to environmental education. Ninety-two percent have attended at least one workshop related to environmental education and seventy-five percent have attended up to five environmental education related workshops within the last five years. All of these teachers use environmental education techniques and content in the classroom and all report a high level of environmental concern. In the second phase of the study, a purposeful sample of students, teachers, and parents was interviewed; data were collected through program observation, interviews, and program document collection. Content analysis yielded the following patterns in regard to student, teacher, and parent perceptions of what students learned: (1) natural history; (2) environmental awareness

  17. Developing patient-centered treatment protocols in brain stimulation: a rationale for combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rosedale, Mary; Malaspina, Dolores; Malamud, Daniel; Strauss, Shiela M; Horne, Jaclyn D; Abouzied, Salman; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Knotkova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and discusses how quantitative (physiological and behavioral) and qualitative methods are being combined in an open-label pilot feasibility study. The study evaluates safety, tolerability, and acceptability of a protocol to treat depression in HIV-infected individuals, using a 2-week block of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second most prevalent psychiatric disorder after substance abuse among HIV-positive adults, and novel antidepressant treatments are needed for this vulnerable population. The authors describe the challenges and contributions derived from different research perspectives and methodological approaches and provide a philosophical framework for combining quantitative and qualitative measurements for a fuller examination of the disorder. Four methodological points are presented: (1) the value of combining quantitative and qualitative approaches; (2) the need for context-specific measures when studying patients with medical and psychiatric comorbidities; (3) the importance of research designs that integrate physiological, behavioral, and qualitative approaches when evaluating novel treatments; and (4) the need to explore the relationships between biomarkers, clinical symptom assessments, patient self-evaluations, and patient experiences when developing new, patient-centered protocols. The authors conclude that the complexity of studying novel treatments in complex and new patient populations requires complex research designs to capture the richness of data that inform translational research. PMID:22412085

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Bio-Aerosols in Surgery Rooms and Emergency Department of an Educational Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Ramazan; Shahriary, Esmat; Qureshi, Mazhar Iqbal; Rakhshkhorshid, Ataollah; Khammary, Abdolali; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    detected bacteria. Conclusions: The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested relatively relaxed limits of 100 cfu/m3 for bacteria and 50 cfu/m3 for fungi in the hospital air. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative outcomes of this study demonstrate that contamination level and bacterial variety in surgery rooms and emergency departments is high and effective measures must be taken to control the possible health risks. PMID:25632321

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. PMID:24713570

  20. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  1. Pigments and plastic in limnetic ecosystems: A qualitative and quantitative study on microparticles of different size classes.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Hannes K; Laforsch, Christian; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Schmid, Johannes; Anger, Philipp M; Niessner, Reinhard; Ivleva, Natalia P

    2016-07-01

    Recently, macroplastic (>5 mm) and especially microplastic (<5 mm) particles have been reported as emerging contaminants in marine and limnetic ecosystems. Their coloration is gained by the addition of pigments to the polymer blend which is the major component of the respective product. However, color is also a feature of paint and coatings whereby the pigment is the major component. Once abraded from a surface, paint particles may enter the environment via similar pathways as microplastic particles. So far no detailed studies of microplastic particles (pigmented and non-pigmented) as well as paint particles have been performed focusing on very small microparticles (1-50 μm), in either marine or limnetic ecosystems. Using Raman microspectroscopy with a spatial resolution down to 1 μm, we report a remarkable increase in the occurrence of (pigmented) microplastic particles below 500 μm. Among those, most particles were found at a size of ∼130 μm in a freshwater ecosystem (subalpine Lake Garda, Italy). Moreover, our qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that the number of paint microparticles significantly increased below the size range of 50 μm due to their brittleness (the smallest detected paint particle had a size of 4 μm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements showed that both colored particles found in nature as well as virgin particles contain a high variety of metals such as cadmium, lead and copper. These additives may elicit adverse effects in biota ingesting these microparticles, thus paints and associated compounds may act as formerly overlooked contaminants in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27082693

  2. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Hiett, Kelli L; Gamble, John; Caudill, Andrew C; Cicconi-Hogan, Kellie M; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in the agricultural and environmental sciences and many environmental samples within these disciplines can be physiochemically and microbiologically unique (e.g., fecal and litter/bedding samples from the poultry production spectrum), appropriate and effective DNA extraction methods need to be carefully chosen. Therefore, a novel semi-automated hybrid DNA extraction method was developed specifically for use with environmental poultry production samples. This method is a combination of the two major types of DNA extraction: mechanical and enzymatic. A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the "gold standard" enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. Once the enzymatic extraction portion of the hybrid method was initiated, the remaining purification process was automated using a robotic workstation to increase sample throughput and decrease sample processing error. In comparison to the strict mechanical and enzymatic DNA extraction methods, this novel hybrid method provided the best overall combined performance when considering quantitative (using 16S rRNA qPCR) and qualitative (using microbiomics) estimates of the total bacterial communities when processing poultry feces and litter samples. PMID:25548939

  3. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of meningococcal antigens to evaluate the potential strain coverage of protein-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, John; Medini, Duccio; Boccadifuoco, Giuseppe; Biolchi, Alessia; Ward, Joel; Frasch, Carl; Moxon, E. Richard; Stella, Maria; Comanducci, Maurizio; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Andrews, William; Chen, Jie; Santos, George; Santini, Laura; Boucher, Philip; Serruto, Davide; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Giuliani, Marzia Monica

    2010-01-01

    A unique multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococci incorporates the novel genome-derived proteins fHbp, NHBA, and NadA that may vary in sequence and level of expression. Measuring the effectiveness of such vaccines, using the accepted correlate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease, could require performing the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against many diverse strains for each geographic region. This approach is impractical, especially for infants, where serum volumes are very limited. To address this, we developed the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) by combining a unique vaccine antigen-specific ELISA, which detects qualitative and quantitative differences in antigens, with PorA genotyping information. The ELISA correlates with killing of strains by SBA and measures both immunologic cross-reactivity and quantity of the antigens NHBA, NadA, and fHbp. We found that strains exceeding a threshold value in the ELISA for any of the three vaccine antigens had ≥80% probability of being killed by immune serum in the SBA. Strains positive for two or more antigens had a 96% probability of being killed. Inclusion of multiple different antigens in the vaccine improves breadth of coverage and prevents loss of coverage if one antigen mutates or is lost. The finding that a simple and high-throughput assay correlates with bactericidal activity is a milestone in meningococcal vaccine development. This assay allows typing of large panels of strains and prediction of coverage of protein-based meningococcal vaccines. Similar assays may be used for protein-based vaccines against other bacteria. PMID:20962280

  4. Qualitätsmanagement in der Lebensmittelindustrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Volker

    Die wesentlichen Kunden der Lebensmittelindustrie sind der Einzel- und Großhandel und die Verbraucher. Jedes Unternehmen kann mittel- und langfristig nur existieren, wenn seine Kunden zufrieden sind. Kunden sind zufrieden, wenn ihre Erwartungen, die sie an Produkt, Service und Preis stellen, erfüllt werden. Also die bestimmte erwartete Qualität (Leistung) sichergestellt wird. Trotz aller Bemühungen und Anstrengungen der Anbieter, Qualitätsprodukte auf den Markt zu bringen, kames in den letzten Jahren immer wieder zu Lebensmittelskandalen.

  5. Recent Variations of The Italian Glaciers: Qualitative and Quantitative Data-base and Processings On A Fundamental Water Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diolaiuti, G.; D'Agata, C.; Stella, G.; Apadula, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    This paper introduces the preliminary results of a project applied primarily to the compilation of the first general and complete data-base of all Italian glaciers, avail- able to the scientific community, and secondly to the elaboration of the information contained in the data base to supply a strong contribution to the study of the spatial and temporal variabilities of the climatic signal inside the alpine glacier historical series. The project started in the year 2000 as a convention between Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy) and CESI (Italian Electrical Sperimental Center) and gives the first results and the free use by people in the 2002, the International Year of Mountains. Fundamental for the development of the project was the collaboration of the Italian Glaciological Committee (CGI) with its publications (from 1914 to 1977 SBollettino & cedil;del Comitato Glaciologico ItalianoT and from 1978 to 2000 SGeografia Fisica e Di- & cedil;namica Quaternaria). The data-base collects qualitative and quantitative information on glaciers monitored by the Italian Glaciological CommitteeSs operators during the century of their activity for a total of 902 glaciers (901 alpine glaciers and only Ap- pennine one, the Calderone Glacier). For every glacier were inserted in the data-base: 1) data about the glacial terminus elevations, date and method of the measure 2) name and position of the signals used by the operators in order to verify the variations of extension of glacial terminus 3) distance between the signal and the glacier terminus and relative angle of measure 4) operatorSs name 5) bibliographical source of the information 6) qualitative data (on cartographic material, photographies and papers). Currently only a part of the data collected in the data-base is directly available in the web site: www.cesi.it/greeninfo/i ghiacciai Italiani/. Here the users are able to find, for every glacier, a table with all the references of qualitative (as cartography and

  6. [The development of a test-system for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of DNA content in criminalistic objects by the real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Lapenkov, M I; Plakhina, N V; Alekseev, Ia I; Varlamov, D A

    2011-01-01

    An original test-system for the preliminary quantitative and qualitative evaluation of isolated DNA is proposed by the polymerase chain reaction in real time (PCR-RT) based on the TaqMan technology. This test-system permits to simultaneously measure the amount of DNA in the sample, identify the genetic gender, and detect PCR inhibitors. The method has been approbated in the practical work of forensic medical experts. PMID:21735715

  7. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matter from eight dominant aquatic macrophytes in Lake Dianchi, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Xie, Li; Lin, Ying; Bai, Yingchen; Zhu, Yuanrong; Xie, Fazhi; Giesy, John P; Wu, Fengchang

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine and compare the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissolved organic matters (DOM) from eight aquatic macrophytes in a eutrophic lake. C, H, N, and P in ground dry leaves and C, N, and P in DOM of the species were determined, and C/N, C/P, C/H, DOC/C, TDN/N, TDP/P, DOC/TDN, and DOC/TDP were calculated. Chemical structures of the DOM were characterized by the use of multiple techniques including UV-visible, FT-IR, and (13)C CP/MAS spectra. The results showed subtle differences in quantity and quality of DOM among species and life-forms. Except oriental pepper which had a C/H of 0.7, C/H of all the other species was 0.6. C/N and C/P of ground leaves was 10.5-17.3 and 79.4-225.3, respectively, which were greater in floating and submerged species than in the others. Parrot feather also had a small C/P (102.8). DOC/C, TDN/N, and TDP/P were 7.6-16.8, 5.5-22.6, and 22.9-45.6 %, respectively. Except C/N in emergent and riparian species, C/N in the other species and C/P in all the species were lower in their DOM than in the ground leaves. DOM of the macrophytes had a SUVA254 value of 0.83-1.80. The FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the DOM mainly contained polysaccharides and/or amino acids/proteins. Percent of carbohydrates in the DOM was 37.3-66.5 % and was highest in parrot feather (66.5 %) and crofton weed (61.5 %). DOM of water hyacinth, water lettuce, and sago pondweed may have the greatest content of proteins. Aromaticity of the DOM was from 6.9 % in water lettuce to 17.8 % in oriental pepper. DOM of the macrophytes was also different in polarity and percent of Ar-OH. Distinguished characteristics in quantity and quality of the macrophyte-derived DOM may induce unique environmental consequences in the lake systems. PMID:23666633

  8. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  9. The experience of physical activity and the transition to retirement: a systematic review and integrative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement has been recognised as a critical turning point for physical activity (PA). In an earlier systematic review of quantitative studies, retirement was found to be associated with an increase in recreational PA but with a decrease in PA among retirees from lower occupational groups. To gain a deeper understanding of the quantitative review findings, qualitative evidence on experiences of and views on PA around the transition to retirement was systematically reviewed and integrated with the quantitative review findings. Method 19 electronic databases were searched and reference lists were checked, citations tracked and journals hand-searched to identify qualitative studies on PA around the transition to retirement, published between January 1980 and August 2010 in any country or language. Independent quality appraisal, data extraction and evidence synthesis were carried out by two reviewers using a stepwise thematic approach. The qualitative findings were integrated with those of the existing quantitative systematic review using a parallel synthesis approach. Results Five qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Three overarching themes emerged from the synthesis of these studies: these related to retirees’ broad concepts of PA, the motives for and the challenges to PA in retirement. Integrative synthesis of the qualitative findings with the quantitative evidence offered several potential explanations for why adults might engage in more recreational PA after the transition to retirement. These included expected health benefits, lifelong PA patterns, opportunities for socialising and personal challenges, and the desire for a new routine. A decrease in PA among retirees from lower occupational groups might be explained by a lack of time and a perceived low personal value of recreational PA. Conclusions To encourage adoption and maintenance of PA after retirement, interventions should promote health-related and broader

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2013-05-01

    Vetiver essential oils (VEO) are important raw ingredients used in perfume industry, entering the formula of numerous modern fragrances. Vetiver oils are considered to be among the most complex essential oils, resulting most of the time in highly coeluted chromatograms whatever the analytical technique. In this context, conventional gas chromatography has failed to provide a routine tool for the accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of their constituents. Applying comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography techniques (GC×GC-FID/MS) afforded the mean to separate efficiently vetiver oil constituents in order to identify them in a more reliable way. Moreover, this is the first time that a complete true quantitation of each constituent is carried out on such complex oils by means of internal calibration. Finally, we have studied the influence of the injection mode on the determined chemical composition, and showed that several alcohols underwent dehydration under defined chromatographic conditions (splitless mode) usually recommended for quantitation purposes. PMID:23522261

  11. Can use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduce radiation dose in unenhanced head CT? An analysis of qualitative and quantitative image quality

    PubMed Central

    Heggen, Kristin Livelten; Pedersen, Hans Kristian; Andersen, Hilde Kjernlie; Martinsen, Anne Catrine T

    2016-01-01

    Background Iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and thereby facilitate dose reduction. Purpose To evaluate qualitative and quantitative image quality for full dose and dose reduced head computed tomography (CT) protocols reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Material and Methods Fourteen patients undergoing follow-up head CT were included. All patients underwent full dose (FD) exam and subsequent 15% dose reduced (DR) exam, reconstructed using FBP and 30% ASIR. Qualitative image quality was assessed using visual grading characteristics. Quantitative image quality was assessed using ROI measurements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white matter, peripheral and central gray matter. Additionally, quantitative image quality was measured in Catphan and vendor’s water phantom. Results There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between FD FBP and DR ASIR. Comparing same scan FBP versus ASIR, a noise reduction of 28.6% in CSF and between −3.7 and 3.5% in brain parenchyma was observed. Comparing FD FBP versus DR ASIR, a noise reduction of 25.7% in CSF, and −7.5 and 6.3% in brain parenchyma was observed. Image contrast increased in ASIR reconstructions. Contrast-to-noise ratio was improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP. In phantoms, noise reduction was in the range of 3 to 28% with image content. Conclusion There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between full dose FBP and dose reduced ASIR. CNR improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP mostly due to increased contrast, not reduced noise. Therefore, we recommend using caution if reducing dose and applying ASIR to maintain image quality. PMID:27583169

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of magmatic stoping in the roof of the Proterozoic Åva ring complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumbholz, Michael; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-04-01

    Daly (1903) defined magmatic stoping as magma emplacement due to the detachment of blocks of magma-chamber roof- and wall rocks and their incorporation into the magma chamber. Stoping itself involves a number of interrelated processes, e.g. hydraulic fracturing, partial melting, and explosive exfoliation, that are a product of the complex thermal, mechanical, and chemical interaction of magma and the country rocks. However, the individual processes, as well as the influence of the main controlling parameters, are poorly understood. This makes it difficult to quantify the contribution of magmatic stoping as a magma-emplacement process, which has resulted in vigorous debates about its efficiency and overall significance. To resolve this controversy, detailed, qualitative and quantitative studies to better understand the involved processes and the interaction of forces are essential. We studied strongly foliated amphibolite-facies volcaniclastic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by granitic magmas of the Åva ring complex (Finland), a 1.76 Ga intrusion which formed at 5 to 6 km depth (Eklund and Shebanov, 2005). In the roof region of the main intrusion, the country rock is strongly fragmented and incorporated into the granite as xenoliths ranging in size (area) from tens of m2 to mm2. We systematically recorded subhorizontal, glacially polished coastal outcrops that contain thousands of xenoliths. The xenoliths show signs of brittle deformation resulting in intense fragmentation caused by the intrusion of granitic veins and dyklets, i.e. the fragments are angular. Bigger blocks are often split along the foliation and are surrounded by a cloud of smaller blocks. In many places, the blocks still fit to each other like a jig saw puzzle, while in other domains, they appear to have tumbled around. In contrast, some outcrops contain rounded xenolithic blocks that show signs of ductile deformation. From the outcrop maps, we carefully recorded all xenoliths to

  13. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lin; Fan, Cai-rong; Li, Huang; Huang, Ming-qing; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-dan; Lin, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore the differences of chemical constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra, a qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an HPLC-DAD analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 14 major compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, paeoniflorin sulfonate, protocatechuic aldehyde, methyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, benzoic acid, pentagaloylglucose, benzoyl-paeoniflorin, and paeonol) in Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Q-TOF/MS qualitative analysis was performed under negative ion mode and inferred 38 components of Paeoniae Radix Alba and 30 components of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. HPLC-DAD quantitative method result showed the contents of 8 ingredients were different between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. PMID:26323145

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

  15. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  16. Qualitätsmanagementsysteme - Teil 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghezzi, Hans-Dieter; Wasmer, René

    Medizinprodukte haben grundsätzlich hohen Sicherheitskriterien zu genügen, zuverlässig zu funktionieren und dadurch den erwarteten Gesundheitsschutz und Patientennutzen zu gewährleisten. Dies erfordert schon beim Hersteller ein gut funktionierendes und systematisches Qualitätsmanagement welches dafür bürgt, dass bereits zum Zeitpunkt der Inverkehrbringung neuer Produkte die Konformität mit den Anforderungen besteht und nachweisbar ist. In den 90er Jahren sind insbesondere in Europa die anzuwendenden technischen Regeln für den Bereich der Medizinprodukte spürbar harmonisiert worden. Der Gesetzgeber hat dabei die Anwendung von Qualitätsmanagementsystemen stark gefördert und in den gesetzlichen Vorgaben verankert. Eigenverantwortung und Eigenkontrolle haben dadurch bei der Herstellung von Medizinprodukten höhere Bedeutung erlangt und sind unabdingbar wenn es um die erfolgreiche Marktzulassung geht.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysoula; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Stefanidis, Stylianos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Lappas, Angelos

    2014-11-21

    Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis are efficient processes for the transformation of biomass to bio-oil, a liquid energy carrier and a general source of chemicals. The elucidation of the bio-oil's composition is essential for a rational design of both its production and utilization process. However, the complex composition of bio-oils hinders their complete qualitative and quantitative analysis, and conventional chromatographic techniques lack the necessary separation power. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) is considered a suitable technique for bio-oil analysis due to its increased separation and resolution capacity. This work presents the tentative qualitative and quantitative analysis of bio-oils resulting from the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of standard xylan, cellulose, lignin and their mixture by GC×GC-ToFMS. Emphasis is placed on the development of the quantitative method using phenol-d6 as internal standard. During the method development, a standard solution of 39 compounds was used for the determination of the respective Relative Response Factors (RRF) employing statistical methods, ANOVA and WLSLR, for verification of the data. The developed method was applied to the above mentioned bio-oils and their detailed analysis is presented. The different compounds produced and their diverse concentration allows for an elucidation of the pyrolysis mechanism and highlight the effect of the catalyst. PMID:25441082

  18. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  19. A High-Speed Generation Method of Goal-oriented Scenarios Using Bidirectional Combination of Effect Propagation on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samejima, Masaki; Morita, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Masanori

    This paper addresses a high-speed generation of goal-oriented scenarios on the qualitative and quantitative hybrid model. The goal-oriented scenarios can be generated efficiently by the bidirectional combination of the forward propagation and the backward propagation, if differences between values related to each scenario are small on a certain time step. So, the method combines the scenarios when each value can be regarded as the same from qualitative value viewpoints. Furthermore, the proposed method decides the number of both propagations to generate the required number of goal-oriented scenarios with decreasing the number of time-consuming backward propagations. Experimental results show that the computational time for generating the required number of the goal-oriented scenarios is decreased by 98% compared to the solely forward propagation.

  20. A Finding Method of Business Risk Factors Using Characteristics of Probability Distributions of Effect Ratios on Qualitative and Quantitative Hybrid Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samejima, Masaki; Negoro, Keisuke; Mitsukuni, Koshichiro; Akiyoshi, Masanori

    We propose a finding method of business risk factors on qualitative and quantitative hybrid simulation in time series. Effect ratios of qualitative arcs in the hybrid simulation vary output values of the simulation, so we define effect ratios causing risk as business risk factors. Finding business risk factors in entire ranges of effect ratios is time-consuming. It is considered that probability distributions of effect ratios in present time step and ones in previous time step are similar, the probability distributions in present time step can be estimated. Our method finds business risk factors in only estimated ranges effectively. Experimental results show that a precision rate and a recall rate are 86%, and search time is decreased 20% at least.

  1. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  2. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment

  3. Quantitative and qualitative features of heterologous virus-vector-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Eiji; Ono, Takeshi; Carnero, Elena; Umemoto, Saori; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kanayama, Atsuhiro; Oguma, Takemi; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Tadakuma, Takushi; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Miyahira, Yasushi

    2010-11-01

    We studied some aspects of the quantitative and qualitative features of heterologous recombinant (re) virus-vector-induced, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi. We used three different, highly attenuated re-viruses, i.e., influenza virus, adenovirus and vaccinia virus, which all expressed a single, T. cruzi antigen-derived CD8(+) T-cell epitope. The use of two out of three vectors or the triple virus-vector vaccination regimen not only confirmed that the re-vaccinia virus, which was placed last in order for sequential immunisation, was an effective booster for the CD8(+) T-cell immunity in terms of the number of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, but also demonstrated that (i) the majority of cells exhibit the effector memory (T(EM)) phenotype, (ii) robustly secrete IFN-γ, (iii) express higher intensity of the CD122 molecule and (iv) present protective activity against T. cruzi infection. In contrast, placing the re-influenza virus last in sequential immunisation had a detrimental effect on the quantitative and qualitative features of CD8(+) T cells. The triple virus-vector vaccination was more effective at inducing a stronger CD8(+) T-cell immunity than using two re-viruses. The different quantitative and qualitative features of CD8(+) T cells induced by different immunisation regimens support the notion that the refinement of the best choice of multiple virus-vector combinations is indispensable for the induction of a maximum number of CD8(+) T cells of high quality. PMID:20620143

  4. Effects of land use systems on soil erosion in a sloping Mediterranean watershed in Cyprus: From qualitative assessments to quantitative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuma, Hakan; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Zoumides, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, water catchment sediment yield as a result of water erosion is difficult to model. Applicability of quantitative, process-based soil erosion models at a catchment scale is often problematic due to large data requirements and difficulty of describing all erosion and sediment transport processes. On the other hand, qualitative models require less data and include almost all evident erosion processes, which make them especially suited for watershed erosion assessments. The objective of this study is to compare water erosion estimates of the quantitative PESERA model with qualitative assessments obtained by WOCAT mapping methodology. The PESERA model simulates soil loss based on land cover, soil, climate and vegetation data, while the WOCAT methodology is based on expert observations per land use systems. This study is conducted in the Peristerona Watershed in Cyprus. The study area is 106.4 km2 and has a mean local slope higher than 40% for the mountainous upstream area and less than 8% for plain. Sixteen different land cover types with varying intensity of agriculture were distinguished during the WOCAT field assessment. WOCAT methodology ranked the land cover "complex cultivation" as the most degraded (degree: evident signs of water erosion, extent: 50% of the area, rate: moderately increasing in time),"agriculture, significant area natural vegetation" as less degraded (degree: evident signs of water erosion, extent: 30% of the area, rate: decreasing slowly in time) and "forests" the least degraded (some signs of water erosion, extent 5% of the area, rate: decreasing slowly in time). The classified WOCAT units will be compared with the erosion estimates obtained by the PESERA model. This study provides a linkage between qualitative soil erosion methods with quantitative models and helps to translate the outcomes of the former into latter.

  5. Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: a personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2005-09-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences of conducting a qualitative semistructured interview study, after having done predominantly quantitative survey research in the social sciences. The author describes the process of learning how to approach conducting semistructured interviews with female advocates and clinicians who provide services to sexual assault survivors in the community. The author describes making the transition from a logical positivist deductive approach to thinking about and conducting research to a more social constructionist stance in which one learns from participants about their experiences and perspectives in narrative form to discover knowledge and develop theory inductively. PMID:16049103

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market. PMID:21721553

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Danmu injection using LC-ESI-MSn and LC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Li, Xiu-Feng; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Danmu injection, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Nauclea officinalis, has been commonly used for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat in China. However, the chemical constituents in Danmu injection have not been clarified yet. Objective: a HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components in Danmu injection. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Material XB-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm, 5μm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% formic acid (B) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results: Twenty-five compounds, including phenolic acid and phenol glycoside, iridous glycoside and glycoalkaloid were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, UV absorption, MS and MSn data with those elucidated references or literature. In addition, eleven compounds were simultaneously determined by HPLC–DAD, which was validated and successfully applied for determination of major components in Danmu injection. Conclusion: The results suggested that the established qualitative and quantitative method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of Danmu injection. PMID:25210312

  8. A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Sedimentary Palynomorphs, Lipid Biomarkers and Fossil DNA: Which Tool Provides the Most Detailed Paleoecological and Paleoenvironmental Information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boere, A. C.; Abbas, B.; Rijpstra, W. I.; Volkman, J. K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Coolen, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, it was shown that Holocene planktonic taxa could be identified at the species-level based on their preserved fossil genetic signatures (fossil DNA) in either cold and/or sulfidic lacustrine and marine settings. Many of those species are not known to leave morphologically recognizable remains and thus most likely would have escaped microscopic determination and enumeration. In addition, fossil DNA analysis also revealed past planktonic taxa for which no specific lipid biomarkers are known. However, the best, and yet unexplored, approach to validate fossil DNA as paleoenvironmental tool would be based on a direct qualitative and quantitative comparison of each of the above described proxies. In an up to 2700-year-old record of undisturbed sulfidic sediments from the Small Meromictic Basin in Ellis Fjord, Antarctica, we compared the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fossil ribosomal DNA of phototrophic algae like diatoms, dinoflagellates and past chemocline bacteria (green sulfur bacteria) with the distribution of their fossil lipid biomarkers: highly branched isoprenoids, dinosterol and carotenoids. For dinoflagellates, we performed a comparative microscopic (palynological) analysis of fossil dinocysts whereas comparative diatom microfossil data was available from the literature. We will discuss important new insights about the cell-specific fate of fossil DNA and the additional paleoenvironmental information which was revealed from the fossil DNA analysis.

  9. Adaption of a fragment analysis technique to an automated high-throughput multicapillary electrophoresis device for the precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Trotha, René; Reichl, Udo; Thies, Frank L; Sperling, Danuta; König, Wolfgang; König, Brigitte

    2002-04-01

    The analysis of microbial communities is of increasing importance in life sciences and bioengineering. Traditional techniques of investigations like culture or cloning methods suffer from many disadvantages. They are unable to give a complete qualitative and quantitative view of the total amount of microorganisms themselves, their interactions among each other and with their environment. Obviously, the determination of static or dynamic balances among microorganisms is of fast growing interest. The generation of species specific and fluorescently labeled 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique is a suitable tool to overcome the problems other methods have. For the separation of these fragments polyacrylamide gel sequencers are preferred as compared to capillary sequencers using linear polymers until now because of their higher electrophoretic resolution and therefore sizing accuracy. But modern capillary sequencers, especially multicapillary sequencers, offer an advanced grade of automation and an increased throughput necessary for the investigation of complex communities in long-time studies. Therefore, we adapted a T-RFLP technique to an automated high-throughput multicapillary electrophoresis device (ABI 3100 Genetic Analysis) with regard to a precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of microbial communities. PMID:11981854

  10. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 μM, 29.40 μM, and 26 μM respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  11. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (<25%) of the GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite. PMID:22614281

  12. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates. PMID:19326953

  13. Differentiating between and Synthesizing Quantitative, Qualitative, and Longitudinal Research on Polarized School Cultures: A Comment on Van Houtte (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, John

    2007-01-01

    Van Houtte provides a valuable large-sample quantitative analysis of differentiation and polarization processes between and within school cultures in Belgium. Such research across 34 secondary schools provides greater confidence that the findings in the ethnographic tradition for the differentiation-polarization theory are not due to…

  14. `They're not girly girls': an exploration of quantitative and qualitative data on engineering and gender in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, S.; Hassan, T.; Bagilhole, B.; Dainty, A.

    2012-05-01

    Despite sustained efforts to promote engineering careers to young women, it remains the most male-dominated academic discipline in Europe. This paper will provide an overview of UK data and research on women in engineering higher education, within the context of Europe. Comparisons between data from European countries representing various regions of Europe will highlight key differences and similarities between these nations in terms of women in engineering. Also, drawing on qualitative research the paper will explore UK students' experiences of gender, with a particular focus on the decision to study engineering and their experiences in higher education.

  15. Multiple qualitative and quantitative methods for free light chain analysis are necessary as first line tests for AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sečník, Peter; Honsová, Eva; Jabor, Antonín; Lavríková, Petra; Franeková, Janka

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the necessity of using different methods for amyloidogenic light chain detection. Serum and urine agarose gel electrophoresis and immunofixation, as well as serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassay measurements, were evaluated in a patient with verified multiple myeloma and consequent AL amyloidosis confirmed by Congo red staining and immunofluorescence techniques. Conventional chemistry tests [serum and urine electrophoresis (SPE and UPE); serum and urine immunofixation (SIFE and UIFE)] were inconclusive. Only quantitative FLC immunoassay (serum free light chain immunoanalysis, SFLC) provided correct diagnostic information. A combination of gel-based SIFE and UIFE with more novel quantitative FLC immunoassays appears necessary when searching for monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain-related diseases. PMID:26760309

  16. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of Simon™, a new CE-based automated Western blot system as applied to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Rustandi, Richard R; Loughney, John W; Hamm, Melissa; Hamm, Christopher; Lancaster, Catherine; Mach, Anna; Ha, Sha

    2012-09-01

    Many CE-based technologies such as imaged capillary IEF, CE-SDS, CZE, and MEKC are well established for analyzing proteins, viruses, or other biomolecules such as polysaccharides. For example, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (charge-based protein separation) and CE-SDS (size-based protein separation) are standard replacement methods in biopharmaceutical industries for tedious and labor intensive IEF and SDS-PAGE methods, respectively. Another important analytical tool for protein characterization is a Western blot, where after size-based separation in SDS-PAGE the proteins are transferred to a membrane and blotted with specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Western blotting analysis is applied in many areas such as biomarker research, therapeutic target identification, and vaccine development. Currently, the procedure is very manual, laborious, and time consuming. Here, we evaluate a new technology called Simple Western™ (or Simon™) for performing automated Western analysis. This new technology is based on CE-SDS where the separated proteins are attached to the wall of capillary by a proprietary photo activated chemical crosslink. Subsequent blotting is done automatically by incubating and washing the capillary with primary and secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and detected with chemiluminescence. Typically, Western blots are not quantitative, hence we also evaluated the quantitative aspect of this new technology. We demonstrate that Simon™ can quantitate specific components in one of our vaccine candidates and it provides good reproducibility and intermediate precision with CV <10%. PMID:22965727

  17. Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral flow dipstick immunoassay for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking. In this study a lateral flow dipstick immunoassay was developed for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of artesunate (ATS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in anti-malarial drugs. Methods This assay was based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against ATS. ATS-bovine serum albumin and goat anti-mouse IgG, used as the test capture reagent and the control capture reagent, were coated on the nitrocellulose membrane to form the test line and control line, respectively. The conjugate pad was saturated with the gold-labelled anti-ATS mAb. Results The indicator range of the dipsticks, defined as lowest concentration of the target analytes between which the test line was not visible, were 100-200 and 200-500 ng mL-1 for ATS and DHA, respectively. No competitive inhibition was observed up to 5,000 ng mL-1 of quinine, chloroquine diphosphate salt, primaquine phosphate, pyrimethamine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate or pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Semi-quantitative analysis of ATS and DHA in commercial drugs and raw drug materials with the dipsticks produced result agreeable with those determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Storage test showed that the indicator range for artemisinins remained unchanged after a week at 37°C and increased four-folds after six months of storage at 4°C or ambient temperature. Conclusions The new selected mAb 3D82G7 with high avidity and broad cross reactivity for artemisinins was used to

  18. How Does Reviewing the Evidence Change Veterinary Surgeons’ Beliefs Regarding the Treatment of Ovine Footrot? A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Helen M.; Green, Laura E.; Green, Martin J.; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2013-01-01

    Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i) to quantify how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii) to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii) to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method) was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons’ beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons’ knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i) veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii) more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i) demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs change (ii) revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii) suggested that improved transfer of research knowledge

  19. Qualitative and quantitative end-group analysis of a small molecular weight polyester by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laine, O; Osterholm, H; Järvinen, H; Wickström, K; Vainiotalo, P

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used for qualitative and quantitative end-group analysis of a small molecular weight polyester, poly(2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propylene phthalate). The presence of carboxyl-terminated linear and cyclic polyester oligomers was confirmed with the help of simple sample preparation methods. The presence of carboxyl end-groups in the polyester chains was verified through their formation of carboxylate salts with alkali metal cations. Cyclic oligomers were identified through deuterium exchange of the exchangeable protons of the polyester. Various inorganic salts were tested for salt formation of the carboxyl end-groups, but only the alkali metal salts proved effective. The influence of the alkali metal salts on the results of the quantitative end-group analysis was also studied. The relative amounts of differently terminated and cyclic oligomers were calculated when the alkali metal salts were used with different matrices. The results showed that both the salts and the matrices used in sample preparation can have a marked effect on the quantitative results of the end-group analysis. The measurements were carried out using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 1,8, 9-trihydroxyanthracene (dithranol), and 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA) as matrix compounds. Dithranol and HABA repeatably exhibited similar results, and these results differed from those obtained with DHB probably because of the different ionization mechanisms in the MALDI process. PMID:10717660

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weina; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Yuefei; Pan, Guixiang; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC. PMID:25654135

  1. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und Priorität von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder ändert, als nur für ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadäquaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und Gültigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber für materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollständigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit Richtungsänderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder Wellenlängen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; Nichtlokalität; Unschärfen bei Bestimmung komplementärer also auf identischen Information beruhender Größen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle Qualität seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primäre direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. Nachgefügt wurde noch eine Gegenüberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  2. Qualitative and quantitative effects of harmonic echocardiographic imaging on endocardial edge definition and side-lobe artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. N.; Yazbek, N.; Garcia, M. J.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging is a new ultrasonographic technique that is designed to improve image quality by exploiting the spontaneous generation of higher frequencies as ultrasound propagates through tissue. We studied 51 difficult-to-image patients with blinded side-by-side cineloop evaluation of endocardial border definition by harmonic versus fundamental imaging. In addition, quantitative intensities from cavity versus wall were compared for harmonic versus fundamental imaging. Harmonic imaging improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation over fundamental imaging (superior: harmonic = 71.1%, fundamental = 18.7%; similar: 10.2%; P <.001). Quantitative analysis of 100 wall/cavity combinations demonstrated brighter wall segments and more strikingly darker cavities during harmonic imaging (cavity intensity on a 0 to 255 scale: fundamental = 15.6 +/- 8.6; harmonic = 6.0 +/- 5.3; P <.0001), which led to enhanced contrast between the wall and cavity (1.89 versus 1.19, P <.0001). Harmonic imaging reduces side-lobe artifacts, resulting in a darker cavity and brighter walls, thereby improving image contrast and endocardial delineation.

  3. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of T2-weighted MRI scans in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Simone; Koziol, James A.

    1998-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), and for objective assessment of the extent of disease as a marker of treatment efficacy in MS clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to compare the evaluation of T2-weighted MRI scans in MS patients using a semi-automated quantitative technique with an independent assessment by a neurologist. Baseline, 6- month, and 12-month T2-weighted MRI scans from 41 chronic progressive MS patients were examined. The lesion volume ranged from 0.50 to 51.56 cm2 (mean: 8.08 cm2). Reproducibility of the quantitative technique was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 20 scans, the coefficient of variation of the replicate determinations was 8.2%. The reproducibility of the neurologist evaluations was assessed by the re-evaluation of a random subset of 10 patients. The rank correlation between the results of the two methods was 0.097, which did not significantly differ from zero. Disease-related activity in T2-weighted MRI scans is a multi-dimensional construct, and is not adequately summarized solely by determination of lesion volume. In this setting, image analysis software should not only support storage and retrieval as sets of pixels, but should also support links to an anatomical dictionary.

  4. A quantitative analysis of the effects of qualitatively different reinforcers on fixed ratio responding in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Newland, M Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies of inbred mouse strains have shown reinforcer-strain interactions that may potentially mask differences among strains in memory performance. The present research examined the effects of two qualitatively different reinforcers (heterogeneous mix of flavored pellets and sweetened-condensed milk) on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement in three inbred strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2). Responses rates for all strains were a bitonic (inverted U) function of the size of the fixed-ratio schedule and were generally higher when responding was maintained by milk. For the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 and to a lesser extent the BALB/c, milk primarily increased response rates at moderate fixed ratios, but not at the largest fixed ratios tested. A formal model of ratio-schedule performance, Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR), was applied to the response rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, the differences in response rates maintained by pellets and milk were mostly due to changes in motoric processes as indicated by changes in the minimum response time (δ) produced by each reinforcer type and not specific activation (a), a model term that represents value and is correlated with reinforcer magnitude and the break point obtained under progressive ratio schedules. MPR also revealed that, although affected by reinforcer type, a parameter interpreted as the rate of saturation of working memory (λ), differed among the strains. PMID:23357283

  5. [Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of antocyan pigments as components of dietary supplements and drugs for vision].

    PubMed

    Gottikh, M B; Tashlitskiĭ, V N

    2010-01-01

    Bilberry has been long used in folk medicine and credited for an ability to improve vision, primarily night vision. The major active ingredients of bilberries are antocyans. Experimental and clinical studies confirmed the ability of bilberry antocyans to accelerate the regeneration of the photosensitive pigment rhodopsin, to improve nutrition of the retina, and to restore the tissue mechanisms of its protection. The authors studied the level of bilberry antocyans in 5 samples of dietary supplements and medicines for eyes, which had been bought in Moscow drugstores. The total content of antocyans was determined by pH-differential spectrophotometry. All the test samples were shown to contain antocyan pigments; however, their concentration in different samples varied in a wide range of 0.01 to 4.2%. The maximum content was found in the drug "Focus". The qualitative composition of antocyan pigments was estimated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All the test samples other than Vitrum vision forte turned out to contain just bilberry antocyans. The chromatographic profile of a Vitrum vision forte sample was inconsistent with bilberry antocyan pigments and the agent was likely to have another source. PMID:21328891

  6. Quantitative and qualitative coastal water quality parameters monitoring using field data and aerial photography: Porto, Portugal) beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Ana; Pais-Barbosa, Joaquim; Piqueiro, Francisco; Aguiar, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Under the scope of the "Blue Flag" project, a field campaign in order to collect water samples and a photogrammetric survey were performed at the urban seashore beaches of Porto, in August of 2008. Several water quality parameters were measured in different stations, following the European Directive 2006/7/CE. However, only 14 stations appear in the area covered by the aerial photographs. Multiple linear regressions were established in order to estimate the relationship between the DNs and three different water quality parameters (WQP). All the established models were found to be statistically significant and can be used to explain a considerable part of the data variability (R2>66%). A qualitative analysis was also performed in order to identify hydromorphologic features/patterns and correlate them with several WQP. The aerial photographs were classified in 6 classes (beach, beachface, breaking zone, rocks, sediments and sea). The maximum likelihood classifier presented the best performance. Analyzing the results in a GIS environment, it is clear that: for coliforms parameter the highest values appear near the mouth of urban small rivers (beach and beachface); for turbidity the highest values are located in the sediments class; and for the dissolve oxygen the highest values are located in areas with higher dynamics (breaking zone and beachface).

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpene saponins from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and their activities against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Fu; Yang, Shao-Lan; Han, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Lei; Lu, Gui-Long; Xia, Tao; Gao, Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    A method using LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS and LC/UV-ELSD was established to qualitatively analyze triterpene saponins obtained from the tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). In addition, the quantitative analysis of oleiferasaponin A1 using LC/UV was developed. The purified total saponins did not exhibit any inhibitory effects at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL against the tested bacteria, except for Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli. By contrast, higher inhibitory activity was seen against the tested fungi, especially against Bipolaris maydis. Following treatment with an MIC value of 250 μg/mL for 24 h, the mycelial morphology was markedly shriveled in appearance or showed flattened and empty hyphae, with fractured cell walls, ruptured plasmalemma and cytoplasmic coagulation or leakage. These structural changes hindered the growth of mycelia. PMID:24914901

  8. Determination and quality evaluation of green tea extracts through qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS).

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhu, Ming; Shao, Yun-Dong; Shen, Zhe; Weng, Chen-Chen; Yan, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-15

    The quality of tea is mainly attributed to tea polyphenols and caffeine. In this paper, a new strategy for quality evaluation of green tea extracts was explored and verified through qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). Taguchi Design was introduced to evaluate the fluctuations of the relative conversion factors (fx) of tea catechins, gallic acid and caffeine to epigallocatechin gallate. The regression model (Sig.=0.000) and the deviations (R(2)>0.999) between QAMS and normal external standard method proved the consistency of the two methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were employed to classify 26 batches of commercial Longjing green tea extracts (LJGTEs) collected from different producers. The results showed a significant difference in component profile between the samples from different origins. The QAMS method was verified to be an alternative and promising method to comprehensively and effectively control the quality of LJGTEs from different origins. PMID:26675847

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Acorus tatarinowii Schott by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Peng; Xue, Rui; Li, Zhixiong; Zhu, Kaicheng; Wan, Ping; Huang, Chenggang

    2015-06-01

    Acorus tatarinowii Schott (ATS) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of epilepsy, amnesia and insomnia. In this study, a methodology utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) was established for the separation and structural identification of the major chemical constituents in ATS for the first time. Overall, 46 major constituents including flavonoid glycosides, phenylpropane derivatives, amides and lignans were identified or tentatively characterized. Seven major constituents, including four phenylpropane derivatives and three lignans, were further quantified as marker substances, which showed good linearity within the test ranges. These results indicated that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for quality control of ATS. PMID:25354491

  10. Rock surface roughness measurement using CSI technique and analysis of surface characterization by qualitative and quantitative results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtar, Husneni; Montgomery, Paul; Gianto; Susanto, K.

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop image processing that is widely used in geo-processing and analysis, we introduce an alternative technique for the characterization of rock samples. The technique that we have used for characterizing inhomogeneous surfaces is based on Coherence Scanning Interferometry (CSI). An optical probe is first used to scan over the depth of the surface roughness of the sample. Then, to analyse the measured fringe data, we use the Five Sample Adaptive method to obtain quantitative results of the surface shape. To analyse the surface roughness parameters, Hmm and Rq, a new window resizing analysis technique is employed. The results of the morphology and surface roughness analysis show micron and nano-scale information which is characteristic of each rock type and its history. These could be used for mineral identification and studies in rock movement on different surfaces. Image processing is thus used to define the physical parameters of the rock surface.

  11. ToF-SIMS as an alternative tool for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polar herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botreau, Marc; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Migeon, Henri-Noël

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is evaluated as a direct method for quantitative analysis of glyphosate (GLY) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). In contrast to other pesticides, glyphosate and 2,4,5-T are highly polar and water-soluble; therefore they are not easily detected with classical procedures. Quantifications of the two pesticides based on ToF-SIMS spectra from standard solutions deposited on gold and aluminium are researched. Only negative secondary ion fingerprints of the two pesticides should be used for quantification. Limits of detection and limits of quantification of both pesticides largely depend on chemical background and contamination level. Special attention was given to molecular mass peak fingerprints and main fragments evolution in order to detect a potential cross contamination or mass peak interferences.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of collagen and elastin in annulus fibrosus of the physiologic and scoliotic intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Kobielarz, Magdalena; Szotek, Sylwia; Głowacki, Maciej; Dawidowicz, Joanna; Pezowicz, Celina

    2016-09-01

    The biophysical properties of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc are determined by collagen and elastin fibres. The progression of scoliosis is accompanied by a number of pathological changes concerning these structural proteins. This is a major cause of dysfunction of the intervertebral disc. The object of the study were annulus fibrosus samples excised from intervertebral discs of healthy subjects and patients treated surgically for scoliosis in the thoracolumbar or lumbar spine. The research material was subjected to structural analysis by light microscopy and quantitative analysis of the content of collagen types I, II, III and IV as well as elastin by immunoenzymatic test (ELISA). A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the sampling site (Mann-Whitney test, α=0.05) and scoliosis (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, α=0.05) on the obtained results. The microscopic studies conducted on scoliotic annulus fibrosus showed a significant architectural distortion of collagen and elastin fibres. Quantitative biochemical assays demonstrated region-dependent distribution of only collagen types I and II in the case of healthy intervertebral discs whereas in the case of scoliotic discs region-dependent distribution concerned all examined proteins of the extracellular matrix. Comparison of scoliotic and healthy annulus fibrosus revealed a significant decrease in the content of collagen type I and elastin as well as a slight increase in the proportion of collagen types III and IV. The content of collagen type II did not differ significantly between both groups. The observed anomalies are a manifestation of degenerative changes affecting annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc in patients suffering from scoliosis. PMID:27177214

  13. A Study of Mercury Methylation Genetics: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of hgcAB in Pure Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, G. A.; Wymore, A. M.; King, A. J.; Podar, M.; Hurt, R. A., Jr.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Gilmour, C. C.; Brandt, C. C.; Brown, S. D.; Palumbo, A. V.; Elias, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Two proteins (HgcA and HgcB) have been determined to be essential for mercury (Hg)-methylation and either one alone is not sufficient for this process. Detection and quantification of these genes to determine at risk environments is critical. Universal degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers spanning hgcAB were developed to ascertain organismal diversity and validate that both genes were present as an established prerequisite for Hg-methylation. To confirm this approach, an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes (including methylators and non-methylators: 13 Deltaproteobacteria, 9 Firmicutes, and 10 methanogenic Archaea) were assayed with the newly designed universal hgcAB primer set. A single band within an agarose gel was observed for the majority of the cultures with known hgcAB and confirmed via Sanger sequencing. For environmental applications, once the potential for Hg-methylation is established from PCR amplification with the universal hgcAB primer set, quantification of clade-specific hgcAB gene abundance is desirable. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) degenerate primers targeting hgcA from each of the three dominate clades (Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and methanogenic Archaea) known to be associated with anaerobic Hg-methylation. The qPCR primers amplify virtually all hgcA positive cultures overall and are specific for their designed clade. Finally, to ensure the procedure is robust and sensitive in complex environmental matrices, cells from all clades were mixed in different combinations and ratios to assess qPCR primer specificity. The development and validation of these high fidelity quantitative molecular tools now allows for rapid and accurate risk management assessment in any environment.

  14. Event specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified MON863 maize based on the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Xu, Songci; Pan, Aihu; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Zhigang; Zhang, Dabing

    2005-11-30

    Because of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) labeling policies issued in many countries and areas, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of GMO labeling policies, such as screening, gene specific, construct specific, and event specific PCR detection methods, which have become a mainstay of GMOs detection. The event specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMOs detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. This genetically modified maize, MON863, contains a Cry3Bb1 coding sequence that produces a protein with enhanced insecticidal activity against the coleopteran pest, corn rootworm. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between the host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of the genetically modified maize MON863 was revealed by means of thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR, and the specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5'-integration junction sequence; the conventional qualitative PCR and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods employing these primers and probes were successfully developed. In conventional qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for MON863 in 100 ng of maize genomic DNA for one reaction. In the quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR assay, the LOD and the limit of quantification were eight and 80 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed maize samples with known MON863 contents were detected using the established real-time PCR systems, and the ideal results indicated that the established event specific real-time PCR detection systems were reliable, sensitive, and accurate. PMID:16302741

  15. Stepwise sensitivity analysis from qualitative to quantitative: Application to the terrestrial hydrological modeling of a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process (CSSP) land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yanjun; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Duan, Qingyun; Choi, Hyun Il; Dai, Yongjiu; Wu, Huan

    2015-06-01

    An uncertainty quantification framework was employed to examine the sensitivities of 24 model parameters from a newly developed Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process (CSSP) land surface model (LSM). The sensitivity analysis (SA) was performed over 18 representative watersheds in the contiguous United States to examine the influence of model parameters in the simulation of terrestrial hydrological processes. Two normalized metrics, relative bias (RB) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), were adopted to assess the fit between simulated and observed streamflow discharge (SD) and evapotranspiration (ET) for a 14 year period. SA was conducted using a multiobjective two-stage approach, in which the first stage was a qualitative SA using the Latin Hypercube-based One-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) screening, and the second stage was a quantitative SA using the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS)-based Sobol' sensitivity indices. This approach combines the merits of qualitative and quantitative global SA methods, and is effective and efficient for understanding and simplifying large, complex system models. Ten of the 24 parameters were identified as important across different watersheds. The contribution of each parameter to the total response variance was then quantified by Sobol' sensitivity indices. Generally, parameter interactions contribute the most to the response variance of the CSSP, and only 5 out of 24 parameters dominate model behavior. Four photosynthetic and respiratory parameters are shown to be influential to ET, whereas reference depth for saturated hydraulic conductivity is the most influential parameter for SD in most watersheds. Parameter sensitivity patterns mainly depend on hydroclimatic regime, as well as vegetation type and soil texture. This article was corrected on 26 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  16. Comparing the accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative analyses of interim PET to prognosticate Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review protocol of diagnostic test accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Procházka, Vít; Klugar, Miloslav; Bachanova, Veronika; Klugarová, Jitka; Tučková, Dagmar; Papajík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hodgkin lymphoma is an effectively treated malignancy, yet 20% of patients relapse or are refractory to front-line treatments with potentially fatal outcomes. Early detection of poor treatment responders is crucial for appropriate application of tailored treatment strategies. Tumour metabolic imaging of Hodgkin lymphoma using visual (qualitative) 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a gold standard for staging and final outcome assessment, but results gathered during the interim period are less accurate. Analysis of continuous metabolic–morphological data (quantitative) FDG-PET may enhance the robustness of interim disease monitoring, and help to improve treatment decision-making processes. The objective of this review is to compare diagnostic test accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative interim FDG-PET in the prognostication of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods The literature on this topic will be reviewed in a 3-step strategy that follows methods described by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). First, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases will be searched. Second, listed databases for published literature (MEDLINE, Tripdatabase, Pedro, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and WoS) and unpublished literature (Open Grey, Current Controlled Trials, MedNar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cos Conference Papers Index and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO) will be queried. Third, 2 independent reviewers will analyse titles, abstracts and full texts, and perform hand search of relevant studies, and then perform critical appraisal and data extraction from selected studies using the DATARI tool (JBI). If possible, a statistical meta-analysis will be performed on pooled sensitivity and specificity data gathered from the selected studies. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed. Funnel plots, Begg's rank correlations and Egger's regression tests will be used to detect and/or correct publication

  17. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact of high school marine science curricula and instructional strategies on science literacy of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Julie Lee

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the ways secondary level students became more scientifically knowledgeable and literate as they participated in naturally integrated marine science courses using a combined qualitative and quantitative research design. Students' attitudes toward science, technology, and society issues, views relative to marine science, and knowledge of general science concepts were assessed before and after taking a marine science course using three surveys developed by the researcher. Nine Florida secondary level teachers administered pre- and post-questionnaires to students to assess knowledge and attitudes. Paired-sample t tests revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001, t value = 4.42, n = 399) between pretest and posttest mean scores for secondary level students, indicating an increase in students' general scientific knowledge. Attitudes toward science, technology, and society issues did not significantly change, but were more reflective of the Standards and Benchmark based on qualitative data. Qualitative data also was used to validate the questionnaires and explain the relationship between scientific literacy and key aspects of the instruction and curriculum through descriptive case profiles. Similarities and differences between the learning environments, including curriculum and instruction, were analyzed to provide insight and explanation of the findings. The ARCS Model, a model based on four necessary conditions---attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction---for a student to be motivated to learn was used as an organizing framework for this analysis. Students' open-ended responses reflected overall positive experiences in marine science courses, ones that will cause them to be more motivated to learn science and become responsible citizens in the state of Florida. The most prevalent reasons students gave for being satisfied with their marine science courses were: they learned more science than they previously had in

  18. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in CD are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multigene family and amino acid variation in the CD epitopes is known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members. Current commercial methods of gluten detection are unable to distinguish between immunogenic and non-immunogenic CD epitope variants and thus to accurately quantify the overall CD epitope load of a given wheat variety. Such quantification is indispensable for correct selection of wheat varieties with low potential to cause CD. Results A 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method was developed for alpha-gliadin transcripts encompassing the three major CD epitopes and their variants. The method was used to screen developing grains on plants of 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. A dedicated sequence analysis pipeline returned a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins. The numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant were used to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the CD epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A few plants showed a lower fraction of CD epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, but none were free of CD epitopes. Conclusions The dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method enables 1) the grouping of wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and 2) the screening for plants which are potentially less CD-immunogenic. The resulting alpha-gliadin sequence database will

  19. Neurocognition in youth adults under age 30 at familial risk for schizophrenia: A quantitative and qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a central feature of schizophrenia and is observed during all phases of the illness. Because schizophrenia is known to run in families, studying neurocognitive function in first-degree, nonpsychotic relatives has been a widely utilized strategy for almost 50 years for understanding presumed “genetic risk.” Studying nonpsychotic relatives (“familial high-risk” or (FHR)) allows for identification of cognitive vulnerability markers independent of confounds associated with psychosis. Prior meta-analyses have elucidated the level and pattern of cognitive deficits in the premorbid, prodromal and post-onset periods of psychosis, and in relatives regardless of age. However, no prior quantitative analyses have specifically focused on studies of young first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia who have not passed through the peak age illness risk (< age 30). The English language literature of neuropsychological studies of first-degree relatives for schizophrenia was identified through May 15th, 2011. From 33 studies, 28 studies met our criteria for quantitative review, utilizing >70 individual tests and 250 variables. In general, young FHR individuals demonstrated deficits with a moderate level of severity compared with healthy controls. The largest average effect sizes (ESs), based on tests given in at least 3 independent studies, were on estimates of Full Scale IQ (d=−0.777), followed by Vocabulary (d=−0.749) and single word reading tests (d=−0.698) (often used as estimates of IQ). Measures of sustained attention, working memory and others had more modest ESs. Deficits were milder than in established schizophrenia, but at least as severe as in clinical high-risk (HR) or putatively prodromal participants and in older relatives examined in prior meta-analyses. Additionally, while assessed from a more limited literature, youth at FHR for schizophrenia tended to show worse neurocognitive functioning than those at FHR

  20. An exploratory examination of the predictors of success for a science education program enhanced by communication technologies: Contributions from qualitative and quantitative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Curtis Clinton

    New hybrid educational programs are evolving to challenge traditional definitions of distance education. One such program is the Integrated Science (IS) program of The University of Alabama's Center for Communication and Educational Technology (CCET), which was developed to address concerns about scientific illiteracy in middle school education. IS relies on a multilayered use of communication technologies (primarily videotape and e-mail) for delivery of student instruction, as a delivery vehicle for curriculum materials, and as a feedback mechanism. The IS program serves to enhance classroom science instruction by providing professionally developed videotaped educational lectures and curriculum materials used by classroom science teachers. To date, such hybrid forms of distance education have seldom been examined. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this study examines 64 IS classrooms visited from October 1992 to April 1995 by researchers at the Institute for Communication Research at The University of Alabama. Detailed qualitative information was gathered from each classroom by student, teacher, and administrator interviews; focus groups; questionnaires; and recording observations of classroom activity. From the reports of the site visits, key components of the IS classroom experience thought to be predictors of the success of the program for individual classrooms are identified. Exemplars of both positive and negative components are provided in narrative form. A model is posited to describe the potential relationships between the various components and their impact on the overall success of the IS program in an individual classroom. Quantitative assessments were made of the 21 key variables identified in the qualitative data that appeared to enhance the likelihood of success for the IS program in an individual classroom. Accounting for 90% of the variance in the regression model, the factor with the greatest predictive potential for success

  1. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release. PMID:26563029

  2. Qualitative and quantitative study of polymorphic forms in drug formulations by near infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Martin E.; Griesser, Ulrich J.; Sawatzki, Juergen

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of polymorphic forms in a number of commercial drug products containing the polymorphic drug compounds sorbitol, mannitol, famotidine, acemetacin, carbamazepine, meprobamate and phenylbutazone. The crystal forms present in the drug products were identified based on the position, intensity and shape of characteristic bands. Quantitative analysis of a mixture of two crystal forms of mannitol in a drug product was carried out using a partial least-squares method. In drug products containing meprobamate, sorbitol, and carbamazepine, the thermodynamically stable form was found exclusively, whereas metastable polymorphs were found in solid dosage forms of acemetacin, phenylbutazone, famotidine and mannitol. A mixture of two polymorphic forms of mannitol in Lipobay tablets was determined to consist of 30.8±3.8% of the metastable modification I. The simple sample preparation, the occurrence of sharp bands in the spectra as well as the high reproducibility and accuracy qualifies FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of crystal forms in drug products. The method is perfectly suited to meet the regulatory requirements of monitoring crystal forms during processing and storage and often succeeds in detecting the present crystal form in drug products even when the used excipients are not known.

  3. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  4. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2016-01-01

    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  5. Comparison of nine different real-time PCR chemistries for qualitative and quantitative applications in GMO detection.

    PubMed

    Buh Gasparic, Meti; Tengs, Torstein; La Paz, Jose Luis; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Pla, Maria; Esteve, Teresa; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    Several techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms, but quantitative real-time PCR is by far the most popular approach. Among the most commonly used real-time PCR chemistries are TaqMan probes and SYBR green, but many other detection chemistries have also been developed. Because their performance has never been compared systematically, here we present an extensive evaluation of some promising chemistries: sequence-unspecific DNA labeling dyes (SYBR green), primer-based technologies (AmpliFluor, Plexor, Lux primers), and techniques involving double-labeled probes, comprising hybridization (molecular beacon) and hydrolysis (TaqMan, CPT, LNA, and MGB) probes, based on recently published experimental data. For each of the detection chemistries assays were included targeting selected loci. Real-time PCR chemistries were subsequently compared for their efficiency in PCR amplification and limits of detection and quantification. The overall applicability of the chemistries was evaluated, adding practicability and cost issues to the performance characteristics. None of the chemistries seemed to be significantly better than any other, but certain features favor LNA and MGB technology as good alternatives to TaqMan in quantification assays. SYBR green and molecular beacon assays can perform equally well but may need more optimization prior to use. PMID:20087729

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Drug and Health Food Products Containing Red Vine Leaf Extracts on the Japanese Market.

    PubMed

    Masada, Sayaka; Takahashi, Yutaka; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Red vine leaf extracts (RVLEs) have traditionally been used for leg wellness and are now standardized to be used as OTC drugs in Europe. In Japan, one brand of RVLE products was recently approved as a direct OTC drug, and RVLEs are still used as ingredients in health food products. Since there is no mandated criterion for the quality of health food products in Japan, the consistent quality and composition of these products are not assured. Here we analyzed OTC drug and health food products containing RVLEs with different lot numbers by LC/MS. Subsequent multivariate analyses clearly indicated that the quality of the health food products was highly variable compared to that of the drug products. Surprisingly, the component contents in the health foods were different even within a same lot in a same brand. The quantitative analyses of flavonols and stilbene derivatives in the drugs and health foods indicated that the concentration of each substance was kept constant in the drugs but not in the health foods. These results strongly indicated that the quality of RVLEs as a whole was not properly controlled in the manufacturing process of health foods. Since RVLE is an active ingredient with pharmaceutical evidences and is used for drugs, the proper regulation for ensuring the consistent quality of RVLEs from product to product would be recommended even in the health foods. PMID:27350106

  7. Improved Sensitivity for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Active Ricin by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxia; Baudys, Jakub; Barr, John R; Kalb, Suzanne R

    2016-07-01

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein which causes cell death by blocking protein synthesis and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. Rapid and sensitive detection of ricin toxin in various types of sample matrices is needed as an emergency requirement for public health and antibioterrorism response. An in vitro MALDI TOF MS-based activity assay that detects ricin mediated depurination of synthetic substrates was improved through optimization of the substrate, reaction conditions, and sample preparation. In this method, the ricin is captured by a specific polycolonal antibody followed by hydrolysis reaction. The ricin activity is determined by detecting the unique cleavage product of synthetic oligomer substrates. The detection of a depurinated substrate was enhanced by using a more efficient RNA substrate and optimizing buffer components, pH, and reaction temperature. In addition, the factors involved in mass spectrometry analysis, such as MALDI matrix, plate, and sample preparation, were also investigated to improve the ionization of the depurinated product and assay reproducibility. With optimized parameters, the limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL of ricin spiked in buffer and milk was accomplished, representing more than 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in assay sensitivity. Improving assay's ruggeddness or reproducibility also made it possible to quantitatively detect active ricin with 3 orders of magnitude dynamic range. PMID:27264550

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyzing qualitative and quantitative variations in therapeutic albumin.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Przybylski, Cédric; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Régis; Urbain, Rémi; Chevreux, Guillaume; Jorieux, Sylvie; Taverna, Myriam

    2013-10-24

    The present study describes a reproducible and quantitative capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, which leads to the separation of nine forms (native, oxidized and glycated) of human serum albumin (HSA). In an attempt to identify the different species separated by this CZE method, the capillary electrophoresis was coupled to mass spectrometry using a sheath liquid interface, an optimized capillary coating and a suitable CE running buffer. CE-MS analyses confirmed the heterogeneity of albumin preparation and revealed new truncated and modified forms such as Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). Assignment of the CZE peaks was carried out using specific antibodies, carboxypeptidase A or sample reduction before or during the CE separation. Thus, five HSA forms were unambiguously identified. Using this CZE method several albumin batches produced by slightly different fractionation ways could be discriminated. Furthermore, analyses of HSA preparations marketed by five pharmaceutical industries revealed that two therapeutic albumins, including that marketed by LFB, contained the highest proportion of native form and lower levels of oxidized forms. PMID:24120174

  9. Quantitative and qualitative transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains of Claviceps purpurea with respect to ergot alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Majeská Čudejková, Mária; Vojta, Petr; Valík, Josef; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic phytopathogen widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for its ability to produce ergot alkaloids (EAs). The fungus attacks unfertilized ovaries of grasses and forms sclerotia, which represent the only type of tissue where the synthesis of EAs occurs. The biosynthetic pathway of EAs has been extensively studied; however, little is known concerning its regulation. Here, we present the quantitative transcriptome analysis of the sclerotial and mycelial tissues providing a comprehensive view of transcriptional differences between the tissues that produce EAs and those that do not produce EAs and the pathogenic and non-pathogenic lifestyle. The results indicate metabolic changes coupled with sclerotial differentiation, which are likely needed as initiation factors for EA biosynthesis. One of the promising factors seems to be oxidative stress. Here, we focus on the identification of putative transcription factors and regulators involved in sclerotial differentiation, which might be involved in EA biosynthesis. To shed more light on the regulation of EA composition, whole transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains differing in their alkaloid spectra was performed. The results support the hypothesis proposing the composition of the amino acid pool in sclerotia to be an important factor regulating the final structure of the ergopeptines produced by Claviceps purpurea. PMID:26827914

  10. RNA sequencing analysis identifies novel spliced transcripts but does not indicate quantitative or qualitative changes of viral transcripts during progression of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced tumours.

    PubMed

    Probst-Hunczek, Sonja; Jäger, Günter; Schneider, Markus; Notz, Ekaterina; Stubenrauch, Frank; Iftner, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Persistent infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can result in the development of cancer of the cervix uteri and other malignancies. The underlying molecular mechanisms leading to the progression of HPV-induced lesions are, however, not well understood. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) induces papillomas in domestic rabbits which progress at a very high rate to cancer. Using this model, we compared the transcriptional patterns of CRPV in papillomas and carcinomas by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The most abundant transcripts can encode E7, short E6 and E1^E4, followed by full-length E6, E2, E1 and E9^E2C. In addition, we identified two rare, novel splice junctions 7810/3714 and 1751/3065 in both papillomas and carcinomas which have been described for other papillomaviruses. Neither RNA-seq nor quantitative real-time PCR-based assays identified qualitative or quantitative changes of viral transcription between papillomas and carcinomas. In summary, our analyses confirmed that papillomaviruses have highly similar transcriptional patterns, but they do not suggest that changes in these patterns contribute to the progression of CRPV-induced tumours. PMID:26297146

  11. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  12. Quantitative and qualitative changes in primary and secondary stem organization of Aristolochia macrophylla during ontogeny: functional growth analysis and experiments

    PubMed Central

    Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The anatomy of young and old stems of Aristolochia macrophylla has been investigated for a better understanding of how secondary growth processes cause changes in the stem anatomy of a lianescent plant. In A. macrophylla, following an increase in volume of secondary vascular tissues, the cortical tissues are deformed and the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder ruptures. Morphometric measurements prove that the inner zone of the cortical parenchymatous tissue is compressed prior to the rupture of the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder. After the rupture has occurred, the radial width of the inner primary cortex slightly increases again. This could be caused by strain relaxation, suggesting that the inner primary cortex mechanically behaves similarly to cellular technical foam rubbers. Two different experiments were undertaken to test the outer cortical cylinders mechanically. The outer cortical cylinders comprise the outer sclerenchymatous cortical tissue and a collenchymatous sheath underneath the epidermis and the epidermis. In a first experiment, transverse compression loads were applied to the outside of the cortical cylinders causing ovalization of the cylinder until failure. This experiment allowed the Young's Modulus of the outer cortical cylinders to be determined. In a second set of experiments, radial hydraulic pressure was applied to the inside of the cortical cylinders, mimicking the mechanical effects of internal growth processes. The increase of the internal pressure finally led to rupture of the cortical cylinders. The circumferential stresses acting on the inner surface of the cortical cylinders were calculated. These data allow quantitative estimates of the radial and circumferential pressures effected by vascular secondary growth processes during ontogeny in A. macrophylla stems. The experimental results further indicate that the outer sclerenchymatous cylinder is the main contributor to mechanical stability of young A. macrophylla stems. PMID:18573799

  13. Large-scale qualitative and quantitative characterization of components in Shenfu injection by integrating hydrophilic interaction chromatography, reversed phase liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Zhang, Na; Shi, Shepo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yunfang; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-08-14

    It is of great importance to clarify in depth the chemical composition, including qualitative and quantitative aspects, of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection that contains a great number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients to guarantee its safe medication in clinic. Column-switching hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS) has been revealed to be advantageous at simultaneous measurement of compounds covering a broad polarity range. Previous studies have profiled the hydrophobic components, mainly aconite alkaloids and ginsenosides, in Shenfu Injection (SFI); however, the hydrophilic substances haven't been taken into account. In the present study, we aim to holistically characterize the hydrophilic constituents and to simultaneously quantitate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in SFI. A strategy integrating predefined multiple reaction monitoring, step-wise multiple ion monitoring, and enhanced product ion scans was proposed to universally screen the hydrophilic substances using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Structural identification was carried out by comparing with authentic compounds, analyzing MS(2) spectra, and referring to accessible databases (e.g., MassBank, METLIN and HMDB). A total of 157 hydrophilic compounds were detected from SFI, and 154 ones were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, organic acid, carbohydrates, etc. A column-switching HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS system was developed and validated for simultaneously quantitative analysis of 40 primary hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients in SFI, including eleven amino acids, nine nucleosides, nine aconite alkaloids, and eleven ginsenosides. Taken together, the findings obtained could provide meaningful information for comprehensively understanding the chemical composition and offer a reliable approach for the quality control of SFI. PMID:26143607

  14. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively. Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria. To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 307, 309, 310, 313. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are four activity units: (1) Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively; (2) Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria; (3) To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment; and (4) Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. All the activities are designed to be used by secondary school…

  15. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the groundwater system behavior to support Brownfield regeneration of Hunedoara (Romania) former steel production site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, R.; Gaitanaru, D.; Ciugulea, O.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.

    2012-04-01

    electrical conductivity tests. One important role in the spatial distribution of the contaminants is played by the hydro-stratigraphical features of the site. In situ testing of hydraulic conductivity has been performed by injecting water under a specified pressure (4-5 bar) into the aquifer. The interpretation provides in a preliminary stage a relative profile of hydraulic conductivity. By means of several slug tests, the results are translated into absolute values of hydraulic conductivity. The calibrated flow model represents the first step for the quantitative assessment of the groundwater parameters. Correlating the surface and soil distribution of the pollutants, a multi-component transport model is currently set-up in order to quantify the spatial distribution of the contaminated area.

  16. Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection. Results Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso × Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2–6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance. Conclusions The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso × Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of heart mitochondria for evaluating the degree of myocardial injury utilizing atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sora; Choi, Samjin; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Kim, Weon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    force of 27.64±0.88 nN (n=30). Adhesion force is governed by the attractive portion of the interacting forces between the surface atoms of the contacts. From the morphological and nano-mechanical changes in heart mitochondria, we suggested that the outer membranes of mitochondria were broken by myocardial ischemic injury before they became swollen, and the swelling might be correlated with the ischemic injury. We inferred that the breakage of membranes leads to uptake of water and matrix swelling. As a result, shape measurement parameters for the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial swelling could be very effective for evaluating the myocardial injury. PMID:22809584

  18. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies. PMID:26212968

  19. An assessment of computer model techniques to predict quantitative and qualitative measures of speech perception in university classrooms for varying room sizes and noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Seok

    The objective of this dissertation was to assess the use of computer modeling techniques to predict quantitative and qualitative measures of speech perception in classrooms under realistic conditions of background noise and reverberation. Secondary objectives included (1) finding relationships among acoustical measurements made in actual classrooms and in the computer models of the actual rooms as a prediction tool of 15 acoustic parameters at the design stage of projects and (2) finding relationships among speech perception scores and 15 acoustic parameters to determine the best predictors of speech perception in actual classroom conditions. Fifteen types of acoustical measurements were made in three actual classrooms with reverberation times of 0.5, 1.3, and 5.1 seconds. Speech perception tests using a Modified Rhyme Test list were also given to 22 subject in each room with five noise conditions of signal-to-noise ratios of 31, 24, 15, 0, -10. Computer models of the rooms were constructed using a commercially available computer model software program. The 15 acoustical measurements were made at 6 or 9 locations in the model rooms. Impulse responses obtained in the computer models of the rooms were convolved with the anechoically recorded speech tests used in the full size rooms to produce a compact disk with the MRT lists with the acoustical response of the computer model rooms. Speech perception tests using this as source material were given to the subjects over loudspeaker in an acoustic test booth. The results of the study showed correlations (R2) of between acoustical measures made in the full size classrooms and the computer models of the classrooms of 0.92 to 0.99 with standard errors of 0.033 to 7.311. Comparisons between speech perception scores tested in the rooms and acoustical measurements made in the rooms and in the computer models of the classrooms showed that the measures have similar prediction accuracy with other studies in the literatures. The

  20. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of lower-upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of CO2-rich brine during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin).

    Experimental CO2-rich brine was exposed to sandstone in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 7.8 MPa, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-rich brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and pore network distribution. Complementary chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analyzed before and after the experiment.

    The petrographic study of contiguous sandstone samples (more external area of sample blocks) before and after CO2-rich brine injection indicates an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). It is probable that these measured pore changes could be due to intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample, considering them as the early features produced by the CO2-rich brine. Nevertheless, the whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with CO2-rich brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early

  1. Qualitative and quantitative changes in detrital reservoir rocks caused by CO2-brine-rock interactions during first injection phases (Utrillas sandstones, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, E.; Ordóñez-Casado, B.; Quintana, L.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and interpret qualitative and quantitative changes at rock matrix scale of Lower-Upper Cretaceous sandstones exposed to supercritical (SC) CO2 and brine. The effects of experimental injection of SC CO2 during the first injection phases were studied at rock matrix scale, in a potential deep sedimentary reservoir in Northern Spain (Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin). Experimental wet CO2 injection was performed in a reactor chamber under realistic conditions of deep saline formations (P ≈ 78 bar, T ≈ 38 °C and 24 h exposure time). After the experiment, exposed and non-exposed equivalent sample sets were compared with the aim of assessing possible changes due to the effect of the CO2-brine exposure. Optical microscopy (OpM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aided by optical image analysis (OIA) were used to compare the rock samples and get qualitative and quantitative information about mineralogy, texture and porous network distribution. Chemical analyses were performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data. Brine composition was also analysed before and after the experiment. The results indicate an evolution of the pore network (porosity increase ≈ 2 %). Intergranular quartz matrix detachment and partial removal from the rock sample (due to CO2 input/release dragging) are the main processes that may explain the porosity increase. Primary mineralogy (≈ 95 % quartz) and rock texture (heterogeneous sand with interconnected framework of micro-channels) are important factors that seem to enhance textural/mineralogical changes in this heterogeneous system. The whole rock and brine chemical analyses after interaction with SC CO2-brine do not present important changes in the mineralogical, porosity and chemical configuration of the rock with respect to initial conditions, ruling out relevant precipitation or dissolution at these early stages. These results

  2. Using qualitative research to facilitate the interpretation of quantitative results from a discrete choice experiment: insights from a survey in elderly ophthalmologic patients

    PubMed Central

    Vennedey, Vera; Danner, Marion; Evers, Silvia MAA; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie; Dirksen, Carmen D; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    or infrequently. The results of our qualitative research facilitated the interpretation of the quantitative data collected in this study. PMID:27350743

  3. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study)

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients’ needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Design Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers’ views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. Participants 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Results Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an ‘ideal’ model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a ‘real’ model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants’ ‘ideal’ model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, ‘real’ care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients’ needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Conclusions Service providers envisage an ‘ideal’ model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap

  4. An Analysis of Student Achievement, Student Interaction, and Social Elements That Support Online Course Completion for High School Students as Compared Qualitatively with Quantitative Data Retrieved via a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Leah dee Carter

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method research examines student achievement, student interaction and social elements to determine which elements support online course completion for students in a state virtual school. The quantitative goals seek to find a possible degree of convergence with the course completion average grade. Qualitative data from 10 high school…

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of ROS-Mediated Oridonin-Induced Oesophageal Cancer KYSE-150 Cell Apoptosis by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Jinhuan; Wu, Anguo; Zhu, Haiyan; Liu, Jianxin; Su, Xiaohui; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye

    2015-01-01

    High levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells is recognized as one of the major causes of cancer cell apoptosis and has been developed into a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. However, whether apoptosis associated biophysical properties of cancer cells are related to intracellular ROS functions is still unclear. Here, for the first time, we determined the changes of biophysical properties associated with the ROS-mediated oesophageal cancer KYSE-150 cell apoptosis using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oridonin was proved to induce ROS-mediated KYSE-150 cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Based on AFM imaging, the morphological damage and ultrastructural changes of KYSE-150 cells were found to be closely associated with ROS-mediated oridonin-induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. The changes of cell stiffness determined by AFM force measurement also demonstrated ROS-dependent changes in oridonin induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. Our findings not only provided new insights into the anticancer effects of oridonin, but also highlighted the use of AFM as a qualitative and quantitative nanotool to detect ROS-mediated cancer cell apoptosis based on cell biophysical properties, providing novel information of the roles of ROS in cancer cell apoptosis at nanoscale. PMID:26496199

  6. [The health situation and health care needs of unaccompanied minor refugees - an approximation based on qualitative and quantitative studies from Bielefeld, Germany].

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Tempes, Jana; Ricksgers, Hannah; Marquardt, Louisa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Krämer, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Unaccompanied minor refugees are children or adolescents below the age of 18 years who are not accompanied by their parents. International studies show that unaccompanied minor refugees represent a special risk group. Currently, empirical study results about the health status of unaccompanied minor refugees barely exist for Germany. Therefore, the goal of this article is an assessment of the health status and health care of unaccompanied minor refugees in Bielefeld, Germany. For this purpose, two qualitative studies and one quantitative study from Bielefeld are used.Results demonstrate that the health care of unaccompanied minor refugees underlies certain peculiarities that indicate major medical needs: Firstly, the need for psychological/psychiatric care and secondly the need for health care regarding infectious diseases. Further challenges in the health care needs of this population group result from its specific situation, and comprise legal conditions, as well as language and cultural competencies on behalf of the health care providers and the unaccompanied minor refugees themselves. PMID:27072502

  7. A resilience assessment framework for infrastructure and economic systems : quantitative and qualitative resilience analysis of petrochemical supply chains to a hurricane.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vugrin, Eric D.; Warren, Drake E.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the nation has recognized that critical infrastructure protection should consider not only the prevention of disruptive events, but also the processes that infrastructure systems undergo to maintain functionality following disruptions. This more comprehensive approach has been termed critical infrastructure resilience (CIR). Given the occurrence of a particular disruptive event, the resilience of a system to that event is the system's ability to efficiently reduce both the magnitude and duration of the deviation from targeted system performance levels. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems. The framework includes a quantitative methodology that measures resilience costs that result from a disruption to infrastructure function. The framework also includes a qualitative analysis methodology that assesses system characteristics that affect resilience in order to provide insight and direction for potential improvements to resilience. This paper describes the resilience assessment framework. This paper further demonstrates the utility of the assessment framework through application to a hypothetical scenario involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by a hurricane.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather.

  9. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    PubMed

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls. PMID:25439873

  10. Analysis of glycosidically bound aroma precursors in tea leaves. 1. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of glycosides with aglycons as aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Yoshimura, T; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A

    2000-11-01

    Twenty-six synthetic glycosides constituting aglycons of the main tea aroma compounds ((Z)-3-hexenol, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool, and four isomers of linalool oxides) were synthesized in our laboratory as authentic compounds. Those compounds were used to carry out a direct qualitative and quantitative determination of the glycosides as aroma precursors in different tea cultivars by capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses after trifluoroacetyl conversion of the tea glycosidic fractions. Eleven beta-D-glucopyranosides, 10 beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) with aglycons as the above alcohols, and geranyl beta-vicianoside (6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) were identified (tentatively identified in the case of methyl salicylate beta-primeveroside) in fresh tea leaves and quantified on the basis of calibration curves that had been established by using the synthetic compounds. Primeverosides were more abundant than glucosides in each cultivar we investigated for making green tea, oolong tea, and black tea. Separation of the diastereoisomers of linalool and four isomers of linalool oxides by GC analyses is also discussed. PMID:11087494

  11. [Health at the border: quantitative and qualitative analysis of patients treated at the Maternal and Child Care Center in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Mello, Fabio; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Gonçalves, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Foz do Iguaçu participates in the SIS-Fronteiras program and installed the Maternal and Child Care Center (CMI) to offer prenatal care service to pregnant Brazilian women resident in Paraguay (Brasiguaias). To analyze the characteristics of the CMI and compare the profile of Brasiguaias with pregnant Brazilian women resident in Brazil, a quantitative and qualitative approach in methodology was applied. It was found that Brasiguaias go to the CMI because of the precariousness of services of the Paraguayan Health System. They tend to be younger, bear more children, have lower education and are unmarried compared with pregnant Brazilian woman resident in Brazil. They omit where they live to avoid being denied the right or receiving inferior treatment than local pregnant Brazilian women and seek obstetric treatment later to avoid being denied attendance. Pregnant Brazilian women resident in Paraguay are onerous to the municipality, especially due to misinformation about their reproductive and pregnancy history, which increases the chances of undergoing cesarean delivery and hospitalization of the mother and/or infant due to complications. Effective actions in relation to maternal and child health in the border areas need to be prioritized. PMID:26132253

  12. Simultaneous Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Flavonoids from Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Leaves and Roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Using LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Ting; Fang, Min-Feng; Liu, Xiao; Yue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It has been used for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial activities, and so forth. Long-term enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation caused more effect on leaves than on roots of the plant. Liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS) method was applied for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids in leaves and roots of S. baicalensis by enhanced UV-B radiation. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation were not significantly increaseing the contents of baicalin, wogonoside, and wogonin in roots. However different intensity of radiation has different effects on several flavonoids in leaves. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation had no significant effect on contents of baicalin and tectoridin in leaves; the content of scutellarin was significantly decreased by low-intensity radiation; chrysin was detected in low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation, and chrysin content is the highest in low-intensity radiation, but chrysin was not detected in control group. Different changes of different flavonoids under enhanced UV-B radiation indicate that induction on flavonoids is selective by enhanced UV-B radiation. PMID:24757579

  13. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of temperature: a study of the terminology used by local television weather forecasters to describe thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between quantitative and qualitative descriptions of temperature. Online weather forecast narratives produced by local television forecasters were collected from affiliates in 23 cities throughout the northeastern, central and southern portions of the United States from August 2007 to July 2008. The narratives were collected to study the terminology and reference frames that local forecasters use to describe predicted temperatures for the following day. The main objectives were to explore the adjectives used to describe thermal conditions and the impact that geographical and seasonal variations in thermal conditions have on these descriptions. The results of this empirical study offer some insights into the structure of weather narratives and suggest that spatiotemporal variations in the weather impact how forecasters describe the temperature to their local audiences. In a broader sense, this investigation builds upon research in biometeorology, urban planning and linguistics that has explored the physiological and psychological factors that influence subjective assessments of thermal sensation and comfort. The results of this study provide a basis to reason about how thermal comfort is conveyed in meteorological communications and how experiential knowledge derived from daily observations of the weather influence how we think about and discuss the weather. PMID:19876657

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils by using comprehensive 2D GC with dual MS/FID detection.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Salivo, Simona; Franchina, Flavio A; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation is focused on the development of a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) method, with dual MS/FID detection, for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the entire unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils. The unsaponifiable fraction forms a minor, highly specific part of a vegetable oil, and can be used as an indicator of genuineness. The column set used consisted of a low-polarity first dimension, and a medium-polarity secondary one, both characterized by a high thermal stability. The use of dual detection enabled the attainment of both mass spectral information and relative % FID data. The complexity of the fingerprint, generated by the unsaponifiable fraction, fully justified the employment of the two-dimensional GC technology. Furthermore, two other GC × GC benefits contributed greatly to the attainment of promising results, namely sensitivity enhancement and the formation of group-type patterns. The method herein proposed could potentially open a new opportunity for the more in-depth knowledge of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils. PMID:23334257

  15. Enhanced Trace-Fiber Color Discrimination by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Quantitative and Qualitative Tool for the Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Sub-millimeter Nylon Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-26

    The application of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to trace-fiber color analysis is explored using acidic dyes commonly employed to color nylon-based fibers, as well as extracts from dyed nylon fibers. Qualitative information about constituent dyes and quantitative information about the relative amounts of those dyes present on a single fiber become readily available using this technique. Sample requirements for establishing the color-identity of different samples (i.e., comparative trace-fiber analysis) are shown to be sub-millimeter. Absolute verification of dye-mixture identity (beyond the comparison of molecular weights derived from ESI-MS) can be obtained by expanding the technique to include tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). For dyes of unknown origin, the ESI-MS/MS analyses may offer insights into the chemical structure of the compound--information not available from chromatographic techniques alone. This research demonstrates that ESI-MS is viable as a sensitive technique for distinguishing dye constituents extracted from a minute amount of trace fiber evidence. A protocol is suggested to establish/refute the proposition that two fibers--one of which is available in minute quantity only--are of the same origin.

  16. A Quantitative Assessment of the Size-Frequency Distribution of Terrestrial Dust Devils, Comparison with Qualitative Estimates, and Applications to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Balme, M. R.; Metzger, S.; Towner, M.; Spiga, A.; Renno, N. O.; Elliott, H. M.; Russell, P. S.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Dust devils are particle-loaded vertical convective vortices commonly observed on Earth and especially Mars. Qualitative estimates of terrestrial dust devil frequency based upon visual field surveys have varied by several orders of magnitude. We will present the results of our quantitative characterization of the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of terrestrial dust devils, which utilizes stereo photography to calculate dust devil diameters via parallax displacement. In 2009, we conducted field campaigns in Eloy, Arizona and Eldorado Valley, Nevada to survey terrestrial dust devils: the latter site was revisited in 2010. During each survey period, at least two and usually three observers were positioned at spotter stations located approximately 100 m apart, thereby allowing triangular study areas (bounded by three meteorological masts) of A = 0.83 sq. km and A = 0.55 sq. km to be surveyed in Eloy and Eldorado Valley, respectively. Each spotter station was equipped with a tripod-mounted, weatherproof digital camera: whenever possible, any dust devils observed within the study area were photographed simultaneously by camera operators in radio contact. All dust devils observed within the survey sites were assigned a qualitative diameter estimate (i.e., Tiny/Small/Medium/Large) by a third spotter positioned near the center of the study area. Thus even if small dust devils occurred that existed too fleetingly to be photographed, they were still recorded. Methodology: The positions of both survey tripods were measured to ~ 0.5 m precision using GPS. In addition, a full 360-degree panorama was generated from each survey position, corrected for lens distortion, and then imported into a GIS. The photographs of dust devils from each camera are then also incorporated into the GIS and aligned against the corresponding background panorama. The width and center points of each dust devil are then digitized and its bearings and angular width outputted from the GIS, together with

  17. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Małopolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, Wojciech; Wężyk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafrańska, Beata

    2014-06-01

    In 2011 the Marshal Office of Małopolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Małopolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Małopolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Małopolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, Wojciech; Wężyk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafrańska, Beata

    2013-04-01

    In 2011 the Marshal Office of Małopolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Małopolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Małopolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of

  20. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of a group of volatile organic compounds in biological samples by HS-GC/FID: application in practical cases.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C; Franco, J M; Proença, P; Castañera, A; Claro, A; Vieira, D N; Corte-Real, F

    2014-10-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure, using n-propanol as internal standard (IS), was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a group of 11 volatile organic substances with different physicochemical properties (1-butanol, 2-propanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile, chloroform, diethyl ether, methanol, toluene and p-xylene) in whole blood, urine and vitreous humor. Samples were prepared by dilution with an aqueous solution of internal standard followed by Headspace Gas Chromatography with a Flame-ionization Detector (HS GC-FID) analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed using two capillary columns with different polarities (DB-ALC2: 30m×0.320mm×1.2μm and DB-ALC1: 30m×0.320mm×1.8μm), thus providing a change in the retention and elution order of volatiles. This dual column confirmation increases the specificity, since the risk of another substance co-eluting at the same time in both columns is very small. The method was linear from 5 to 1000mg/L for toluene and p-xylene, 50-1000mg/L for chloroform, and 50-2000mg/L for the remaining substances, with correlation coefficients of over 0.99 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LOD) ranged 1 to 10mg/L, while the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 2 to 31mg/L. The intra-day precision (CV<6.4%), intermediate precision (CV<7.0%) and accuracy (relative error ±10%) of the method were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The method developed has been applied to forensic cases, with the advantages that it uses a small sample volume and does not require any extraction procedure as it makes use of a headspace injection technique. PMID:25124884

  2. Do Gender-Specific and High-Resolution Three Dimensional Body Charts Facilitate the Communication of Pain for Women? A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is more prevalent among women; however, the majority of standardized pain drawings are often collected using male-like androgynous body representations. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender-specific and high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) body charts facilitate the communication of pain for women. Methods Using mixed-methods and a cross-over design, female patients with chronic pain were asked to provide detailed drawings of their current pain on masculine and feminine two-dimensional (2D) body schemas (N=41, Part I) or on female 2D and 3D high-resolution body schemas (N=41, Part II) on a computer tablet. The consistency of the drawings between body charts were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Semistructured interviews and a preference questionnaire were then used to obtain qualitative and quantitative responses of the drawing experience. Results The consistency between body charts were high (Part I: ICC=0.980, Part II: ICC=0.994). The preference ratio for the masculine to feminine body schemas were 6:35 and 18:23 for the 2D to 3D female body charts. Patients reported that the 3D body chart enabled a more accurate expression of their pain due to the detailed contours of the musculature and bone structure, however, patients also reported the 3D body chart was too human and believed that skin-like appearance limited ‘deep pain’ expressions. Conclusions Providing gender-specific body charts may facilitate the communication of pain and the level of detail (2D vs 3D body charts) should be used according to patients’ needs. PMID:27440737

  3. Social determinants of health and seasonal influenza vaccination in adults ≥65 years: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI – Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980–2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes associated with vaccination. Results Overall, 58 studies were analyzed. Structural social determinants such as age, gender, marital status, education, ethnicity, socio-economic status, social and cultural values, as well as intermediary determinants including housing-place of residence, behavioral beliefs, social influences, previous vaccine experiences, perceived susceptibility, sources of information, and perceived health status influenced seasonal influenza vaccination. Healthcare system related factors including accessibility, affordability, knowledge and attitudes about vaccination, and physicians’ advice were also important determinants of vaccination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ability of adults ≥65 years to receive seasonal influenza vaccine is influenced by structural, intermediate, and healthcare-related social determinants which have an impact at the health system, provider, and individual levels. PMID:23617788

  4. “Hardly worth the effort”? Medical journals’ policies and their editors’ and publishers’ views on trial registration and publication bias: quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the proportion of medical journals requiring trial registration and to understand their reasons for adopting (or not adopting) such policies and other measures designed to reduce publication bias. Design Quantitative study of journals’ instructions to authors (in June 2012) and qualitative study of editors’ and publishers’ views on trial registration and publication bias (carried out in Autumn 2012). Setting Random selection of 200 medical journals publishing clinical trials identified from the Cochrane CENTRAL database. Participants Editors (n=13) and publishers (n=3) of journals with different policies on trial registration (and with recently changed policies) identified from the survey of their instructions to authors. Results Only 55/200 journals (28%) required trial registration according to their instructions and a further three (2%) encouraged it. The editors and publishers interviewed explained their journals’ reluctance to require registration in terms of not wanting to lose out to rival journals, not wanting to reject otherwise sound articles or submissions from developing countries, and perceptions that such policies were not relevant to all journals. Some interviewees considered that registration was unnecessary for small or exploratory studies. Conclusions Although many major medical journals state that they will only publish clinical trials that have been prospectively registered, and such policies have been associated with a dramatic increase in the number of trials being registered, most smaller journals have not adopted such policies. Editors and publishers may be reluctant to require registration because they do not understand its benefits or because they fear that adopting such a policy would put their journal at a disadvantage to competitors. PMID:24014339

  5. Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) delivered in school settings: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michelle; Moore, Darren A; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Whear, Rebecca; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher; Taylor, Eric; Cooper, Paul; Stein, Ken; Garside, Ruth; Ford, Tamsin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. School can be particularly challenging for children with ADHD. Few reviews have considered non-pharmacological interventions in school settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions delivered in school settings for pupils with, or at risk of, ADHD and to explore the factors that may enhance, or limit, their delivery. DATA SOURCES Twenty electronic databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Centre, The Cochrane Library and Education Research Complete) were searched from 1980 to February-August 2013. Three separate searches were conducted for four systematic reviews; they were supplemented with forward and backwards citation chasing, website searching, author recommendations and hand-searches of key journals. REVIEW METHODS The systematic reviews focused on (1) the effectiveness of school-based interventions for children with or at risk of ADHD; (2) quantitative research that explores attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for pupils with ADHD; (3) qualitative research investigating the attitudes and experiences of children, teachers, parents and others using ADHD interventions in school settings; and (4) qualitative research exploring the experience of ADHD in school among pupils, their parents and teachers more generally. Methods of synthesis included a random-effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and narrative synthesis for review 1, narrative synthesis for review 2 and meta-ethnography and thematic analysis for reviews 3 and 4. RESULTS For review 1, 54 controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. For the 36 meta-analysed randomised controlled trials, beneficial effects (p < 0.05) were observed for several symptom and scholastic outcomes. Mean weighted effect sizes ranged from

  6. Towards a better reliability of risk assessment: development of a qualitative & quantitative risk evaluation model (Q2REM) for different trades of construction works in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ivan W H; Lo, Tommy Y; Tung, Karen C F

    2012-09-01

    Since the safety professionals are the key decision makers dealing with project safety and risk assessment in the construction industry, their perceptions of safety risk would directly affect the reliability of risk assessment. The safety professionals generally tend to heavily rely on their own past experiences to make subjective decisions on risk assessment without systematic decision making. Indeed, understanding of the underlying principles of risk assessment is significant. In this study, the qualitative analysis on the safety professionals' beliefs of risk assessment and their perceptions towards risk assessment, including their recognitions of possible accident causes, the degree of differentiations on their perceptions of risk levels of different trades of works, recognitions of the occurrence of different types of accidents, and their inter-relationships with safety performance in terms of accident rates will be explored in the Stage 1. At the second stage, the deficiencies of the current general practice for risk assessment can be sorted out firstly. Based on the findings from Stage 1 and the historical accident data from 15 large-scaled construction projects in 3-year average, a risk evaluation model prioritizing the risk levels of different trades of works and which cause different types of site accident due to various accident causes will be developed quantitatively. With the suggested systematic accident recording techniques, this model can be implemented in the construction industry at both project level and organizational level. The model (Q(2)REM) not only act as a useful supplementary guideline of risk assessment for the construction safety professionals, but also assists them to pinpoint the potential risks on site for the construction workers under respective trades of works through safety trainings and education. It, in turn, arouses their awareness on safety risk. As the Q(2)REM can clearly show the potential accident causes leading to

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    . The platform with the source is placed under the measurement chamber. The platform with the source material is moved under the measurement chamber. The design allows one to move the platform with the source in and out, thus moving the drum. The CDAS system and radioactive waste containers have been built. For each drum filled with waste two individual measurements (passive/active) will be made. This paper briefly describes the work carried out to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the nuclear materials contained in high-level waste at the SHELTER facility. These efforts substantially increased nuclear safety and security at the facility.

  8. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  9. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  10. Intelligent produzieren - Prozesse verstehen und mit innovativen Werkzeugen verbessern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Dieter

    Im Umfeld der stetig fortschreitenden Globalisierung und der damit verbundenen Verlagerung von Produktionsstätten und dem Transfer bekannter Technologien ist eine stetige Weiterentwicklung der Fertigungstechnik unumgänglich, um auch zukünftig am Standort Deutschland einen Technologievorsprung zu halten und Produkte zu fertigen, die weltweit konkurrenzfähig sind. Die Notwendigkeit zur permanenten Innovation ist unbestritten. Das Ziel muss es dabei sein, die Produktivität zu erhöhen, die Qualität der Produkte auf stets hohem Niveau zu halten bzw. die Qualität noch weiter zu steigern und gleichzeitig die Kosten stetig zu senken. Dies erfordert intelligente und innovative Werkzeugkonzepte für die Hochleistungsfertigung.

  11. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. using high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yujie; Chen, Xi; Qi, Jin; Yu, Boyang

    2016-07-01

    A reliable method, combining qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantitative assessment by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, has been developed to simultaneously analyze flavonoids and alkaloids in lotus leaf extracts. In the qualitative analysis, a total of 30 compounds, including 12 flavonoids, 16 alkaloids, and two proanthocyanidins, were identified. The fragmentation behaviors of four types of flavone glycoside and three types of alkaloid are summarized. The mass spectra of four representative components, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, norcoclaurine, nuciferine, and neferine, are shown to illustrate their fragmentation pathways. Five pairs of isomers were detected and three of them were distinguished by comparing the elution order with reference substances and the mass spectrometry data with reported data. In the quantitative analysis, 30 lotus leaf samples from different regions were analyzed to investigate the proportion of eight representative compounds. Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide was found to be the predominant constituent of lotus leaf extracts. For further discrimination among the samples, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, based on the areas of the eight quantitative peaks, were carried out. PMID:27161554

  12. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  13. On Quantitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George

    2009-01-01

    "Quantitizing", commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance…

  14. Quantifying Qualitative Data Using Cognitive Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherp, Hans-Ake

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how substantial qualitative material consisting of graphic cognitive maps can be analysed by using digital CmapTools, Excel and SPSS. Evidence is provided of how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined in educational research by transforming qualitative data into quantitative data to facilitate…

  15. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of felbinac and its major metabolites in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and its application after intravenous administration of felbinac trometamol injection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunliang; Hu, Xingjiang; Liu, Jian; Wu, Guolan; Zhai, You; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of felbinac and its major metabolites in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS and its application. Qualitative analysis through LC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS indicated that oxidization was the main phase-I metabolic pathway of felbinac in human, conjugation with sulfate and glucuronide groups produced at least 7 phase-II metabolites. Quantitative analysis through HPLC-MS/MS in MRM mode was developed and validated for the quantification of felbinac and its major metabolite (4'-hydroxyfelbinac) in human plasma and urine. Linear calibration curves were obtained for felbinac and 4'-hydroxyfelbinac in plasma and urine (r>0.996); intra- and inter-day precision values (RSD%) obtained were ranged from 1.13 to 6.49%, and the accuracy were between 95.9% and 108.6% for the two analytes. The pharmacokinetics and excretion analysis showed that the t1/2 of 4'-hydroxyfelbinac (8.25 ± 4.15 h) is a litter longer than that of felbinac (6.13 ± 2.01 h), but the mean AUC(0-t) value of felbinac was about 20 times higher than that of 4'-hydroxyfelbinac; excretion of felbinac and 4'-hydroxyfelbinac reached their peak values at about 3-6h after intravenous administration of felbinac trometamol in human. PMID:25706568

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium-Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-29

    The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solvents can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li-S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  18. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system issues in the real world and the virtual world: combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter J; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E

    2007-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that transit providers accommodate passengers who use "common wheelchairs" when traveling in a motor vehicle. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems are commonly used to secure wheelchairs and restrain occupants in fixed-route and demand route transit vehicles. Throughout the 17 years since the Americans with Disabilities Act has been in effect, transit providers have complained about the usability of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems, and improper securement has been linked to injuries among wheelchair users during "nonimpact incidents." This research study explored the use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems in actual practice and the potential risks of misuse to wheelchair-seated individuals. The qualitative research conducted in this study revealed that improper wheelchair securement (i.e. using less than four tiedown straps) can be fairly common practice in fixed-route transit. In addition, preliminary computer simulations show that improper wheelchair securement in emergency driving conditions may place wheelchair occupants at a greater risk of injury. It should be noted, however, that this is a pilot study and has its limitations. For example, qualitative data were gathered from one metropolitan area transit provider across a limited range of vehicle and wheelchair types. Additionally, the computer simulation model used in this study was originally validated for impact situations. PMID:18335708

  19. Using Monte-Carlo approach for analysis of quantitative and qualitative operation of reservoirs system with regard to the inflow uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Mostafa; Zadbar, Ali; Elyasi, Elham; Jalaal, Maziar

    2015-05-01

    Operation of dams' reservoir systems, as one of the main sources of our country's surface water, has a particular importance. Since the operational hydrological and meteorological parameters of water budget in reservoir systems' operation are indefinite, in order to choose a comprehensive and optimal policy for the operation analysis of these systems, water inflow is considered as the most important hydrological parameter in an uncertain reservoir system. Monte-Carlo approach was applied to study the water inflow impact on the performance of both single and multi-reservoir systems. Doing so, artificial statistics for monthly inflow time series of each production reservoir system and the probable distributions of time, quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency standards were analyzed in five different simulation and optimization models as the system's efficiency criteria. The reason for choosing Karun 3, Karun 4, and Khersan 1 dams was the need for three dams to be setup as reservoir systems in both serial and parallel forms. The results of the operation criteria analysis indicated that for the operation of the whole system, the best quantitative reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency values were in the optimized single-reservoir model, and the best time reliability value was in the optimized multi-reservoir model. Moreover, the inflow uncertainty had the minimum impact on the quantitative reliability criteria and the maximum impact on the resiliency criteria.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of bone fragility and fracture healing using conventional radiography and advanced imaging technologies--focus on wrist fracture.

    PubMed

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Morshed, Saam; Engelke, Klaus; Prevrhal, Sven; Fierlinger, Anke; Miclau, Theodore; Genant, Harry K

    2008-09-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are one of the most common injuries presented to orthopaedic surgeons. A variety of treatment options are available for the vast array of fracture patterns. Research that explores bone fragility and fracture healing has led to new treatment modalities. As new products and methods are derived to aid in fracture healing it is essential to develop noninvasive and/or nondestructive techniques to assess structural information about bone. Quantitative assessment of macro-structural characteristics such as geometry, and microstructural features such as relative trabecular volume, trabecular spacing, and connectivity may improve our ability to estimate bone strength. Methods for quantitatively assessing macrostructure include (besides conventional radiographs) dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), particularly volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Methods for assessing microstructure of trabecular bone include high resolution computed tomography (hrCT), micro computed tomography (microCT), high resolution magnetic resonance (hrMR), and micro magnetic resonance microMR. Volumetric QCT, hrCT and hrMR are generally applicable in vivo; microCT and microMR are principally applicable in vitro. Clinically, the challenges for bone imaging include balancing the advantages of simple bone densitometry versus the more complex architectural features of bone, or the deeper research requirements versus the broader clinical needs. PMID:18753895

  1. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  2. Inflows of foreign-born physicians and their access to employment and work experiences in health care in Finland: qualitative and quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many developed countries, including Finland, health care authorities customarily consider the international mobility of physicians as a means for addressing the shortage of general practitioners (GPs). This study i) examined, based on register information, the numbers of foreign-born physicians migrating to Finland and their employment sector, ii) examined, based on qualitative interviews, the foreign-born GPs’ experiences of accessing employment and work in primary care in Finland, and iii) compared experiences based on a survey of the psychosocial work environment among foreign-born physicians working in different health sectors (primary care, hospitals and private sectors). Methods Three different data sets were used: registers, theme interviews among foreign-born GPs (n = 12), and a survey for all (n = 1,292; response rate 42%) foreign-born physicians living in Finland. Methods used in the analyses were qualitative content analysis, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression analysis. Results The number of foreign-born physicians has increased dramatically in Finland since the year 2000. In 2000, a total of 980 foreign-born physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland, accounting for less than 4% of the total number of practising physicians. In 2009, their proportion of all physicians was 8%, and a total of 1,750 foreign-born practising physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland. Non-EU/EEA physicians experienced the difficult licensing process as the main obstacle to accessing work as a physician. Most licensed foreign-born physicians worked in specialist care. Half of the foreign-born GPs could be classified as having an ‘active’ job profile (high job demands and high levels of job control combined) according to Karasek’s demand-control model. In qualitative interviews, work in the Finnish primary health centres was described as multifaceted and challenging, but also stressful. Conclusions Primary care may not

  3. The experience of “medicine companions” to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: quantitative and qualitative data from a trial population in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Foster, S.D.; Nakamanya, S.; Kyomuhangi, R.; Amurwon, J.; Namara, G.; Amuron, B.; Nabiryo, C.; Birungi, J.; Wolff, B.; Jaffar, S.; Grosskurth, H.

    2010-01-01

    Good adherence is critical for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the characteristics of medicine companions (MCs) chosen by Ugandan patients enrolling on ART, and on how MCs were chosen, and what roles they played. Baseline data on MCs of 1453 participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing facility and home-based delivery of ART in Jinja, Uganda were analyzed. Textual data on experience with MCs were collected through in-depth interviews among a subsample of 40 trial participants equally divided by sex and trial arm. Significantly more women (71%) than men (29%) were recruited. The majority (75%) of women participants were either widowed (51%) or separated or divorced (24%), whereas most of the men (66%) were married. Women were most likely to choose a child as their MC while men were most likely to choose their spouse; 41% of women chose an MC under 21 compared with only 14% of men. Only 31% of married women chose their husband, compared with 66% of married men who chose their wife. Qualitative interviews suggested MCs proved useful for reminding and other supportive tasks in the first three months but were generally less essential by six months and beyond. Convenience, reliability, and trust were key considerations in choosing an MC. Children provided the only alternative for many unmarried women, but even some married women felt children made more reliable MCs than husbands. Participants who had disclosed their serostatus usually received drug-taking reminders from multiple household members. One participant in the qualitative sample with poor family relations delayed starting treatment due to unwillingness to identify an MC. MCs were generally welcome and useful in supporting early adherence. However, disclosure to an MC should not be a condition of obtaining treatment. PMID:20680859

  4. Till formation under a soft-bedded palaeo-ice stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, constrained using qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narloch, Włodzimierz; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Wysota, Wojciech; Tylmann, Karol

    2015-08-01

    This study combines micro- and macroscale studies, laboratory experiments and quantitative analyses to decipher processes of till formation under a palaeo-ice stream and the nature of subglacial sediment deformation. Till micromorphology (grain lineations, grain stacks, turbate structures, crushed grains, intraclasts and domains), grain-size and till fabric data are used to investigate a basal till generated by the Vistula Ice Stream of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation in north-central Poland. A comparison of microstructures from the in situ basal till and laboratory-sheared till experiments show statistical relationships between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks; and between the number of grain lineations and turbate structures. Microstructures in the in situ till document both brittle and ductile styles of deformation, possibly due to fluctuating basal water pressures beneath the ice stream. No systematic vertical and lateral trends are detected in the parameters investigated in the in situ till, which suggests a subglacial mosaic of relatively stable and unstable areas. This situation can be explained by an unscaled space-transgressive model of subglacial till formation whereby at any given point in time different processes operated in different places under the ice sheet, possibly related to the distance from the ice margin and water pressure at the ice-bed interface. A new quantitative measure reflecting the relationship between the number of grain lineations and grain stacks may be helpful in discriminating between pervasive and non-pervasive deformation and constraining the degree of stress heterogeneity within a deformed bed. Independent strain magnitude estimations revealed by a quantitative analysis of micro- and macro-particle data show low cumulative strain in the ice-stream till in the order of 10-102.

  5. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  6. Physikunterricht und Kalter Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieß, Falk; Kremer, Armin

    Die Indienstnahme des Physikunterrichts für militaristische und politische Zwecke ist in Deutschland nichts Neues: Die Wurzeln liegen im Kaiserreich und im Faschismus ("Wehrphysik"), und die Praxis im Kalten Krieg stellt hier nichts Außergewöhnliches, sondern lediglich eine auffällige Kontinuität dar.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of phenolic and diterpenoid constituents in Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ji-Liang; Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; He, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Danshen is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese herbs owing to its remarkable and reliable therapeutic effects. Phenolic acids and diterpenoids have proved to be the bioactive substance groups. In order to fully profile its chemical compositions and explore new potential bioactive compounds, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to DAD detector and hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC × LC-DAD-ESI/HRMS/MS(n)) was set up in this study based on the column combination of Hypersil gold CN (150 mm × 1 mm, 3 μm) and Accucore C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm). Using the optimal segment gradient program, phenolic acids and diterpenoids were separated into two independent groups and a total of 328 peaks were successfully detected on the contour plot of Danshen. By means of the accurate mass and reliable MS(n) data, 102 compounds were identified or tentatively identified and 7 of them were discovered from Danshen for the first time. Moreover, the LC × LC-DAD system was validated for the quantitative analysis of 14 bioactive analytes using the contour plot, exhibiting satisfactory linearity (r ≥ 0.9976) and high precision for both peak locating (≤ 1.07%) and peak volume calculating (0.34%-4.11%). The established method could afford powerful separation capability, reliable identification data and accurate quantitative results, which is very suitable for analysis of complex herbal samples. PMID:26687169

  8. HHV-6 encephalitis may complicate the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Detection by qualitative multiplex PCR and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Inazawa, Natsuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Naoki; Yoto, Yuko; Nojima, Masanori; Yasui, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Norio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Viral reactivation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cause various complications especially viral encephalitis. In this prospective study, we investigated the correlation of post-HSCT viral reactivation in blood with CNS dysfunction. We employed a multiplex PCR that detects 13 kinds of viruses as a first-line screening test and real-time PCR for subsequent quantitative evaluation. Five hundred ninety-one whole blood samples were collected from 105 patients from before until 42 days after HSCT. Seven patients developed CNS dysfunction such as altered consciousness. In six of the seven, the multiplex PCR test detected HHV-6 DNA in at least one sample. In contrast, DNA from other viruses, such as CMV, EBV, HHV-7, adenovirus, and HBV was never detected in any of the seven patients throughout the study period. Quantitative measurement of whole blood HHV-6 DNA levels demonstrated four of the six HHV-6 DNA loads were elevated at successive time points during the CNS dysfunction. In addition, the virus DNA peaks were temporally associated with the development of CNS dysfunction. CSF was tested in two of the four patients and high HHV-6 DNA levels comparable to those in whole blood were confirmed in both. These four patients were, thus, suspected to have developed HHV-6 encephalitis, a rate of 3.8% in the study population. Our results suggest that early diagnosis of probable HHV-6 encephalitis can be improved by confirming high HHV-6 DNA load in blood. PMID:26241219

  9. Complaints, Complainants, and Rulings Regarding Drug Promotion in the United Kingdom and Sweden 2004–2012: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Merlo, Juan; Mulinari, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Background In many European countries, medicines promotion is governed by voluntary codes of practice administered by the pharmaceutical industry under its own system of self-regulation. Involvement of industry organizations in policing promotion has been proposed to deter illicit conduct, but few detailed studies on self-regulation have been carried out to date. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for promotion and self-regulation in the UK and Sweden, two countries frequently cited as examples of effective self-regulation. Methods and Findings We performed a qualitative content analysis of documents outlining the constitutions and procedures of these two systems. We also gathered data from self-regulatory bodies on complaints, complainants, and rulings for the period 2004–2012. The qualitative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the countries. For example, self-regulatory bodies in both countries are required to actively monitor promotional items and impose sanctions on violating companies, but the range of sanctions is greater in the UK where companies may, for instance, be audited or publicly reprimanded. In total, Swedish and UK bodies ruled that 536 and 597 cases, respectively, were in breach, equating to an average of more than one case/week for each country. In Sweden, 430 (47%) complaints resulted from active monitoring, compared with only two complaints (0.2%) in the UK. In both countries, a majority of violations concerned misleading promotion. Charges incurred on companies averaged €447,000 and €765,000 per year in Sweden and the UK, respectively, equivalent to about 0.014% and 0.0051% of annual sales revenues, respectively. One hundred cases in the UK (17% of total cases in breach) and 101 (19%) in Sweden were highlighted as particularly serious. A total of 46 companies were ruled in breach of code for a serious offence at least once in the two countries combined (n = 36 in the UK; n = 27 in Sweden); seven

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pill by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daxin; Lin, Shan; Xu, Wen; Huang, Mingqing; Chu, Jianfeng; Xiao, Fei; Lin, Jiumao; Peng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Shexiang Tongxin dropping pill (STP) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that consists of total saponins of ginseng, synthetic Calculus bovis, bear gall, Venenum bufonis, borneol and Salvia miltiorrhiza. STP has been widely used in China and Southeast Asia for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a qualitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification of the major constituents in STP. Based on the retention time and MS spectra, 41 components were identified by comparison with reference compounds and literature data. Moreover, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, we quantified 13 of the identified constituents (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rk3, cinobufagin, arenobufagin, bufalin, resibufogenin, tanshinone IIA, taurine, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid). These results suggest that this new approach is applicable for the routine analysis and quality control of STP products and provides fundamental data for further in vivo pharmacokinetical studies. PMID:26473821

  11. Innovative development and validation of an HPLC/DAD method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of major cannabinoids in cannabis plant material.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Benjamin; Debrus, Benjamin; Lebrun, Pierre; Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Decock, Lies; Verstraete, Alain; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2009-12-15

    GC is commonly used for the analysis of cannabis samples, e.g. in forensic chemistry. However, as this method is based on heating of the sample, acidic forms of cannabinoids are decarboxylated into their neutral counterparts. Conversely, HPLC permits the determination of the original composition of plant cannabinoids by direct analysis. Several HPLC methods have been described in the literature, but most of them failed to separate efficiently all the cannabinoids or were not validated according to general guidelines. By use of an innovative methodology for modelling chromatographic responses, a simple and accurate HPLC/DAD method was developed for the quantification of major neutral and acidic cannabinoids present in cannabis plant material: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), THC acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), CBD acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG), CBG acid (CBGA) and cannabinol (CBN). Delta8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta8-THC) was determined qualitatively. Following the practice of design of experiments, predictive multilinear models were developed and used in order to find optimal chromatographic analytical conditions. The method was validated following an approach using accuracy profiles based on beta-expectation tolerance intervals for the total error measurement, and assessing the measurements uncertainty. This analytical method can be used for diverse applications, e.g. plant phenotype determination, evaluation of psychoactive potency and control of material quality. PMID:19932642

  12. Quantitative Analyse von Korallengemeinschaften des Sanganeb-Atolls (mittleres Rotes Meer). I. Die Besiedlungsstruktur hydrodynamisch unterschiedlich exponierter Außen- und Innenriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergner, H.; Schuhmacher, H.

    1985-12-01

    unknown species from its central part. Only 7 cnidarian species covered large areas, forming a Xenia macrospiculata-zone in TQ I, a Lobophyllia corymbosa-zone in TQ II, a Sinularia-Dendronephthya-zone in TQ III and an Acropora-Pocillopora verrucosa-zone in TQ IV. Hydrodynamic exposition and ratio of genus abundance Acropora: Montipora are closely correlated: on the windward side (TQ IV) it is 943:4, but on the leeward side (TQ I) 18:208. Apart from the taxonomic and quantitative distribution of species and colonies, types of growth form and categories of the dead substrate are given. Since soft corals do not contribute to the reef framework, the distribution of Scleractinia and Alcyonaria indicates that at Sanganeb-Atoll reef substance is mainly generated on the windward side.

  13. Qualität auf dem Prüfstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Michael

    An einem Wochenende im Dezember 2009 beendete der chinesische Eisenbahn-Vizeminister Hu Yadong in Begleitung einer hochrangigen Delegation aus Experten des Department of Safety seines Ministeriums eine mehrtägige Europareise mit einem Besuch in der Konzernzentrale des weltweit führenden Herstellers von Bremssystemen für Schienen- und Nutzfahrzeuge in München. Schon in wenigen Jahren wird China über die weltweit größte Flotte an Hochgeschwindigkeitszügen verfügen und dabei sind Sicherheit und Qualität vorrangige Anforderungen. Knorr-Bremse liefert 100% der Bremsanlagen dieser Züge und hat vor kurzem mit rund 500 Millionen Euro den größten Auftrag in der Firmengeschichte erhalten. Das Unternehmen wird zusammen mit seinen chinesischen Partnern insgesamt 2.720 neue Wagen des chinesischen Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges CRH3 mit Brems- und Türsystemen ausrüsten.

  14. Logistic regression models to predict solvent accessible residues using sequence- and homology-based qualitative and quantitative descriptors applied to a domain-complete X-ray structure learning set

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Reecha; Spencer, Joanna; Bhogal, Guneet; Nedunuri, Amulya; Poelman, Thomas; Kamath, Thejas; Chung, Edwin; Kantardjieff, Katherine; Gottlieb, Andrea; Lustig, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    A working example of relative solvent accessibility (RSA) prediction for proteins is presented. Novel logistic regression models with various qualitative descriptors that include amino acid type and quantitative descriptors that include 20- and six-term sequence entropy have been built and validated. A domain-complete learning set of over 1300 proteins is used to fit initial models with various sequence homology descriptors as well as query residue qualitative descriptors. Homology descriptors are derived from BLASTp sequence alignments, whereas the RSA values are determined directly from the crystal structure. The logistic regression models are fitted using dichotomous responses indicating buried or accessible solvent, with binary classifications obtained from the RSA values. The fitted models determine binary predictions of residue solvent accessibility with accuracies comparable to other less computationally intensive methods using the standard RSA threshold criteria 20 and 25% as solvent accessible. When an additional non-homology descriptor describing Lobanov–Galzitskaya residue disorder propensity is included, incremental improvements in accuracy are achieved with 25% threshold accuracies of 76.12 and 74.79% for the Manesh-215 and CASP(8+9) test sets, respectively. Moreover, the described software and the accompanying learning and validation sets allow students and researchers to explore the utility of RSA prediction with simple, physically intuitive models in any number of related applications. PMID:26664348

  15. Postmaterialism, new environmental paradigm and ecocentric approach: A qualitative and quantitative study of environmental attitudes of Turkish senior high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskin, Ozgur

    The present study aims to elucidate the determinant factors that affect environmental attitudes (EA) of senior high school students in Turkey and the origins of these EAs. Over nine hundred students from different school types, neighborhoods, geographical regions, social-economic backgrounds participated in the questionnaire based surveys which are called the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) and the General Attitudes and Perceptions (GAP), and twenty of those students were interviewed as well. Survey results show that EAs of students vary depending on school type, gender, parents' education levels and professions, and household income. Normal public high school students, females, lower-middle class students, students with well educated parents in white collar professions, and student with liberal parents have more pro-environmental attitudes than the others. With regard to school type, students from public technical high school (vocational school), almost all of which are based on single-sex education, have scored the lowest on both surveys which are the NEP and the GAP. The results from the qualitative portion are as follows: Students' perceptions about the environment and related issues are limited to their local habitat. Although the mean scores of students on both surveys do not differ to a statistically significant extent depending on geographical regions, interviews show that participants from different regions have distinct priorities, which range from poverty to sea pollution. Even though students' first priority in their lives is education, education is perceived as a mechanism to achieve a more prosperous life rather than an end in itself. Almost all interview participants agree on the importance of education in shaping EAs. Interestingly, some interviewees (four out of ten males) also comment that a man's sense of his own masculinity can be threatened when confronted by another man to change his attitude towards the environment.

  16. A Community-Based Exercise and Support Group Program Improves Quality of Life in African-American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Nora L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Flocke, Susan; Krejci, Susan A.; Kullman, Emily L.; Austin, Kris; Bennett, Beth; Cerne, Stephen; Harmon, Carl; Moore, Halle; Vargo, Mary; Hergenroeder, Paul; Malone, Hermione; Rocco, Michael; Tracy, Russell; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Kirwan, John P.; Heyman, Ellen; Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) breast cancer (BCa) survivors have higher mortality rates, more comorbidities and are less likely to meet national physical activity guidelines after diagnosis compared to Caucasian BCa survivors. We previously reported that a 20-week resistance exercise intervention coupled with a support group and home walking program, conducted using facilities and personnel at a community cancer support center, in Stage I–III AA BCa survivors improved strength, fitness and circulating C-peptide levels. Here, we report our findings on changes in quality of life (QoL) and other behavioral measures associated with this 20-week intervention and, discuss findings from a qualitative analysis of semi-structured patient interviews. We found a clinically relevant improvement in QoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer (FACT-B) (Baseline, B: 101.1 ± 21.5; End-of-Intervention, EOI: 108.5 ± 21.6; p = 0.05) and, a significant decrease in depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (B: 11.9 ± 8.1; EOI: 9.0 ± 5.5; p = 0.03). Our analysis of the patient interviews support improvements in these behavioral measures in that participants stated that they “feel better”, were “more motivated” and “uplifted” after the program. The patient interviews also provided insights to the primary motivators (e.g., social support, improvements in strength and function, weight loss) and barriers (e.g., family and health issues) in adhering to the program and provided suggestions for improving the program (e.g., incorporating nutritional and treatment related side-effect discussions). Our results suggest that community-based lifestyle interventions may improve QoL and depression in AA BCa survivors and lend insights for improving future programs. PMID:26640827

  17. What is the prevalence of health-related searches on the World Wide Web? Qualitative and quantitative analysis of search engine queries on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, G.; Kohler, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    While health information is often said to be the most sought after information on the web, empirical data on the actual frequency of health-related searches on the web are missing. In the present study we aimed to determine the prevalence of health-related searches on the web by analyzing search terms entered by people into popular search engines. We also made some preliminary attempts in qualitatively describing and classifying these searches. Occasional difficulties in determining what constitutes a “health-related” search led us to propose and validate a simple method to automatically classify a search string as “health-related”. This method is based on determining the proportion of pages on the web containing the search string and the word “health”, as a proportion of the total number of pages with the search string alone. Using human codings as gold standard we plotted a ROC curve and determined empirically that if this “co-occurance rate” is larger than 35%, the search string can be said to be health-related (sensitivity: 85.2%, specificity 80.4%). The results of our “human” codings of search queries determined that about 4.5% of all searches are “health-related”. We estimate that globally a minimum of 6.75 Million health-related searches are being conducted on the web every day, which is roughly the same number of searches that have been conducted on the NLM Medlars system in 1996 in a full year. PMID:14728167

  18. Assessment of the ion-trap mass spectrometer for routine qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse extracted from urine.

    PubMed

    Vorce, S P; Sklerov, J H; Kalasinsky, K S

    2000-10-01

    The ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS) has been available as a detector for gas chromatography (GC) for nearly two decades. However, it still occupies a minor role in forensic toxicology drug-testing laboratories. Quadrupole MS instruments make up the majority of GC detectors used in drug confirmation. This work addresses the use of these two MS detectors, comparing the ion ratio precision and quantitative accuracy for the analysis of different classes of abused drugs extracted from urine. Urine specimens were prepared at five concentrations each for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), benzoylecgonine (BZE), delta9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THCCOOH), phencyclidine (PCP), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Concentration ranges for AMP, METH, BZE, delta9-THCCOOH, PCP, MOR, COD, and 6-AM were 50-2500, 50-5000, 15-800, 1.5-65, 1-250, 500-32000, 250-21000, and 1.5-118 ng/mL, respectively. Sample extracts were injected into a GC-quadrupole MS operating in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and a GC-ion-trap MS operating in either selected ion storage (SIS) or full scan (FS) mode. Precision was assessed by the evaluation of five ion ratios for n = 15 injections at each concentration using a single-point calibration. Precision measurements for SIM ion ratios provided coefficients of variation (CV) between 2.6 and 9.8% for all drugs. By comparison, the SIS and FS data yielded CV ranges of 4.0-12.8% and 4.0-11.2%, respectively. The total ion ratio failure rates were 0.2% (SIM), 0.7% (SIS), and 1.2% (FS) for the eight drugs analyzed. Overall, the SIS mode produced stable, comparable mean ratios over the concentration ranges examined, but had greater variance within batch runs. Examination of postmortem and quality-control samples produced forensically accurate quantitation by SIS when compared to SIM. Furthermore, sensitivity of FS was equivalent to SIM for all compounds examined except for 6-AM. PMID:11043665

  19. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of comprehensive synaptic connectivity in short- and long-term cultured rat hippocampal neurons with new analytical methods inspired by Scatchard and Hill plots.

    PubMed

    Tanamoto, Ryo; Shindo, Yutaka; Niwano, Mariko; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Miki, Norihisa; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-03-18

    To investigate comprehensive synaptic connectivity, we examined Ca(2+) responses with quantitative electric current stimulation by indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass electrode with transparent and high electro-conductivity. The number of neurons with Ca(2+) responses was low during the application of stepwise increase of electric current in short-term cultured neurons (less than 17 days in-vitro (DIV)). The neurons cultured over 17 DIV showed two-type responses: S-shaped (sigmoid) and monotonous saturated responses, and Scatchard plots well illustrated the difference of these two responses. Furthermore, sigmoid like neural network responses over 17 DIV were altered to the monotonous saturated ones by the application of the mixture of AP5 and CNQX, specific blockers of NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively. This alternation was also characterized by the change of Hill coefficients. These findings indicate that the neural network with sigmoid-like responses has strong synergetic or cooperative synaptic connectivity via excitatory glutamate synapses. PMID:26896767

  20. Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: qualitative or quantitative interpretation--where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Meignan, Michel; Itti, Emmanuel; Gallamini, Andrea; Haioun, Corinne

    2009-11-01

    Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed early during the course of therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is highly predictive of outcome and now used in many clinical trials to validate risk-adapted strategies. However, interpretation criteria of interim PET are not yet appropriately defined for the evaluation of tumor response and chemosensitivity. From the results of our studies, a quantitative approach based on SUV(max) reduction between baseline PET (PET0) and interim PET demonstrated a higher predictive value than visual analysis when PET was performed at two cycles (PET2) but was equivalent to visual analysis at four cycles (PET4). The SUV(max) reduction index at PET2 seems to be the best predictor of the response compared to clinical or molecular prognostic indices. When visual analysis is necessary, the use of an online independent reading network may solve the interobserver variability, but the hurdles of visual analysis deserve an international validation study to confirm the newly proposed criteria. PMID:19863178