Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi
Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services. PMID:21229215
Tumlinson, Katherine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Curtis, Sian L.; Pence, Brian W.
Despite widespread endorsement within the field of international family planning regarding the importance of quality of care as a reproductive right, the field has yet to develop validated data collection instruments to accurately assess quality in terms of its public health importance. This study, conducted among 19 higher volume public and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya, used the simulated client method to test the validity of three standard data collection instruments included in large-scale facility surveys: provider interviews, client interviews, and observation of client-provider interactions. Results found low specificity and positive predictive values in each of the three instruments for a number of quality indicators, suggesting that quality of care may be overestimated by traditional methods. Revised approaches to measuring family planning service quality may be needed to ensure accurate assessment of programs and to better inform quality improvement interventions. PMID:25469929
Diaz, J; Halbe, H
Quality of care in family planning is a difficult concept to measure because of the multitude of factors contributing to it and the subjective nature of many of them. Because family planning programs were developed largely in response to rapid demographic growth, their evaluation has concentrated on fulfillment of quantified goals such as numbers of new users, coverage, or prevalence. Such measures give no indication of the relative satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users. Family planning programs seeking high volume tend to have many new acceptors with low continuation rates, and a choice of methods limited to those considered highly effective and easy to distribute. In most Latin American programs, only oral contraceptives and surgical sterilization have high prevalence rates. In recent years, however, community pressure for greater attention to users needs and disappointment with results of programs oriented to obtaining high rates of new users have prompted greater attention top satisfaction of family planning clients and to quality of services. A recent review identified 6 crucial elements in determining the quality of family planning care: 1) free and informed selection of methods 2) information provided to clients 3) technical competence of service providers 4) interpersonal relations between clients and workers 5) mechanisms to promote continuation of use and 6) adequate provision of additional services. This work surveys the quality of family planning services in Latin America, using these 6 factors as a point of departure. The current situation, the ideal and minimal acceptable levels, and the most promising strategies for achieving improvements are assessed for each factor. Free selection of contraceptive method is restricted in most Latin American family planning programs because access is limited to a few methods, because inadequate information is provided to users, because high prices of some methods limit accessibility, or because some methods are
Gatmaitan, Michelle; Brown, Teresa
The IFSP is both a document and process for developing, implementing, and evaluating the supports and services delivered to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families eligible under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA; 2004). Recently, researchers have defined IFSP quality based on five…
COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…
In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a
Eslami, Mohammad; d'Arcangues, Catherine
The Iranian family planning program was relaunched in 1989 to improve maternal and child health. As coverage was extended throughout the country, it had the challenge to achieve harmonization and improve and maintain quality of care. Five strategies were put in place: (1) expand the method mix, (2) standardize provider training through the adoption of national norms and guidelines, (3) facilitate and harmonize service provision, (4) improve integration of family planning in family health services and (5) address myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception in the general population. This was supported by regular monitoring and evaluation. To date, this program is regarded as one of the most successful programs worldwide. While the direct impact of these quality improvements is difficult to evaluate, it is believed to have built the trust that family planning clients place in the program. Challenges remain, particularly facing a total fertility rate below replacement level nationally and providing quality services to an ever-growing peri-urban population. PMID:26593406
Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn
To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580
Moliner Tena, M A; Moliner Tena, J
183 women attending the family planning clinic in Burriana, Castellon, were interviewed for this survey of the perceived quality of family planning services. The anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was adapted from two existing questionnaires, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, developed for commercial marketing. Attitudes were measured using a 7-part Likert type scale. The first 20 items referred to different aspects of quality, the second 4 measured satisfaction, total quality, the importance of the service, and reported use, and the final 6 examined respondent characteristics. 28 incompletely completed questionnaires were eliminated, leaving 155. The results indicate that perceived quality and client satisfaction were both high. Using factorial analysis of principal components, 6 factors were identified that explained 63.3% of the variance. The components were high personal attention of services, limited bureaucracy, modern facilities and equipment, professionalism and competence of the staff, accessibility and easy transportation, and reputation and layout. The Cronbach alpha coefficients, which measure internal consistency, were not acceptable for 3 factors. The overall results suggest that marketing tools can be adapted to the needs of health services. PMID:8672645
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh
In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh
ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with
This issue of Population Briefs contains articles on researches conducted by the Population Council concerning the delivery of quality of care, contraceptive development, safe abortion, family planning, demography, and medical anthropology. The cover story focuses on a systematic data collection tool called Situation Analysis that helps managers in program evaluation. This tool has a handbook entitled "The Situation Analysis Approach to Assessing Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services" that contains all the information needed to conduct a Situation Analysis study. The second article reports about a new contraceptive method, the two-rod levonorgestrel, which was developed at the Population Council and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The third article reports on a medical abortion procedure that was proven to be safe, effective, and acceptable to women in developing countries. Moreover, the fourth article presents initial findings of the Community Health and Family Planning Project conducted in Northern Ghana. The fifth article discusses the paper written by the Population Council demographer, Mark Montgomery entitled "Learning and lags in mortality perceptions". Finally, the sixth article deals with another paper that reports on women's health perceptions and reproductive health in the Middle East. PMID:12295356
RamaRao, Saumya; Mohanam, Raji
This study reviews the major research and interventions concerning readiness and quality of care in family planning programs. It has three aims: to identify and describe the principal methodological research including conceptual frameworks, perspectives, and tools for measuring and improving quality; to describe the results from various intervention studies; and to assess what is known about the effect of such interventions. The review suggests that interventions that improve client-provider interactions show the greatest promise. Good quality of care results in such positive outcomes as clients' satisfaction, increased knowledge, and more effective and longer use of contraceptives. Rigorously documented evidence of the effects of interventions is sorely needed. The review indicates areas requiring additional research. PMID:14758606
Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping
This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…
Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia A.; McWilliam, R. A.; Davis, Jacqueline E.
We describe a targeted professional development (PD) intervention designed to improve the quality of individualized family service plans (IFSPs) and to support IFSP planning, development, and decision making. The theoretical and empirical foundations for the PD intervention and its key components are reviewed. Building on an established online…
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth
An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality
World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.
This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…
Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J.; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew
Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0·7% (p = 0·23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664
Jacobson, J L
India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable. PMID:12284385
Hsu, S C
A report is made on the family planning program in Taiwan which emphasizes the integrated problems of population growth, nutrition and health, and food supplies. Nutrition and food supply have greatly improved in Taiwan since 1950, particularly in increases in food energy and protein availability. There has been a corresponding, though not necessarily resultant, decline in maternal and infant mortalities and deaths from gastrointestinal diseases. An official family planning program was instituted in Taiwan in 1964 with the goal of reducing the rate of natural increase from 3.0% to 1.5%. In 1971 the rate was 2.1%. Legalizing sterilization and abortion has been an important part of this program. A major goal is improvement in the quality of people. Reducing the size of the population results in more and better food and educational opportunities. A government study in Sui-Lin Township of Taiwan is investigating the effect of improved maternal health and nutrition on the quality of the offspring. The study is seeking to determine the minimum maternal food intake for proper health and which phase of the maternal diet (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, lactation) or of the infant' diet is the most important to offspring quality. Also being studied is the possible existence of a maximum level of maternal nourishment beyond which detrimental effects might occur. The answers to these questions may provide important information for national nutrition policies, which are important factors in the family planning program. PMID:12276465
Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly
Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775
Rosenfield, A G
Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877
Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia
Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44
Wadia, A B
The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575
Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692
In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262
The IPPF published in 1976 its first Annual report on the activities of the sector Region del Hemisferio Occidental. The report describes the efforts employed in Latin America toward family planning, and the several programs organized. From it it is possible to appreciate the positive impact of the different services to promote a more adequate family structure. Inside the report a special position is occupied by the activities of the Paraguayan Centre for Studies on Population. PMID:12309621
Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly
Al-Ateeg, Fahad A
The article focuses on the role of natural family planning NFP as a component of reproductive health. It distinguishes NFP from the concept of fertility awareness method. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NFP as determined by previous studies is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of NFP are highlighted. Additionally, factors that influence the use of NFP methods are examined. Finally, delivery strategies and options for mainstreaming NFP into reproductive health services are identified and discussed. PMID:15048163
Bair, W D
Reasons commonly advanced for providing family planning are the need for it as a health measure, as part of the basic human right of parents to plan their families, and as a measure to slow demographic growth. Provision of access to all couples desiring birth control, not just to the wealthy and educated, is a less frequently discussed reason. All these reasons require broad coverage in order to be effective. The author argues, using data on the relative health risks of contraceptive usage vs. pregnancy, that nonclinic distribution of contraceptives is consistent with responsible health considerations. The argument is buttressed by ethical considerations. The demand for family planning services is next considered, with the author arguing that availability of contraceptives is an important factor in increasing demand for them. The characteristics and users of nonclinic delivery systems are then discussed. Commercial distribution systems may provide services for up to 5% of women of fertile age, thus providing a useful supplement to organized and more highly subsidized programs. Noncommercial distribution -- household or community based systems -- has allowed contraceptive use to expand to levels of 20 or 25% and sometimes as high as 50%, in periods as short as a year and a half, at low cost. Community leaders have often proven to be more effective than clinic personnel in providing instruction and support to contraceptive users. PMID:12309775
Background Public and private family planning providers face different incentive structures, which may affect overall quality and ultimately the acceptability of family planning for their intended clients. This analysis seeks to quantify differences in the quality of family planning (FP) services at public and private providers in three representative sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana), to assess how these quality differentials impact upon FP clients' satisfaction, and to suggest how quality improvements can improve contraceptive continuation rates. Methods Indices of technical, structural and process measures of quality are constructed from Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) conducted in Tanzania (2006), Kenya (2004) and Ghana (2002) using direct observation of facility attributes and client-provider interactions. Marginal effects from multivariate regressions controlling for client characteristics and the multi-stage cluster sample design assess the relative importance of different measures of structural and process quality at public and private facilities on client satisfaction. Results Private health facilities appear to be of higher (interpersonal) process quality than public facilities but not necessarily higher technical quality in the three countries, though these differentials are considerably larger at lower level facilities (clinics, health centers, dispensaries) than at hospitals. Family planning client satisfaction, however, appears considerably higher at private facilities - both hospitals and clinics - most likely attributable to both process and structural factors such as shorter waiting times and fewer stockouts of methods and supplies. Conclusions Because the public sector represents the major source of family planning services in developing countries, governments and Ministries of Health should continue to implement and to encourage incentives, perhaps performance-based, to improve quality at public sector health
Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized. PMID:12261886
The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation. PMID:6909327
The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result
At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982
Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.
The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…
Holland, R. C.
This Quality Assurance Project Plan documents the quality assurance activities for the Wastewater/Stormwater/Groundwater and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This QAPP was prepared in accordance with DOE guidance on compliance with 10CFR830.120.
Yin, G; Cao, J; Yin, W
Family planning is a very important part of the Socialist cultural civilization, and it has a great impact on the ideology, ethics, and change of moral concepts. The old concept of having a large family and favoring boys over girls has been changed because of the popularization of family planning, and the overall quality of China's population can thus be improved. In the practical work of family planning, construction of the Socialist cultural civilization should be handled well. Science should be developed and taught to the general public, and the traditional ideology concerning birth and population should be gradually changed and eliminated. In this way, people will become more conscious of the need for family planning. In the meantime, efforts should be made to promote social welfare, such as the establishment of more and better daycare centers and nursing homes so that the common worries about family planning can be removed. The people should gradually learn about their rights and responsibilities as citizens and understand that family planning is in the best interest of the whole country as well as for the good fortune of later generations. With close cooperation between the people and the government and with reasonable management of family planning, China will be built into a strong nation with an adavnced Socialist cultural civilization. PMID:12159381
Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.
These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…
In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems. PMID:12309620
Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher
Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182
Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene
Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena. PMID:17113431
Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension
Abraham De D'ornellas, R
The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services. PMID:12281466
Robert P. Evans
The assurance of data quality can be a complex process requiring careful planning. The planning process described in this paper uses Data Quality Objectives as the foundation. The described process considers three steps: project requirement identification, definition of the information necessary to answer the questions, and data collection and management. Since sufficient levels of documentation are required at all levels, uncertainty analysis, traceability and custody, data maintenance, and data evaluation and review are also discussed.
... to have children in the future. They include vasectomy and tubal ligation. These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a ... 26. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, ...
Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training. PMID:12316737
Ashford, L S; Haws, J M
This argument in favor of moving toward self-sufficiency in family planning suggests that programs can achieve by improving efficiency, generating income, and providing quality services. Philip Harvey in a 1991 article, offered persuasive arguments against moving toward self-sufficiency in family planning. He contends that self-sufficiency emphasizes income generation to the detriment of social objectives and reverses priorities to first serve those consumers within easy reach. Harvey's contention is countered by the following: 1) already favoring the well-off, policies of most developing countries rarely provide services to the poor. A self-sufficient program can cross-subsidize services for the poor. 2) studies have shown that even the poorest citizens are willing to pay for services they value. And 3) cost-benefit analysis has shown that family planning can have substantial economic benefits, and institutions that come to recognize these benefits will find it in their interest to pay for services. 2 issues involved in the move toward self-sufficiency are discussed: supply of funds and demand for services. As foreign assistance declines, family planning organizations will need to look to other sources for money. Money-raising strategies include persuading government and private institutions to pay for family planning services, and providing services such as sexually transmitted disease and infertility treatment for which clients are willing to pay. Grant reduction will make family planning organizations more conscious of cost-effectiveness and will increase efficiency. The importance of quality services is stressed: improved quality will attract more paying clients. PMID:1557796
Population is a subject that touches issues central to the human condition, including personal freedom and the very definition of economic and social progress. Hence it is understandable that people and their governments may have a wide range of views on this and related subjects. Some researchers admit that rapid population growth is more likely to impede progress than to promote it and conclude that, even if the economic grounds for family planning are not as compelling as some maintain, it is amply justified on the basis of individual family health and welfare. It would be naive to think that family planning alone can solve the problems of developing countries. But it would seem to be equally naive to believe that these problems can be solved without some family planning. It cannot be overemphasized that the impact of family planning goes far beyond the issues of population growth and economic development; it is an important tool to improve the health status of populations, especially in developing countries. The logical conclusion seems to be that there is a need for a much wider variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation that will suit the individual situation, the socioeconomic condition and the cultural and religious values of different couples. To develop new and safe methods and to provide answers to the questions posed, research is needed. There are 7 cardinal elements negatively affecting greatly needed research and development efforts at present: insufficient funding, hostile philosophies, liability issues, the drug regulatory climate, shortage in manpower, relative paucity of new ideas, and gaps in communication. What is needed now is that mankind shows a little more generosity towards itself and invests a bit more into research in family planning. Experience and history also indicate that research is a cost-effective investment in many areas. To invest in research in family planning means to invest in a brighter future. PMID:3568655
The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032
Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice
Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…
Several studies on demography define birth control as the intervention of the State into the private life of the couple with the purpose to influence attitudes toward family planning, and to obtain, as a final goal, a decrease in national fertility rate. In fact this intervention means protection of the family to promote its welfare, the formation and education of children, the betterment of living conditions, and to foster more job opportunities, and economic development. PMID:12309625
Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M
Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919
Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.
Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293
Labour Education Special Issue, 1971
The article presents the open-end discussion method as the best means for teaching family planning. People do not want an outsider lecturing them on questions of morality and religion, but an outsider, by skillfully formulating questions can direct group discussions toward a pre-determined conclusion. (AS)
The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…
More than 600 events, including disco dances, seminars, and training courses for health professionals, took place during National Family Planning Week, held throughout Ukraine this year from May 26 to June 1. The events were announced on the radio, television, and in newspapers in every region of the country. The following are among the events which took place during the week: physicians gave presents and contraceptives to mothers of newborn infants in maternity hospitals in Dnipropetrovsk; loudspeakers blared messages about family planning in the most crowded streets of Sevastopol, Crimea; family planning rooms and centers opened in 8 districts of Rivninska; and every region of the country held an official opening ceremony. Many of the events had a special focus upon youth, with more than 200 events for adolescents. For more than 6 months, a special multi-ministry coordinating committee worked closely with AVSC to make this first-time event a reality. Public awareness of family planning increased as a result of the Week. Ukraine's Ministry of Health is looking forward to holding the event again next year with or without the support of outside agencies. PMID:12349011
Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert
Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.
The report of the mission sponsored by UNDP, IBRD and WHO in 1970 to develop a comprehensive family planning program for Indonesia omits the important role that commercial distribution of contraceptives can and must play if the desired effect is to be achieved. The government should provide contraceptives to interested traders at low wholesale prices. Every encouragement should be extended to heighten competition in the commercial sector. These initiatives would serve 2 purposes: 1) bring down the current erratic and unreasonable cost of commercially distributed contraceptives and 2) have the benefit of spreading the family planning message by means of traders' competitive promotion. Until this plan can be implemented, import duties on commercial importation of contraceptives should be lifted. In addition, free distribution of contraceptives in government clinics should be introduce d. PMID:12255554
Clinton, H R
This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000
Choosing a contraceptive forces clients to reflect on their way of viewing sexual relations and to confront norms and taboos they have internalized. This situation is charged with emotion which largely goes beyond technical and medical aspects. The Interregional Center of Family Planning in Monthey in the Chablais region of Switzerland has developed a framework to manage implicit demands from family planning clients. This framework permits counselors to hear the here-and-now of the client and her request and to link the request with the before-and-after. After learning the most pressing reason for visiting the clinic, the counselor begins prevention work: to expose the wishes of the client and to encourage self-confidence to dare to say no. The framework to use in a session with an adolescent guides the counselor to consider the following: the relationship with her parents; loyalty towards the original culture of her parents; success or failure at school or at her apprenticeship; her relationship with the person with whom she had sex; body image; experience of the first in-love emotions or first sexual intercourse; sense of control at the gynecologist office; and, for older teens (18-20 years), her professional life plan and becoming self-reliant. The framework to use in a session with a postpartum woman guides the counselor to consider the following: childbirth experience; relationship with the baby and evolution of the mother-baby bond; capacity of the couple to adapt to changes; return to home; role of the family and family-in-law; and how everyone envisions his/her role and place. The framework to use in a session with a woman who has undergone induced abortion guides the counselor to consider the following: eventual prejudices linked to the contraceptive (e.g., fear of cancer); her feelings about failure of that contraceptive; self-image as a woman; relationship with her partner; desire for children; and couple's plan. PMID:7847923
This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…
Apte, J S
The article begins with a brief history of family planning in India and points out that from 1951 to 1963, the program was clinic centered. This approach could reach only a small fraction of the population. The 1962-63 Report recommended extension education with the objectives of group acceptance of the small family norm, knowledge about family planning, and easy availability of contraceptives and adequate service facilities. The Family Planning Program is being implemented at 3 levels, governmental, voluntary agencies, and local self-government bodies. Creating an awareness of the urgency of the program, disseminating knowledge and information about methods, and motivating and educating local leaders and lay workers or volunteers for accepting some responsibility in the implementation of the program are all phases of citizen participation if the program. The author provides a list of agencies and organizations from which voluntary services may be drawn, and also enumerates the personal qualities desired in volunteers. There are recommendations as to the training of volunteers, and the specific tasks which they may be assigned. PMID:12338668
This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles. PMID:12319745
Four participants of the second Regional Technical Committee Meeting on Sustainable Community-Based FP/MCH Project with Special Focus on Women comment on the situation of health and women in their countries. Daisy Faller, Provincial Family Planning Coordinator in Batangas Province, Philippines, mentioned the existence of a pre-implementation phase project to enlighten women in her country of 85% Roman Catholics. Shamina Hasan, Deputy Director of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh heralded an integrated approach to healthcare in which steering committees of fifteen volunteer women each involve communities and use local resources, people, and facilities to disseminate information. Dr. Do Trong Hien, Director of the Department of MCH/FP, Ministry of Health, Vietnam, notes an acute problem of lower reproductive tract infections in rural areas, widespread female unmet demand for contraception, and a desire among females to delay marriage. Research and follow-up monitoring and supervision are needed to complement family planning program efforts targeted mainly to women, but funds are limited. Dr. Phonethep Pholsena, Director of the Birth Spacing Project and Director of the Institute of Mother and Child Health in Laos describes a 123/1000 live birth rate of infant mortality, maternal mortality rate at 653/100,000 live births, and TFR at 6.9. The birth spacing project focusing upon one municipality of Vientiane seeks to reduce TFR to 4.0, space pregnancies by at least two years, promote later marriage up to 18 years for women, and discourage pregnancy after age 35. The project is in an area where 86% of married women of reproductive age have unmet needs and poor knowledge of contraceptives and female genital function. PMID:12287757
Covington, D L; Otolorin, E O; Janowitz, B; Gates, D S; Lamptey, P; Ladipo, O A
This study examines family planning attitudes and practices of 681 Nigerian physicians selected from cities in which large university teaching hospitals are located. About half of the physicians were practicing family planning; the method of choice was the IUD. Obstetrician/gynecologists and general practitioners were more likely to provide methods to their patients than were other types of physicians. The physicians were concerned about population growth and favored family planning, yet a substantial minority believed that family planning is foreign to the culture and that it promotes promiscuity. Physicians were reluctant to promote family planning on a wide scale; many disapproved of non-physicians providing oral contraceptives or IUDs. PMID:3750358
Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O
areas should be trained to administer modern methods in collaboration with institutional health services so that rural-urban differences in coverage and quality can be decreased. It is estimated that, of the 59% of women in union who want no more children, 44% are using a traditional method or no method. Encouraging these women to use contraception is a challenge for the family planning program. It will not be enough to communicate the general advantages of family planning; specific information on each method is needed. The integration of family planning into maternal-child health services is necessary for the focus on reproductive health and preventing high risk pregnancies. Health services should cooperate with the civil registration system to identify newlyweds and provide them with family planning information. Greater efforts are needed to reach adolescents through cooperation with educational institutions. PMID:12158037
The Family Planning Communication Action Research Projects at the Demographic Training and Research Centre, DTRC, Bombay, and the Planning Research and Action Institute (PRAI) Lucknow, provide guidelines for implementation of a program in which voluntary workers play an important role. DTRC has concentrated on urban areas and PRAI on rural areas. In selecting the volunteers, emphasis is on involving those who are already active in community affairs, or those who wield some degree of influence. In rural areas, the literacy level of the leaders is an important factor, as well as those who have a wide circle of acquaintances. The training programs conducted by the DTRC are for 3-5 days, covering 6-10 hours, and the involvement of some local association is always sought. It is found that an informal, permissive atmosphere, the use of visual aids, the distribution of reference material, and the lecture and group discussion methods are effective in orienting the participants to family planning educational activities. The PRAI trains the workers 1st through individual visits, and then when a good number have participated for 3 or 4 months, a training camp is organized. When high officials attend and address these camps, and when certificates and badges are distributed, it serves to keep up the enthusiasm. The main problem in both urban and rural area are sustaining the interest of the volunteer and involving men as volunteers. Where cash incentives are not feasible, newspaper and radio publicity is effective, and words of recognition and appreciation also help. Where male volunteers are involved, it is found that they can work well in their places of employment rather than in residential communities. In highly cosmopolitan areas, various linquestic groups live side by side, and it is necessary to enroll voluntary workers from the individual groups. PMID:12338667
This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.
Chick, P; Nixon, J
Data were obtained from 1,810 consecutive women who attended a central metropolitan (Brisbane) Family Planning Clinic during a 5 week period in 1982. Young women in particular formed the major client group with 32% being under 20 years of age. The client population was skewed towards women of upper socioeconomic status (SES). There was no SES disproportion in the use of oral contraceptives or IUD's. However, diaphragm use occurred disproportionately in women of upper SES groups; postcoital contraception was sought by and limited to, women of SES classes A and B only. The clinic satisfied a need for women with a history of failed or absent contraception and 15% had already had a termination of pregnancy by the time they first presented at the clinic. PMID:6596088
In Benin, family planning began in the late 1960s, but its activities were not clear or specific. It made small strides in private clinics until a family planning association was formed, later named the Beninese Association to Promote the Family (ABPF). Family planning promoters maintain that reduction in births per couple is necessary for economic development in Africa. Family planning detractors think that a child is a fruit of God and that family planning impedes his or her coming to the world. ABPF has worked much to promote Beninese families, but it is still not well known. Despite the associations efforts and those of many other institutions, contraceptive prevalence is low and the abortion rate and its risks remain high, namely, death, infertility, and contraction of various diseases. Thus, it is important to rethink family planning strategies. All intervening parties should coordinate activities to better reach urban and rural populations. Many rural inhabitants go to cities to escape poverty and the misery evoked by their family size and meager earnings only to find unemployment in the cities. In order for family planning to have an effect in Benin, it is important to begin working with youth. Any family planning strategy must consider their aspirations. The youth are inclined to be more receptive to family planning than the adults who do not want to give up old habits. Yet, contraceptive use in 14-20 year olds is low even though sexual activity is high. Since the youth want a small family size, a small plot of land, a care, and a successful life, it is important to give priority to jobs. We need to educate the youth so they can freely decide their family size. Socioeconomic reasons are the primary factor pushing people to accept family planning, followed by health reasons. Research is needed to learn why contraceptive prevalence is still low. PMID:12318558
In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080
Lubis, F; Fajans, P; Simmons, R
This paper discusses the technical dimensions of "quality of care" in contraceptive service delivery in both the Cyclofem Introductory Trial, as well as in routine service delivery of other injectables in Indonesia. Although the quality of care in the Cyclofem trial was generally acceptable, substantial weaknesses in screening, clinical technique, the management of side-effects, and knowledge concerning re-injection time frames were identified in the provision of injectable contraceptives in routine service delivery. The findings suggest that in order for Cyclofem and other injectables to be delivered in the routine program with an adequate standard of care, considerable managerial adaptation and strengthening of providers' technical capabilities would be necessary prior to actual introduction. This would include providing training and updated technical guidelines concerning both Cyclofem and other contraceptives to providers, with an emphasis on technical issues including contraceptive indications and contraindications, re-injection time frames, maintenance of asepsis and the management of side-effects. Strengthening the existing management information system and logistics systems to facilitate differentiation between injectable contraceptives provided by the program so as to ensure sufficient supplies of both contraceptives and associated materials such as needles and syringes will also be necessary. PMID:8045136
The Philippine Federation for Natural Family Planning (PFNFP) teaches men and women about their fertility, emphasizing the notion that women can control their own fertility. Women should know the normal physiological processes of their reproductive system such as the appearance of cervical mucus or other fertility indicators, the menstrual cycle, and others. To that end, PFNFP provides NFP services through its 50 "people's organizations" throughout the Philippines. PFNFP's approach is pragmatic, family-centered, and community-based, allowing local culture and tradition to integrate themselves into the organizational system. PFNFP is also networking with interested nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and has recently received a partnership contract with the Department of Health (DOH) to train the local service providers and barangay health workers of 18 local government units in the delivery of NFP services. The contract also covers the installation and testing of the DOH NFP training design and self-instruction manuals. The author describes the contents of the PFNFP's Fertility Orientation Session, an initial fertility awareness approach. Most NFP acceptors are using the ovulation or sympto-thermal methods, methods which can also help women screen themselves for reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. PFNFP's future goals are described. PMID:12294066
After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289
Rogers, E M; Solomon, D S
The objectives of this article are (1) review the contribution of traditional midwives to family planning communication in several Asian countries; (2) organize knowledge gathered from various studies into general guidelines for the most effective use of traditional midwives in family planning programs; and (3) present hypotheses for future research. In certain countries where pilot projects have tested the potential performance of traditional midwives in family planning programs, results have been encouraging. In other nations, more research is needed to determine the contribution traditional midwives can make to the family planning program. PMID:1145693
The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862
This brief report indicates the accomplishments in family planning of the Automobile Group Corporation in northeastern Changchun, China. This industry has 130,000 staff and workers. The State Family Planning Commission of the Jilin Provincial Government and the Changchun City Government gave an award to this company for having the most advanced unit in family planning provision. This corporation was successful in creating population awareness and strong leadership among its executives for practicing family planning. Administrative workers signed contracts for human reproduction and production of automobiles. The family planning policy was strictly followed on a day-to-day basis. The company offered IEC, contraceptives, and benefits to acceptors. The company provides about 3.5 million yuan per year for family planning activities and strives to improve its services. Women workers now receive reproductive health services. The facility includes a hospital, a family planning clinic, and a maternal and child health clinic and is fully equipped with modern medical instruments for diagnosing gynecological conditions. The quality control management system for producing automobiles is applied to family planning management and applied research on marriage and childbirth. There is 100% acceptance of the one-child certificate. Over 90% of workers delayed marriage and childbirth. During the 1970s and 1980s, about 30,000 births were averted. PMID:12320695
Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana
This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…
This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626
Rogers, Everett M.
A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…
Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.
This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…
On 1 January 1987 the Gansu provincial party committee and government issued a Decision on family planning: "The Decision demands that the party committees and government at all levels assign family planning work an important place on their agenda and get a good and tight grasp of it. They must step up family planning propaganda. Beginning this year, the planning commissions and finance departments at all levels must list the task of capital construction for the family planning departments, and assign it a certain amount of investment. It is necessary to establish family planning committee organs, put them on a sound basis, and assign them good leadership groups, to ensure that all family planning work is carried out well. The decision demands that the public health, civil affair, pharmaceutical, and industry and commerce departments regard making a success of family planning work as their own important task and grasp it for a long time to come to ensure that Gansu's population will register proportional and planned growth." PMID:12346592
Summers, J. A.; Poston, D. J.; Turnbull, A. P.; Marquis, J.; Hoffman, L.; Mannan, H.; Wang, M.
Background: Increasing emphasis on family-centred approaches to services and supports for families of children with disabilities has surfaced the issue of accountability for family outcomes. We present a review of literature about the impacts of children with disabilities on families as a backdrop to proposing family quality of life as a concept…
Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535
Chichakli, L O; Atrash, H K; Musani, A S; Johnson, J T; Mahaini, R; Arnaoute, S
This paper presents the findings of a 1999 survey of 19 countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region on the family planning services and programmes in the Region. Data were collected using a questionnaire which explored the following areas: the presence of population or family planning policies and family planning activities, the family planning services available, promotional and educational activities on family planning, quality assurance, family planning data collection, analysis and dissemination, and the use of such information. The results indicate that 13 of the countries have national policies on population and family planning but even in those that do not, family planning services are widely available. The scope of the services provided varied. There is still a need to implement or strengthen family planning programmes in the Region, a need which is recognized by the countries themselves. PMID:11794067
Hardy, James M.
A document intended to provide program planning guidelines for Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) desirous of working with families, recommends adherence to eight principles and following of five steps. The principles involve planning before action, fact finding and analysis, clear delineation of operational objectives, planning at all…
This article summarizes findings from a summary report produced by a six-member team sent by the China Population Information and Research Center to Tibet Autonomous Region. The study project aimed to develop a five-year population plan for 1996-2000. Project members toured eight counties and cities in Shannan, Lhasa, Hyingchi, and Xigaze prefectures in 1995. Tibet's total population was an estimated 2.43 million in 1995. 1990 Census findings indicate that 95.5% were Tibetans, 3.7% were Han, and 0.8% were other ethnic groups. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 1989 was 4.2 children/woman. TFR is expected to decline to 3.0 in the year 2000. It is generally accepted that Tibet should maintain a growth rate of around 16.7/1000. Tibet's family planning program began in 1980 with the promotion of the one-child family norm among officials, workers, and urban residents of Han nationality living in Tibet. Urban Tibetans were allowed to have two children with a birth interval of 3 years and a third birth with government approval. Family planning was also promoted among farmers and herdsmen (88% of the total population). Family planning, at present, is practiced predominantly by urban residents (12% of the total population). A study of family planning in Dixin Township revealed that 44% of married reproductive-age women practice family planning. Family planning is under the authority of the Regional Family Planning Office and is affiliated with the Bureau of Public Health. There are 43 full-time family planning officials in all 7 prefectures and 74 counties. Most family planning services are handled by part-time medical and health staff in the public health system. The family planning program has resulted in 150,000 averted births. TFR declined from 5.8 children/woman in 1980 to 3.5 at present. This decline is attributed to women's desire for family planning and the fertility policy. The preferred methods include the IUD and Norplant. Unmet need is great. PMID:12347499
USAID, through the matching grant project, provided International Planned Parenthood Federation's Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) funds to increase and strengthen family planning (FP) services in Latin America. Family planning associations (FPAs) were to match any USAID-awarded funds with other funds, supporting efforts to promote sustainability of service delivery. The matching grant was an extremely effective and efficient means to expand access to good quality, voluntary FP services to low income, underserved people. Local income funded about 33% of Matching Grant FPA budgets. USAID and IPPF or other donors shared the other 66%. The Matching Grant FPAs reached the original target of 2.8 million new acceptors. The project was so successful that USAID awarded IPPF/WHR a new 5-year (1992-97) Transition Project. In Latin America and the Caribbean, its goals are to increase people's freedom to choose the number and spacing of their children and to promote a population growth rate appropriate to each country's socioeconomic development goals by helping some FPAs to become sustainable without USAID funding. Strengthening the institutional capacity of FP programs and evaluation of their performance and impact are 2 ways to achieve these goals. BEMFAM/Brazil, PROFAMILIA/Colombia, MEXFAM/Mexico, INPPARES/Peru, APROFA/Chile, CEPEP/Paraguay, AUPFIRH/Uruguay, FPATT/Trinidad and Tobago, PLAFAM/Venezuela, and BFLA/Belize have received matching subcontracts for FP service delivery and sustainability. IPPF/WHR considers Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico to be high-priority countries, largely because they have more than 60% of the population of Latin America. About 81% of Transition Project funds will go to in-country sub-grants and on regional activities, matched on a 1-to-1 basis. 86% of subcontracts will go to Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Technical assistance and funding are also targeted to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:12179841
Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.
The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…
Kulig, J C
An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes. PMID:7560523
Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach. PMID:12314464
Finger, W R
Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.
This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…
Jackman, W; Brown, L D; Al-assaf, A F; Reinke, J M; Abubaker, W; Winter, L; Murphy, G; Blumenfeld, S
Planning for the introduction, implementation, and conduct of quality assurance activities has been the key issue from the outset of the project. Despite the various approaches to planning, no single Quality Assurance (QA) planning can be universally accepted by developing countries due to variations in the socioeconomic, cultural and political makeup of individual countries. This paper summarizes the lessons learned from the Quality Assurance Project in planning a QA program: 1) the need to understand organizational strengths and weaknesses to develop appropriate strategies for QA skills training and organizational change; 2) the need to build on existing systems or activities that support the objectives of the organization and provide an adequate foundation for the QA program; 3) the need to assign responsibility for quality assurance through the creation of QA councils and committees and the assignment of coordinators and other individuals; 4) the need to secure top-level management support to legitimize any changes; 5) the need to determine the method of introducing innovations into organizations, either by a top-down or bottom-up approach; 6) the plan should have well-defined priorities and objectives despite its flexibility as projects evolve and grow over time. PMID:12295830
President Jiang Zemin called for major improvements in the country's family planning, resources management and environmental protection at a work conference held in Beijing on March 12 this year on population control, natural resources and environmental protection. In his address, the president noted that the country will strive to control its population within 1.4 billion by the year 2010, halt the deterioration of the environment and noticeably improve it, and enhance resources management. ¿It is an arduous and important task for the Party and the whole nation,¿ the president said. As the world's most populous developing nation, China has limited per capita natural resources. ¿We must always see population control, preservation of resources and environmental protection from a strategic point of view,¿ Jiang said. In the 21st century, China must continue to make great efforts to stabilize the fertility level, maintain rational use and strict management of resources, and protect and improve the environment. ¿Our success or failure will have a direct bearing on the country's economic and social security, the quality of people's lives and the long-term development of China,¿ the president said. In the new century, it is imperative that we earnestly carry out the decisions of the Party and central government on family planning and the stabilization of a low fertility. On environmental protection, the president stressed that continued efforts should be devoted to both pollution prevention and control and ecological protection. The country should implement the strictest rules and regulations, and continue to uphold the principle of ¿developing while protecting: protecting while developing,¿ he said. In developing China's vast western region, it is also necessary to handle well the relationship between economic development and population control. PMID:12295908
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline. PMID:12280626
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Environment Department addresses its responsibilities through activities in a variety of areas. The need for a comprehensive management control system for these activities has been identified by the Department of Energy (DOE). The WM QA (Waste Management Quality Assurance) Plan is an integral part of a management system that provides controls necessary to ensure that the department`s activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified. This WM QA Plan defines the requirements of the WM QA program. These requirements are derived from DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, the LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP, LBL PUB-3111), and other environmental compliance documents applicable to WM activities. The requirements presented herein, as well as the procedures and methodologies that direct the implementation of these requirements, will undergo review and revisions as necessary. The provisions of this QA Plan and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by and for WM. It is also applicable to WM contractors, vendors, and other LBL organizations associated with WM activities, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WM-approved QA programs. References used in the preparation of this document are (1) ASME NQA-1-1989, (2) ANSI/ASQC E4 (Draft), (3) Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (LBL PUB-5352, Rev. 1), (4) LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), LBL PUB-3111, 2/3/93. A list of terms and definitions used throughout this document is included as Appendix A.
The focus of the current Family Welfare Program in India is education and active community involvement rather than coercion and compulsion. The government is totally committed to the program and has indicated that it will spare no efforts to motivate people to voluntarily accept family planning. However, there is a need for family planning efforts to include all aspects of family welfare, particularly those designed to promote the health of mothers and children. All family planning methods will be made available, and the family will be free to choose the method they prefer. As part of the program, employees of the Union government, State governments, autonomous and local bodies are expected to set an example and adopt the small family norm. The policy statement made by Mr. Raj Narain, Minister of Health and Family Welfare, revealed the government's decision not to legislate, either at the national or the State level, for compulsory sterilization. Sterilization services will be available free of charge to those who voluntarily choose this method. A plan for training indigenous midwives will be implemented as part of the program in order that maternity services may be available to all expectant mothers. Additionally, in recognition of the direct correlation between illiteracy and fertility and between infant/maternal mortality and age at marriage, the government will introduce legislation to raise the minimum age at marriage to 18 years for girls and to 21 years for boys. The plan is for trade unions, Chambers of Commerce, cooperative societies, women's organizations, teachers' federation, district councils, and other voluntary institutions to be associated intimately with the educational campaign launching the Family Welfare Program. PMID:12260383
The implementation of the Integrated FP/MCH/Parasite Control project by JOICFP in 1984 was envisioned to strengthen international cooperation, promote international exchange of knowledge and expand approaches in the practice of family planning. 2 municipalities in China were selected as pilot project areas. The objectives set in the 3-year plan of the integrated project are: to publicize the advantages of family planning and improve people's knowledge and practice of family planning; to stengthen technical guidance on family planning and control the growth and improve the quality of the population; to improve maternal and child care; and to reduce the infection rate of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Steering committees on the integrated project at the municipal, county, township and village levels were set up in the pilot areas; the significance of the project has been communicated through film and slide presentations. Training courses for the administrative workers and technicians have been held. As a result of the family planning education activities, the contraceptive rates in the 2 pilot areas remained stable at 85%. Neonatal mortality was reduced significantly. Parasite control has benefitted 52,546 people in the pilot areas. An improvement was noted in environmental hygiene, the proper disposal of waste and the provision of safe drinking water. Further improvement can be achieved by intensifying public health education in the project areas, improving working systems and accomplishing all the tasks that the integrated project has set forth. PMID:12313888
Castro Villamil, R
During the 1960s, when family planning services were institutionalized in Colombia by PROFAMILIA, abundant foreign assistance was readily available. Few questions were asked about the longterm funding of family planning programs or the need for financial self-sufficiency. The emphasis was on program development without great attention to costs. Beginning around the early 1980s, international donors began to place a higher priority and greater investment in the incipient family planning programs of less developed countries. At present a greater number and higher quality of services are being demanded from PROFAMILIA at the lowest possible cost. Efficiency has replaced efficacy as the overriding goal. PROFAMILIA, due to its excellent results, has lost priority in the eyes of international donors. It has therefore reoriented its financing strategies toward a short, medium, and long term plan to reduce its financial dependence on international donor agencies. Self-sufficiency could be increased through various means, including total government subsidy, charging fees for services and materials sufficient to cover program costs, establishing services and marketing programs aside from family planning programs for the specific purpose of obtaining funds to cover program deficits, or establishing accounting and operational controls to reduce costs through greater efficiency. But large government subsidies are unlikely in a time of budgetary constraints, and raising fees for family planning users would exclude a large number of low-income clients from the family planning program. Cost reduction and implementation of diversified programs should therefore be emphasized for the present. The diversified program should be related to family planning so that use can be made of idle resources. PROFAMILIA has emphasized surgical procedures and medical consultations to utilize clinic facilities more fully and to increase income without increasing fixed costs. In 1990, foreign
The integrated approach to MCH/FP service delivery in the India Population Project is based on the assumption that positive results on family planning acceptance depend upon better health of children already born and a decline in the mortality rate. The Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife (ANM) performs all the family planning activities, distributes a nutritional supplement ("Balahar") to pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children between 6 months and 2 years, and keeps a record of births and deaths in order to convince the village population of the advantages of family planning. In 1975 a house to house inquiry was conducted in one of the affected villages to gather demographic and nutritional information. Analysis revealed that 77 of 82 eligible children were receiving "Balahar". The village birth rate was calculated at 50.3 per thousand and the death rate at 18.5 per thousand. Only 4 out of 233 family planning target couples were current users, and only 11 target couples were favorably disposed to family planning, while 94 were neutral and 128 were hostile. None of the 3 eligible women were receiving prenatal care, and only 1 of the 20 eligible women was receiving postnatal care. PMID:12261422
Waste Management Group
The WMG QAP is an integral part of a management system designed to ensure that WMG activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified in a manner that assures a quality product. A quality product is one that meets all waste acceptance criteria, conforms to all permit and regulatory requirements, and is accepted at the offsite treatment, storage, and disposal facility. In addition to internal processes, this QA Plan identifies WMG processes providing oversight and assurance to line management that waste is managed according to all federal, state, and local requirements for waste generator areas. A variety of quality assurance activities are integral to managing waste. These QA functions have been identified in the relevant procedures and in subsequent sections of this plan. The WMG QAP defines the requirements of the WMG quality assurance program. These requirements are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, Contractor Requirements Document, the LBNL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), and other applicable environmental compliance documents. The QAP and all associated WMG policies and procedures are periodically reviewed and revised, as necessary, to implement corrective actions, and to reflect changes that have occurred in regulations, requirements, or practices as a result of feedback on work performed or lessons learned from other organizations. The provisions of this QAP and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by the WMG; WMG personnel, contractors, and vendors; and personnel from other associated LBNL organizations, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WMG-approved QA programs.
Lyon, Maureen E; Garvie, Patricia A; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D’Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert
Purpose To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+) adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning intervention. Patients and methods We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76). Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC) received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation). Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©); psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories); quality of life (PedsQL™); and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment). Results Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001). Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018) and emotional (P = 0.029) quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls. Conclusions Participating in advance care planning did not unduly distress HIV+ adolescents. PMID:22096382
The anti-family planning stance of the president of the Philippines has received support from conservative Roman Catholic church-backed groups, but the Secretary of the Department of Health (DOH) has reiterated the obligation of the DOH to make all methods of contraception available and has noted that people can freely decide whether or not to use contraception. A newspaper columnist editorialized that the president's views were not as important as the family planning decisions made by men and women of reproductive age and that a 1998 survey indicated that 81% of married women want to space their next birth or limit childbearing. The columnist also stressed that family planning programs are important because they also deliver other forms of reproductive health care and allow people to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:12348872
... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
Johnson, J H; Reich, J
There has been an increase in interest in natural family planning (NFP) in recent years. The Roman Catholic Church and other groups sympathetic to NFP philosophy have pressured the US Agency for International Development (AID) to increase emphasis on NFP, and AID has responded by increasing funding devoted to NFP from US$0.8 to US$7.8 million from 1981-85. In 1985, AID exempted NFP providers from the requirement of providing direct or referral services for other methods, but repealed the exemption in 1986. Several methods fall under the NFP umbrella: rhythm, the estimation of ovulation time by the counting of days elapsed in relation to menstruation; and the more precise cervical musus; basal body temperature; and sympto-thermal methods. Because NFP requires considerable training, recording, and willingness to abstain, recruitment is difficult and dropout rates high. A 5-country World Health Organization study found that 17% of women dropped out during training, and 36% discontinued during the following year. At the 4th International Congress of the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP), it was stressed that data on NFP prevalence classed by type of NFP are lacking. Questions raised included whether populations of countries that have achieved or hope to achieve a low birth rate will be interested in NFP; whether NFP can increase the risks of birth defects through fertilization by "aged gametes;" and whether NFP is capable of helping couples to select the sex of the child. The implications of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding were reviewed. Some problems arise concerning evaluation of effectiveness: NFP advocates often do not consider couples who "break the rules" as acceptors, and when these couples are excluded from data the method appears much more effective. Traditionalists emphasize the increased quality that NFP brings to a marital relationship. Some participants maintained that rigid moral advocacy would deter many couples. PMID
Talpallikar, M B
The apathy of Indians regarding family planning acceptance is compared with that displayed with respect to other programs designed to induce changes in behavior to achieve socioeconomic development. It is felt that understanding motivation would provide the key to making any such venture a success. Motivation is defined and discussed in detail, including its relationship to the success of educational activities. In that context, learning theories and their relationship to family planning behavior are discussed. The need for a high degree of insight into human behavior and a high level of skill in interpreting it on the part of the effective educator or agent of change is noted. PMID:12259435
The general situation of family planning in Papua New Guinea, several of the relevant traditional beliefs, and a pilot project of community based distribution and family planning education in a rural market town. There is no government policy on population, although community based distribution programs have been active in some areas for 10 years. Papua New Guinea has a crude birth rate of 44/1000, an average of 6 children per family, but has only begun to introduce primary health care. Consequently, the population is expected to double by 2015. The pilot program, in a market town called Maprik in East Sepik Province, targets 44,378 women from surrounding villages, of whom about 800 may be using contraception. A family planning nurse is training 20 members of a Women's Council. In a 4-day course, held in the Council House, community distribution workers discussed family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environmental and population issues. Ancient taboos and social controls that used to space births are breaking down under the pressure of missionization and westernization. Intercourse is still prohibited during menstruation and breastfeeding. There are specific magic spells and rituals used to insure fertility or abortion: these examples were used to help women understand the concepts of modern family planning methods. The nurse encouraged feedback from the women, and only held one formal teaching session, on record-keeping. For the success of the program, field workers should work from within, and supervise adequately. This will be done with quarterly refresher courses and monthly follow-up in each village. PMID:3467242
These Regulations, adopted by the Municipal People's Congress of Shanghai on 14 March 1990, do the following: a) strictly prohibit any units and individuals from identifying the sex of a fetus without medical reasons; b) add 1 additional week to the marriage leave of couples who marry at the age set for late marriage (25 for males and 23 for females); c) add 15 days of maternity leave for women who give birth at the age set for late birth (24) and 3 days for their spouses; d) impose a fine equal to 3 to 6 times their average annual income if a couple have an unplanned birth (calculated on the basis of their income 2 years before the birth); and e) subject a couple who have an unplanned birth to disciplinary action by their working units if they work for others or by the administrative department of industry and commerce if they are self employed. Second births are allowed if a first child "can not become normal because of nonhereditary diseases," if both husband and wife are single children, or if a "remarried couple had only one child before their remarriage." The Regulations provide that "the improvement of birth quality and good upbringing of children should be promoted, advice on heredity should be provided, and premarital examinations [should] be conducted." They also stipulate that "A woman should terminate her pregnancy or undergo a sterilization operation if both husband and wife (or either of them) have [a] hereditary or other disease not medically suitable for birth." The provisions of these Regulations prohibiting prenatal sex selection were reported in Annual Review of Population Law, Vol. 17, 1990, Section 240. PMID:12348767
This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.
Temmerman, M; Van Braeckel, D; Degomme, O
In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885
A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…
Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.
In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…
A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912
Goff, Susan B.
Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
Kee, W F; Lee, A S
Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The
This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Fatimah, Rika P. L.; Aziz, J. Abdul; Ibrahim, K.
Bringing together women and family in quality perspective brings about interesting discussions in this paper. By integrating previous studies and considering expert opinions, we determine the variables and dimensions with respect to women's existence regarding their roles both in the family and at work. Many activities carried out by women…
Cook, R J; Maine, D
In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early...
Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250
This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for Process Chemistry and Statistics. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing process chemistry activities.
Russell, Keith P.; Meier, Gitta
Although the availability of oral contraceptives and the development of improved intrauterine contraceptive devices have greatly increased the general utilization of family planning services, there are still great segments of our population which are not yet reached, especially in the economically deprived areas. Since over 98 percent of all obstetrical deliveries now occur in hospitals, it seems logical that it is on hospital maternity services that these deficiencies might often be best overcome. Although this is primarily a medical problem, the use of paramedical personnel can greatly augment the physician's practice in these areas. Family planning services should be an integral part of comprehensive maternity care, not alone in the physician's office but also in the hospital setting. PMID:5784113
Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M
This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276
Many family planning specialists worldwide are praising the success of the family program of Indonesia because fertility rates have fallen considerably in many parts of the country. Yet, others question the reliability of the data collected and distributed by the National Family Co-ordinating Board (BKKBN), whether the publicized fertility rates are real, and whether the program or socioeconomic changes are responsible for the decline. Further, no one has assessed whether the program is sensitive to women's needs and desires. Overall, the program does not meet women's needs or consider women's health. Specifically, it deems population control more important than family planning, uses provider-dependent, long-acting hormonal contraceptives, and delivers poor quality service. The BKKBN is a prestigious group and accountable to Indonesia's president because its primary objective is to reduce population growth so socioeconomic development can occur. Even though the program originally stressed maternal and child health as a means for women to accept family planning methods, it no longer promotes maternal and child health as evidenced by the continuously high maternal mortality rates (lowest rate, 450/100,000 lives births). In fact, the maternal mortality rate for 15-19 year old women (1100) is so very high that it is second only to Ethiopia. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association agrees that the family planning program of Indonesia does not provide means for women to autonomously control their fertility and has taken as assembly line approach. Moreover, the administrative officials coerce subordinates to meet the ambitious targets who then coerce eligible couples and individuals to accept contraceptives. This violates their basic rights. The program has realized the significant role women play in demographic dynamics, but not as leader of socioeconomic development but as tools to rapidly and effectively implement population policies. PMID:12285429
Alberto, C S; Villanueva, C L
Results of 2 workshops on the improvement of communication and motivational skills of outreach workers using research results and field experiences are presented. General strategies, illustrative cases, and specific IEC strategies geared to the solution of common problems are suggested. General strategies for identifying opportunities for introduction of population and family planning in the community include use of felt needs and problems of the community as vehicles for introduction, coordination with other agencies operating in the community, winning the support of influential and accepted leaders in the community, and establishing credibility with the people before launching population projects. Strategies for breaking through traditional values and beliefs include emphasizing aspects of the population program that do not run counter to religious beliefs, using messages which emphasize qualities highly valued by the people, being careful to respect persons the community looks up to regardless of their opposition, considering the cultural background and preparation of the audience before introducing sensitive subjects, and appealing to people's needs and interests to elicit participation. Rumors and misconceptions on family planning may be counteracted by directing motivational and informational efforts at persons likely to influence potential acceptors as well as the potential acceptors themselves, avoiding antagonizing religious leaders who preach against family planning, presenting only accurate family planning information, and establishing the source of rumors about side effects. Complaints about side effects should be attended promptly, clear and specific instructions on method use should be given, and the worker should present herself as a satisfied user. PMID:12233386
Nguyen Thi Hue
The Vietnam Peasant Union encourages peasants to comply with the following criteria for the modern family: not having too many children, not being poor and starving, not having malnourished children and diseased women due to the bearing of too many children, being literate, not being superstitious, and not violating the law and State policy. 30% of the union's 7.5 million members have registered to abide by these rules. Peasants comprise almost 80% of Vietnam's total population. Although poor, peasant family incomes are increasing along with living conditions. Fertility remains too high. The Peasant Union has therefore been carrying out information, education, and communication and motivational activities among peasants so that peasants in general, and middle-aged heads of households in particular, will accept and practice family planning. For each province, the union produces teaching materials such as training packages for officers at provincial, district, and community levels, as well as a manual for field workers. The manual has two columns for respective topics: one explains a population and family planning item, while the other depicts a related agricultural activity. PMID:12320325
The medical profession has played an important role in family planning. The program includes education for family life, marriage-guidance, marriage counseling, treatment of sterility, and control of fertility. A happy family needs children, but an excess of them causes many problems and collectively becomes a national problem. In socialist countries, where abortions have been permitted more liberally, a large number of women have sought aid from doctors who have actively participated in the programs. These doctors have developed better techniques. In developed countries, churches and governments have been forced to fall in line with the prevailing trend of thought even against the Papal edict in Catholic countries and among Catholic people elsewhere. In the still underdeveloped countries, only methods that do not require repetitive and sustained motivation can achieve the desired result in fertility reduction. The Government of India was the 1st to launch a nationwide family planning program. A major handicap to the central Government has been its inability to utilize general practitioners for this purpose. However, they need to be trained in the techniques. The government should enlist their services and keep them informed of developments in this field. The whole medical profession must be included. PMID:12254323
A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations
Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M
A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local
Watson, W B; Lapham, R J
The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...
Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.
Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…
This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.
Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.
As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.
40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355
Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Herrera-Meillón, Héctor
The desire to limit fertility is recognized both by individuals and by nations. The concept of family planning is based on the right of individuals and couples to regulate their fertility and is based in the area of health, human rights and population. Despite the changes in policies and family planning programs worldwide, there are large geographic areas that have not yet met the minimum requirements in this regard, the reasons are multiple, including economic reasons but also ideological or religious. Knowledge on the physiology of the menstrual cycle, specifically ovulation process has been further enhanced due to the advances in reproductive medicine research. The series of events around ovulation are used to detect the "fertile window", this way women will look for the possibility of postponing their pregnancy or actually start looking for it. The aim of this article is to review the current methods of family planning based on fertility awareness, from the historical methods like the core temperature determination and rhythm, to the most popular ones like the Billings ovulation method, the Sympto-thermal method and current methods like the two days, and the standard days method. There are also mentioned methods that require electronic devices or specifically computer designed ones to detect this "window of fertility". The spread and popularity of these methods is low and their knowledge among physicians, including gynecologists, is also quite scarce. The effectiveness of these methods has been difficult to quantify due to the lack of well designed, randomized studies which are affected by small populations of patients using these methods. The publications mention high effectiveness with their proper use, but not with typical use, what indicates the need for increased awareness among medical practitioners and trainers, obtaining a better use and understanding of methods and reducing these discrepancies. PMID:22808858
The Teaching-Family Model was one of the earliest approaches to be supported by an extensive research base. As it has evolved over four decades, it retains the focus on teaching and learning but incorporates a strength- and relationship-based orientation. The model is also unique in gathering ongoing practice-based evidence to insure quality.
Burns, Mildred L.
The Values Based Objectives Planning System is a method of educational planning that will achieve quality education, according to the author, by expressing goals and objectives as values instead of as behaviors. The author first defines planning as the preparation in visual form of a conceptual model of a thing, operation, or event. She then…
Wunderink, S R
This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference
Davaasuren, L; Naranchimeg, J
In 1995, Mr. Bolooj organized a branch of the Mongolian Family Welfare Association (MFWA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), in the smallest administrative district in western Mongolia. Most of the people are nomadic shepherds, and there are 10 times as many domestic animals as humans in the sparsely population country. In rural areas, the idea of family planning is alien, and Mongolia's mass media also has a difficult time understanding population concerns. Mr. Bolooj began by using the media to explain the goals of the IPPF and the MFWA. He then recruited and trained volunteer medical workers to provide reproductive health services. In its first six months of operation, the MFWA branch created 38 hours of reproductive health lessons for use in local schools. These lessons included information on the importance of good hygiene despite the scarcity of water for bathing. The population is so scattered, however, that it is very expensive to reach individual households. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, maternal health services have deteriorated, and maternal mortality has increased. The new National Reproductive Health Program seeks to provide delivery rooms in remote areas. The MFWA branch is also working to help women who are heading households. A course on contraceptive choices organized for 50 women of childbearing age resulted in 12 acceptors of the IUD, 15 of oral contraceptives, and six of injectables. PMID:12293466
The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.
Liang, J; Peng, Z
Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general. PMID:12159337
Giunchiglia, Enrico; Maratea, Marco
Planning as Satisfiability (SAT) is the best approach for optimally (wrt makespan) solving classical planning problems. SAT-based planners, like SATPLAN, can thus return plans having minimal makespan guaranteed. However, the returned plan does not take into account plan quality issues introduced in the last two International Planning Competitions (IPCs): such issues include minimal-actions plans and plans with "soft" goals, where a metric has to be optimized over actions/goals. Recently, an approach to address such issues has been presented, in the framework of planning as satisfiability with preferences: by modifying the heuristic of the underlying SAT solver, the related system (called SATPLAN(P)) is guaranteed to return plans with minimal number of actions, or with maximal number of soft goals satisfied. But, besides such feature, it is well-known that introducing ordering in SAT heuristics can lead to significant degradation in performances. In this paper, we present a generate-and-test approach to tackle the problem of dealing with such optimization issues: without imposing any ordering, a (candidate optimal) plan is first generated, and then a constraint is added imposing that the new plan (if any) has to be "better" than the last computed, i.e., the plan quality is increased at each iteration. We implemented this idea in SATPLAN, and compared the resulting systems wrt SATPLAN(P) and SGPlan on planning problems coming from IPCs. The analysis shows performance benefits for the new approach, in particular on planning problems with many preferences.
Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy
Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID
Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L
The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854
Objectives. The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members’ understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations—general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children—on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Method. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Results. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one’s spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Discussion. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations. PMID:23286929
Linzell, Dinah, Comp.
Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family;...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State,...
This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in
Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Tan, B A; Tey, N P; Yusuf, Y
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the degree of exposure to to Information, Education, and Communication (I.E.C.) publications such as pamphlets and booklets on contraceptive methods among those who have attended the dialog sessions; and to investigate the effects of such exposure on contraceptive use as well as the ppropensity to talk about family planning. The survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board and assisted by the Sciences University of Malaysia in 1978/79, covers 6 states. A total of 1190 respondents were selected from those who attended dialog sessions during that period. Of the total sample, 723 respondents (60.8%) were contacted and interviewed. The I.E.C. publications evaluated in this survey include booklets on methods of contraception; pamphlets on the pill, IUD, condom, rhythm method, tubal ligation, vasectomy; booklets on responsible parenthood, flip charts and posters. 61% of the respondents have been exposed to at least 1 form of the I.E.C. materials. About 17 to 18% of currently married respondents have been exposed to pamphlets on tubal ligation, rhythm methods, IUD and condom; 22% have been exposed to pamphlets on the pill and 43% to booklets on contraceptive methods. In gerneral, those who have been exposed to pamphlets on a particular method were more likely to use that method. Among those who have been exposed to pamphlets on the pill 26.4% were using the pill compared to 16.2% who have not been exposed. The proportion of condom users were 3 times more after exposure to pamphlets on the condom: 16% vs. 4.7%. About 50% of currently married respondents were using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey. Of those who have not been exposed to I.E.C. materials, only 34.4% were using a method, compared to 53-60% of those who had been exposed. Exposure to I.E.C. materials and its interaction with ethnicity act as the most important factor in accounting for the differntials in contraceptive use, both in the
The Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan was developed in response to internal and external concerns about the integrity, consistency, and accuracy of EPA's environmental data. This document explains why a Strategic Plan is needed and the methodology used in its development, cites Agency models of excellence, and presents the six recommendations of EPA's Data and Information Quality Strategic Plan. PMID:12512550
"This report describes a family planning survey [involving 172 women] conducted at an antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, Nigeria between June and August 1984. The level of education of respondents is generally low and appears to have a negative effect on knowledge, approval, and use of family planning. Breast feeding is widespread but not many respondents practiced it as a method of family planning. While there is limited knowledge and some approval of family planning, a desire for large families continues and there is relatively little practice of family limitation. The prospects for a decrease in fertility in the near future is not encouraging." PMID:12315201
Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina
Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…
The 10th International Conference on AIDS/International Conference on STD in Yokohama August 7-12, 1994, attracted 12,000 people from 130 countries to consider the expanding AIDS pandemic. A satellite symposium was held the day before the opening of the conference, August 6, also in Yokohama, to bring participants together to focus upon the importance of providing access to oral contraceptives and the necessity of condoms. This symposium was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association. Speakers called for the authorization of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill for Japanese women; greater condom use against HIV and other STDs; expanding the concept of reproductive health to include maternal and child health, the prevention of STDs, and infertility; clinical approaches and care for HIV-infected individuals during pregnancy and labor; and counseling to pregnant HIV-infected women. PMID:12318906
The US Office of Family Planning (FP) has issued 10 research grants ranging from $100,000 to $250,000 to organizations seeking to develop, implement, and test ways to involve young men in FP and reproductive health services. While only 2% of federal dollars are currently earmarked for reproductive health services for young men, a survey revealed that only 32% of sexually active men and 17% of sexually inexperienced men reported receiving contraceptive information from health care providers. One grant recipient is a cooperative venture of the University of North Carolina, the Guilford County health department, and "Wise Guys," a male responsibility/adolescent pregnancy prevention program developed by the local Family Life Council in 1989 that focuses on seventh-grade boys. The grant allowed Wise Guys to add a peer education component and hire the first male health educator in the county health department. This educator notes that the biggest misconceptions held by young men about the health department are that test results are shared with parents, that the agency serves only impoverished people, and that every client must be tested for pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The health educator addresses these misconceptions in classes and individual counseling sessions, and he accompanies young men to STD tests. PMID:12294592
Haws, J; Crawford, G
An AVSC training program, conducted in cooperation with the Navajo Nation Family Planning Corporation (NNFPC), has the potential to profoundly affect sterilization provision and acceptability on the Navajo Nation reservation. AVSC trained a family physician from the Northern Navajo Medical Center (New Mexico) in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. This physician expects to provide 30 such sterilizations in the one-year period following the training and is preparing to teach reservation physicians from other health centers to perform the procedure. In addition, a joint AVSC-NNFPC course on sterilization counseling was presented to 30 nursing staff from the New Mexico Center. Central to this training was consideration of the obstacles to sterilization acceptance posed by Navajo cultural beliefs. Sensitivity to some women's desire to keep the procedure private, due to concerns their husbands will abandon them if they can no longer bear children, and to the potential need to include mothers and grandmothers in counseling sessions, is required. Also salient for female counselors and nurses are cultural taboos against a woman discussing sexual matters with a man with whom she is not intimate. In late 1996, AVSC will provide a sterilization counseling update for all NNFPC counselors working at centers throughout the four-state reservation. PMID:12347635
The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666
Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)
This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.
In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983
Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning. PMID:7167084
This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037
This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides an overview of the quality assurance program for Building 324. This plan supersedes the PNNL Nuclear Facilities Quality Management System Description, PNL-NF-QMSD, Revision 2, dated March 1996. The program applies to the facility safety structures, systems, and components and to activities that could affect safety structures, systems, and components. Adherence to the quality assurance program ensures the following: US Department of Energy missions and objectives are effectively accomplished; Products and services are safe, reliable, and meet or exceed the requirements and expectations of the user; Hazards to the public, to Hanford Site and facility workers, and to the environment are minimized. The format of this Quality Assurance Program Plan is structured to parallel that of 10 CFR 83 0.120, Quality Assurance Requirements.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.
Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…
Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya
The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships. PMID:24088678
Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida
ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module
Berg, Jonathan Charles
This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan
Through personal interviews, it was found that the success of family planning at Xindan Brigade can be attributed in part to the Brigade party's contribution to family planning education, with the party members acting as family planning models. Moreover, economic objectives are used to secure the results desired. Devoted members are recruited to promote family planning, while economic rewards and restrictions reinforce planning goals. Family planning work in the village of Sung Chuang was reasserted in late 1983 with party leaders acting as family planning models. The results were significant and in 1984, 18 out of 24 brigades fulfilled projected goals by 100% with the average for the entire Sung Chung village being 98.5%. A single-child family rate was obtained in 12 brigades with the average rate in the village for single-child families being 95.9% overall. It is thought that the role of agricultural production must be correctly analyzed and family planning modified to adjust to the "new" type of farming village. Furthermore, a long-lasting contradiction must be forseen between the viewpoints of these 2 sectors of society (i.e., agricultural and political). The policy of the party will be to implement the program and to correctly handle any objections or problems that may arise. Finally, collective management methods must be adopted by the authorities in order to effectively control population growth, especially that seen in the farming village. PMID:12341114
bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities. PMID:12266994
Seymour, Daniel; Kelley, John M.; Jasinski, John
External and internal forces are driving institutions not only to create departments and positions that specialize in planning, quality improvement, and institutional research but also to link them within a systems context.
Galli, Nicholas; Corry, James M.
This article explores the process of health education program planning, presents the model of quality circles, and examines the variables upon which decisions for or against specific programs are made within an institution. (MT)
In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848
Sondhi, P R
The basic, subsistence level, needs for an average Indian are Rs. 100 per month. Normally an Indian spends 57 percent of his income on food. From 1961-71 the per capita income rose by only Rs. 90, from Rs. 337 to Rs. 427. 40 percent of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. The population rises in geometric progression, but the economy develops arithmetically. The goal of family planning officials is to stabilize the population as quickly as possible. If the basic minimum is Rs. 100 per month by 1998 then the population must be stabilized by 1984 to zero population growth. The birth rate must be reduced from 20 in 1978-79 to 13 by 1984. The Gross National Product should be raised by a rate of 6 percent per year. If zero population growth is achieved, 4,160,838 births will have been avoided. 1 birth avoided saves approximately Rs. 690 to Rs. 1360. To achieve zero population growth requires massive sterilizations, IUD insertions, and constant motivational efforts through workers in a small community of 3500-5000. The hospital for the State of Haryana needs facilities and personnel to be able to perform 75,000 tubectomies. PMID:10308707
Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David
Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…
Worth, George; And Others
This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births, and…
Population Council, New York, NY.
This report presents a comprehensive review of empirical findings from postpartum research undertaken to date, particularly in respect to the International Postpartum Family Planning Program established by the Population Council in 1966. It is related to a forthcoming report summarizing findings in the field of family planning evaluation. The…
Population Council, New York, NY.
A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…
Population Council, New York, NY.
This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments during 1969 and 1970 in Morocco and Tunisia, and then sets forth 12 criteria that are utilized to evaluate the overall progress of the family planning programs in the two countries. These criteria serve to measure the readiness and prospects for the development of viable family…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...
Population Council, New York, NY.
A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…
Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation. PMID:22574484
Flavier, J M
Overly technical terminology and excessive use of lectures impede effective communication and teaching of family planning in the philippines. To achieve better results in information dissemination, especially in rural areas, the author provides a simple, effective, and interactive approach. The clearly-defined objective of identifying what family planning is and how it works is achieved through the use of analogies between farming and human sexual development. These analogies are jointly-developed in the field by groups of family planning workers and 8-10 men and women from the community. The farmers begin the group process by educating the family planning workers about their local farming practices. The workers then develop parallels between farming and the desired family planning messages. Once initiated, farmers are encouraged to develop and share their own parallels, by they with plants, farm animals, beliefs, or household articles. Better understanding, acceptance, and continuation rates will result from this voluntary, interactive approach. PMID:12283886
Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura
The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...
participants, who will in turn, help to draw nonacceptors into the program. Social marketing is being used to 1) reach those as yet uninformed about family planning, 2) promote the quality of various information and motivation activities so that they will become behaviorally oriented, and 3) provide an opportunity for the private sector to participate in the program professionally. PMID:12342240
Due to budget cuts at the federal, state, and local levels, family planning clinics that rely in public funding are facing financial hardship. In 1980, the federal government provided $162 million for family planning under Title 10. But for 1991, the allocation was down to $140 million. Compared to 1980, there are 100 fewer government-funded clinics providing family planning. Many health clinics have simply ceased providing such services. The Community Family Planning Council in New York City is one of those organizations that has suffered severely from the cutbacks. Previously operating 12 family planning clinics, the council had no choice but to close 3 clinics that served about 10,000 low-income women, after the city's Human Resource Administration (HRA) cut $1 million from the council's budget. For 1992, HRA plans increase the cut to $2.3 million. The majority of the women affected are part of the "working poor," women who work for minimum wage. Family planners say that, in the long run, the consequences of the cutbacks will be more expensive for the city. Many women will have unwanted pregnancies, and many will be forced to quit their jobs to care for the baby, relying on public assistance and Medicaid. As the council has argued to city officials, family planning programs are cost effective. The council estimates that their programs prevent about 4500 pregnancies and 2000 abortions each year, which saves the city $15 million a year social services. Massive cutbacks also threaten family planning services in New Hampshire, where legislators where proposing to cut all funding. After pleas from family planners, the state is not looking at 45% reduction. A bright note has been California, where evidence to the cost-effectiveness of family planning convinced the governor to propose a $10 million increase for 1992. PMID:12284064
Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…
American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.
This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…
Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values. PMID:12280740
Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S
To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices concerning family planning of students attending religious schools in Lebanon, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 450 male and female students. A validated structured questionnaire was completed by the students. The majority of the students (65%) had a moderate level of knowledge, males more than females, but females had more positive beliefs and attitudes. More females agreed with family planning programmes and methods than males, but 35% had a negative attitude to family planning; a significant percentage had negative attitudes to contraceptive methods based on their view that they are not allowed (haram) in Islam. Among the married students, less than 40% used a family planning method; of those, the majority used a female method. Religion plays an important role in the health behaviour of religious students. Religious leaders can therefore inhibit or promote family planning, which will affect the success of family planning programmes. Thus, they should be included in the development and promotion of family planning programmes. PMID:22891526
Macqueen, I A
Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028
Planning for quality assurance (QA) in research and development (R D) is like stealing eggs without waking up the chickens. The QA program should be as unobtrusive as possible. Researchers require a QA program that affords them an environment capable of supporting repeatable experiments with accurate data without unduly stifling their creative abilities. Careful advance planning ensures that the intensity of control provided by quality-related systems is commensurate with the importance and scope of the activities being performed. Good scientific practices applied to small bench-scale projects may require minimal additional controls. As projects increase in size and complexity the controls imposed through planning must, by necessity, be increased. Research and development QA planning, just like any other planning, involves all affected individuals. The application of control systems is determined by factors such as customer or sponsor requirements, the importance of an item or activity to the experiment's success, and the organizational complexity of the project. Many larger experiments are highly dependent on quality-related support activities such as calibration, engineering design, and inspection provided by organizations outside the R D group. Since, in most cases, the expense of support activities is taken directly from funds available for research, it is important for the researchers to be involved in the planning efforts to help determine and agree with the level of QA effort required. A single plan will often suffice for organizations engaged in large numbers of similar experiments. Complex experiments may require unique QA plans or additions to existing plans. Once implemented, the R D QA plans, like any others, require audits or surveillances and may require revisions if the scope of the experiment changes. 1 ref., 1 fig.
Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B
Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and
Arokiasamy, J T
A study was conducted at the Army Garrison Hospital at Port Dickson in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the attitudes of 110 married men towards family planning. The sample included 80 Malays and 30 Indians who are army personnel attending the hospital either for medical treatment or a check-up. The study instrument was a pre-tested questionnarie administered by 2 male nurses during the November-December 1975 period. 76 of the respondents were between the ages of 20-34 years. 81 of the respondents had been married for a duration of up to 11 years. A breakdown by religion showed that 80 were Muslims, 25 were Hindus, and 5 were Christians, the latter being all Roman Catholics. All of the respondents were able to read and write in at least 1 language, 36 had had schooling varying from standard 1-6, 40 had had schooling varying between Form 1-Form 3, and 34 had had schooling varying from Form 4-to either Malaysian Certificate of Education Level or Higher School Certificate Level. 103 of the respondents approved of family planning, and of these 63 had always felt this way in the past. 6 respondents indicated that they had not thought about family planning in the past. 87 respondents did not approve of the practice of family planning before having the 1st child. Only 7 of 80 Malays in contrast to 16 of 30 Indian respondents -- a significant difference -- approved of family planning before the 1st child. 89 of the 110 respondents had discussed family planning with their wives; 21 respondents had not. 93 respondents disapproved of induced abortion; 17 approved of it. Only 3 of 80 Malay respondents approved induced abortion, but 14 of 30 Indian respondents indicated approval. 98 of the respondents indicated that they were interested in learning more about family planning, and 96 approved of their wife practicing family planning. 56 respondents were practicing family planning, and 20 indicated that they would do so in the future. 6 said they would not practice family
Song, K Y
Data from the 1973 National Fertility and Family Planning Survey show that young unmarried women aged 18-27 desire small families and support family planning. These women express a lower son preference than did young currently married women surveved in 1973 and earlier. A majority of the respondents approve of the "stop at two" slogen of the family planning association, and they want to obtain more information about contraception before marrying. Unfortunately, survey results show that present sources of contraceptive information, including the schools, have not proved adequate. PMID:1209695
Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S
Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide. PMID:26181061
Dees, J P; Garcia, M A
1. Deming's concepts for total quality management/continuous quality improvement are the basis for a tool occupational health nurses can apply in health program planning. 2. The program planning model provides a framework for systematically implementing, evaluating, and improving products and services. In the current business environment, this is critical to success and to demonstration of the value of occupational health services to a company. 3. A case study describing implementation of a medical case management program illustrates application of the model in a real life situation. PMID:7766248
Suyono, H; Parsons, J S; Teachman, J D
This paper discusses the strategy of the Indonesian national family planning program for the coming 5-10 years, in which communities will be given greater responsibility for their own fertility limitation programs and a stronger alliance with other government programs will be sought in order to assure the long-term success of both family planning and development activities. The article explains why more vigorous fertility limitation efforts will be required in the future despite encouraging results so far, and describes the structure of the Indonesian national family planning program. The rationale behind the move away from clinics as depensers of family planning services is examined, and the community family planning approach in Bali is described and compared to that in Java. The differing approach to service delivery in the Outer Islands is then discussed. The relationship between development and the small family norm is discussed, and efforts underway to maximize cooperation between the family planning and development sector projects are described. PMID:12309781
Balogun, S K
The potential usefulness of improvisational techniques in changing deeply embedded pronatalist attitudes was assessed in an exercise involving University of Ibadan students. The students were instructed to write an essay in support of family planning. To assist them, 4 statements were provided to the students as guidelines: 1) birth control is the best way to create a happy family; 2) family planning can reduce the burden created by overly large family size; 3) family planning has the potential to raise the standard of living of African families; and 4) overpopulation is at a critical point in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that these arguments, which are counter to those prevalent in Nigeria, would force students to critically examine their thinking and lead to some attitudinal conversion. In addition, some students were given a pretest before and/or after writing the essay that asked their opinion on 5 items: 1) family planning is alien to African culture; 2) excessive childbearing is unhealthy for families and the society; 3) the government should enact antinatalist legislation; 4) there is no present need for large families; and 5) family planning is essential to provide children with a good education. Although students who wrote the essays developed stronger support for all items except number 3, the change in attitudes was not statistically significant. The attitude changes were greatest among the subset of students who took the test before writing the essay and thus were sensitized to the issues. Males, Christians, and older students were more likely to be supportive of family planning than their counterparts. Although this technique was not very effective in this study, its evaluation in other populations is suggested. PMID:12343207
This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role
Kakar, V N
A massive drive has been launched throughout India in an effort to reenergize the family planning program. The Prime Minister has made a special appeal to the nation from radio and television networks and through the press to adopt the small family norm as a way of life. The Chief Ministers and the Health Ministers in the States have made similar appeals to the people and the doctors. The current drive was preceded by 18 months of concentrated efforts to vitalize the family planning program. The change in nomenclature from "family planning" to "family welfare" created some misunderstanding regarding the government's own commitment to the program, but it is now widely understood that while family welfare aims at the total welfare of the family, family planning is an essential part of it. The government has tried to involve all sectors of society in program efforts. The mass media is now focusing attention on "family welfare" almost continuously. In villages, a large-scale program of organizing education camps of opinion leaders is now underway. The rural health scheme, initiated in October 1977, promises to bring about increased participation of the people in village programs. 54,000 community health workers have already started serving the rural population in their areas. In 2-3 years there will be 1 trained community health worker in every Indian village. PMID:12309490
Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.
This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.
Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T
While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903
Warwick, D P
Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022
On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence. PMID:12314263
This dissertation consists of four related chapters including an introductory overview of all four chapters, a report on family needs, a report on family quality of life, and a summary of implications for the conceptual framework. Chapter 1, the introductory overview, presents background information of Taiwan and describes the family quality of…
Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.
Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale", the…
Ranges, Phaedra E.
Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu & Xu,…
This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780
Duncan, Stephen E.; Bailey, Elizabeth K.
The software quality assurance (SQA) function for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project which is part of a software error studies research program is described. The SQA plan outlines all of the procedures, controls, and audits to be carried out by the SQA organization to ensure adherence to the policies, procedures, and standards for the GCS project.
Balog, Scott E.; Search, Sally P.
This chapter describes how Tallahassee Community College used CCSSE data as part of its overall student-retention program, consisting of faculty workshops, analysis of state accountability data, and conscious incorporation of best practices. The resulting Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) meets accreditation requirements and strengthens the college's…
Concerned over a high rate of abortions that could be undermining the health Soviet women, the USSR has begun developing a family planning agenda designed to improve maternal and child health. Compared to industrialized countries, the USSR's infant mortality is high. This fact may be explained by the extremely high rate of abortions -- an annual 12 million induced abortions in a country with 70 million women of fertile age. The average Soviet woman of fertile age has had between 4 and 6 abortions (some have had as many as 20 abortions performed in their lifetime). About 1/2 of all the country's gynecologists do nothing but perform abortions. The heavy reliance on abortion is due to shortages in any other birth control methods. When abortion was legalized in 1955, the government did not promote family planning. Many Soviet people, however, had become concerned over the dangers of abortion. With the changes brought on by Glasnost and Perestroika, a movement to develop a family planning agenda began growing. As a result, the Soviet government has begun promoting family planning programs in an effort to improve maternal health and reduce the number of abortions. And in 1989, the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA), a self-financing nongovernmental organization dedicated to family planning, started operating. Furthermore, in 1990, an appeal by President Mikhail Gorbachev led the Supreme Soviet to create the Committee on Problems of Women, Family and Maternal and Child Health Care. PMID:12284285
Tata, N H
The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action. PMID:12257448
This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449
Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh
The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is ‘cafeteria approach’ in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success. PMID:25673536
Elfenbein, Iris M.; And Others
The first of a series on personal and family financial planning (PFFP) education, this publication presents five papers examining the need for educational programs that emphasize the use of financial resources in ways that contribute to family stability. C. Raymond Anderson discusses the inability of many individuals to realistically manage…
Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah
Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125
Hu, X.; Wang, M.; Fei, X.
Background: The concepts of quality of life and family quality of life (FQOL) are increasingly being studied in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) in China as important frameworks for: (1) assessing families' need for supports and services; (2) guiding organisational and service delivery system changes; and (3) evaluating quality family…
Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…
Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.
Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…
Victor-Bostrom Fund Committee, Washington, DC.
This report contains eight articles on the importance of the role of women in family planning. An Assistant Secretary General for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations, calls for increased female participation in national development. The Secretary General of The International Planned Parenthood Federation observes that women…
Although the demographic explosion in Rwanda will have catastrophic consequences if it is left unchecked, the family planning program has been received with hostility within the country. The National Population Office has conducted 2 studies to provide information on the costs and use of family planning services from 1981-88 and to project the findings into the future in demographic and financial terms. The population of Rwanda increased from 2 million in 1950 to 7 million in 1990 and will exceed 10 million in 2000. The projection is based on various hypotheses about demographic behavior from 1981, when the family planning program began, to 2011. The model measures the impact of family planning on population size and then assesses the repercussions of family planning on health, education, and agriculture expenditures. According to the projection, in the year 2011 with and without family planning respectively, the total population will be 17.7 or 13.2 million, the rate of increase will be 4.5% or 2.7% per year, and the number of children per woman will be 10.6 or 4.7. The rate of contraceptive prevalence is projected to increase from 8.0% in 1990 to 34.8% in 2000 and 46.8% in 2011. Expenditures for health care increase as a function of population size and therefore grow more rapidly without family planning. The government would save 29.2% of health expenditures and about 1/3 in education expenditures in 2010 if fertility declined according to the projection. Lower fertility would facilitate improvements in both health and education services. But it is in the agricultural sector that family planning would have the greatest impact in Rwanda. 93% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, but available land has disappeared and productivity has declined due to soil exhaustion. The food supply is no longer adequate and famine threatens certain regions. Because population is increasing more rapidly than food production, the per capita food supply
The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services. PMID:12260386
The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of
... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...
... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan...