Philippa H. Campbell; S. A. Milbourne
T he effect of a professional development program on the quality of care pro- vided for infants and toddlers was assessed with a sample of 160 caregivers in 96 infant-toddler rooms in 48 childcare programs. Caregivers participated in a 3-month training course with a standardized curriculum of five 3-hour group classes and an out-of-class project. A total of 123 participants
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Dang, Tran T.
This paper aims to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Everything else the same, high quality infant-toddler care will increase children's cognitive scores immediately (i.e. at 24 months of age). However, without subsequent high quality preschool, children with high quality infant-toddler care will not have higher cognitive and…
Surbeck, Elaine, Ed.; Kelley, Michael F., Ed.
This publication deals with the present crisis in infant/toddler care. It presents information on infant/toddler development and optimal caregiving paractices, citing recent research on appropriate practices and the impact of poor versus quality care. The book is divided into two sections. In the first section, "Development and Program…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Green, Sheridan; Koehn, Jo
Research Findings: This study evaluated the effectiveness of 2 professional development interventions aimed at improving the quality of care provided by caregivers in ordinary infant-toddler child care settings, both center- and home-based. In all, 183 participants in a community college course on infant-toddler theory and practice, an in-service…
Lally, J. Ronald, Ed.; Mangione, Peter L., Ed.; Greenwald, Deborah, Ed.
Leading experts in infant/toddler development have contributed succinct essays drawn from research, theory, clinical case studies, and carefully documented practice. Each essay represents current thinking in the field of infant/toddler development and care. Individually and as a collection, the essays provide a springboard for reflection,…
McQuade, D. Tyler
developed EEC 1001 Introduction to Early Childhood Infant/ Toddler Education. b Approval was recently targeting infant/toddler development. EEC 2407 Facilitating Social Development (Mind in the Making) EEC 1522 Infant/Toddler Environments (The 10 Components) EEC 2700 Developing Curriculum for Infants
The physical environment of the preschool programmes has been proven to affect both children's overall development and the quality of the programme. However, both nationally and internationally the contribution of the physical environment in the effectiveness of a programme and in the achievement of educational goals is often overlooked. The…
Partnerships for Quality: Improving Infant-Toddler Child Care for Low-Income Families. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families and Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research
Diane Paulsell; Julie Cohen; Ail Stieglitz; Erica Lurie-Hurvitz; Emily Fenichel; Ellen Kisker
Describes promising strategies for building community collaborations and partnerships, as well as preliminary themes that may be helpful for programs, communities, and policymakers interested in developing, implementing, and supporting child care partnerships. Focusing on Early Head Start, the authors note that many partnerships have succeeded in expanding access and improving quality, although challenges remain, especially when state licensing requirements differ
Honig, Alice Sterling
Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…
What do preschool teachers know about infant/toddler care and education? The answer to the question in the title is "Lots!" "if" they are fans of Lilian Katz. The author would not have said that before she sat down to read the new book Lilian wrote with her son Stephen. It's called "Intellectual Emergencies." It starts out with 12 of Lilian's…
Cryer, Debby; Wagner-Moore, Laura; Burchinal, Margaret; Yazejian, Noreen; Hurwitz, Sarah; Wolery, Mark
Changes in distress and problem behaviors of 38 infants/toddlers were examined after children transitioned from familiar to new classrooms to look at effects of non-continuity of caregiver. Child's age, classroom quality, teacher sensitivity, and transitioning with a peer were examined as possible mediators. Results suggest that transitions were…
Funderburg, Ruth Seth; Forney, Paula
The Georgia Parent Infant Network for Educational Services (PINES) is a home intervention program currently serving over 300 hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired (MHSI) preschoolers. The infant-toddler evaluation component is described, with sections on screening and diagnosis, parent education concerning…
Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope, Ed.
This book describes Italian experiences in providing early care and education, focusing on four cities--Milan, Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Pistoia--with outstanding city-run systems designed to serve children under 3 and their families. The book considers specific strategies or practices used, and interprets the significance of the Italian…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the organization's 25 years of working with infants, toddlers, and families. The articles are as follows: (1) "Hope Is a…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Responding to family needs in the wake of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this issue focuses on infants, toddlers, and terror. Articles…
The present study is aimed at examining the level of quality and care provided by Greek preschool programmes, from the researcher's and early childhood educators' perspectives and verify whether they evaluate with the same way. Research results indicate that according to the researcher's assessment both preschool and infant/toddler classrooms…
Britt, Donna R.; Gillespie, Linda Groves
Britt and Gillespie make suggestions for teachers' professional New Year's resolutions, including challenging oneself. They include a collection of resources and urge teachers to join NAEYC's Infant/Toddler Professionals Interest Forum. (Contains 27 resources.)
Casby, Michael W.
The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…
Hagens, Helen E.
Suggests strategies for caregivers to encourage peer interactions in infant/toddler programs. Strategies include helping children become familiar with surroundings and one another, maintaining social groups and friendships, varying the number and types of toys available at one time, controlling the number of children in a particular space, and…
Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others
This newsletter theme issue focuses on the training of practitioners to work with infants, toddlers, and their families with emphasis on the activities of the TASK (Training Approaches for Skills and Knowledge) Project of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs. The TASK project addresses the concerns of four "stakeholder" groups:…
Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.
Comprehensive, integrated services for infants, toddlers, and families are essential for optimal child development, and collaboration across systems is increasingly important to maximize limited resources. The authors describe three successful initiatives in Oklahoma that use a collaborative systems approach to providing direct services to young…
Dodd, Christopher J.; Castle, Michael N.
Two members of the U.S. Congress share their visions for infants, toddlers, and families. Senator Christopher Dodd (D-CT), Ranking Member of the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, advocates shifting priorities and resources toward young children and families and…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Klute, Mary M.
This study documents the reliability and validity of a new infant-toddler authentic assessment, the Learning Through Relating Child Assets Record (LTR-CAR), and its feasibility of use by infant-toddler caregivers in an Early Head Start program. In a sample of 136 children, results indicated a strong internal structure of the LTR-CAR as evidenced…
Rouse, Liz; Morrissey, Anne-Marie; Rahimi, Mohammadali
The inclusion of an infant/toddler placement in a "pathways" early childhood teaching degree, where students already have qualifications and experience in working with young children, can be problematic. This pilot study investigated student teachers' views on their infant/toddler (birth-to-two-years) placement. Sixty-six students completing their…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that during the earliest years of life, much of children's learning about themselves and the world around them occurs in connection…
The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...
Salisbury, Christine L.; Copeland, Christina G.
An exploratory case study was undertaken to examine child and caregiver outcomes in a diverse sample of 21 infants/toddlers with severe disabilities who received services from an urban, Part C program where caregiver-focused intervention was emphasized. Purposive sampling and mixed methods were used to collect data on child developmental change,…
Alice S. Carter; Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Stephanie M. Jones; Todd D. Little
In this paper the refinement and psychometric properties of the Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) are described. Results from a sociodemographically diverse birth cohort sample of 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 12 and 36 months are presented. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized Internalizing, Externalizing, Regulatory, and Competence domains as well as the 17 individual scales
Alice S. Carter; Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Stephanie M. Jones; Todd D. Little
In this paper the refinement and psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) are described. Results from a sociodemographically diverse birth cohort sample of 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 12 and 36 months are presented. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized Internalizing, Externalizing, Regulatory, and Competence do- mains as well as the 17 individual
Kruizinga, Ingrid; Visser, Janne C.; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Carter, Alice S.; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein
Objective Using parent-completed questionnaires in (preventive) child health care can facilitate the early detection of psychosocial problems and psychopathology, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A promising questionnaire for this purpose is the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). The screening accuracy with regard to ASD of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scales and a newly calculated Autism score were evaluated. Method Data, that was collected between April 2010 and April 2011, from a community sample of 2-year-olds (N?=?3127), was combined with a sample of preschool children diagnosed with ASD (N?=?159). For the total population and for subgroups by child's gender, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was examined, and across a range of BITSEA Problem, Competence and Autism scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index were reported. Results The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) of the Problem scale was 0.90(0.87–0.92), of the Competence scale 0.93(0.91–0.95), and of the Autism score 0.95(0.93–0.97). For the total population, the screening accuracy of the Autism score was significantly better, compared to the Problem scale. The screening accuracy of the Competence scale was significantly better for girls (AUC?=?0.97; 95%CI?=?0.95–0.98) than for boys (AUC?=?0.91; 95%CI?=?0.88–0.94). Conclusion The results indicate that the BITSEA scales and newly calculated Autism score have good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without ASD. Therefore, the BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of ASD, which could have beneficial effects on the child's development. PMID:24851868
New Mexico, University of
Wish List Children's Programs: Infant, Toddlers and Preschool Gift Cards (Wal-Mart, Smith boys) New socks for kids, 12 mos.-5 years New clothes children 6 mos.-5 years (especially boy clothing and boys pants; seasonally appropriate) New shoes children's size 3-13, unisex (seasonally
As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…
Gardner, Lauren M.; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Tylavsky, Frances; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn
Early identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is facilitated by the use of standardized screening scales that assess the social emotional behaviors associated with ASD. Authors examined accuracy of Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) subscales in detecting Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) risk…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…
McGaha, Cindy G.; Cummings, Rebekah; Lippard, Barbara; Dallas, Karen
The relationships that children experience with each other during infancy are often a neglected area of study. Most attention has been paid to infants' relationships with adults. However, children are increasingly spending greater amounts of time in group care and with peers at even the early stages of infancy. In these settings, adults are often…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines quality of care as "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." In 1999, the IOM issued Ensuring Quality Cancer Care, a report that documented significant gaps in the quality of cancer care in the United States.
Julia C. Torquati; Helen Raikes; Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas
The purposes of this study were to present a conceptual model for selection into the early childhood profession and to test the model using contemporaneous assessments. A stratified random sample of center-based child care providers in 4 Midwestern states (n=964) participated in a telephone interview, and 223 were also assessed with the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale—Revised or the Infant–Toddler
Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.
The Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference on December 8, 1997 to examine strategies to expand and improve family child care to meet the increased need for infant/toddler care and care during non-traditional hours. This issue brief summarizes the audioconference's presentations. Presenters were Julie Rogers, special projects…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Noting that research and clinical findings confirm the connection to later emotional well-being of a secure attachment between each infant or young child and a warm, stable adult, this book addresses aspects of attachment important for caregivers of infants and toddlers. The book focuses on those aspects of attachment caregivers need to understand…
Walery, Nancy, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Guralnick, Eva, Ed.
This document is comprised of the six 2001 issues of a bimonthly newsletter providing information on young children's health and safety for California's child care professionals. Regular features include a column on infant/toddler concerns, a question-answer column regarding medical and health issues, and resources for child care providers.…
Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.
Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)
Walery, Nancy, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.
This document is comprised of the six 1999 issues of a bimonthly newsletter providing information on young children's health and safety for California's child care professionals. Regular features include a column on infant/toddler concerns, a question-answer column regarding medical and health issues, a nutrition column, and resources for child…
Walery, Nancy, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.
This document is comprised of the six 2000 issues of a bimonthly newsletter providing information on young children's health and safety for California's child care professionals. Regular features include a column on infant/toddler concerns, a question-answer column regarding medical and health issues, a nutrition column, and resources for child…
Collier, Albert M.; Henderson, Frederick W.
This report, the fifth in the National Center for Early Development & Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlight" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during the "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses preventing respiratory infections in child care centers. Findings on the subject…
Obegi, Amy Dale; Ritblatt, Shulamit Natan
The early childhood literature has acknowledged the need for culturally competent child care professionals. Based on Sue's (1981) tri-dimensional model, the Infant and Toddler Caregiver Cultural Rating Scale (ITCCRS) was created to assess 109 child care providers' cultural competence and the demographic correlates of that competence. Scores fell…
Simpson, Amelia J; Rivara, Frederick P; Pham, Tam N
Infrastructure, processes of care and outcome measurements are the cornerstone of quality care for pediatric trauma. This review aims to evaluate current evidence on system organization and concentration of pediatric expertise in the delivery of pediatric trauma care. It discusses key quality indicators for all phases of care, from pre-hospital to post-discharge recovery. In particular, it highlights the importance of measuring quality of life and psychosocial recovery for the injured child. PMID:23181209
Norris, Deborah J.
Repeated calls have recently arisen for increasing the educational level of early childhood teachers in all early care and education settings including classrooms for infants and toddlers. Since the majority of teachers in early child settings do not have a college degree, higher educational expectations could place a strain on early childhood…
Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.
Each year, Early Head Start (EHS) and migrant and seasonal Head Start grantees are invited to share their experiences in providing high-quality services for expectant parents and families with infants and toddlers. This report highlights how 10 Early Head Start and Migrant and Seasonal Head Start grantees respond to mental health needs of infants,…
Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Gandini, Lella; Peon-Casanova, Luis; Danielson, Jim
Noting that Maria Montessori pioneered early childhood education (ECE) reform in Italy, and the surge in innovation in ECE after WWII, this videotape describes the early childhood system in the city of Pistoia, Italy, known for its high-quality and innovative services. The 30-minute video offers footage from 2 of the 9 full-day infant toddler…
Goble, Carla B.; Moran, James D.; Horm, Diane M.
Research continues to highlight the relationship between high quality preschool experiences for young children and the educational preparedness of their teachers. As a result, there is an increasing call for enhanced educational preparation for early childhood teachers working in the wide spectrum of programs serving infants, toddlers, and…
Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2009
In FY 2009, the Children's Bureau funded the Center for the Study of Social Policy, in partnership with ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, and the National Alliance of Children's Trust and Prevention Funds, to create a National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood (QIC-EC) focused on child maltreatment…
Brannan, K M
Quality is at the top of American consumers' demand list, and consequently American manufacturing companies have been forced to assign priority to the development of high-quality products. To improve the quality of what they offer, many manufacturers use the management philosophy known as total quality management (TQM), and now the service sector is following in their footsteps. The health care industry is a good example of a service industry that can benefit greatly from TQM, and it is the purpose of this article to show how a health care provider can implement TQM and evaluate its effects. PMID:10178544
Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...
Shohet, Cilly; Jaegermann, Nurit
The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) model is a comprehensive developmental approach to help adults understand their role in child development by enhancing the quality of adult-child interactions. This article describes how the Irving B. Harris Program for Infants, Toddlers and Their Families at Bar-Ilan University…
Cooperberg, Matthew R; Birkmeyer, John D; Litwin, Mark S
Most health care quality improvement efforts target measures of health care structures, processes, and/or outcomes. Structural measures examine relatively fixed aspects of health care delivery such as physical plant and human resources. Process measures, the focus of the largest proportion of quality improvement efforts, assess specific transactions in clinical-patient encounters, such as use of appropriate surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, which are expected to improve outcomes. Outcome measures, which comprise quality of life endpoints as well as morbidity and mortality, are of greatest interest to clinicians and patients, but entail the greatest complexity, as the majority of variance in outcomes is attributable to patient and environmental factors that may not be readily modifiable. Selecting among structure, process, and outcome measures for quality improvement efforts generally will be dictated by the specific clinical situation for which improvement is desired. One aspect of health care quality that has received a great deal of attention in recent years is the relationship between surgical volume and health outcomes. Volume, an inherent characteristic of a health care facility or provider, is generally considered a structural measure of quality. Many studies have demonstrated a positive association between volume and outcomes, and policymakers in the private and public sectors have begun to consider volume in certification and reimbursement decisions. The volume-outcome association is not without controversy, however. Most studies in the field are limited by the nature of the administrative data on which they are based, and some studies have found that variation in quality within volume quantiles exceeds differences between quantiles. Moreover, regionalization driven by a focus on volume may exert adverse effects on access to care. The movement for health care quality improvement faces substantial methodological, clinical, financial, and political challenges. Despite these challenges, it is a movement that is gaining momentum, and the emphasis on quality in health care delivery is likely only to increase in the future. It is crucial, therefore, that physicians assume increasing leadership roles in efforts to define, measure, report, and improve quality of care. PMID:19573771
Comparing Health Care Quality: A National Directory Print Email Measuring and publicly reporting on the care doctors and hospitals provide ... RSS Our mission: to improve the health and health care of all Americans. About RWJF Annual Messages Financials ...
Finley Jr., Russell L.
, especially for minority and low-income groups Overall quality is improving, access is getting worse of diabetes care, maternal and child health care, and adverse events Disparities in cancer care Quality of care among states in the South Evidence Institute on Multicultural Health #12;Figure 2.45. Hospital
Larson, James S; Muller, Andreas
This article reviews quality of health care initiatives beginning with the quality assessment/quality assurance movement of the 1970s. Conceptually, modern quality of care management is rooted in the intellectual work of Avedis Donabedian who defined quality of care as a combination of structure, process, and outcome. Donabedian's model is presented and some limitations are pointed out. In the late 1980s and 1990s. the health care industry adopted total quality management (TQM). More recently, the pursuit of health care quality has led to substantial performance measurement initiatives such as ORYX by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and MEDIS by the National Commission of Quality Assurance. The importance of CONQUEST, a freely available performance measurement database developed at the Harvard School of Public Health, is noted and discussed. The article concludes with a list of challenges facing public and private parties interests in health care quality improvement. PMID:15188996
Chelluri, Lakshmi P.
In the past decade, there is an increased focus on quality and safety in health care. Decreasing variation, increasing adherence to evidence based guidelines, monitoring processes, and measuring outcomes are critical for improving quality of care. Intensivists have broad knowledge of hospital organization, and need to be leaders in quality improvement efforts. PMID:19742245
Caldwell, Bettye M.; Boyd, Harper W., Jr.
Identifies negative public and professional attitudes that lie beneath the contemporary negative image of quality child care. Argues that concepts and principles of marketing are appropriate for influencing parents to choose high quality services and helping ensure that supplementary care is of sufficient quality to enhance, not inhibit, the…
"If You Carry Him around All the Time at Home, He Expects One of Us to Carry Him around All Day Here and There Are Only TWO of Us!" Parents', Teachers', and Administrators' Beliefs about the Parent's Role in the Infant/Toddler Center
Conflicting perspectives on the parent's role in the infant/toddler classroom can play a significant role in early educational settings. A recent ethnographic study of an Early Head Start program in New York City focused on conflict of this nature and raised the following set of questions: What sort of power and privilege should parents be given…
Barry, Virginia M., Ed.; Cantor, Patricia, Ed.
These four quarterly newsletter issues address various topics of interest to child caregivers. Each issue includes articles on a specific theme, along with regular news or a column by an AECI Executive Board vice president. The Fall 2000 issue focuses on the special features and unique concerns of employer-sponsored child care, with one article…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…
Becky F. Antle; Andy Frey; Anita Barbee; Shannon Frey; Jennifer Grisham-Brown; Megan Cox
Research Findings: Previous research has documented conflicting results on the relationship between program quality and the percentage of children receiving subsidized child care (subsidy density) in early childhood centers. This research examined the relationship between subsidy density and the quality of infant and preschool classrooms in child care centers, taking into consideration teacher education and salary as well as other
Matthew R. Cooperberg; Badrinath R. Konety
\\u000a Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment for invasive bladder cancer, and requires high standards for both surgical\\u000a skill and ancillary support to achieve consistently good outcomes. As is the case elsewhere in the health care system, increasing\\u000a attention has been paid in recent years to the quality of care delivered before, during, and after surgery. Defining high-quality\\u000a care in
Varkey, Prathibha; Reller, M Katherine; Resar, Roger K
With the rapid expansion of knowledge and technology and a health care system that performs far below acceptable levels for ensuring patient safety and needs, front-line health care professionals must understand the basics of quality improvement methodologies and terminology. The goals of this review are to provide clinicians with sufficient information to understand the fundamentals of quality improvement, provide a starting point for improvement projects, and stimulate further inquiry into the quality improvement methodologies currently being used in health care. Key quality improvement concepts and methodologies, including plan-do-study-act, six-sigma, and lean strategies, are discussed, and the differences between quality improvement and quality-of-care research are explored. PMID:17550754
In recent years, the US health care industry has experienced a rapid growth of managed care, formation of networks, and an integration of hospitals. This paper provides new insights about the quality consequences of this dynamic in US hospital markets. I empirically investigate the impact of managed care and hospital competition on quality using in-hospital complications as quality measures. I use random and fixed effects, and instrumental variable fixed effect models using hospital panel data from up to 16 states in the 1992-1997 period. The paper has two important findings: First, higher managed care penetration increases the quality, when inappropriate utilization, wound infections and adverse/iatrogenic complications are used as quality indicators. For other complication categories, coefficient estimates are statistically insignificant. These findings do not support the straightforward view that increases in managed care penetration are associated with decreases in quality. Second, both higher hospital market share and market concentration are associated with lower quality of care. Hospital mergers have undesirable quality consequences. Appropriate antitrust policies towards mergers should consider not only price and cost but also quality impacts. PMID:12369060
Firth-Cozens, J; Mowbray, D
The importance of good leadership is becoming increasingly apparent within health care. This paper reviews evidence which shows that it has effects, not only on financial management, but on the quality of care provided. Some theories of leadership are discussed, primarily in terms of how different types of leaders might affect quality in different ways, including the effects that they might have on the stress or wellbeing of their staff which, in turn, is related to the quality of care produced. Finally, the conflicts shown in terms of leadership within the context of health care are discussed, leading to the conclusion that development programmes must be specially tailored to address the complexities of this arena. Key Words: leadership; quality of care; stress; personality PMID:11700372
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders’ perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services. PMID:23922534
Morgan, Gwen G.
This paper presents a discussion of state and federal licensing and regulation of child care services. A hierarchy of the kinds of regulation is defined: (1) basic preventive/protective requirements (related to zoning, fire and safety, sanitation, and basic day care licensing); (2) administrative standards for publicly operated programs (equal to…
Brian F. Leas; Bettina Berman; Kathryn M. Kash; Albert G. Crawford; Richard W. Toner; Neil I. Goldfarb; David B. Nash
This study aimed to evaluate diabetes quality measurement efforts, assess their strengths and areas for im- provement, and identify gaps not adequately addressed by these measures. We conducted an environmental scan of diabetes quality measures, focusing on metrics included in the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse or promulgated by leading measurement organizations. Key informant interviews were also completed with thought leaders
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Oregon's Child Care Quality Indicators Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Care, Inc., 2006
Children's earliest experiences set the stage for school success and adult productivity. In the first three years of life, the brain grows at breakneck speed, creating more than a trillion pathways for learning and development. By the age of three, 85 percent of the brain's capacity is in place, creating the ability to speak, learn, and reason.…
... professionals, as well as institutions (such as hospitals, nursing homes, mental health centers, and home health care agencies). Part of providing quality health care involves following standards, guidelines, and evidence-based practices. Evidence-based medicine involves using results from research ...
Antle, Becky F.; Frey, Andy; Barbee, Anita; Frey, Shannon; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Cox, Megan
Research Findings: Previous research has documented conflicting results on the relationship between program quality and the percentage of children receiving subsidized child care (subsidy density) in early childhood centers. This research examined the relationship between subsidy density and the quality of infant and preschool classrooms in child…
Guillain, H; Raetzo, M A
Quality of care is growing concern among health care professionals and managers. As a multidimensional concept, it cannot be reduced to simple customer satisfaction. Taking into account the views of the three major players in the health care system-patients, providers and payers-quality can be defined as the capacity to satisfy patients' needs according to professional knowledge and within available resources. Efficacy, efficiency, appropriateness, acceptability, legitimacy and equity are dimensions of health care quality. Contrary to popular belief, quality is neither maximum performance, nor satisfaction at all costs, nor punishment or elimination of "bad apples". In ambulatory medicine, quality implies first of all the ability to master the processes occurring during an office visit. However, although history taking and physical examination are the cornerstones of medical practice, they have not been well studied. Improving quality of care in the ambulatory sector will require better knowledge about medical decision-making processes, in particular identification of the most relevant information required for a decision and the optimal way of obtaining it in any specific clinical situation. PMID:9190666
Makharia, Govind K
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the intestine. Overall, healthcare delivery for patients with CD is not optimal at the present time and therefore needs improvement. There are evidences which suggest that there is a variation in the care provided to patients with CD by the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experts and community care providers. The delivery of healthcare for patients with CD is often complex and requires coordination between gastroenterologists/IBD specialist, gastrointestinal surgeon, radiologists and IBD nurses. In order to improve the quality of health care for patients with CD, there is need that we focus on large-scale, system-wide changes including creation of IBD comprehensive care units, provision to provide continuous care, efforts to standardize care, and education of the community practitioners. PMID:25400990
R. Brooks; R. Kerridge; K. Hillman; A. Bauman; K. Daffurn
Objective: Compare the health related quality of life of intensive care patients with a community sample. Design: Self-completed questionnaire posted to a consecutive sample of 238 patients 16 months after discharge from an intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU) and to a random community sample (n = 242). Setting: The Liverpool Hospital is the main referral and teaching hospital in a community
Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna S.; Goelman, Hillel; Tougas, Jocelyne; LaGrange, Annette
Canadian experts in diverse fields as well as people concerned about social justice and cohesion have identified quality child care as a crucial component in addressing a variety of broad societal goals. This study explored the relationships between quality in Canadian family child care homes and: provider characteristics and attitudes about…
Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Natarajan, Ramachandran; Ferrell, Regina K
Purpose - The current trend in Big Data analytics and in particular health information technology is toward building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence. However, the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data health care analytics. Design/methodology/approach - The insights presented in this paper are the results of analytics work that was done in different organizations on a variety of health data sets. The data sets include Medicare and Medicaid claims, provider enrollment data sets from both public and private sources, electronic health records from regional health centers accessed through partnerships with health care claims processing entities under health privacy protected guidelines. Findings - Assessment of data quality in health care has to consider: first, the entire lifecycle of health data; second, problems arising from errors and inaccuracies in the data itself; third, the source(s) and the pedigree of the data; and fourth, how the underlying purpose of data collection impact the analytic processing and knowledge expected to be derived. Automation in the form of data handling, storage, entry and processing technologies is to be viewed as a double-edged sword. At one level, automation can be a good solution, while at another level it can create a different set of data quality issues. Implementation of health care analytics with Big Data is enabled by a road map that addresses the organizational and technological aspects of data quality assurance. Practical implications - The value derived from the use of analytics should be the primary determinant of data quality. Based on this premise, health care enterprises embracing Big Data should have a road map for a systematic approach to data quality. Health care data quality problems can be so very specific that organizations might have to build their own custom software or data quality rule engines. Originality/value - Today, data quality issues are diagnosed and addressed in a piece-meal fashion. The authors recommend a data lifecycle approach and provide a road map, that is more appropriate with the dimensions of Big Data and fits different stages in the analytical workflow. PMID:26156435
Washington's Infant Toddler Early Intervention Program Study: Enrollment of Washington Children with Disabilities and Special Health Care Needs in Washington State Public Programs on December 1, 1995.
Keenan, Trisha; And Others
This document presents tables, graphs, and narrative text providing information on the number and characteristics of infants and toddlers, under the age of 3, with disabilities and special health problems who were enrolled in Washington State's infant and toddler early intervention program in 1995. Major findings of the report include the…
Clearly, there is a benefit to the group process in helping to establish teamwork. Teamwork and cooperation can assist with promoting effective communication, improving work quality, and building a sense of well-being within the group. With this cooperation, setting goals and looking toward the future can become a reality. Once goals are set, then developing a professional image can begin. Developing a mission statement can be an effective means to help create that professional image. Having the opportunity to develop a mission for a patient care area and articulating it through a mission statement coalesces the values, beliefs, and philosophy of a group of neuroscience staff. The following is the mission statement developed by the neurosciences unit at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics: We, the staff of UWHC Neuroscience unit embrace a vision of excellence in health care for all. Our mission is to deliver consistent quality patient care, while fostering our own professional growth. As caring healers, teachers and patient advocates in an ever-changing health care environment, we are empowered by the code for nurses. Within our scope of practice, we strive to maintain a balance of basic human respect and dignity for patients and their families in their quest for wellness, adaptation, rehabilitation or comfort care. It is our hope that patients and families will work with the health care team to construct a plan of care that best meets the patient's needs and goals. We are committed to accommodate special communication, religious or cultural needs of patients and their families. Our final acknowledgment is to ourselves, as members of the health care team. We celebrate the dignity of the staff by recognizing each individual as a special person capable of making unique and significant contributions to the unit. PMID:10726245
McQuade, D. Tyler
be placed on their backs to sleep. 2. Well Trained Staff in Early Childhood Development The strongest and level of participation in ongoing training in the field of early childhood development and care. Having in continuous quality improvement. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 1. Licensed Programs Following Appropriate Health
McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D
The implementation of total quality management (TQM) in health care has gone on in parallel with the growth of managed care. What is the interaction between the two? Key issues are the ascendance of cost control over quality in many areas, erosion of employee commitment and loyalty, and a short-run orientation. Associated with this is an emphasis on organizational learning rather than learning by autonomous professionals. Both TQM and managed care acknowledge the dynamic nature of clinical processes and the ability and responsibility of both institutions and clinicians to improve their processes. Both are consistent with efforts to identify and implement best practices. However, these similarities should not mask fundamental differences. Continuous improvement must shift its focus from avoiding unnecessary variation to facilitating rapid organizational learning and institutionalizing mass customization into the delivery of health services. PMID:9327355
F. Chiarelli; A. Verrotti; L. di Ricco; M. de Martino; G. Morgese
Management methods for quality of diabetes care need new approaches because of the poor metabolic control of most of these patients. Poor quality of care generally results from poor instruction and training rather than from misbehaviour of both patients and their families. Structure quality of care (who and where?), process quality (how?, which are the goals, what resolution is taken
Asher, Anthony L; Parker, Scott L; Rolston, John D; Selden, Nathan R; McGirt, Matthew J
Despite rising and unsustainable US health care costs, many stakeholders feel that the quality of medical services is limited and inconsistent. Value-based reforms are touted as the key to achieving health care system sustainability. Health care value is defined as quality delivered divided by cost incurred. Unfortunately, quality in health care is difficult to accurately define and methods to reliably assess and report health care quality are often lacking. Clinical registries have emerged as important mechanisms to define, measure, and promote health care quality. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of registries in neurosurgical quality improvement. PMID:25771281
... 3-EF Go to Online Store Disparities in Health Care Quality Among Minority Women Selected Findings From the ... race and ethnicity are combined. Return to Contents Health Care Delivery and Systems Information about health care delivery ...
Griffith, Deloris G.
Careful staff selection, training, and review are among the methods the author recommends to home care agencies striving to provide top-notch services. Discusses measuring the quality of care employees are providing, accreditation, and the benefits of accreditation. (CT)
Ted R. Mikuls; Catherine H. MacLean; Jason Olivieri; Fausto G. Patino; Jeroan J. Allison; John T. Farrar; Warren B. Bilker; Kenneth G. Saag
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significant health impact of gout, there is no consensus on management standards. To guide physician practice, we sought to develop quality of care indicators for gout management.\\u000aMETHODS: A systematic literature review of gout therapy was performed using the Medline database. Two abstractors independently reviewed each of the articles for relevance and satisfaction of minimal inclusion criteria.
Robert N. Butler
The following was excerpted by the editor from an address entitled “The Need for Quality Hospice Care” delivered to the National Hospice Organization in Washington, D.C., October 6, 1978, by Robert N. Butler, M.D., director of the National Institute on Aging and author of the Pulitzer prize-winning book Why Survive? Being Old In America, New York: Harper, 1975. Permission by
Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia; Bairrao, Joaquim
Whereas child care quality has been extensively studied in the U.S., there is much less information about the quality of child care in other countries. With one of the highest maternal employment rates in Europe, it is important to examine child care in Portugal. Thirty toddler classrooms in child care centers were observed. The purpose of this…
Rigby, Elizabeth; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Using data from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we test associations between the quality of child care and state child care policies. These data, which include observations of child care and interviews with care providers and mothers for 777 children across 14 states, allow for comparisons across a…
BACKGROUND: Antitrust authorities treat price as a proxy for hospital quality since health care quality is difficult to observe. As the ability to measure quality improved, more research became necessary to investigate the relationship between hospital market power and patient outcomes. This paper examines the impact of hospital competition on the quality of care as measured by the risk-adjusted mortality
Schoenbaum, S C; Coltin, K L
There is intense competition between managed care organizations (MCOs) in the USA based on cost and benefit coverage, but scant attention to differences in quality. Consumer preference for 'choice' has stimulated the growth of overlapping networks of providers across competing MCOs. These networks have tended to perform less well on the quality indicators in report cards than staff model MCOs. Ideally one would measure individual provider performance; but the overlapping networks, and the fact that each MCO represents a small fraction of each provider's practice, make that difficult to do. MCOs could potentially collaborate to measure individual provider performance. Financial incentives and risk-adjusted premiums might stimulate competition on quality within MCOs. It seems more likely that true competition on quality will occur between groups of providers, organized or integrated delivery systems, than between MCOs. Nevertheless, MCOs are likely to offer some quality-improving programs directly to their members, and can stimulate the competition between providers by collaborating to obtain provider-specific measurements. PMID:9828031
In recent years there has been an increase in the regulation of the medical profession. In the past there have been problems. The GMC can act only when things go seriously wrong. It has, however, introduced the health and performance procedures, increased the proportion of lay members, is working on revalidation and has introduced Good Medical Practice which makes very clear what is expected of a doctor and will be relevant to doctors' contracts. The medical Royal Colleges can be influential in raising general standards but the activities of the different colleges are not well co-ordinated and they cannot compel doctors to take part in continuing medical education, although this is an aim. Without statutory powers to introduce changes they have to carry their members with them. Audit has its problems and these are understandable because of the natural defensiveness which can occur if there is a threat of possible litigation. The Department of Health has had no proper system for measuring the quality of the care for which it is responsible and largely sees this as the responsibility of individual doctors. Responsibility for the quality of care is shared in a confusing way between different groups. But there is change in the air. There are moves for a 'patient led NHS'. The Government has a new emphasis on quality of care, there is greater sophistication in the methods used for surveying patients' experiences. Measurement of hard outcome data such as adjusted death rates can reveal underlying system failures. Finally, there is a growing realisation that within medicine, as within other complex organisations, doctors are not perfect and will always make errors. Blaming individuals will not in itself make much contribution to the improvement of the overall system: we have to work towards ways of reducing system failures. PMID:10717887
Mary E. Plomondon; David J. Magid; John F. Steiner; Samantha MaWhinney; Blair D. Gifford; Sarah C. Shih; Gary K. Grunwald; John S. Rumsfeld
Although associations with continuity of care have been studied, little is known about associations with a specific aspect of continuity of care, namely, primary care provider turnover. From literature, primary care provider turnover is the rate at which primary care providers leave a health plan organization. Known to be costly, healthcare turnover, including physicians, nurses, allied health personnel, and staff,
Berwick, Donald M.; Knapp, Marian Gilbert
As competition, cost control, and new modes of delivery emerge in health care, there is a need to reexamine both the traditional definitions of health care quality and the methods by which it is measured. Industries other than health care have much to teach regarding the methods for obtaining, analyzing, and displaying data; techniques for problem identification, problem solving, and reassessment; and ideas about organizational factors that produce a high quality product or service. The Quality-of-Care Measurement Department at the Harvard Community Health Plan has built a program that draws from a distinguished health care quality assurance tradition and incorporates techniques that have been successful in other industries. PMID:10312319
Lopes Ferreira, Pedro; Pinto Barros, Ana; Barros Brito, Ana
This paper describes the process followed to create and validate the Portuguese versión of a quality of life measurement instrument for patients in palliative care. After a literature review about the measurement of the quality of life in this particular and very specific kind of patients, we opt by the Irene Higginson's measurement instrument called Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS). It has been selected as the one most appropriate to Portuguese patients' reality. For the creation of the Portuguese version we followed the recommended methodologies for the forward-backward translations. These methodologies allow us to determine semantic and linguistic equivalences of health outcomes measurement instruments. The validation was performed on a sample of 104 cancer patients aged between 40 and 85 years old. 70% were female, 29% had lung cancer, 46% breast cáncer and 22% had melanoma. Content validity was assured by two cognitive debriefing tests, respectively performed in oncologists and in patients. Construct validation allow us to find five ortogonal factors, including 'emotional well being' (19.7% of variance explained), 'consequences of the disease in life' (18.2%), 'received information and support' (11.7%), 'anxiety' (10.1%), and 'burden of illness' (9.8%). Criterion validity was tested by comparing the results obtained by POS to the ones obtained by the EORTC QLQ-C30, a genetic instrument especially designed for cancer patients. The found correlation values were moderated to strong and ranged from 0.51 to 0.63. The reliability of the Portuguese version was assured through the reproducibility test and the search for the internal consistency. The scores obtained by a one-week testrestest ranged from 0.66 to 1.00. Cronbach's alpha was 0.68, acceptable and allowing us to consider POS as a unique index Time responsiveness and diagnosis responsiveness were also analysed. Comparing values measured with a one-month interval showed sensibility to the lack of the quality of life felt by patients. This measurement instrument was also sensitive to the various pathologies. In conclusion, we may defend the quality of the performance of the Portuguese versión of the POS. This version may be used to prospectively assess the palliative care on advances cancer patients. PMID:18625090
Collins, Vikki K.
High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…
Jesus, Tiago Silva; Hoenig, Helen
There is substantial interest in mechanisms for measuring, reporting, and improving the quality of health care, including postacute care (PAC) and rehabilitation. Unfortunately, current activities generally are either too narrow or too poorly specified to reflect PAC rehabilitation quality of care. In part, this is caused by a lack of a shared conceptual understanding of what construes quality of care in PAC rehabilitation. This article presents the PAC-rehab quality framework: an evidence-based conceptual framework articulating elements specifically pertaining to PAC rehabilitation quality of care. The widely recognized Donabedian structure, process, and outcomes (SPO) model furnished the underlying structure for the PAC-rehab quality framework, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framed the functional outcomes. A comprehensive literature review provided the evidence base to specify elements within the SPO model and ICF-derived framework. A set of macrolevel-outcomes (functional performance, quality of life of patient and caregivers, consumers' experience, place of discharge, health care utilization) were defined for PAC rehabilitation and then related to their (1) immediate and intermediate outcomes, (2) underpinning care processes, (3) supportive team functioning and improvement processes, and (4) underlying care structures. The role of environmental factors and centrality of patients in the framework are explicated as well. Finally, we discuss why outcomes may best measure and reflect the quality of PAC rehabilitation. The PAC-rehab quality framework provides a conceptually sound, evidence-based framework appropriate for quality of care activities across the PAC rehabilitation continuum. PMID:25542676
Katherine Baicker; Amitabh Chandra
ABSTRACT: The quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries varies across areas. We find that states with higher Medicare spending,have lower-quality care. This negative rela- tionship may be driven by the use of intensive, costly care that crowds out the use of more effective care. One mechanism,for this trade-off may be the mix of the provider workforce: States with more
Michael Seid; James W. Varni; Laura Olson Bermudez; Mirjana Zivkovic; Maryam Davodi Far; Melissa Nelson; Paul S. Kurtin
ABSTRACT. Objective. A measure of pediatric pri- mary care quality that is brief, practical, reliable, and valid would be useful to patients and pediatricians, policymak- ers, and health system leaders. Parents have a unique per- spective from which to report their experiences with their child’s primary care, and these reports may be valid indi- cators of pediatric primary care quality.
Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna
Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…
Susan C. Eaton
This study examines the link between human resource management, (HRM), work organization and patient care quality in US long-term care settings, proposing a key role for both management philosophy and improved front-line staffing arrangements in delivering consistently higher quality care, defined to include both physical and psychological outcomes. Using the ‘high performance’ model from industrial relations as a lens, the
Explores the notion that the introduction of total quality management (TQM) in the public health-care sector indicates a conceptual break with a tradition in which the authority to define and interpret the meaning of medical practice has been located solely within the medical profession. It also serves to shift the focus of medical practice away from its contextual and interactional character towards numerical representations and codification in monetary terms. Further, it is argued that the realization of management ideals in everyday practice is dependent more on the availability of pre-existing technologies and standard procedures than on the ingenuity of particular organizational and institutional actors. These arguments are illustrated with the reutilization for TQM purposes of "local incident reports" in a Swedish hospital organization. PMID:11200301
...Request for Information Regarding Health Care Quality for Exchanges AGENCY...Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy) to...efforts to improve the quality of health care in the United States. The...
Boorsma, Marijke; Frijters, Dinnus H.M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Ribbe, Miel E.; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein P.J.
Background: Sophisticated approaches are needed to improve the quality of care for elderly people living in residential care facilities. We determined the effects of multidisciplinary integrated care on the quality of care and quality of life for elderly people in residential care facilities. Methods: We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 10 residential care facilities in the Netherlands that included 340 participating residents with physical or cognitive disabilities. Five of the facilities applied multidisciplinary integrated care, and five provided usual care. The intervention, inspired by the disease management model, consisted of a geriatric assessment of functional health every three months. The assessment included use of the Long-term Care Facility version of the Resident Assessment Instrument by trained nurse-assistants to guide the design of an individualized care plan; discussion of outcomes and care priorities with the family physician, the resident and his or her family; and monthly multidisciplinary meetings with the nurse-assistant, family physician, psychologist and geriatrician to discuss residents with complex needs. The primary outcome was the sum score of 32 risk-adjusted quality-of-care indicators. Results: Compared with the facilities that provided usual care, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher sum score of the 32 quality-of-care indicators (mean difference ? 6.7, p = 0.009; a medium effect size of 0.72). They also had significantly higher scores for 11 of the 32 indicators of good care in the areas of communication, delirium, behaviour, continence, pain and use of antipsychotic agents. Interpretation: Multidisciplinary integrated care resulted in improved quality of care for elderly people in residential care facilities compared with usual care. Trial registration: www.controlled-trials.com trial register no. ISRCTN11076857. PMID:21708967
Amal N. Trivedi; Alan M. Zaslavsky; Eric C. Schneider; John Z. Ayanian
background Since 1997, all managed-care plans administered by Medicare have reported on qual- ity-of-care measures from the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS). Studies of early data found that blacks received care that was of lower quality than that received by whites. In this study, we assessed changes over time in the overall quality of care and in
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Kenneth W. Kizer; R. Adams Dudley
methods Using data from an ongoing performance-evaluation program in the VA, we evaluated the quality of preventive, acute, and chronic care. We assessed the change in quality-of- care indicators from 1994 (before reengineering) through 2000 and compared the qual- ity of care with that afforded by the Medicare fee-for-service system, using the same in- dicators of quality. results In fiscal
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…
Holloway, Susan D.; Kagan, Sharon L.; Fuller, Bruce; Tsou, Lynna; Carroll, Jude
Examined whether data on child care quality obtained from a telephone interview with the provider could serve as an adequate proxy for data obtained from direct observation of 89 child care homes and 92 centers. Found that a 25-item interview predicted accurately the quality classification of 92 percent of homes and 89 percent of centers.…
Steiner, Rose M.; Walsworth, David T.
Introduction: Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) is an initiative convened by the American Board of Medical Specialties. It investigates the efficacy of coaches in helping primary-care practices improve the care of patients with diabetes and asthma. Most IPIP states use coaches who have a health care background, and are trained in quality…
Paul E. Plsek
The paradigm of modern quality management is in wide use in health care. Although much of the initial effort in health care has focused on improving service, administrative, and support processes, many organizations are also using these concepts to improve clinical care. The analysis of data on clinical outcomes has undoubtedly led to many local improvements, but such analysis is
Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn
This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance. PMID:23252087
Grant, J B; Hayes, R P; Pates, R D; Elward, K S; Ballard, D J
The peer-review organizations (PROs) were created by Congress in 1984 to monitor the cost and quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. In order to do this, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) contracted with the PROs through a series of contracts referred to as "Scopes of Work." Under the Fourth Scope of Work, the HCFA initiated the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) in 1990, as an application of the principles of continuous quality improvement. Since then, the PROs have participated with health care providers in cooperative projects to improve the quality of primarily inpatient care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. Through HCFA-supplied administrative data and clinical data abstracted from patient records, the PROs have been able to identify opportunities for improvements in patient care. In May 1995, the HCFA proposed a new Fifth Scope of Work, which will shift the focus of HCQIP from inpatient care projects to projects in outpatient and managed care settings. This article describes the HCQIP process, the types of data used by the PROs to conduct cooperative projects with health care providers, and the informatics challenges in improving the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:8750387
Vineet M. Arora; Martha Johnson; Jared Olson; Paula M. Podrazik; Stacie Levine; Catherine E. DuBeau; Greg A. Sachs; David O. Meltzer
OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of care for hospital- ized vulnerable elders using measures based on Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) quality indicators (QIs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects aged 65 and older hospitalized on the University of Chicago general medicine inpatient service who were defined as vulnerable using the Vulnerable Elder Survey-13
This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…
Smith, Wally R; Cotter, J. James; Rossiter, Louis F.
Rising Medicaid health expenditures have hastened the development of State managed care programs. Methods to monitor and improve health care under Medicaid are changing. Under fee-for-service (FFS), the primary concern was to avoid overutilization. Under managed care, it is to avoid underutilization. Quality enhancement thus moves from addressing inefficiency to addressing insufficiency of care. This article presents a case study of Virginia's redesign of Quality Assessment and Improvement (QA/I) for Medicaid, adapting the guidelines of the Quality Assurance Reform Initiative (QARI) of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). The article concludes that redesigns should emphasize Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) by all providers and of multi-faceted, population-based data. PMID:10165716
Objective To develop homeless-youth-identified process and outcome measures of quality of health care. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection with homeless youth from both street and clinic settings in Seattle, Washington, for calendar year 2002. Study Design The research was a focused ethnography, using key informant and in-depth individual interviews as well as focus groups with a purposeful sample of 47 homeless youth aged 12–23 years. Data Collection/Extraction Methods All interviews and focus groups were tape-recorded, transcribed, and preliminarily coded, with final coding cross-checked and verified with a second researcher. Principal Findings Homeless youth most often stated that cultural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care were important to them. Physical aspects of quality of care reported by the youth were health care sites separate from those for homeless adults, andsites that offered a choice of allopathic and complementary medicine. Outcomes of health care included survival of homelessness, functional and disease-state improvement, and having increased trust and connections with adults and with the wider community. Conclusions Homeless youth identified components of quality of care as well as how quality of care should be measured. Their perspectives will be included in a larger follow-up study to develop quality of care indicators for homeless youth. PMID:15230923
Streit, Sven; da Costa, Bruno R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Weiler, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas; Frey, Peter; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Battegay, Edouard; Kerr, Eve; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
Background Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings. Methods We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50–80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND’s Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator. Results Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women) had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9) comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9). Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47%) and those with schizophrenia (35%). Conclusions In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care. PMID:24760077
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…
Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn
Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…
Experience gathered to date confirms that capitation of Medicare does not necessarily decrease quality of health care and may in fact encourage an improvement in health care quality. Incentives inherent in capitated reimbursement are threefold. First, practitioners, by not receiving more payment for more service, are discouraged from providing…
Greenslade, F C; Winkler, J; Leonard, A H
Development of antiprogestins for use to induce early abortion clearly advances reproductive health to a higher level. A heated debate has arisen over the appropriateness of its being introduced in health care settings, however. Since the introduction of new contraceptive technologies into health care and family planning programs has produced serious shortcomings, some abortion care specialists propose a management approach to introducing RU-486/prostaglandin which stresses women's needs and preferences. This quality of care framework is based on 20 years of experience of introducing manual vacuum aspiration into developing countries. It takes into consideration that decisions about introducing RU-486/prostaglandin are country-specific and often program- or clinic-specific. Decision makers need to look at preparedness of local policy and service delivery infrastructure to take on the specific responsibilities of integrating it into ongoing programs and how this new technology will affect quality of care. The quality of care framework consists of those elements appropriate to women' access to care which include appropriate abortion care technology; technical competence of all members of the health care team at all levels of the health system; interactions between women and providers/staff (respect and support for women and nonjudgemental attitudes); comprehensive information and counseling; quality and accessible postabortion family planning and reproductive health care; and equipment, supplies, and medication. Decision makers need to consider whether RU-486/prostaglandin is acceptable to women and providers, manufactured to high standards, consistent with relevant regulatory requirements and appropriate to specific service delivery settings. PMID:1434757
Kane, Robert L.; Homyak, Patricia; Bershadsky, Boris; Lum, Terry; Flood, Shannon; Zhang, Hui
Purpose: Our objective in this study was to compare the quality of care provided under the Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO), a special program designed to serve dually eligible older persons, to care provided to controls who received fee-for-service Medicare and Medicaid managed care. Design and Methods: Two control groups were used; one was…
Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.; Wehmeier, Jenny M.
More high quality child care is needed in the United States. This article evaluates the Better Kid Care (BKC) program produced by Pennsylvania State University Extension. Child care staff in Wisconsin were interviewed about changes they had made in their early childhood programs following participation in the BKC program. Findings show that 2…
Dee Baldwin; Sherry Gaines; Judith Lupo Wold; Armenia Williams; Janie Leary
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the health behaviors and perceived health status of child care providers. Health behaviors and health status were also examined in relation to caring for children and the providers’ perceptions of quality child care. A researcher-developed questionnaire, adapted from Williams, Mason, and Wold (2001), was mailed to a random sample of 1,000 child
Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…
Spinks, Tracy; Ganz, Patricia A; Sledge, George W; Levit, Laura; Hayman, James A; Eberlein, Timothy J; Feeley, Thomas W
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published Ensuring Quality Cancer Care, an influential report that described an ideal cancer care system and issued ten recommendations to address pervasive gaps in the understanding and delivery of quality cancer care. Despite generating much fervor, the report's recommendations-including two recommendations related to quality measurement-remain largely unfulfilled. Amidst continuing concerns regarding increasing costs and questionable quality of care, the IOM charged a new committee with revisiting the 1999 report and with reassessing national cancer care, with a focus on the aging US population. The committee identified high-quality patient-clinician relationships and interactions as central drivers of quality and attributed existing quality gaps, in part, to the nation's inability to measure and improve cancer care delivery in a systematic way. In 2013, the committee published its findings in Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis, which included two recommendations that emphasize coordinated, patient-centered quality measurement and information technology enhancements: Develop a national quality reporting program for cancer care as part of a learning health care system; and,Develop an ethically sound learning health care information technology system for cancer that enables real-time analysis of data from cancer patients in a variety of care settings. These recommendations underscore the need for independent national oversight, public-private collaboration, and substantial funding to create robust, patient-centered quality measurement and learning enterprises to improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of cancer care in America. PMID:24839592
Lynn Jansen; Dorothy A. Forbes; Maureen Markle-Reid; Pamela Hawranik; Dawn Kingston; Shellie Peacock; Sandra Henderson; Beverly Leipert
Little attention has been given to the perceptions of formal care providers on the nature and quality of home- and community-based dementia care. The purpose of this descriptive interpretive research was to explore formal care providers' perceptions of their experiences with Canadian home- and community-based dementia care. Participants within three personal interviews and six focus groups (n?=?41) included nurses, social
Oklahoma, University of
OU Medicine Standards of Excellence PROFESSIONALISM - CARING - COMMUNICATION - QUALITY - INNOVATION manner. · I will communicate effectively by speaking clearly and actively listening while learning constructive feedback. We believe effective communication is fundamental to everything we do: · I
Bender, M; Connelly, CD; Glaser, D; Brown, C
Clinical practice as natural laboratory for psychotherapy research:Clinical nurse leader impact on microsystem care quality . Nursing Research:research design accounts for autocorrelation in analysis and is well suited for time-dependent evaluations of clinical
Stein, Spencer M; Day, Michael; Karia, Raj; Hutzler, Lorraine; Bosco, Joseph A
Favorable patient experience and low complication rates have been proposed as essential components of patient-centered medical care. Patients' perception of care is a key performance metric and is used to determine payments to hospitals. It is unclear if there is a correlation between technical quality of care and patient satisfaction. The study authors correlated patient perceptions of care measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores with accepted quality of care indicators. The Hospital Compare database (4605 hospitals) was used to examine complication rates and patient-reported experience for hospitals across the nation in 2011. The majority of the correlations demonstrated an inverse relationship between patient experience and complication rates. This negative correlation suggests that reducing these complications can lead to a better hospital experience. Overall, these results suggest that patient experience is generally correlated with the quality of care provided. PMID:24740016
Nancy Contro; Judith Larson; Sarah Scofield; Barbara Sourkes; Harvey Cohen
Background: As a prelude to establishing a Pediatric Palliative Care Program, we solicited information from families about their experiences and their suggestions for improving the quality of end-of-life care. Participants were English- and Spanish-speaking family members of de- ceased pediatric patients who received care at Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University Medi- cal Center, Palo Alto, Calif. Methods: Sixty-eight
Joanne Lynn; Mary Ann Baily; Melissa Bottrell; Bruce Jennings; Robert J. Levine; Frank Davidoff; David Casarett; Janet Corrigan; Ellen Fox; Matthew K. Wynia; George J. Agich; Margaret O'Kane; Theodore Speroff; Paul Schyve; Paul Batalden; Sean Tunis; Nancy Berlinger; Linda Cronenwett; J. Michael Fitzmaurice; Nancy Neveloff Dubler; Brent James
Quality improvement (QI) activities can improve health care but must be conducted ethically. The Hastings Center convened leaders and scholars to address ethical requirements for QI and their rela- tionship to regulations protecting human subjects of research. The group defined QI as systematic, data-guided activities designed to bring about immediate improvements in health care delivery in particular settings and concluded
Boucher, Nathan A; McMillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S
Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization’s quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts. PMID:25663213
I propose that high quality health care -- including innovation and state-of-the-art technology -- can and must co-exist with society's desire to reduce costs. One need not threaten the other. In fact, they should be mutually supportive. In this paper I talk about how we assess value in health care and some of the principles that should inform sound economic decisions about quality care. First, I'd like to consider why consumers define quality differently in health care than they do in other markets, and why lower costs and improved quality can -- and must -- move together. I review examples of how we currently use less costly alternatives for delivering care and at the same time maintain or improve our performance in meeting quality health care goals. I discuss how mechanisms in our current system support continued cost and quality improvements. Finally, I'll conclude with thoughts on how we can facilitate this trend with information and continued innovation.
Zinn, J S; Brannon, D; Weech, R
This study examines the extent, motivation, and performance implications of normal quality improvement (QI) programs in Pennsylvania nursing care facilities. Responses to a 20-item survey sent to facility administrators indicate that continuous quality improvement/total quality management (CQI/TQM) adopters are more motivated by quality of care and human resource concerns in implementing QI, more satisfied with the results of QI efforts, and more aware of a competitive environment than are non-adopters. There are few differences between adopters and non-adopters with respect to organizational characteristics or performance on quality of care measures. Comparison with the results of a study of QI implementation in hospitals reveals some differences in motivation, but similarities in satisfaction with results. PMID:9116533
Although family child care has the potential to offer young children individual attention and customized, educational programs to help them thrive, the quality of these programs is dependent upon a workforce that is at the bottom of the occupational status and pay hierarchy. This report examines ways to promote high quality in family child care…
Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet
This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…
Borgiel, Alex E. M.; Williams, J. I.; Anderson, Geoffrey M.; Bass, Martin J.; Dunn, Earl V.; Lamont, Campbell T.; Spasoff, Robert A.; Rice, Donald I.
This feasibility study by the Practice Assessment Committee of the College of Family Physicians of Canada was conducted to define and produce instruments that could be used to assess quality of care rendered in family physicians' offices. The favorable response to these evaluations and the acceptance of the results indicates that this method can be useful to family physicians. The instruments identify family physicians' strengths and deficiencies so that with appropriate changes in the quality and efficiency of care, they are able to achieve higher levels of professional satisfaction. These methods may ultimately be used to establish acceptable standards for care given by family physicians in their offices. PMID:21274071
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series of country…
Marilyn C. Daley; Grant A. Ritter; Dominic Hodgkin; Richard H. Beinecke
The adoption of managed behavioral health care by state Medicaid agencies has the potential to increase the quality of treatment for racial minorities by promoting access to substance abuse treatment and creating more appropriate utilization patterns. This paper examines three indicators of quality for white, Black, and Hispanic Medicaid clients who received substance abuse treatment in Massachusetts between 1992 and
Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…
O'Quinn, Lucy P; Giambra, Barbara K
Pediatric nurses provide holistic family-centered care for children with life-limiting illnesses while being sensitive to children's growth and developmental needs. To learn how pediatric palliative care programs benefit children and their families, the following clinical question was asked: Among children with a life-limiting illness, does the use of a palliative care program compared with not using a palliative care program improve quality of life for patients and their families? Evidence from two studies found that palliative care services improve quality of life for children with life-limiting illness and their families in the areas of the child's emotional well-being and parental perception of preparation for the child's end of life, resulting in a low grade for the body of evidence. Future research should include high quality studies with larger sample sizes and control groups, and include children's perspectives--from both patients and siblings--to give a more complete picture of how best to improve their quality of life. A reliable tool is needed that includes a spiritual component and sensitive indicators specific to children with a life-limiting illness. Future research using this tool will more fully answer how palliative care services improve children's quality of life. PMID:25929123
Weizman, Adam V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C
Hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at high risk for morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization costs. While the literature on trends in hospitalization rates for this disease is conflicting, there does appear to be significant variation in the delivery of care to this complex group, which may be a marker of suboptimal quality of care. There is a need for improvement in identifying patients at risk for hospitalization in an effort to reduce admissions. Moreover, appropriate screening for a number of hospital acquired complications such as venous thromboembolism and Clostridium difficile infection is suboptimal. This review discusses areas of inpatient care for IBD patients that are in need of improvement and outlines a number of potential quality improvement initiatives such as pay-for-performance models, quality improvement frameworks, and healthcare information technology. PMID:24151354
Mikuls, T R
Gout is a growing health problem, affecting approximately 7% of men and 3% of women over the age of 65 years. Although effective therapies for gout management exist, quality in gout care has been too frequently characterized as being "suboptimal." This review examines issues pertinent to quality of care in gouty arthritis with a focus on initial reports examining suboptimal care, subsequent efforts to develop quality of care indicators for gout management, more recently published evidence-based recommendations for gout diagnosis and treatment, and an ongoing international initiative to develop core outcome measures for acute and chronic gout. "If you can not measure it, you can not improve it" - Lord Kelvin. PMID:18021516
Farley, Heather; Enguidanos, Enrique R; Coletti, Christian M; Honigman, Leah; Mazzeo, Anthony; Pinson, Thomas B; Reed, Kevin; Wiler, Jennifer L
With passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, payment incentives were created to improve the "value" of health care delivery. Because physicians and physician practices aim to deliver care that is both clinically effective and patient centered, it is important to understand the association between the patient experience and quality health outcomes. Surveys have become a tool with which to quantify the consumer experience. In addition, results of these surveys are playing an increasingly important role in determining hospital payment. Given that the patient experience is being used as a surrogate marker for quality and value of health care delivery, we will review the patient experience-related pay-for-performance programs and effect on emergency medicine, discuss the literature describing the association between quality and the patient-reported experience, and discuss future opportunities for emergency medicine. PMID:24656761
Gilson, L; Kitange, H; Teuscher, T
Process quality is the commonly used operational definition of health care quality. Its key components are technical and inter-personal skills, but most assessments undertaken in developing countries focus only on technical skills. This study from Tanzania used explicit observation checklists to review the process of providing antenatal, curative and nursing care in primary health units, assessing both technical and inter-personal skills. The study findings emphasize the weaknesses in available care, particularly in the attitudes of health staff but also in aspects of technical care. Differences in performance between health units appear to be influenced by factors such as workloads, structure and staff allocations. Differences between cadres were also identified and may underlie some of the inter-unit differences. The policy actions required to address the problems must reflect the diversity of the underlying influences, seeking to raise both technical and inter-personal quality, as the two are mutually reinforcing. PMID:10171765
Cömert, Melda; Güne?, Ajda Ersoy; ?ahin, Fahri; Saydam, Güray
Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological malignancy. Novel therapies have led to improvement in survival. Current myeloma management is matching the progress made in improved survival through disease control while optimising quality of life with effective supportive care. Supportive treatment is an essential part of the therapeutic management of myeloma patients because it is directed towards improving the patient’s quality of life and also can improve survival. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship among life of quality, supportive care, and improvement in survival. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385802
van Dam, P.A.; Verkinderen, L.; Hauspy, J.; Vermeulen, P.; Dirix, L.; Huizing, M.; Altintas, S.; Papadimitriou, K.; Peeters, M.; Tjalma, W.
Quality Indicators (QIs) are measures of health care quality that make use of readily available hospital inpatient administrative data. Assessment quality of care can be performed on different levels: national, regional, on a hospital basis or on an individual basis. It can be a mandatory or voluntary system. In all cases development of an adequate database for data extraction, and feedback of the findings is of paramount importance. In the present paper we performed a Medline search on “QIs and breast cancer” and “benchmarking and breast cancer care”, and we have added some data from personal experience. The current data clearly show that the use of QIs for breast cancer care, regular internal and external audit of performance of breast units, and benchmarking are effective to improve quality of care. Adherence to guidelines improves markedly (particularly regarding adjuvant treatment) and there are data emerging showing that this results in a better outcome. As quality assurance benefits patients, it will be a challenge for the medical and hospital community to develop affordable quality control systems, which are not leading to excessive workload. PMID:24753926
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Haggerty, Jeannie; Tousignant, Pierre; Barnsley, Janet; Hogg, William; Geneau, Robert; Hudon, Éveline; Duplain, Réjean; Denis, Jean-Louis; Bonin, Lucie; Del Grande, Claudio; Dragieva, Natalyia
Background: No primary practice care model has been shown to be superior in achieving high-quality primary care. We aimed to identify the organizational characteristics of primary care practices that provide high-quality primary care. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional observational study involving a stratified random sample of 37 primary care practices from 3 regions of Quebec. We recruited 1457 patients who had 1 of 2 chronic care conditions or 1 of 6 episodic care conditions. The main outcome was the overall technical quality score. We measured organizational characteristics by use of a validated questionnaire and the Team Climate Inventory. Statistical analyses were based on multilevel regression modelling. Results: The following characteristics were strongly associated with overall technical quality of care score: physician remuneration method (27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0–35.0), extent of sharing of administrative resources (7.6; 95% CI 0.8–14.4), presence of allied health professionals (15.3; 95% CI 5.4–25.2) and/or specialist physicians (19.6; 95% CI 8.3–30.9), the presence of mechanisms for maintaining or evaluating competence (7.7; 95% CI 3.0–12.4) and average organizational access to the practice (4.9; 95% CI 2.6–7.2). The number of physicians (1.2; 95% CI 0.6–1.8) and the average Team Climate Inventory score (1.3; 95% CI 0.1–2.5) were modestly associated with high-quality care. Interpretation: We identified a common set of organizational characteristics associated with high-quality primary care. Many of these characteristics are amenable to change through practice-level organizational changes. PMID:23877669
Mangione, Peter L.; Lally, J. Ronald; Poole, Janet L.; Tuesta, Alicia; Paxton, Arlene R.
States have placed high priority on developing early care and education systems that include early learning guidelines, curriculum, program guidelines or standards, and early childhood educator competencies. To explore how professional development and quality improvement initiatives are being integrated into emerging infant-toddler care systems,…
... Performer on Key Quality Measures CLABSI Toolkit Topics Topics Ebola Preparedness Emergency Management High Reliability Infection Prevention ... Details Sunday 3:11 CST, July 26, 2015 Topic Details Topic Library Item < Return to Topic Library ...
... Performer on Key Quality Measures CLABSI Toolkit Topics Topics Ebola Preparedness Emergency Management High Reliability Infection Prevention ... Details Sunday 3:11 CST, July 26, 2015 Topic Details Topic Library Item < Return to Topic Library ...
... Performer on Key Quality Measures CLABSI Toolkit Topics Topics Ebola Preparedness Emergency Management High Reliability Infection Prevention ... Details Sunday 3:11 CST, July 26, 2015 Topic Details Topic Library Item < Return to Topic Library ...
Grootveld, Kim; Wen, Victoria; Bather, Michelle; Park, Joan
Case management has recently been advanced as a valuable component in achieving quality patient care that is also cost-effective. At St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, case managers from a variety of professional backgrounds are central to a new care initiative--Rapid Assessment and Planning to Inform Disposition (RAPID)--in the General Internal Medicine (GIM) Unit that is designed to improve patient care and reconcile high emergency department volumes through "smart bed spacing." Involved in both planning and RAPID, GIM's case managers are the link between patient care and utilization management. These stewards of finite resources strive to make the best use of dollars spent while maintaining a commitment to quality care. Collaborating closely with physicians and others across the hospital, GIM's case managers have been instrumental in bringing about significant improvements in care coordination, utilization management and process redesign. PMID:24844723
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…
Bombardier, Claire; Mian, Samra
Quality of care improvement has become a priority for decision-makers. Important variations in the quality and cost of care are being documented often without evidence of improved outcomes. Therapeutic advances are not consistently applied to practice despite efforts from professional organisations to create guidelines. The quality movement emerged following increasing evidence that the creation and measurement of quality indicators can improve quality of care and health outcomes. Quality indicators can measure healthcare system performance across providers, system levels and regions. In rheumatology, early efforts to develop quality measures have focused on examining all aspects of care while more recent efforts have focused on disease course monitoring. The American College Rheumatology has recently endorsed seven quality indicators for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that are evidence based and measurable for use in routine rheumatology practices. This review provides an overview on quality indicators in rheumatology with a focus on RA, and discusses the application of quality measures into routine rheumatology practices to improve quality of care for RA. PMID:23253925
Rahimzai, Mirwais; Amiri, Mirwais; Burhani, Nadera Hayat; Leatherman, Sheila; Hiltebeitel, Simon; Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed
Quality problem or issue When the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan began reconstructing the health system in 2003, it faced serious challenges. Decades of war had severely damaged the health infrastructure and the country's ability to deliver health services. Initial assessment A national health resources assessment in 2002 revealed huge structural and resource disparities fundamental to improving health care. For example, only 9% of the population was able to access basic health services, and about 40% of health facilities had no female health providers, severely constraining access of women to health care. Multiple donor programs and the MoPH had some success in improving quality, but questions about sustainability, as well as fragmentation and poor coordination, existed. Plan of action In 2009, MoPH resolved to align and accelerate quality improvement efforts as well as build structural and skill capacity. Implementation The MoPH established a new quality unit within the ministry and undertook a year-long consultative process that drew on international evidence and inputs from all levels of the health system to developed a National Strategy for Improving Quality in Health Care consisting of a strategy implementation framework and a five-year operational plan. Lessons Learned Even in resource-restrained countries, under the most adverse circumstances, quality of health care can be improved at the front-lines and a consensual and coherent national quality strategy developed and implemented. PMID:23485422
Hanberger, Lena; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Nordfeldt, Sam
This study aimed to investigate perceived quality of diabetes care. A geographic population of 400 type 1 diabetes patients <20 years received the validated questionnaire quality of care from the patient's perspective (QPP) including additional context-specific items. Primary endpoints were perceived reality of care by specific items and factors and their subjective importance, respectively. Relations to severe hypoglycemia, HbA1c, insulin dose, BMI, age, duration and sociodemographic factors were also studied. On average, a high perceived quality of care was reported from both parents and adolescents (response rate 285/400 (71%) and 155/237 (65%), respectively); highest regarding possibility to talk to nurse/doctor in privacy, respect, general atmosphere, continuity in patient-physician relationship and patient participation. Lower perceived reality with higher subjective importance was seen for information about results from medical examinations and treatments and information about self-care, access to care and waiting time. While parents' and their adolescents' mean ratings correlated well for reality r=0.95 (p<0.001) and importance r=0.53 (p=0.023), parents rated reality level higher (p=0.012) and importance even higher (p<0.001). The QPP instrument used with additional context-specific items can provide specific information to be used in quality of care development. In our setting, improvements are needed regarding patient information, access to care and waiting time. PMID:16300853
Siu, A L; McGlynn, E A; Morgenstern, H; Beers, M H; Carlisle, D M; Keeler, E B; Beloff, J; Curtin, K; Leaning, J; Perry, B C
Consumers, payers, and policymakers are demanding to know more about the quality of the services they are purchasing or might purchase. The information provided, however, is often driven by data availability rather than by epidemiologic and clinical considerations. In this article, we present an approach for selecting topics for measuring technical quality of care, based on the expected impact on health of improved quality. This approach employs data or estimates on disease burden, efficacy of available treatments, and the current quality of care being provided. We use this model to select measures that could be used to measure the quality of care in health plans, but the proposed framework could also be used to select quality of care measures for other purposes or in other contexts (for example, to select measures for hospitals). Given the limited resources available for quality assessment and the policy consequences of better information on provider quality, priorities for assessment efforts should focus on those areas where better quality translates into improved health. PMID:1464537
and training to the state's child care industry, AgriLife Extension's child care conferences directly support. Evidence indicates that professional training and continuing education on the part of child care providersLife Extension Service organizes and conducts training opportunities for current and prospective child care
HANAN AL-AHMADI; MARTIN ROLAND
Objectives. Little is known about the quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, despite the central role of primary care centers in Saudi health strategy. This study presents an overview of quality of primary care in Saudi Arabia, and identifies factors impeding the achievement of quality, with the aim of determining how the quality of Saudi primary care could be
Purdue University, CALC Symposium September 2012 Does health care quality contribute to disparities;9/26/20122 Big Ideas. Health care quality is not just a pretty word. Where you live shouldn't limit quality, but it does! Consumer voices are critical for quality care. #12;9/26/20123 Big Idea One In health care
Transparency and accountability are becoming more important, and publically reported quality measures will be used increasingly to determine how surgeons are viewed and reimbursed. That is a good thing if it is done correctly, but poorly designed quality measures might actually interfere with patient care. It will be necessary for ASBrS to remain involved in the development of relevant, true data-based measures of quality that have appropriate benchmarks and no unintended consequences. Importantly, the quality measures need to include all reasonable treatment options so that quality care is enhanced and not impeded. PMID:22868916
Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Landrum, Cassie R.; Urech, Tracy H.; Wang, Degang; Virani, Salim S.; Petersen, Laura A.
Objective To assess the impact of clinical complexity on three dimensions of diabetes care. Study Design We identified 35,872 diabetic patients receiving care at 7 Veterans Affairs facilities between July 2007 and June 2008 using administrative and clinical data. We examined control at index and appropriate care (among uncontrolled patients) within 90 days, for blood pressure (<130/80 mm Hg), hemoglobin A1c (<7%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<100 mg/dL). We used ordered logistic regression to examine the impact of complexity, defined by comorbidities count and illness burden, on control at index and a combined measure of quality (control at index or appropriate follow-up care) for all 3 measures. Results 6,260 (17.5%) patients were controlled at index for all 3 quality indicators. Patients with ?3 comorbidities (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67–2.26) and illness burden ?2.00, (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13–1.32), were more likely than the least complex patients to be controlled for all 3 measures. Patients with ?3 comorbidities, (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.07–2.54) and illness burden ?2.00, (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18–1.33), were also more likely than the least complex patients to meet the combined quality indicator for all 3 measures. Conclusions Patients with greatest complexity received higher quality diabetes care compared to less complex patients, regardless of the definition chosen. Although providers may appropriately target complex patients for aggressive control, deficits in guideline achievement among all diabetic patients highlight the challenges of caring for chronically ill patients and the importance of structuring primary care to promote higher quality, patient-centered care. PMID:23009301
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Miami-Dade's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Solberg, Leif I; Elward, Kurtis S; Phillips, William R; Gill, James M; Swanson, Graham; Main, Deborah S; Yawn, Barbara P; Mold, James W; Phillips, Robert L
The chasm between knowledge and practice decried by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is the result of other chasms that have not been addressed. They include the chasm between what we know and what we need to know to improve care; the chasm between those who provide primary care and those who do not fund, study, support, or publish practical primary care studies; and the chasm between research and quality improvement (QI). These chasms are a result of problematic concepts, attitudes, traditions, time frames, and financing approaches among the various participants. If we are to facilitate the production and use of the knowledge needed for primary care to cross IOM's chasm, major changes are needed. These changes include the following: (1) admission by all primary care professions that we have quality problems that require our unified attention and action; (2) conversion of the paradigm from "translate research into practice" to "optimizing health and health care through research and QI"; (3) development and facilitation of more partnerships among clinicians, researchers, and care delivery leaders for engaged scholarship in both research and QI; (4) modification of the agendas and methods of funders and researchers so they emphasize the problems of patients and patient care and support practical time frames and research designs; and (5) facilitation by funders and journals of the dissemination and implementation of lessons from QI and practical research. PMID:19273872
Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r?=?0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r?=?0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient?=?0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion The QPCQ is a valid and reliable instrument that will be useful in future research as an outcome measure to compare quality of care across geographic regions, populations, and service delivery models, and to assess the relationship between quality of care and maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:24894497
Sussmane, Jeffrey B; Torbati, Dan; Gitlow, Howard S
Our goal was to measure the quality of care provided in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during Therapeutic Apheresis (TA). We described the care as a step by step process. We designed a flow chart to carefully document each step of the process. We then defined each step with a unique clinical indictor (CI) that represented the exact task we felt provided quality care. These CIs were studied and modified for 1 year. We measured our performance in this process by the number of times we accomplished the CI vs. the total number of CIs that were to be performed. The degree of compliance, with these clinical indicators, was analyzed and used as a metric for quality by calculating how close the process is running exactly as planned or "in control." The Apheresis Process was in control (compliance) for 47% of the indicators, as measured in the aggregate for the first observational year. We then applied the theory of Total Quality Management (TQM) through our Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) model. We were able to improve the process and bring it into control by increasing the compliance to > 99.74%, in the aggregate, for the third and fourth quarter of the second year. We have implemented TQM to increase compliance, thus control, of a highly complex and multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care therapy. We have shown a reproducible and scalable measure of quality for a complex clinical process in the PICU, without additional capital expenditure. PMID:22095668
Hansell, M J
BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875
Groman, Rachel F; Rubin, Koryn Y
In an effort to rein in spending and improve patient outcomes, the US government and the private sector have adopted a number of policies over the last decade that hold health care professionals increasingly accountable for the cost and quality of the care they provide. A major driver of these efforts is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA or Pub.L. 111-148), which aims to change the US health care system from one that rewards quantity to one that rewards better value through the use of performance measurement. However, for this strategy to succeed in raising the bar on quality and efficiency, it will require the development of more standardized and accurate methods of data collection and further streamlined federal regulations that encourage enhanced patient-centered care instead of creating additional burdens that interfere with the physician-patient relationship. PMID:23278262
Sue Hall; Cassie Goddard; Frances Stewart; Irene J Higginson
Background An increasing number of older people reach the end of life in care homes. The aim of this study is to explore the perceived\\u000a benefits of, and barriers to, implementation of the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes (GSFCH), a quality improvement\\u000a programme in palliative care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Nine care homes involved in the GSFCH took part. We conducted semi-structured interviews with
Haussmann, R. K. Dieter
A model of the patient care process, based on queueing theory, is described and its parameters defined empirically for application to a burn unit. For the particular case, the model is shown to provide a close approximation to observed data. The model is descriptive, with an output of expected waiting times for various priorities of patient demand. The waiting times so estimated constitute an index of the quality of nursing care and afford a means of predicting changes in quality with changes in staffing or inpatient load. The model facilitates investigation of the relationships among three factors: patient condition, nurses' activity priorities, and patient load per nurse. PMID:5482376
The proposed program model suggests an approach for broadening the staffing pattern of Family Day Care Units by training a paraprofessional, the Family Day Care Consultant, to help upgrade the quality of care given to children in day care homes. The consultants, selected primarily for their successful experiences as Family Day Care Mothers, will…
Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn
Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…
Background Structured quality management is an important aspect for improving patient dental care outcomes, but reliable evidence to validate effects is lacking. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of a quality management program in primary dental care settings in Germany. Methods This was an exploratory study with a before-after-design. 45 dental care practices that had completed the European Practice Assessment (EPA) accreditation scheme twice (intervention group) were selected for the study. The mean interval between the before and after assessment was 36 months. The comparison group comprised of 56 dental practices that had undergone their first assessment simultaneously with follow-up assessment in the intervention group. Aggregated scores for five EPA domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, ‘quality and safety’ and ‘people’ were calculated. Results In the intervention group, small non-significant improvements were found in the EPA domains. At follow-up, the intervention group had higher scores on EPA domains as compared with the comparison group (range of differences was 4.2 to 10.8 across domains). These differences were all significant in regression analyses, which controlled for relevant dental practice characteristics. Conclusions Dental care practices that implemented a quality management program had better organizational quality in contrast to a comparison group. This may reflect both improvements in the intervention group and a selection effect of dental practices volunteering for the first round of EPA practice assessment. PMID:24773764
Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Welty, Elisabeth; Manzella, Bryn
This study examines the relationship between clinical quality of care and physician productivity in the public sector clinical setting. This longitudinal study takes place in Jefferson County, Alabama using data from six public sector clinics. Data representing 21 physicians across 13 consecutive quarters representing 44,765 person observations were analyzed. Four variables were selected to represent quality of care for this pediatric patient population; two of which pertained to antibiotic use and two pertained to asthma care. Findings from multivariate analyses examining each quality of care measure and controlling for other visit and practice characteristics indicate that three of the four quality measures were significantly related to productivity. Specifically, the percent of asthma patients with documented asthma severity classification was negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.24, p = .04), although the magnitude of this relationship was small. The percent of asthma patients prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid who also had a severity classification was negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.23, p = .03) and the percent of patients prescribed oral antibiotics was marginally negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.09, p = .09). In general, findings suggest that a relationship exists between quality of healthcare and physician productivity. Future research should continue to examine this relationship across other disciplines and healthcare settings. PMID:24033482
Vear, Herbert J
In the past, standards of care in chiropractic were based upon the bias, empiricism and little if any scientific work by the author. This was due, in part, to history which fostered the belief that all that was needed was anecdotal testimony and in part to the isolation of chiropractic colleges from main stream science. Today, standards are being based upon the scientific evaluation of the clinical procedures used and formulated by consensus of experts within the profession. The chiropractic profession has the duty to create standards of practice that will advance its clinical practice, protect the patient, ensure its contribution to health care and promote research into the assessment of outcomes and effectiveness. Although such steps are being actively pursued, significant discrepancies exist between the 60 statutes regulating chiropractic practice. Absence of consensus not only in the scope of practice but also in lexicon, adds confusion within and outside the profession. In addition, the profession is facing the same difficult task as the other health care professions, the need to develop quality assurance parameters for standards of care, quality of care and outcome of care measurements. Each of the parameters must be rational, defensible and modifiable as advances in science and technology become available. It is the responsibility of each chiropractor to maintain the appropriate level of professional skills to ensure that the patient receives the best care possible.
Psychological Science, 2002
Used NICHD Study of Early Child Care data to test paths from child care quality through process indicators to child outcomes. Found that maternal caregiving quality was strongest predictor of cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality related to cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality mediated…
Baernholdt, Marianne; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Merwin, Elizabeth; Thornlow, Deirdre
Aim This paper is a report of a study conducted to answer the question: ‘How do rural nurses and their chief nursing officers define quality care?’ Background Established indicators of quality care were developed primarily in urban hospitals. Rural hospitals and their environments differ from urban settings, suggesting that there might be differences in how quality care is defined. This has measurement implications. Methods Focus groups with staff nurses and interviews with chief nursing officers were conducted in 2006 at four rural hospitals in the South-Eastern United States of America. Data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Findings The staff nurse and chief nursing officer data were analysed separately and then compared, exposing two major themes: ‘Patients are what matter most’ and ‘Community connectedness is both a help and a hindrance’. Along with conveying that patients were the utmost priority and all care was patient-focused, the first theme included established indicators of quality such as falls, pressure ulcers, infection rates, readmission rates, and lengths of stay. A new discovery in this theme was a need for an indicator relevant for rural settings: transfer time to larger hospitals. The second theme, Community Connectedness, is unique to rural settings, exemplifying the rural culture. The community and hospital converge into a family of sorts, creating expectations for quality care by both patients and staff that are not typically found in urban settings and larger hospitals. Conclusion Established quality indicators are appropriate for rural hospitals, but additional indicators need to be developed. These must include transfer times to larger facilities and the culture of the community. PMID:20546364
All health professionals understand pressure, patient needs and the importance of communications. I remember trying to cope as the lone nurse on the ICU night shift only one year our of school--frustrated with juggling all those needs, demands and information necessary just to get to the patient's bedside. Today's much-in-demand R.N. is seeking employment in a healthcare facility that provides the tools to function in these increasingly demanding positions; she looks for the hospital that is on the cutting edge of technology. Therefore, the hospital that provides a sophisticated, yet easy-to-use, information system is attracting the efficient nurse and multiplying her level of professional performance. The improved efficiency she can then offer and cost savings the hospital experiences are direct results of the quality of that information system. PMID:10290466
Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel
Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861
Beaverson, Janice M; Ryu, Jaewon
The provision of high quality healthcare is facilitated by an integrated team of multi-specialty physicians who are supported by an advanced electronic medical record. This paper shows how Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States is able to provide proactive care to members through physicians and their teams, integrated with functional health information technology systems. PMID:21830645
Nicholas G. Castle
Purpose of the Study: In this article, I examine the asso- ciation between turnover of nursing home administrators and five important quality of care outcomes. Design and Methods: The data came from a survey of 420 nurs- ing facilities and the 1999 On-line Survey, Certification, and Reporting System. Using multivariate logistic regres- sion analyses, I looked at the effects of
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Bentson H. McFarland
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials suggest that medications can be efficacious in several psychiatric disorders. The effectiveness of medications as they are used in practice remains to be seen. Automated pharmacy data give evaluation researchers tools to examine the quality of care for people using psychotropic medications. Reasonably convincing data indicates that automated pharmacy records are valid measures of medication consumption.
Rinaldi, Stephen J.
The challenge of containing health-care costs continues despite a break from cost increases. Most experts would advise school employees to replace existing health plans with a triple-choice HMO plan using $10 copayments. Armed with quality data and a choice-based plan design, school business officials can improve their chances for long-term cost…
Bjurek, Hans; And Others
The efficiency of public day care centers in Sweden was studied by collecting data on inputs and services for about 200 centers and analyzing the information by data envelopment analysis. Results show large differences in efficiencies among centers, but these differences have few systematic relations to quality. (SLD)
Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)
MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality INTRODUCTION The squid resources in the proper handling of squid at sea and through the processing and dis- tribution stages. Typically, squid for squid is primarily a small-boat fishery, and the catch is sometimes not iced at sea. In southern New
Oliveira, Paula Salgado; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Belsky, Jay; Fachada, Inês; Soares, Isabel
Institutional rearing adversely affects children's development, but the extent to which specific characteristics of the institutional context and the quality of care provided contribute to problematic development remains unclear. In this study, 72 preschoolers institutionalised for at least 6 months were evaluated by their caregiver using the…
Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy
This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…
Ball, Jane E; Murrells, Trevor; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Morrow, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Peter
Background There is strong evidence to show that lower nurse staffing levels in hospitals are associated with worse patient outcomes. One hypothesised mechanism is the omission of necessary nursing care caused by time pressure—‘missed care’. Aim To examine the nature and prevalence of care left undone by nurses in English National Health Service hospitals and to assess whether the number of missed care episodes is associated with nurse staffing levels and nurse ratings of the quality of nursing care and patient safety environment. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 2917 registered nurses working in 401 general medical/surgical wards in 46 general acute National Health Service hospitals in England. Results Most nurses (86%) reported that one or more care activity had been left undone due to lack of time on their last shift. Most frequently left undone were: comforting or talking with patients (66%), educating patients (52%) and developing/updating nursing care plans (47%). The number of patients per registered nurse was significantly associated with the incidence of ‘missed care’ (p<0.001). A mean of 7.8 activities per shift were left undone on wards that are rated as ‘failing’ on patient safety, compared with 2.4 where patient safety was rated as ‘excellent’ (p?<0.?001). Conclusions Nurses working in English hospitals report that care is frequently left undone. Care not being delivered may be the reason low nurse staffing levels adversely affects quality and safety. Hospitals could use a nurse-rated assessment of ‘missed care’ as an early warning measure to identify wards with inadequate nurse staffing. PMID:23898215
Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M
Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency. PMID:23129667
Schulman, Karen; Matthews, Hannah; Blank, Helen; Ewen, Danielle
Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS)--a strategy to improve families' access to high-quality child care--assess the quality of child care programs, offer incentives and assistance to programs to improve their ratings, and give information to parents about the quality of child care. These systems are operating in a growing number of…
Jahncke-Latteck, Anne-Dorte; Weber, Petra
A two year action research program with the title "Quality in Nursing Care" was carried out by a large institute for disabled care in Hamburg. Presently, the importance of quality in nursing as a profession is seen to be secondary to that of pedagogy in the area of disabled care. A major explanation for this could be the fact that 150 years ago the treatment and care of disabled people lay predominately in the field of theology and only later in that of medicine. In the second half of the 20th century, in the 60ies and 70ies to be precise, starting with an investigative commission "Psychiatryenquete "pedagogical science began to focus on the education of disabled people and their integration within society. At this point in time, seen from the pedagogical point of view, the care of disabled people in theory and practice freed itself from being a medicine concentrated profession and from the dominance of nursing care. However in today's society due to the increasing number of disabled people requiring expert nursing care there is a necessity to examine care related needs of assistance. With the research project "Quality in Nursing Care" an institute for disabled care has looked at different nursing care interventions and methods that our society may require for the changing situation we are presently being confronted with. An analysis of the requirements, the content and evaluation of the three chosen project related interventions, (the individual consulting of inhabitants with regard to the broadening of the competence skills, the development of expert nursing competence through further and continuous education of multipliers, and the development of codes and guidelines for activities) will be introduced. Beginning with the basic and primary principle of the action research, the researchers have developed, with the participating members of the institutions, the specific aims of the work undertaken and the interventions studied and executed. The most important discovery made during the project work undertaken is that the assessment of the extensively nursing linked problems experienced by the inhabitants in disabled care at this point in time is either simply not receiving enough attention or not being taken sufficiently into consideration by the predominately pedagogically trained staff. Taking this into account it is quite clear that professional nursing support in the long term has an important role to play in a successful disabled people orientated care concept. PMID:16128174
JUNG, KYOUNGRAE; POLSKY, DANIEL
SUMMARY Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients’ homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition. PMID:23670849
Byrne, John M.; Hall, Susan; Baz, Sam; Kessler, Todd; Roman, Maher; Patuszynski, Mark; Thakkar, Kruti; Kashner, T. Michael
Purpose Preparing residents for future practice, knowledge, and skills in quality improvement and safety (QI/S) is a requisite element of graduate medical education. Despite many challenges, residency programs must consider new curricular innovations to meet the requirements. We report the effectiveness of a primary care QI/S curriculum and the role of the chief resident in quality and patient safety in facilitating it. Method Through the Veterans Administration Graduate Medical Education Enhancement Program, we added a position for a chief resident in quality and patient safety, and 4 full-time equivalent internal medicine residents, to develop the Primary Care Interprofessional Patient-Centered Quality Care Training Curriculum. The curriculum includes a first-or second-year, 1-month block rotation that serves as a foundational experience in QI/S and interprofessional care. The responsibilities of the chief resident in quality and patient safety included organizing and teaching the QI/S curriculum and mentoring resident projects. Evaluation included prerotation and postrotation surveys of self-assessed QI/S knowledge, abilities, skills, beliefs, and commitment (KASBC); an end-of-the-year KASBC; prerotation and postrotation knowledge test; and postrotation and faculty surveys. Results Comparisons of prerotation and postrotation KASBC indicated significant self-assessed improvements in 4 of 5 KASBC domains: knowledge (P?.001), ability (P?.001), skills (P?.001), and belief (P?.03), which were sustained on the end-of-the-year survey. The knowledge test demonstrated increased QI/S knowledge (P??=??.002). Results of the postrotation survey indicate strong satisfaction with the curriculum, with 76% (25 of 33) and 70% (23 of 33) of the residents rating the quality and safety curricula as always or usually educational. Most faculty members acknowledged that the chief resident in quality and patient safety enhanced both faculty and resident QI/S interest and participation in projects. Conclusions Our primary care QI/S curriculum was associated with improved and persistent resident self-perceived knowledge, abilities, and skills and increased knowledge-based scores of QI/S. The chief resident in quality and patient safety played an important role in overseeing the curriculum, teaching, and providing leadership. PMID:24294431
Ivorra, José Andrés Román; Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Navarro, Federico; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; de Miguel, Eugenio; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto
The diagnosis and treatment of early arthritis is associated with improved patient outcomes. One way to achieve this is by organising early arthritis clinics (EACs). The objective of this project was to develop standards of quality for EACs. The standards were developed using the two-round Delphi method. The questionnaire, developed using the best-available scientific evidence, includes potentially relevant items describing the dimensions of quality of care in the EAC. The questionnaire was completed by 26 experts (physicians responsible for the EACs in Spain and chiefs of the rheumatology service in Spanish hospitals). Two hundred and forty-four items (standards) describing the quality of the EAC were developed, grouped by the following dimensions: (1) patient referral to the EAC; (2) standards of structure for an EAC; (3) standards of process; (4) relation between primary care physicians and the EAC; (5) diagnosis and assessment of early arthritis; (6) patient treatment and follow-up in the EAC; (7) research and training in an EAC; and (8) quality of care perceived by the patient. An operational definition of early arthritis was also developed based on eight criteria. The standards developed can be used to measure/establish the requirements, resources, and processes that EACs have or should have to carry out their treatment, research, and educational activities. These standards may be useful to health professionals, patient associations, and health authorities. PMID:23568381
Background Although we are observing a general move towards larger primary care practices, surprisingly little is known about the influence of key components of practice organization on primary care. We aimed to determine the relationships between practice size, and revenue sharing agreements, and quality of care. Methods As part of a large cross sectional study, group practices were randomly selected from different primary care service delivery models in Ontario. Patient surveys and chart reviews were used to assess quality of care. Multilevel regressions controlled for patient, provider and practice characteristics. Results Positive statistically significant associations were found between the logarithm of group size and access, comprehensiveness, and disease prevention. Negative significant associations were found between logarithm group size and continuity. No differences were found for chronic disease management and health promotion. Practices that shared revenues were found to deliver superior health promotion compared to those who did not. Interacting group size with the presence of a revenue-sharing arrangement had a negative impact on health promotion. Conclusions Despite the limitations of our study, our findings have provided preliminary evidence of the tradeoffs inherent with increasing practice size. Larger group size is associated with better access and comprehensiveness but worse continuity of care. Revenue sharing in group practices was associated with higher health promotion compared to sharing only common costs. Further work is required to better inform policy makers and practitioners as to whether the pattern revealed in larger practices mitigates any of the previously reported benefits of continuity of primary care. We found few benefits of revenue sharing – even then the effect of revenue sharing on health promotion seemed diminished in larger practices. PMID:24165413
Bellm, Dan; Haack, Peggy
Although child caregivers make a major contribution to children's development and to the health and well-being of their communities, they remain underpaid and undervalued. Written for entry-level and experienced child care teachers and providers, this book presents information on the child care occupation and includes tools to help teachers and…
This study analyses the market for secondary health care services when patient choice depends on the quality/distance mix that achieves utility maximization. First, the hospital's equilibrium in a Hotelling spatial competition model under simultaneous quality choices is analyzed to define hospitals' strategic behavior. A first equilibrium outcome is provided, the understanding of which is extremely useful for the policy maker wishing to improve social welfare. Second, patients are assumed to be unable, because of asymmetry of information, to observe the true quality provided. Their decisions reflect the perceived quality, which is affected by bias. Using the mean-variance method, the equilibrium previously found is investigated in a stochastic framework. PMID:15791476
Issues and problems related to the needs for quantity and quality in health care have been presented. The need for quantity has been quite successfully addressed in the last 20 years. Better quality of health care is very much in the minds of policy makers, providers and the informed public. Quality assessment and assurance as a programmed and on-going process in individual hospitals is systematically promoted and developed. An accreditation system for hospitals is planned for the future. This paper has not been able to contribute anything of value to the current practice of quality assurance. The industrialized world has passed the stages Indonesia is now going through. To some Australian colleagues, this presentation perhaps has revealed that one of their closest neighbours is struggling hard to improve the quality of life of its people, despite the tremendous problems and constraints with which it is confronted. Australia has always provided a helping hand in this struggle. PMID:2486044
Eggleston, Karen N
Although US health care expenditures reached 17.6 percent of GDP in 2009, quality measurement in this important service sector remains limited. Studying quality changes associated with 11 years of health care for patients ...
Brighton, Brian K
In recent years, the safety, quality, and value of surgical care have become increasingly important to surgeons and hospitals. Quality improvement in surgical care requires the ability to collect, measure, and act upon reliable and clinically relevant data. One example of a large-scale quality effort is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-Pediatric), the only nationwide, risk-adjusted, outcomes-based program evaluating pediatric surgical care. PMID:26049305
Aloi, Joseph A; Mulla, Christopher; Ullal, Jagdeesh; Lieb, David C
The management of inpatient hyperglycemia is a focus of quality improvement projects across many hospital systems while remaining a point of controversy among clinicians. The association of inpatient hyperglycemia with suboptimal hospital outcomes is accepted by clinical care teams; however, the clear benefits of targeting hyperglycemia as a mechanism to improve hospital outcomes remain contentious. Glycemic management is also frequently confused with efforts aimed at intensive glucose control, further adding to the confusion. Nonetheless, several regulatory agencies assign quality rankings based on attaining specified glycemic targets for selected groups of patients (Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures). The current paper reviews the data supporting the benefits associated with inpatient glycemic control projects, the components of a successful glycemic control intervention, and utilization of the electronic medical record in implementing an inpatient glycemic control project. PMID:25715828
... false Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51...
... false Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare...and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51...
... false Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare...AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51...
Campbell, Cathy L.; Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora D.; Lewis, Erica
Diversity in the US population is increasing, and evaluating the quality of culturally sensitive hospice care is important. A survey design was used to collect data from 743 patients enrolled in hospice or their family members or caregivers. Race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with any of the hospice interventions or outcomes. Patients were less likely to be satisfied with the overall hospice care (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.065-0.796, P = .021) compared to other type of respondents. Satisfaction with emotional support was substantially associated with the increased likelihood of satisfaction with pain management (OR = 3.82, 95% CI = 1.66-8.83, P = .002), satisfaction with other symptom management (OR = 6.17, 95% CI = 2.80-13.64, P < .001), and of overall satisfaction with hospice care (OR = 20.22, 95% CI = 8.64-47.35, P < .001). PMID:22952128
Campbell, Cathy L; Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora D; Lewis, Erica
Diversity in the US population is increasing, and evaluating the quality of culturally sensitive hospice care is important. A survey design was used to collect data from 743 patients enrolled in hospice or their family members or caregivers. Race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with any of the hospice interventions or outcomes. Patients were less likely to be satisfied with the overall hospice care (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.065-0.796, P = .021) compared to other type of respondents. Satisfaction with emotional support was substantially associated with the increased likelihood of satisfaction with pain management (OR = 3.82, 95% CI = 1.66-8.83, P = .002), satisfaction with other symptom management (OR = 6.17, 95% CI = 2.80-13.64, P < .001), and of overall satisfaction with hospice care (OR = 20.22, 95% CI = 8.64-47.35, P < .001). PMID:22952128
Chassin, Mark R
Israel has made impressive progress in improving performance on key measures of the quality of health care in the community in recent years. These achievements are all the more notable given Israel's modest overall spending on health care and because they have accrued to virtually the entire population of the country.Health care systems in most developed nations around the world find themselves in a similar position today with respect to health care quality. Despite significantly increased improvement efforts over the past decade, routine safety processes, such as hand hygiene and medication administration, fail routinely at rates of 30% to 50%. People with chronic diseases experience preventable episodes of acute illness that require hospitalization due to medication mix-ups and other failures of outpatient management. Patients continue to be harmed by preventable adverse events, such as surgery on the wrong part of the body and fires in operating theaters. Health care around the world is not nearly as safe as other industries, such as commercial aviation, that have mastered highly effective ways to manage serious hazards.Health care organizations will have to undertake three interrelated changes to get substantially closer to the superlative safety records of other industries: leadership commitment to zero major quality failures, widespread implementation of highly effective process improvement methods, and the adoption of all facets of a culture of safety. Each of these changes represents a major challenge to the way today's health care organizations plan and carry out their daily work. The Israeli health system is in an enviable position to implement these changes. Universal health insurance coverage, the enrolment of the entire population in a small number of health plans, and the widespread use of electronic health records provide advantages available to few other countries.Achieving and sustaining levels of safety comparable to, say, commercial aviation will be a long journey for health care--one we should begin promptly.This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/3/ PMID:22913581
Kamal, Arif H.; Nipp, Ryan D.; Bull, Janet H.; Stinson, Charles S.; Lowery, Ashlei W.; Nicolla, Jonathan M.; Abernethy, Amy P.
Background Measuring quality of care delivery is essential to palliative care program growth and sustainability. We formed the Carolinas Consortium for Palliative Care and collected a quality data registry to monitor our practice and inform quality improvement efforts. Measures We analyzed all palliative care consultations in patients with cancer in our quality registry from March 2008 through October 2011 using 18 palliative care quality measures. Descriptive metric adherence was calculated after analyzing the relevant population for measurement. Intervention We used a paper-based, prospective method to monitor adherence for quality measures in a community-based palliative care consortium. Outcomes We demonstrate that measures evaluating process assessment (range 63-100%), as opposed to interventions (range 3-17%), are better documented. Conclusions/Lessons Learned Analyzing data on quality is feasible and valuable in community-based palliative care. Overall, processes to collect data on quality using non-technology methods may underestimate true adherence to quality measures. PMID:25220048
Aij, Kjeld Harald; Aernoudts, René L M C; Joosten, Gepke
Purpose - This paper aims to assess the impact of the leadership traits of chief executive officers (CEOs) on hospital performance in the USA. The effectiveness and efficiency of the CEO is of critical importance to the performance of any organization, including hospitals. Management systems and manager behaviours (traits) are of crucial importance to any organization because of their connection with organizational performance. To identify key factors associated with the quality of care delivered by hospitals, the authors gathered perceptions of manager traits from chief executive officers (CEOs) and followers in three groups of US hospitals delivering different levels of quality of care performance. Design/methodology/approach - Three high- and three low-performing hospitals were selected from the top and bottom 20th percentiles, respectively, using a national hospital ranking system based on standard quality of care performance measures. Three lean hospitals delivering intermediate performance were also selected. A survey was used to gather perceptions of manager traits (providing a modern or lean management system inclination) from CEOs and their followers in the three groups, which were compared. Findings - Four traits were found to be significantly different (alpha < 0.05) between lean (intermediate-) and low-performing hospitals. The different perceptions between these two hospital groups were all held by followers in the low-performing hospitals and not the CEOs, and all had a modern management inclination. No differences were found between lean (intermediate-) and high-performing hospitals, or between high- and low-performing hospitals. Originality/value - These findings support a need for hospital managers to acquire appropriate traits to achieve lean transformation, support a benefit of measuring manager traits to assess progress towards lean transformation and lend weight to improved quality of care that can be delivered by hospitals adopting a lean system of management. PMID:26083635
Izu, Regina Moromizato
The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.
The National Association for Family Child Care (NAFCC), a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting quality child care, believes that family child care accreditation is the true measure of high-quality family based care. In this article, the author presents the steps made by the NAFCC to accreditation. NAFCC Accreditation is a formal system…
Thomas T. H. Wan
This empirical study of the relationship between nursing care adequacy and nursing care quality demonstrates that a positive relationship exists between the process and outcome dimensions of quality of nursing care. The results from the analysis of national data on nursing homes' deficiencies highlight the importance of conducting a longitudinal study of the effect of nurse staffing and nursing care
Peter Griffiths; Jill Maben; Trevor Murrells
Background An association between quality of care and staffing levels, particularly registered nurses, has been established in acute hospitals. Recently an association between nurse staffing and quality of care for several chronic conditions has also been demonstrated for primary care in English general practice. A smaller body of literature identifies organisational factors, in particular issues of human resource management, as
Anger, Jennifer T.; Scott, Victoria C.S.; Kiyosaki, Krista; Khan, Aqsa A.; Sevilla, Claudia; Connor, Sarah E.; Roth, Carol P.; Litwin, Mark S.; Wenger, Neil S.; Shekelle, Paul G.
Introduction A paucity of data exists addressing the quality of care provided to women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We sought to develop a means to measure this quality through the development of quality-of-care indicators (QIs). Methods QIs were modeled after those previously described in the Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) project. The indicators were then presented to a panel of nine experts. Using the RAND Appropriateness Method, we analyzed each indicator’s preliminary rankings. A forum was then held in which each indicator was thoroughly discussed by the panelists as a group, after which panelists individually re-rated the indicators. QIs with median scores of at least seven were considered valid. Results QIs were developed that addressed screening, diagnosis, work-up, and both nonsurgical and surgical management. Areas of controversy included whether screening should be performed to identify prolapse, whether pessary users should undergo a vaginal exam by a health professional every six months versus annually, and whether a colpocleisis should be offered to older women planning to undergo surgery for POP. Fourteen of 21 potential indicators were rated as valid for pelvic organ prolapse (median score ? 7). Conclusion We developed and rated fourteen potential quality indicators for the care of women with POP. Once these QIs are tested for feasibility they can be used on a larger scale to measure and compare the care provided to women with prolapse in different clinical settings. PMID:23644812
Gaies, Michael; Cooper, David S; Tabbutt, Sarah; Schwartz, Steven M; Ghanayem, Nancy; Chanani, Nikhil K; Costello, John M; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Laussen, Peter C; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Donohue, Janet E; Willis, Gina M; Gaynor, J William; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Ohye, Richard G; Charpie, John R; Pasquali, Sara K; Scheurer, Mark A
Despite many advances in recent years for patients with critical paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, significant variation in outcomes remains across hospitals. Collaborative quality improvement has enhanced the quality and value of health care across specialties, partly by determining the reasons for variation and targeting strategies to reduce it. Developing an infrastructure for collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care holds promise for developing benchmarks of quality, to reduce preventable mortality and morbidity, optimise the long-term health of patients with critical congenital cardiovascular disease, and reduce unnecessary resource utilisation in the cardiac intensive care unit environment. The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) has been modelled after successful collaborative quality improvement initiatives, and is positioned to provide the data platform necessary to realise these objectives. We describe the development of PC4 including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural components that will facilitate collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care. PMID:25167212
Gaies, Michael; Cooper, David S.; Tabbutt, Sarah; Schwartz, Steven M.; Ghanayem, Nancy; Chanani, Nikhil K.; Costello, John M.; Thiagarajan, Ravi R.; Laussen, Peter C.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Donohue, Janet E.; Willis, Gina M.; Gaynor, J. William; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Ohye, Richard G.; Charpie, John R.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Scheurer, Mark A.
Despite many advances in recent years for patients with critical paediatric and congenital cardiac disease, significant variation in outcomes remains across hospitals. Collaborative quality improvement has enhanced the quality and value of health care across specialties, partly by determining the reasons for variation and targeting strategies to reduce it. Developing an infrastructure for collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care holds promise for developing benchmarks of quality, to reduce preventable mortality and morbidity, optimise the long-term health of patients with critical congenital cardiovascular disease, and reduce unnecessary resource utilisation in the cardiac intensive care unit environment. The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) has been modelled after successful collaborative quality improvement initiatives, and is positioned to provide the data platform necessary to realise these objectives. We describe the development of PC4 including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural components that will facilitate collaborative quality improvement in paediatric cardiac critical care. PMID:25167212
Nuño, Miriam; Ly, Diana; Mukherjee, Debraj; Ortega, Alicia; Black, Keith L.; Patil, Chirag G.
Background Thirty-day readmissions post medical or surgical discharge have been analyzed extensively. Studies have shown that complex interactions of multiple factors are responsible for these hospitalizations. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database of newly diagnosed elderly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who underwent surgical resection between 1991 and 2007. Hospitals were classified into high- or low-readmission rate cohorts using a risk-adjusted methodology. Bivariate comparisons of outcomes were conducted. Multivariate analysis evaluated differences in quality of care according to hospital readmission rates. Results A total of 1,273 patients underwent surgery in 338 hospitals; 523 patients were treated in 228 high-readmission hospitals and 750 in 110 low-readmission hospitals. Patient characteristics for high-versus low-readmission hospitals were compared. In a confounder-adjusted model, patients treated in high- versus low-readmission hospitals had similar outcomes. The hazard of mortality for patients treated at high- compared to low-readmission hospitals was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.095%–1.19%). While overall complications were comparable between high- and low-readmission hospitals (16.3% vs 14.3%; P = .33), more postoperative pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis complications were documented in patients treated at high-readmission hospitals (7.5% vs 4.1%; P = .01). Adverse events and levels of resection achieved during surgery were comparable at high- and low-readmission hospitals. Conclusions For patients undergoing GBM resection, quality of care provided by hospitals with the highest adjusted readmission rates was similar to the care delivered by hospitals with the lowest rates. These findings provide evidence against the preconceived notion that 30-day readmissions can be used as a metric for quality of surgical and postsurgical care.
Background Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) defines a condition of varying degrees of pain near the lateral epicondyle. Studies on the management of LE indicated unexplained variations in the use of pharmacologic, non-pharmacological and surgical treatments. The main aim of this paper was to develop and evaluate clinical quality measures (QMs) or quality indicators, which may be used to assess the quality of the processes of examination, education and treatment of patients with LE. Methods Different QMs were developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts in Quality Management of Health Services during a period of one year. The process was based following a 3-step model: i) review and proportion of existing evidence-based recommendations; ii) review and development of quality measures; iii) pilot testing of feasibility and reliability of the indicators leading to a final consensus by the whole panel. Results Overall, a set of 12 potential indicators related to medical and physical therapy assessment and treatment were developed to measure the performance of LE care. Different systematic reviews and randomized control trials supported each of the indicators judged to be valid during the expert panel process. Application of the new indicator set was found to be feasible; only the measurement of two quality measures had light barriers. Reliability was mostly excellent (Kappa?>?0.8). Conclusions A set of good practice indicators has been built and pilot tested as feasible and reliable. The chosen 3-step standardized evidence-based process ensures maximum clarity, acceptance and sustainability of the developed indicators. PMID:24172311
Raikes, H.A.; Raikes, H.H.; Wilcox, B.
Far less is known about predictors of quality for family child care homes than for child care centers. The current study of 120 randomly-selected family child care providers in four Midwestern states examined distal, state policy-level variables (family child care regulations and the concentration of children cared for who received public child…
Modigliani, Kathy; Dunleavey, M. P.
This study compared five popular instruments for assessing the quality of family child care: the Child Development Associate Competency Standards (CDA); the National Association for Family Day Care Assessment Profile (NAFDC); the Child Care Partnership of Dallas Family Day Care Home Observation Instrument; the Louise Child Care Scale for…
Cooperberg, Matthew R; Porter, Michael P; Konety, Badrinath R
The surgical management of clinically localized bladder cancer is challenging, and the quality of care delivered to patients with bladder cancer is a subject of increasing interest. Multiple large studies have examined the association between surgical volume and outcomes after radical cystectomy. These studies generally find lower mortality and complication rates at high-volume centers, though interpretation of the data must be tempered by limitations of the datasets driving the studies. Benefits of regionalization of care also must be weighed against other measures proven to predict outcomes; a delay in time to cystectomy beyond 3 months, for example, is strongly associated with increased mortality. Other candidate process measures supported by existing literature include adequacy of lymphadenectomy as measured by nodal yield and availability or offering of orthotopic diversion when appropriate. Assessment and reporting of bladder cancer outcomes should be risk adjusted based on oncologic risk factors and patient comorbid illness. Perioperative morbidity and mortality, cause-specific survival, and overall survival are all key measures. Assessment of health-related quality of life after bladder cancer treatment should also be standardized for reporting. Multiple survey instruments have been developed in recent years, but none has yet been well validated or widely adopted. In particular, capturing variation in quality of life outcomes between patients undergoing bladder-sparing protocols vs. continent diversion vs. incontinent diversion is an important but difficult goal that has not yet been met. The urologic oncology community should take a strong lead in achieving consensus regarding the definition, assessment, and reporting of quality of care data for bladder cancer. PMID:19573775
WEN-TA CHIU; CHE-MING YANG; HUI-WEN LIN; TU-BIN CHU
Abstract Quality issues.Quality is an increasingly importantissue to the health care sector. The Taiwanese government,also recognizes the need to implement a nationwide health care quality indicator system to strengthen quality surveillance. Choice of solution. In 1999, the Department of Health funded a 2-year project led by the Taiwan Healthcare Executive
Bhatti, Junaid A; Waseem, Hunniya; Razzak, Junaid A; Shiekh, Naeem-Ul-Lah; Khoso, Ajmal Khan; Salmi, L-Rachid
Interurban road crashes often result in severe Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Prehospital emergency care on interurban roads was rarely evaluated in the low- and middle-income countries. The study highlighted the availability and quality of prehospital care facilities on interurban roads in Pakistan, a low-income country. The study setting was a 592-km-long National highway in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Using the questionnaires adapted from the World Health Organization prehospital care guidelines [Sasser et al., 2005], managers and ambulance staff at the stations along highways were interviewed regarding the process of care, supplies in ambulances, and their experience of trauma care. Ambulance stations were either managed by the police or the Edhi Foundation (EF), a philanthropic organization. All highway stations were managed by the EF; the median distance between highway stations was 38 km (Interquartile Range [IQR]=27-46). We visited 14 stations, ten on the highway section, and four in cities, including two managed by the police. Most highway stations (n=13) received one RTI call per day. Half of stations (n=5) were inside highway towns, usually near primary or secondary-level healthcare facilities. Travel time to the nearest tertiary healthcare facility ranged from 31 to 70 minutes (median=48 minutes; IQR=30-60). Other shortcomings noted for stations were not triaging RTI cases (86%), informing hospitals (64%), or recording response times (57%). All ambulances (n=12) had stretchers, but only 58% had oxygen cylinders. The median schooling of ambulance staff (n=13) was 8 years (IQR=3-10), and the median paramedic training was 3 days (IQR=2-3). Observed shortcomings in prehospital care could be improved by public-private partnerships focusing on paramedic training, making available essential medical supplies, and linking ambulance stations with designated healthcare facilities for appropriate RTI triage. PMID:24406963
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General quality of care review procedures. 476.160 Section 476.160 Public...IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Quality Improvement...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General quality of care review procedures. 476.160 Section 476.160 Public...IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality...
Kane, Robert L.; Flood, Shannon; Bershadsky, Boris; Keckhafer, Gail
Purpose: We sought to assess the quality of care provided by an innovative Medicare+Choice HMO targeted specifically at nursing home residents and employing nurse practitioners to provide additional primary care over and above that provided by physicians. The underlying premise of the Evercare approach is that the additional primary care will…
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang
Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…
The current study sought to define best practice for timeliness for a breast cancer program at each diagnostic step. The study was a retrospective review of patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who were enrolled in the breast cancer database from 2009-2011. A convenience sampling methodology was used for patient selection, and descriptive statistics for various time intervals were calculated for identified data points from abnormal imaging to surgery. No evidence-based practice standards exist for access to breast cancer care. Practice guidelines that include benchmarks for quality measures and an established process to measure patient outcomes would promote high-quality care. An understanding of how practice sites function also would help healthcare providers identify and develop resources to improve patient outcomes. In the current study, the advanced practice nurse (APN) in the practice setting was identified as a key point person in facilitating patients' timely access to healthcare services. The physician and APN practice model was instrumental in influencing the process. The results of the current study provided clinical data to identify benchmarks that a breast oncology practice can use to monitor timeliness as a quality indicator. PMID:24476729
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Michael A. Steinman; John W. Peabody; John Z. Ayanian
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in inpatient quality of care are well known. However, whether men and women receive equivalent ambulatory\\u000a care is less well understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To study gender differences in quality of care for patients receiving primary care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care\\u000a System.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional samples of VA enrollees during fiscal years 1999 to 2000.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Samples
Bondurant, Patricia Gorra; Brinkman, Kathleen S
The traditional focus of hospital nurses on the medical concerns of infants and toddlers is expanding to encompass the more global view that integrates the developmental level of each infant/toddler into the nursing care plan. Research on early brain development has supported the focus on developmentally supportive care in the NICU. Nursing support of the early relationship between infant and parent that will influence the infant's future development is part of this process. The integration of developmental care concepts including family-centered care that begins on admission to the NICU may continue into the process of discharge and transition to home. The nurse is in an excellent position to support the family in naming their concerns, their strengths, and the hopes and dreams they have for their infant. Nurses in the NICU, home care, community, and public health increasingly focus on a developmental perspective in their work but will be continually challenged to increase their knowledge and understanding of developmental milestones, neurodevelopmental assessment, and their role in collaborating with the wider world of early intervention. This collaboration includes the health care system, the educational system, and the social service system as equal players. For some nurses, this will be a new experience whereby the responsibility for the child is shared among members of an interdisciplinary team that includes the parents. Nurses are key to providing developmentally supportive care and working collaboratively on behalf of the infants and toddlers and their families. PMID:12914307
A number of reports in the last decade, including the classic Institute of Medicine reports on the quality chasm, have identified key elements and deconstructed processes of care that must be addressed to ensure quality of care. This supplement moves beyond that important initial work in distinguishing between the steps in care that are the usual focus of guidelines to focusing on the connections between these steps that have seldom been examined in research or addressed in practice.
Kalb, Thomas H
This article explores the hypothesis that a telemedicine intensive care unit (Tele-ICU) platform is uniquely suited to facilitate quality performance improvement (PI). This article addresses some substantial hurdles to overcome that may limit the effectiveness of a Tele-ICU platform to achieve PI objectives. Lastly, this article describes the author's experience with a PI project to improve ventilator management conducted via a Tele-ICU hub interacting with 11 geographically dispersed ICUs. Using this example to illustrate the concepts, the author hopes to shed some light on the successes and lessons learned so as to generate best-practice guidelines for Tele-ICU-directed PI initiatives. PMID:25814453
Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC) practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30) were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were willing to participate in and consent to, the collection and linkage of information from multiple sources that would be required for such assessments. PMID:22824551
Schnelle, John F.; Osterweil, Dan; Simmons, Sandra F.
Nursing home medical-record documentation of daily-care occurrence may be inaccurate, and information is not documented about important quality-of-life domains. The inadequacy of medical record data creates a barrier to improving care quality, because it supports an illusion of care consistent with regulations, which reduces the motivation and…
Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane; Christianna S. Williams; Peter S. Reed; John S. Preisser; J. Kevin Eckert; Malaz Boustani; Debra Dobbs
Purpose: There are few empirical studies relating components of long-term care to quality of life for residents with dementia. This study relates elements of dementia care in residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/ AL) facilities and nursing homes to resident quality of life and considers the guidance this information provides for practice and policy. Design and Methods: We used a variety of
Elizabeth M. Yano; Barbara F. Simon; Andrew B. Lanto; Lisa V. Rubenstein
At the heart of the Institute of Medicine's re- port Crossing the Quality Chasm was the need to address the improvement of quality of care through major changes in how health care is organized. 1 The Institute of Medicine's central tenet was that only through significant, sus- tained, and innovative efforts to reorganize the health care system were substantive gains
Ruhe, Mary C.; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Litaker, David; Carter, Caroline A.; Wu, Laura; Schroeder, Casey; Zyzanski, Stephen; Weyer, Sharon M.; Werner, James J.; Fry, Ronald E.; Stange, Kurt C.
Purpose To test the effect of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) quality improvement strategy, on clinical quality management and practice development outcomes. AI enables discovery of shared motivations, envisioning a transformed future, and learning around implementation of a change process. Methods Thirty diverse primary care practices were randomly assigned to receive an AI-based intervention focused on a practice-chosen topic and on improving preventive service delivery (PSD) rates. Medical record review assessed change in PSD rates. Ethnographic fieldnotes and observational checklist analysis used editing and immersion/crystallization methods to identify factors affecting intervention implementation and practice development outcomes. Results PSD rates did not change. Field note analysis suggested that the intervention elicited core motivations, facilitated development of a shared vision, defined change objectives and fostered respectful interactions. Practices most likely to implement the intervention or develop new practice capacities exhibited one or more of the following: support from key leader(s), a sense of urgency for change, a mission focused on serving patients, health care system and practice flexibility, and a history of constructive practice change. Conclusions An AI approach and enabling practice conditions can lead to intervention implementation and practice development by connecting individual and practice strengths and motivations to the change objective. PMID:21192206
Oladapo, O T; Durojaiye, B O
A retrospective study was conducted at a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess the quality of emergency care provided to women managed for a ruptured uterus over an 11-year period. There were 76 cases of ruptured uterus and 4,770 deliveries (1.6%) during the period. Ten women died from a ruptured uterus, giving a case fatality rate of 13.2%. The mean admission-assessment interval by a senior clinician was 48.4 min. The mean decision-laparotomy interval was 6.9 h. Deviations from management protocol were noted in 66 women (86.8%) and underlying reasons were classified as patient-orientated (59.2%), medical personnel (13.2%) and administrative (22.4%) problems. Among women who died, there were more administrative problems, intraoperative and total blood losses were significantly more and preoperative haematocrit was significantly less compared with survivors. The poor quality of care for ruptured uterus in this centre is attributable to patients' financial limitations, which is compounded by administrative problems, particularly those regarding inefficient blood transfusion services. This study demonstrates the urgent need for implementation of a national health insurance scheme at this centre and reiterates the feasibility of employing detailed enquiry of peripartal circumstances to identify specific problems underlying major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:20373929
Clark, David D; Savitz, Lucy A; Pingree, Scott B
Intermountain Healthcare is a high-performing health system and a recognized leader in quality improvement. We use a clinical integration strategy focused on eight clinical programs to support the practice of evidence-based care. Accelerated improvements that enhance patient safety, clinical excellence, and operational efficiency are tested and then spread across the system via care process models and program-specific board goals. While we have nearly 60 evidence-based care process models in place (in addition to multiple operational effectiveness initiatives), we provide three exemplars to illustrate cost savings and the relative impact on hospital/medical group versus payer benefit. These clinical best practices include very early lung recruitment (VE LR) for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, guidelines for elective inductions in labor and delivery, and prevention of congestive heart failure (CHF) readmissions. Due to perverse incentives in the third party payment system--where healthcare providers are often paid to do more tests and treatments as opposed to providing clinical value--doing what's right for our patients commonly yields savings to our payers while negatively impacting the delivery system budget. In this article, we present a suggested strategy for negotiated capture of these savings. PMID:21449483
Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Howald, Angela E.; Wosje, Karen S.
Abstract Background Most young children are in child care. Previous studies suggest that children may receive insufficient vegetables, and foods and beverages with added sugars, fats, and sodium in these settings. None have compared the nutritional quality of meals to snacks. Methods Directors from 258 full-day child-care centers in two urban counties of southwestern Ohio were surveyed via telephone in the fall of 2009 about their nutrition practices, and asked to provide a current menu. Lunch and afternoon snack menus were categorized according to average weekly frequency for fruits, vegetables, lean meats, juice (100%), and sweet or salty foods served. Frequencies were compared by meal occasion (lunch vs. snack) using the Fisher exact test. Results Most (60%) directors reported serving 2% milk to children ?3 years; 31% served whole milk. Menu analysis demonstrated the composition of lunches differed from snacks (p<0.0001) in all food categories. A total of 87% centers rarely (<1 time per week) listed nonstarchy vegetables for snacks, but 67% of centers included them at lunch ?3 times per week. Juice (100%) was on snack menus >2 times per week in 37% centers, but in only 1 center as a regular component of lunch. Similarly, 87% centers listed sweet and salty foods at snack ?3 times per week, but rarely at lunch. Conclusions Despite efforts to improve children's diets in child care, meals—and particularly snacks—still lack whole fruits and nonstarchy vegetables and contain added sugars and fats. Snacks represent a missed opportunity to improve the nutritional quality of foods served in childcare. PMID:23635311
Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Hense, Cherry; McFerran, Katrina
Research into the value of music therapy in pediatric palliative care (PPC) has identified quality of life as one area of improvement for families caring for a child in the terminal stages of a life-threatening illness. This small-scale investigation collected data in a multisite, international study including Minnesota, USA, and Melbourne, Australia. An exploratory mixed method design used the qualitative data collected through interviews with parents to interpret results from the PedsQL Family Impact Module of overall parental quality of life. Parents described music therapy as resulting in physical improvements of their child by providing comfort and stimulation. They also valued the positive experiences shared by the family in music therapy sessions that were strength oriented and family centered. This highlighted the physical and communication scales within the PedsQL Family Impact Module, where minimal improvements were achieved in contrast to some strong results suggesting diminished quality of life in cognitive and daily activity domains. Despite the significant challenges faced by parents during this difficult time, parents described many positive experiences in music therapy, and the overall score for half of the parents in the study did not diminish. The value of music therapy as a service that addresses the family-centered agenda of PPC is endorsed by this study. PMID:22144660
Singh, Divya Pal
Background: The main focus of palliative care services is to improve the patient’s quality of life (QOL), which is defined as the subjective evaluation of life as a whole or the patient’s appraisal and satisfaction with their current level of functioning compared with what they perceive to be possible or ideal. Aims: In this prospective study we attempt to validate the Hindi version of a questionnaire designed by the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy (FACIT) measurement system; to measure the subjective QOL of cancer patients receiving home-based palliative care, determine ease of use of the questionnaire and correlate the QOL of these patients with the objective assessment of their Karnofsky’s performance status and their numerical pain score. Settings and Design: One hundred cancer patients receiving free home-based palliative care in New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary palliative home care team using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G©) questionnaire in Hindi. Statistical Analysis Used: Microsoft Excel Correlation. Results: The FACT-G© questionnaire in Hindi is a useful tool in measuring QOL and can be used to monitor the patient’s progress and symptom control during the course of the disease. It is simple to use and does not take too much time to complete. The results are tabulated in English and can be used for comparison purposes globally; the scoring process is very simple. Conclusions: Increasing QOL and KPS showed a positive correlation whereas increasing pain and better QOL show negative correlation, as do better performance status and increasing pain score. PMID:20859470
Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B.; Bozeman, Samuel R.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; McNeil, Barbara J.
Background Despite the widespread use of tumor boards, few data on their effects on cancer care exist. We assessed whether the presence of a tumor board, either general or cancer specific, was associated with recommended cancer care, outcomes, or use in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system. Methods We surveyed 138 VA medical centers about the presence of tumor boards and linked cancer registry and administrative data to assess receipt of stage-specific recommended care, survival, or use for patients with colorectal, lung, prostate, hematologic, and breast cancers diagnosed in the period from 2001 to 2004 and followed through 2005. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations of tumor boards with the measures, adjusting for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Most facilities (75%) had at least one tumor board, and many had several cancer-specific tumor boards. Presence of a tumor board was associated with only seven of 27 measures assessed (all P < .05), and several associations were not in expected directions. Rates of some recommended care (eg, white blood cell growth factors with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were lower in centers with hematologic-specialized tumor boards (39.4%) than in centers with general tumor boards (61.3%) or no tumor boards (56.4%; P = .002). Only one of 27 measures was statistically significantly associated with tumor boards after applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions We observed little association of multidisciplinary tumor boards with measures of use, quality, or survival. This may reflect no effect or an effect that varies by structural and functional components and participants’ expertise. PMID:23274388
Kristen K. McNiff; Michael N. Neuss; Joseph O. Jacobson; Peter D. Eisenberg; Pamela Kadlubek; Joseph V. Simone
We provide a brief review of the use of quality measures to assess supportive care in the medical oncology office. Specifically, we discuss the development and implementation of supportive care measures in the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI), a voluntary quality measurement and improvement program of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. QOPI has demonstrated that medical oncologists voluntarily engage
Anthony G. Munton; Ann Mooney; Linda Rowland
This paper argues that continuous training for child care staff is an important element in improving quality of day care provision. Evidence from the day care field, the school effectiveness literature and adult education is cited. Theories of education and learning are used to examine the design of effective approaches to training for day care providers. More specifically, Kolb's model
Blue Shield ensures uninterrupted access to quality medical care after Palm Drive Hospital ceases emergency care and in-patient care at Palm Drive. We are working with our members to ensure a smooth of California member in the Sonoma County area seeking emergency medical services or inpatient care, please
Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ward, Marcia; Miller, Thomas; Ohsfeldt, Robert; Jaana, Mirou; Lei, Yang; Tracy, Roger; Schneider, John
Obtaining meaningful information from statistically valid and reliable measures of the quality of care for disease-specific care provided in small rural hospitals is limited by small numbers of cases and different definitive care capacities. An alternative approach may be to aggregate and analyze patient services that reflect more generalized care…
Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael
Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…
Five pioneers had a huge impact on the quality movement in health care in the United States. Ernest Codman contributed in many ways, including his focus on outcome analysis. Avidis Donabedian is known for his focus on the 3 domains of structure, process, and outcome in health care. Walter Shewhart is known especially for the control chart and early work on what W. Edwards Deming made into the PDSA cycle. Deming is also known for other contributions, including his 14 points of management, correcting system problems rather than blaming the workers, and his System of Profound Knowledge. Juran is known for the Pareto principle and his emphasis on customer satisfaction and addressing the human, not just statistical side, of quality improvement. PMID:26147460
Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Zeytinoglu, Isik; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Barken, Rachel
Growing healthcare costs have caused home-care providers to look for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Task shifting is suggested as a strategy to reduce the costs of delivering home-care services. Task shifting refers to the delegation or transfer of tasks from regulated healthcare professionals to home-care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care provided to older adults from the perspectives of home healthcare workers. This qualitative study was completed in collaboration with a large home and community care organisation in Ontario, Canada, in 2010-2011. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 home healthcare workers including HCWs, home-care worker supervisors, nurses and therapists. Study participants reported that the most common skills transferred or delegated to HCWs were transfers, simple wound care, exercises, catheterisation, colostomies, compression stockings, G-tube feeding and continence care. A thematic analysis of the data revealed mixed opinions on the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care. HCWs and their supervisors, more often than nurses and therapists, felt that task shifting improved the quality of care through the provision of more consistent care; the development of trust-based relationships with clients; and because task shifting reduced the number of care providers entering the client's home. Nurses followed by therapists, as well as some supervisors and HCWs, expressed concerns that task shifting might compromise the quality of care because HCWs lacked the knowledge, training and education necessary for more complex tasks, and that scheduling problems might leave clients with inconsistent care once tasks are delegated or transferred. Policy implications for regulating bodies, employers, unions and educators are discussed. PMID:25471361
Gressel, Justin W
This research aims to increase transparency and simplify consumer decision-making regarding the selection of a home health care provider. Currently, quality information on home health care providers is fragmented and difficult to interpret. In this study, a quality-ranking model is developed by selecting multidimensional quality indicators across multiple sources and respective weights using expert judgment. Given the weights and providers' performance on each quality indicator, a composite score is calculated that summarizes a home health care provider's overall quality level. This quality information empowers consumers to narrow their search and select the best-performing, most efficient providers. PMID:23924223
Perez, Debra; Ang, Alfonso; Vega, William A.
insurance among low income people. 5 Health care disparitieslow education and income statuses, and having variable English language proficiency, are important determinants in understanding disparities in the quality of health care
Nelson, Judith E.; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Walker, Amy S.; McAdam, Jennifer L.; Ilaoa, Debra; Penrod, Joan
Objective Although the majority of hospital deaths occur in the intensive care unit and virtually all critically ill patients and their families have palliative needs, we know little about how patients and families, the most important “stakeholders,” define high-quality intensive care unit palliative care. We conducted this study to obtain their views on important domains of this care. Design Qualitative study using focus groups facilitated by a single physician. Setting A 20-bed general intensive care unit in a 382-bed community hospital in Oklahoma; 24-bed medical–surgical intensive care unit in a 377-bed tertiary, university hospital in urban California; and eight-bed medical intensive care unit in a 311-bed Veterans’ Affairs hospital in a northeastern city. Patients Randomly-selected patients with intensive care unit length of stay ?5 days in 2007 to 2008 who survived the intensive care unit, families of survivors, and families of patients who died in the intensive care unit. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Focus group facilitator used open-ended questions and scripted probes from a written guide. Three investigators independently coded meeting transcripts, achieving consensus on themes. From 48 subjects (15 patients, 33 family members) in nine focus groups across three sites, a shared definition of high-quality intensive care unit palliative care emerged: timely, clear, and compassionate communication by clinicians; clinical decision-making focused on patients’ preferences, goals, and values; patient care maintaining comfort, dignity, and personhood; and family care with open access and proximity to patients, interdisciplinary support in the intensive care unit, and bereavement care for families of patients who died. Participants also endorsed specific processes to operationalize the care they considered important. Conclusions Efforts to improve intensive care unit palliative care quality should focus on domains and processes that are most valued by critically ill patients and their families, among whom we found broad agreement in a diverse sample. Measures of quality and effective interventions exist to improve care in domains that are important to intensive care unit patients and families. PMID:20198726
Dash, Sarah J; Corlette, Sabrina; Thomas, Amy
Under the Affordable Care Act, the health insurance marketplaces can encourage improvements in health care quality by: allowing consumers to compare plans based on quality and value, setting common quality improvement requirements for qualified health plans, and collecting quality and cost data to inform improvements. This issue brief reviews actions taken by state-based marketplaces to improve health care quality in three areas: 1) using selective contracting to drive quality and delivery system reforms; 2) informing consumers about plan quality; and 3) collecting data to inform quality improvement. Thirteen state-based marketplaces took action to promote quality improvement and delivery system reforms through their marketplaces in 2014. Although technical and operational challenges remain, marketplaces have the potential to drive systemwide changes in health care delivery. PMID:25115034
John P. Hirdes; Brant E. Fries; John N. Morris; Naoki Ikegami; David Zimmerman; Dawn M. Dalby; Pablo Aliaga; Suzanne Hammer; Richard Jones
Purpose: This study aimed to develop home care quality indicators (HCQIs) to be used by a variety of audiences including consumers, agencies, regulators, and policy makers to support evidence-based de- cision making related to the quality of home care services. Design and Methods: Data from 3,041 Canadian and 11,252 U.S. home care clients assessed with the Minimum Data Set—Home Care
The NIH Roadmap and National Cancer Institute strategic plans repeatedly emphasize the importance of involving health care systems in research. Integrated care delivery systems can address key research questions that cannot be answered in other types of settings. Research in this setting can lead to essential insights about the quality of care, including the quality of cancer care and how best to improve patient outcomes.
Ioannidis, George; Thabane, Lehana; Gafni, Amiram; Hodsman, Anthony; Kvern, Brent; Johnstone, Dan; Plumley, Nathalie; Salach, Lena; Jiwa, Famida; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra
Background While the Osteoporosis Canada 2002 Canadian guidelines provided evidence based strategies in preventing, diagnosing, and managing this condition, publication and distribution of guidelines have not, in and of themselves, been shown to alter physicians clinical approaches. We hypothesize that primary care physicians enrolled in the Quality Circle project would change their patient management of osteoporosis in terms of awareness of osteoporosis risk factors and bone mineral density testing in accordance with the guidelines. Methods The project consisted of five Quality Circle phases that included: 1) Training & Baseline Data Collection, 2) First Educational Intervention & First Follow-Up Data Collection 3) First Strategy Implementation Session, 4) Final Educational Intervention & Final Follow-up Data Collection, and 5) Final Strategy Implementation Session. A total of 340 circle members formed 34 quality circles and participated in the study. The generalized estimating equations approach was used to model physician awareness of risk factors for osteoporosis and appropriate utilization of bone mineral density testing pre and post educational intervention (first year of the study). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results After the 1st year of the study, physicians' certainty of their patients' risk factor status increased. Certainty varied from an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) for prior vertebral fracture status to 6.3 (95% CI: 2.3, 17.9) for prior hip fracture status. Furthermore, bone mineral density testing increased in high risk as compared with low risk patients (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7). Conclusion Quality Circle methodology was successful in increasing both physicians' awareness of osteoporosis risk factors and appropriate bone mineral density testing in accordance with the 2002 Canadian guidelines. PMID:18828906
Vituri, Dagmar Willamowius; Matsuda, Laura Misue
The objective of this study is to perform the content validation often Nursing Care Quality Indicators in Adverse Event Prevention. Nine experts took part in this study and answered three forms. The results appointed the validity of the indicators, but with reformulations. The process yielded twelve indicators: identification of the patient's bed; identification of the risk of falling out of bed; Identification of peripheral venous accesses; Verification of skin lesions after infiltrations; Identification of venous infusion equipment; Identification of serum bottles and infusion speed control; Identification of peptic probes; Fixation of vesical delay probe and positioning of the urine collection bag; Checking of Procedures in Nursing Prescription; Control of Vital Signs; Checking of Nursing Procedures in Medical Prescription and Nursing elaboration of daily and complete prescription. The results confirm that the content validation procedure is indispensable for the development of evaluative measures. PMID:19655686
Lengnick-Hall, C A
Health care enterprises make comprehensive and durable changes in people. This human-centered purpose defines the fundamental nature of quality in health care settings. Traditional perspectives of quality and familiar views of customer satisfaction are inadequate to manage the complex relationships between the health care delivery firm and its patients. Patients play four roles in health care systems that must be reflected when defining and measuring quality in these settings: patient as supplier, patient as product, patient as participant, and patient as recipient. This article presents a conceptual model of quality that incorporates these diverse patient roles. The strategic and managerial implications of the model are also discussed. PMID:10140872
Rebecca F. Van Vorst; Lori A. Crane; Phoebe Lindsey Barton; Jean S. Kutner; K. James Kallail; John M. Westfall
Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel ' s perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self- administered survey was sent to health care personnel throughout 2 rural practice-based research
Gonzales, C Q
In summary, lessons learned from past efforts point the way for the success of future initiatives. There continues to be a pronounced lack of URM applicants who gain entry into the nation's health professions schools. This shortfall may be attributed in part to inadequate academic preparation, and to a lack of awareness of health care careers and knowledge of financial aid resources. Communities and institutions have established model programs to address the problem of poor academic preparation. To this end, there is considerable understanding and commitment by federal, state, and local governments, which are now focusing their resources on the training and education of students in the early stages of the educational pipeline. The private sector also has recognized the importance of the changing demographics of the workforce and how it impacts the national economy. Therefore, the private sector is aggressively investing resources in the training, education, and quality of health care provided for ethnic and racial minority groups. The solution is to work hand in hand to ensure ever-increasing numbers of competitive students from URM backgrounds in the overall applicant pool for medicine and other health professions. PMID:10219193
Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline
The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…
Kralewski, John E; Dowd, Bryan E; Xu, Yi Wendy
A major feature of many new contracts between providers and payers is shared savings programs, in which providers can earn a percentage of the savings if the cost of the care they provide is lower than the projected cost. Unless providers are also held accountable for meeting quality benchmarks, some observers fear that these programs could erode quality of care by rewarding only cost savings. We estimated the effects on Medicare expenditures of improving the quality of care for patients with diabetes. Analyzing 234 practices that provided care for 133,703 diabetic patients, we found a net savings of $51 per patient with diabetes per year for every one-percentage-point increase in a score of the quality of care. Cholesterol testing for all versus none of a practice's patients with diabetes, for example, was associated with a dramatic drop in avoidable hospitalizations. These results show that improving the quality of care for patients with diabetes does save money. PMID:22869662
Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan
Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample of 12 directors from NQCCs who were recruited from 12 provinces in China to evaluate the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: 1) lag of evaluation index; 2) limitations of evaluation content; 3) simplicity of evaluation method; 4) excessive emphasis on terminal quality. Conclusion: It is of great realistic significance to ameliorate nursing quality evaluation criteria, modify the evaluation content based on patient needs-oriented idea, adopt scientific evaluation method to evaluate nursing quality, and scientifically and reasonably draw horizontal comparisons of nursing quality between hospitals, as well as longitudinal comparisons of a hospital’s nursing quality. These methods mentioned above can all enhance a hospital’s core competitiveness and benefit more patients. PMID:25419427
Stock, Stephanie; Pitcavage, James M; Simic, Dusan; Altin, Sibel; Graf, Christian; Feng, Wen; Graf, Thomas R
Improving the quality of care for chronic diseases is an important issue for most health care systems in industrialized nations. One widely adopted approach is the Chronic Care Model (CCM), which was first developed in the late 1990s. In this article we present the results from two large surveys in the United States and Germany that report patients' experiences in different models of patient-centered diabetes care, compared to the experiences of patients who received routine diabetes care in the same systems. The study populations were enrolled in either Geisinger Health System in Pennsylvania or Barmer, a German sickness fund that provides medical insurance nationwide. Our findings suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in the care models that exhibited key features of the CCM were more likely to receive care that was patient-centered, high quality, and collaborative, compared to patients who received routine care. This study demonstrates that quality improvement can be realized through the application of the Chronic Care Model, regardless of the setting or distinct characteristics of the program. PMID:25201658
Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok
Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents’ and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-perceived service quality were job satisfaction and degree of consent on national evaluation criteria. National evaluation results on long-term care hospitals and work environment also had positive effects on service quality. Conclusion The findings of the study show that organizational characteristics are significant determinants of service quality in long-term care hospitals. Assessment of the extent to which hospitals address factors related to employeeperceived quality of services could be the first step in quality improvement activities. Results have implications for efforts to improve service quality in longterm care hospitals and designing more comprehensive national evaluation criteria. PMID:24159497
Colosia, Ann D; Peltz, Gerson; Pohl, Gerhardt; Liu, Esther; Copley-Merriman, Kati; Khan, Shahnaz; Kaye, James A
BACKGROUND It is important to maintain high-quality cancer care while reducing spending. This requires an understanding of how stakeholders define “quality.” The objective of this literature review was to understand the perceptions patients, physicians, and managed care professionals have about quality cancer care, especially chemotherapy. METHODS A computerized literature search was conducted for articles concerning quality cancer care in patients who received chemotherapy. Among >1100 identified sources, 25 presented interviews/survey results from stakeholders. RESULTS Patients defined quality cancer care as being treated well by providers, having multiple treatment options, and being part of the decision-making process. Waiting to see providers, having problems with referrals, going to different locations for treatment, experiencing billing inaccuracies, and navigating managed care reimbursement negatively affected patients' quality-of-care perceptions. Providers perceived quality cancer care as making decisions based on the risks-benefits of specific chemotherapy regimens and patients' health status rather than costs. Providers objected to spending substantial time interacting with payers instead of delivering care to patients. Payers must control the costs of cancer care but do not want an adversarial relationship with providers and patients. Payers' methods of managing cancer more efficiently involved working with providers to develop assessment and decision-assist tools. CONCLUSIONS Delivering quality cancer care is increasingly difficult because of the shortage of oncologists and rising costs of chemotherapy agents, radiation therapy, and imaging tests. The definition of quality cancer care differed among stakeholders, and healthcare reform must reflect these various needs to maintain and improve quality while controlling costs. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society PMID:20939015
Burney, Ikram A; Al Moundhri, Mansour S; Rizvi, Azhar J; Ganguly, Shyam S; Al Abri, Rashid; Ashrafi, Rafi A
Objectives: Measurement of outcomes is increasingly employed as an indicator of the quality of clinical care. The most commonly measured outcome in many clinical studies, especially in oncology, still remains the overall survival rate. Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, is striving for excellence through quality management. In seeking continual improvement, quality measurement exercises have been initiated throughout the Hospital. We present the overall survival rate of four of the ten most common cancers diagnosed in Oman. Methods: The cancers included non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), breast cancer, and stomach cancer. The studies were all retrospective and had been conducted previously. For present purposes, only the overall survival was compared with studies both from the region, and with bench-mark studies. Results: For NHL, with a median follow-up of 8 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 64%; 90% for low risk, 55% for intermediate risk, and 15% for high risk groups. For HL, the 5-year overall survival rate was 64%; 76% for low risk and 42% for high risk. For breast cancer, the 5-year survival rate was 67%; percentages were 88%, 75% and 59% for Groups I, II, and III respectively. For gastric cancer, the 5-year survival rate was 16.5 %; 24% for the non-metastatic group. Conclusion: The outcome of patients with early stages and fewer adverse prognostic factors is comparable to what has been reported in the international literature; however, the outcome is inferior for patients presenting with advanced stage disease and several adverse prognostic factors. PMID:21654954
Richard A. Mularski; J. Randall Curtis; J. Andrew Billings; Robert Burt; Ira Byock; Cathy Fuhrman; Anne C. Mosenthal; Justine Medina; Daniel E. Ray; Gordon D. Rubenfeld; Lawrence J. Schneiderman; Patsy D. Treece; Robert D. Truog; Mitchell M. Levy
For critically ill patients and their loved ones, high-quality health care includes the provision of excellent palliative care. To achieve this goal, the healthcare system needs to identify, mea- sure, and report specific targets for quality palliative care for critically ill or injured patients. Our objective was to use a con- sensus process to develop a preliminary set of quality
Developing a Patient Care Co-ordination Centre in Trafford, England: lessons from the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC)/Advancing Quality Alliance integrated care fellowship experience
The NHS and Social Care in England are facing one of the biggest financial challenges for a generation. Commissioners and providers need to work on collaborative schemes to manage the increasing demand on health and social care within a period of financial constraint. Different forms of care co-ordination have been developed at different levels across the world. In the north-west of England, the Trafford health and social care economy have been working through a competitive dialogue process with industry to develop an innovative and dynamic solution to deliver seamless co-ordination for all patients and service users. The strategy is to develop a new Patient Care Co-ordination Centre, which will be responsible for the delivery of co-ordinated, quality care. The Patient Care Co-ordination Centre will work at clinical, service, functional and community levels across multiple providers covering risk stratification, preventative, elective and unscheduled care. I am the clinical lead for the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre and during my year as an Advancing Quality Alliance Integrated Care Fellow, I have had the opportunity to study examples of care coordination from UK and international sites. The learning from these visits has been assimilated into the design process of the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre.
Badawi, Dalia; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil; Mourad, Yara; Behbehani, Kazem
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the major public health challenges, affecting more than 347 million adults worldwide. The impact of diabetes necessitates assessing the quality of care received by people with diabetes, especially in countries with a significant diabetes burden such as Kuwait. This paper aimed at piloting an approach for measuring Type II diabetes care performance through the use of a diabetes quality indicator set (DQIS) in primary health care. The DQIS for Kuwait was adapted from that developed by the National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance and the International Diabetes Federation. Five key care domains/measures were employed: (1) Blood glucose level measurement, (2) Cholesterol level measurement, (3) Blood pressure measurement, (4) Kidney function testing and (5) Smoking status check. The sample included the four major primary health care centers with the highest case load in Kuwait City, 4,241 patients in 2012 and 3,211 in 2010. Findings revealed the applicability and utility of employing performance indicators for diabetes care in Kuwait. Furthermore, findings revealed that many of the primary health care centers have achieved noteworthy improvement in diabetes care between 2010 and 2012, with the exception of smoking status check. The DQIS can help policymakers identify performance gaps and investigate key system roadblocks related to diabetes care in Kuwait. PMID:26176691
Levenson, Steven A
There is a pervasive effort to reform nursing homes and improve the care they provide. Many people are trying to educate and inform nursing homes and their staff, practitioners, and management about what to do and not do, and how to do it. But only some of that advice is sound. After more than 3 decades of such efforts, and despite evidence of improvement in many facets of care, there are still many issues. Despite improvements, the overall public, political, and health professional perception of nursing homes is often still negative. To date, no tactic or approach has succeeded nationwide in consistently facilitating good performance or correcting poor performance. Only some of the current efforts to try to improve nursing home quality and to measure it are on target. Many of the measures used to assess the quality of performance have limited value in guiding overall quality improvement. Before we can reform nursing homes, we must understand what needs to be reformed. This series of articles has focused on what is needed for safe, effective, efficient, and person-centered care. Ultimately, all efforts to improve nursing home care quality must be matched against the critical elements needed to provide desirable care. Based on the discussions in the previous 2 articles, this third article in this 4-part series considers 5 key elements of care processes and practices that can help attain multiple desirable quality objectives. PMID:19883881
Reed, J.; Lyne, M.
OBJECTIVES: To assess, as part of wider inspections by HM Inspectorate of Prisons, the extent and quality of health care in prisons in England and Wales. DESIGN: Inspections based on a set of "expectations" derived mainly from existing healthcare quality standards published by the prison service and existing ethical guidelines; questionnaire survey of prisoners. SUBJECTS: 19 prisons in England and Wales, 1996-7. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Appraisals of needs assessment and the commissioning and delivery of health care against the inspectorate's expectations. RESULTS: The quality of health care varied greatly. A few prisons provided health care broadly equivalent to NHS care, but in many the health care was of low quality, some doctors were not adequately trained to do the work they faced, and some care failed to meet proper ethical standards. Little professional support was available to healthcare staff. CONCLUSIONS: The current policy for improving health care in prisons is not likely to achieve its objectives and is potentially wasteful. The prison service needs to recognise that expertise in the commissioning and delivery of health care is overwhelming based in the NHS. The current review of the provision of health care in prisons offers an opportunity to ensure that prisoners are not excluded from high quality health care. PMID:9418090
Nickrent, Daniel L.
and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. The SIU Student Health Initiative is a public education and policySIU Student Health Initiative Working for quality and affordable student heath care at Southern an interest in providing quality affordable healthcare to students and that a Student Insurance Task Force
Marsha L. Lesley; Marilyn H. Oermann; Jillon S. Vander Wal
This study examined the effectiveness of using the Internet to teach consumers about quality health care, compared consumer definitions of quality health care prior to and following completion of the Internet experience, and compared ratings of learning, satisfaction and value of the Internet instruction between consumers who completed the Internet intervention alone and consumers who completed the Internet intervention and
Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li
Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…
Hagy, Alison P.
An implicit price for child care staff-to-child ratio was used to study demand for child care quality. Direct purchase-of-service contracts or vouchers, which subsidize only providers meeting state regulations, effectively lower implicit price and have little influence on the demand for quality. (Author/SK)
M. Simbar; Z. Alizadeh Dibazari; J. Abed Saeidi; H. Alavi Majd
Purpose – Despite 77 per cent antenatal care coverage and 90 per cent skilled attendant at delivery, adjusted maternal mortality in Iran is 76 per 100,000 births. Low quality of maternal health services is one cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. However, few and limited studies have been devoted to the quality of postpartum care in Iran. This study aims
Germano Mwabu; Martha Ainsworth; Andrew Nyamete
Underutilization of medical facilities in African countries is widely believed to be a result of consumer disappointments with quality of care. This paper uses data from a randomized household survey, enriched with exogenous information on health facility attributes, to examine more deeply the quality factor in health care demand in rural Kenya. We find that broad availability of drugs in
Lesley, Marsha L.; Oermann, Marilyn H.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.
This study examined the effectiveness of using the Internet to teach consumers about quality health care, compared consumer definitions of quality health care prior to and following completion of the Internet experience, and compared ratings of learning, satisfaction and value of the Internet instruction between consumers who completed the…
Carlos M Soto; Kenneth P Kleinman; Steven R Simon
BACKGROUND: Documentation in the medical record facilitates the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Few studies have assessed the quality of outpatient medical record documentation, and to the authors' knowledge, none has conclusively determined the correlates of chart documentation. We therefore undertook the present study to measure the rates of documentation of quality of care measures in an outpatient primary care
Jun, M; Peterson, R T; Zsidisin, G A
The identification and measurement of service quality are critical factors that are responsible for customer satisfaction. This article identifies 11 attributes that define quality of care and patient satisfaction and reveals various gaps among the patient, physician, and administrator groups in the perceived importance of those dimensions. Managerial implications for patient-focused health care are discussed. PMID:9803321
Patten, Peggy; Ricks, Omar Benton
Many parents want to know how important the quality of care is to children's social, emotional, and academic development. This Digest synthesizes some major recent research on child care quality. First, the Digest explains what features contribute to quality of care. The Digest also explains the differences between studies of how quality is…
Salanitro, Amanda H.; Safford, Monika M.; Houston, Thomas K.; Williams, Jessica H.; Ovalle, Fernando; Payne-Foster, Pamela; Allison, Jeroan J.; Estrada, Carlos A.
Purpose Even though pay-for-performance programs are being rapidly implemented, little is known about how patient complexity affects practice-level performance assessment in rural settings. We sought to determine the association between patient complexity and practice-level performance in the rural United States. Basic procedures Using baseline data from a trial aimed at improving diabetes care, we determined factors associated with a practice’s proportion of patients having controlled diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ?7%): patient socioeconomic factors, clinical factors, difficulty with self-testing of blood glucose, and difficulty with keeping appointments. We used linear regression to adjust the practice-level proportion with A1c controlled for these factors. We compared practice rankings using observed and expected performance and classified practices into hypothetical pay-for-performance categories. Main Findings Rural primary care practices (n = 135) in 11 southeastern states provided information for 1641 patients with diabetes. For practices in the best quartile of observed control, 76.1% of patients had controlled diabetes vs 19.3% of patients in the worst quartile. After controlling for other variables, proportions of diabetes control were 10% lower in those practices whose patients had the greatest difficulty with either self testing or appointment keeping (p < .05 for both). Practice rankings based on observed and expected proportion of A1c control showed only moderate agreement in pay-for-performance categories (? = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.32–0.56; p < .001). Principal Conclusions Basing public reporting and resource allocation on quality assessment that does not account for patient characteristics may further harm this vulnerable group of patients and physicians. PMID:21671526
Nickrent, Daniel L.
. Fact Sheet 1. Students want health coverage that is fully compliant with the Affordable Care Act (ACASIU Student Health Initiative Working for quality and affordable student heath care at Southern even if they could afford it. 8. As students are having more difficulty finding affordable health care
Jeffrey A. Linder; Jun Ma; David W. Bates; Blackford Middleton; Randall S. Stafford
Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) have been proposed as a sustainable solution for improving the quality of medical care. We assessed the association betweenEHRuse,asimplemented,andthequalityofam- bulatory care in a nationally representative survey. Methods: We performed a retrospective, cross- sectional analysis of visits in the 2003 and 2004 Na- tional Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We examined EHR use throughout the United States
Marieke Perry; I. Draskovic; Theo van Achterberg; Monique van Eijken; P. L. B. J. Lucassen; M. J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Marcel Olde Rikkert
OBJECTIVES: To construct a set of quality indicators (QIs) for dementia diagnosis and management in a primary care setting. DESIGN: RAND modified Delphi method, including a postal survey, a stakeholders consensus meeting, a scientific expert consensus meeting, and a demonstration project. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners (GPs), primary care nurses (PCNs), and informal caregivers (ICs) in postal survey and
Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle
A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…
HIC 2001 Realising Quality Health Care * Paper reviewed according to DETYA standard 1999 Austin, D , et al. ISBN 0 9585370 8 9 Understanding community health care: Implications for technology design case study of a community health care setting. The intention of this study was to better understand
Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony; Porter, Boaz
Using a cross-sectional design of 400 primary care patients with diabetes, the authors evaluated demographics, health status, subjective health and mental health, health behaviors, health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes treatment, satisfaction with medical care, and quality of medical care as potential predictors of QoL and QoL in the hypothetical…
Yoong, A.; Koritsas, S.
Background: Because of an increase in life expectancy and de-institutionalisation, many adults with intellectual disability (ID) live with and are cared for by their parents throughout their adult lives. Because of caring demands, the quality of life (QOL) of parents may be affected. The study explored the impact of caring for an adult with ID on…
Schlueter, Heidi H.
First Children's Finance is a national nonprofit organization located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, whose work strives to break the cycle of poverty, starting with those who care for and educate the nation's youngest citizens--child care businesses. First Children's Finance asks the question: How do Americans talk about providing quality child care…
Bauman, Kristy A; Hyzy, Robert C
Intensive care units (ICUs) are an essential and unique component of modern medicine. The number of critically ill individuals, complexity of illness, and cost of care continue to increase with time. In order to meet future demands, maintain quality, and minimize medical errors, intensivists will need to look beyond traditional medical practice, seeking lessons on quality assurance from industry and aviation. Intensivists will be challenged to keep pace with rapidly advancing information technology and its diverse roles in ICU care delivery. Modern ICU quality improvement initiatives include ensuring evidence-based best practice, participation in multicenter ICU collaborations, employing state-of-the-art information technology, providing point-of-care diagnostic testing, and efficient organization of ICU care delivery. This article demonstrates that each of these initiatives has the potential to revolutionize the quality of future ICU care in the United States. PMID:22328598
Renfrew, Mary J; McFadden, Alison; Bastos, Maria Helena; Campbell, James; Channon, Andrew Amos; Cheung, Ngai Fen; Silva, Deborah Rachel Audebert Delage; Downe, Soo; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Malata, Address; McCormick, Felicia; Wick, Laura; Declercq, Eugene
In this first paper in a series of four papers on midwifery, we aimed to examine, comprehensively and systematically, the contribution midwifery can make to the quality of care of women and infants globally, and the role of midwives and others in providing midwifery care. Drawing on international definitions and current practice, we mapped the scope of midwifery. We then developed a framework for quality maternal and newborn care using a mixed-methods approach including synthesis of findings from systematic reviews of women's views and experiences, effective practices, and maternal and newborn care providers. The framework differentiates between what care is provided and how and by whom it is provided, and describes the care and services that childbearing women and newborn infants need in all settings. We identified more than 50 short-term, medium-term, and long-term outcomes that could be improved by care within the scope of midwifery; reduced maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, reduced stillbirth and preterm birth, decreased number of unnecessary interventions, and improved psychosocial and public health outcomes. Midwifery was associated with more efficient use of resources and improved outcomes when provided by midwives who were educated, trained, licensed, and regulated. Our findings support a system-level shift from maternal and newborn care focused on identification and treatment of pathology for the minority to skilled care for all. This change includes preventive and supportive care that works to strengthen women's capabilities in the context of respectful relationships, is tailored to their needs, focuses on promotion of normal reproductive processes, and in which first-line management of complications and accessible emergency treatment are provided when needed. Midwifery is pivotal to this approach, which requires effective interdisciplinary teamwork and integration across facility and community settings. Future planning for maternal and newborn care systems can benefit from using the quality framework in planning workforce development and resource allocation. PMID:24965816
Background Performance indicators in the long term care sector are important to evaluate the efficiency and quality of care delivery. We are, however, still far from being able to refer to a common set of indicators at the European level. We therefore demonstrate the calculation of Long Term Care Facility Quality Indicators (LTCFQIs) from data of the European Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm Care (SHELTER) project. We explain how risk factors are taken into account and show how LTC facilities at facility and country level can be compared on quality of care using thresholds and a Quality Indicator sum measure. Methods The indicators of Long Term Care Facility quality of care are calculated based on methods that have been developed in the US. The values of these Quality Indicators (QIs) are risk adjusted on the basis of covariates resulting from logistic regression analysis on each of the QIs. To enhance the comparison of QIs between facilities and countries we have used the method of percentile thresholds and developed a QI sum measure based on percentile outcomes. Results In SHELTER data have been collected with the interRAI Long Term Care Facility instrument (interRAI-LTCF). The data came from LTC facilities in 7 European countries and Israel. The unadjusted values of the LTCF Quality Indicators differ considerably between facilities in the 8 countries. After risk adjustment the differences are less, but still considerable. Our QI sum measure facilitates the overall comparison of quality of care between facilities and countries. Conclusions With quality indicators based on assessments with the interRAI LTCF instrument quality of care between LTC facilities in and across nations can be adequately compared. PMID:23587337
Hertz, H S; Reimann, C W; Bostwick, M C
The United States has a major weapon in the battle to improve competitiveness: The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Program. An increasingly asked question in industrial and health care sectors is whether there should be a Baldrige Award in health care. In the business community, the Baldrige Award has been a catalyst for cooperative development of quality criteria, assessment mechanisms, and continuous learning, greatly accelerating the pace of information sharing. PMID:10137609
B. Zintl; S. Ruchholtz; D. Nast-Kolb; C. Waydhas; L. Schweiberer
Summary \\u000a Quality management in early clinical care of patients with multiple injuries (description of actual process, identification\\u000a of problems, implementation of quality improvement) is not possible without sufficient baseline data about the present situation\\u000a of medical treatment. This study investigates whether the current documentation of treatment in the emergency room is appropriate\\u000a to judge upon the quality of the process
Predavec, Sanja; Sogori?, Selma; Jurkovi?, Drazen
Emergency medical services (EMS) in the Republic of Croatia are currently organized as part of the existing health care system and delivered in the form of pre-hospital and hospital EMS. The pre-hospital EMS are delivered by standalone EMS Centers, EMS units set up in community health centers, and by general practitioners working in shifts and on call in remote and scarcely populated areas. In hospitals, each ward usually has its own emergency reception area, and only in a couple of cases there is an integrated emergency admission unit for the entire hospital. The current EMS structure does not meet the basic requirements that would make an EMS system optimal, i.e. equal quality, equal access, effectiveness and appropriate equipment. The EMS Restructuring Project is part of the Croatian health care system reform and is addressed by the National Health Development Strategy 2006-2011. As part of restructuring efforts, the Croatian National Institute of Emergency Medicine, 21 County Institutes of Emergency Medicine and county-level call centers are going to be set up. In addition, the project will introduce the following: integrated emergency admission areas at hospitals; telemedicine as part of emergency medicine; emergency medicine specialty for physicians and additional specialized training for nurses/technicians; separation of emergency and non-emergency transport; standards for vehicles and equipment and guidelines/protocols/algorithms for care. The Croatian National Institute of Emergency Medicine is an umbrella EMS organization. It shapes the EMS in Croatia and proposes, plans, monitors and analyzes EMS actions in Croatia. In addition, it submits a proposal of the Emergency Medicine Network to the minister, sets standards for EMS transport, and coordinates, guides and supervises the work of County Institutes of Emergency Medicine. County Institutes organize and deliver pre-hospital EMS in their counties. Integrated hospital emergency admission units represent a single point of entry for all emergencies at a particular hospital. Upon triage, depending on the level of emergency, patients are provided with appropriate care and treatment. The introduction of EMS specialty for physicians and additional specialized training for nurses/ technicians is going to increase competencies of all EMS team members. The main objectives of the EMS Restructuring Project to be achieved in the 5-year period are the following: to reduce the response time of pre-hospital EMS teams to 10 minutes in urban areas and 20 minutes in rural areas in 20% of team interventions; to bring patients to hospital within the "golden hour" in 80% of cases; to have 200 physicians specialized in emergency medicine; and to have 220 nurses/technicians that have successfully completed their specialized training in emergency medicine. The objectives are going to be monitored through indicators as part of the World Bank Project for which data have already been collected throughout Croatia: number of interventions; number of emergency interventions; time between call receipt and arrival to scene; time between call receipt and arrival to hospital emergency reception area; percentage of arrivals to hospital by EMS vehicles within 12 hours of symptom onset; polytrauma and cardiac arrest survival rate before admission to hospital; time spent in hospital emergency reception areas and integrated hospital emergency admission units; polytrauma and cardiac arrest survival rate within 24 hours of hospital admission; number of integrated hospital emergency admission units per county; and number of pre-hospital EMS teams per capita. PMID:21692265
Ann F. Garland; Leonard Bickman; Bruce F. Chorpita
Efforts to improve community-based children’s mental health care should be based on valid information about effective practices\\u000a and current routine practices. Emerging research on routine care practices and outcomes has identified discrepancies between\\u000a evidence-based practices and “usual care.” These discrepancies highlight potentially potent quality improvement interventions.\\u000a This article reviews existing research on routine or “usual care” practice, identifies strengths and
DONNA MARIE LEBLANC
The purpose of the study was to describe regionalized systems of perinatal care serving predominantly low income Mexican-American women in rural underserved areas of Texas. The study focused upon ambulatory care; however, it provided a vehicle for examination of the health care system. The questions posed at the onset of the study included: (1) How well do regional organizations with
Paul A. Nutting; Judy E. Barrick; Susan C. Logue
A typical maternal and child health care program was implemented in an American Indian reservation community, and its impact on the effectiveness of prenatal care was assessed. Evaluation included examination from both the provider perspective (care provided to program users) and the population perspective (care received by a sample of all prenatal patients in the community), as well as examination
Fuqua, Robert W.; Schieck, Roberta
Examines the consumer behaviors of 107 parents currently using family day care to assess the relationship between child care selection and the use of a child care resource and referral program (CCR&R). Parents who used a CCR&R functioned differently as consumers of child care than parents who had not used a CCR&R. (RJC)
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary...Medicaid Program: Initial Core Set of Health Care Quality Measures for Medicaid-Eligible...notice announces the initial core set of health care quality measures for...
Lynn Unruh; Thomas T. H. Wan
Given the ongoing concerns about the quality of care in nursing homes, a theoretical framework to guide a systems approach to quality is important. Existing frameworks either do not model causality, or do so in a linear fashion in which the actual linkages between components of quality may not be well specified. Through a review of frameworks for nursing home
MARTIN N. MARSHALL; PATRICK S. ROMANO; HUW T. O. DAVIES
Background. Many developed countries are beginning to see the public reporting of comparative information about the quality of health care as an important way of improving accountability, stimulating quality improvement and empowering members of the public. The production and dissemination of quality reports is particularly high on the policy agenda in the US and the UK, and there is now
Specchia, Maria Lucia; Veneziano, Maria Assunta; Cadeddu, Chiara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Capizzi, Silvio; Ricciardi, Walter
In the last few years, the need of public reporting of health outcomes has acquired a great importance. The public release of performance results could be a tool for improving health care quality and many attempts have been made in order to introduce public reporting programs within the health care context at different levels. It would be necessary to promote the introduction of a standardized set of outcome and performance measures in order to improve quality of health care services and to make health care providers aware of the importance of transparency and accountability. PMID:23369992
The new government drive for quality to be at the heart of health care is discussed, following which an insight into the membership and remit of the new European Health-Care Working Group is given. The article also provides a brief description of the European Foundation for Quality Management model and the benefits associated with applying self-assessment as a tool for attaining business excellence. Finally, the first stages of the work proposed by the European Health-Care Working Group is highlighted along with the potential effect on health care within the UK. PMID:10346303
Maria Aparecida da Ponte; Maristela Inês; Osawa Chagas; Rogena Weaver; Noronha Brasil
This study is intended to analyze quality conceptions and quality in hospital care given by health care workers in a general and maternity hospital in Cariré, State of Ceará. This is a qualitative and analytical exploratory survey based on case studies, performed from May to August, 2006, with 29 health care workers. A structured interview was used to collect data.
Petros Giovanis; Giovanni De Leonardis; Antonella Garna; Viviana Lovat; Francesca Caldart; Annarita Quarta; Laura Moretto; Fausto Tuccia; Marilisa Marcante; Mauro Giusto
Aims and background .The aggressiveness of cancer care near the end of life and the consumption of opioids are potential indicators of quality of care in palliative and end-of-life settings. The purpose of this article is to present a retrospective analysis regarding these themes and the adopted procedures to improve quality of care. Methods . We evaluated all cancer patients
Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B
Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information on social media and quality of health care. However, some drawbacks exist, especially regarding the use of rating sites. For example, since rating is anonymous, rating values are not risk adjusted and therefore vulnerable to fraud. Also, ratings are often based on only a few reviews and are predominantly positive. Furthermore, people providing feedback on health care via social media are presumably not always representative for the patient population. Conclusions Social media and particularly rating sites are an interesting new source of information about quality of care from the patient’s perspective. This new source should be used to complement traditional methods, since measuring quality of care via social media has other, but not less serious, limitations. Future research should explore whether social media are suitable in practice for patients, health insurers, and governments to help them judge the quality performance of professionals and organizations. PMID:24566844
Eduard E. Vasilevskis; David Meltzer; Jeffrey Schnipper; Peter Kaboli; Tosha Wetterneck; David Gonzales; Vineet Arora; James Zhang; Andrew D. Auerbach
Background Hospitalists improve efficiency, but little information exists regarding whether they impact quality of care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To determine hospitalists’ effect on the quality of acute congestive heart failure care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and Participants Using data from the Multicenter Hospitalist Study, we retrospectively evaluated quality of care in patients admitted with\\u000a congestive heart failure who were assigned to hospitalists (n?=?120) or non-hospitalists (n?=?252) among six
Masoumeh Simbar; Farideh Ghafari; Shahnaz Tork Zahrani; Hamid Alavi Majd
Purpose – Quality improvement of reproductive health care has been announced as one of five global strategies to accelerate progress toward reproductive health goals. The World Health Organization emphasises the evaluation of structure, procedure and outcome of health services to improve quality of care. This study aims to assess the quality of provided care in labour and delivery units in
Edward F Philbin; Thomas A Rocco; Norman W Lindenmuth; Kathleen Ulrich; Maureen McCall; Paul L Jenkins
PURPOSE: Quality improvement and disease management programs for heart failure have improved quality of care and patient outcomes at large tertiary care hospitals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a regional, multihospital, collaborative quality improvement intervention on care and outcomes in heart failure in community hospitals.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled study included 10 acute
Looman, Wilhelmina Mijntje; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina; Huijsman, Robbert
Purpose This study explores the short-term value of integrated care for the frail elderly by evaluating the effects of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care after three months. Intervention Frailty was preventively detected in elderly living at home with the Groningen Frailty Indicator. Geriatric nurse practitioners and secondary care geriatric nursing specialists were assigned as case managers and co-ordinated the care agreed upon in a multidisciplinary meeting. The general practitioner practice functions as a single entry point and supervises the co-ordination of care. The intervention encompasses task reassignment between nurses and doctors and consultations between primary, secondary and tertiary care providers. The entire process was supported by multidisciplinary protocols and web-based patient files. Methods The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In this study, 205 frail elderly patients of three general practitioner practices that implemented the integrated care model were compared with 212 frail elderly patients of five general practitioner practices that provided usual care. The outcomes were assessed using questionnaires. Baseline measures were compared with a three-month follow-up by chi-square tests, t-tests and regression analysis. Results and conclusion In the short term, the integrated care model had a significant effect on the attachment aspect of quality of life. The frail elderly patients were better able to obtain the love and friendship they desire. The use of care did not differ despite the preventive element and the need for assessments followed up with case management in the integrated care model. In the short term, there were no significant changes in health. As frailty is a progressive state, it is assumed that three months are too short to influence changes in health with integrated care models. A more longitudinal approach is required to study the value of integrated care on changes in health and the preservation of the positive effects on quality of life and health care use. PMID:25489294
The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.
Heidarzadeh, Mehdi; Atashpeikar, Solmaz; Jalilazar, Tahereh
BACKGROUND: Although hemodialysis has a therapeutic effect on end stage renal disease (ESRD), these patients encounter many physical, psychological, and social stressful factors that lead to a decrease in their quality of life (QOL). One of the factors that are effective on increasing the QOL is the self-care ability. Review of literature demonstrated a few studies done on different aspects of QOL in ESRD patients under hemodialysis and their relationships with self-care ability in Iran. So, in this research besides determining the quality of life and its dimensions and self-care ability of hemodialysis patients, we evaluated their relationships with each other. METHODS: For this purpose, all hemodialysis patients who had inclusion criteria and were hospitalized in hemodialysis wards of Bonab, Maragheh, and Miandoab hospitals were selected and data were collected by interview using a questionnaire that included three parts, demographic factors, quality of life, and self-care ability. RESULTS: The results indicated that quality of life in 34%, and self-care ability in 78.3% of hemodialysis patients were desirable, and there was a direct and significant relationship between these two variables (p < 0.001, r = 0.4), as self-care ability explained 29% of variance of QOL. In quality of life subsectors, social dimension in 98.3% of patients was desirable, while physical dimension (80%) and psychological dimension (63.5%) in most patients were undesirable. Physical dimension was the most impressible dimension of quality of life in self-care ability whereas self-care ability explained 27% of total variance of physical dimension of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two thirds of mentioned patients had no desirable QOL and regarding the positive relationship between QOL and self-care ability, it is suggested that health care planner and managers prepare the condition that through educating and reinforcing self-care ability in these patients improve the QOL in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21589783
Pre-hospital critical care is considered to be a complex intervention with a weak evidence base. In quality improvement literature, the value equation has been used to depict the inevitable relationship between resources expenditure and quality. Increased value of pre-hospital critical care involves moving a system from quality assurance to quality improvement. Agreed quality indicators can be integrated in existing quality improvement and complex intervention methodology. A QI system for pre-hospital critical care includes leadership involvement, multi-disciplinary buy-in, data collection infrastructure and long-term commitment. Further, integrating process control with governance systems allows evidence-based change of practice and publishing of results. PMID:24887186
Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina
Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. PMID:20123180
Relations between attendance in stable high-quality day-care programs and grade school behavior and performance were determined using 2 longitudinal data sets. The first sample included grade school children who had received stable, full-time infant day-care and preschool day-care until they reached school age in the same high-quality day-care center. In this sample the amount of time (months) spent in full-time center care was positively related to the number of friends and extracurricular activities of the children. In addition, more time in the center was positively related to parents' ratings of the children's emotional well-being, leadership, popularity, attractiveness, and assertiveness and negatively related to aggressivity. Study 2 sampled sixth graders who had also received varying amounts (months) of stable full-time day-care, but this group attended a variety of quality day-care centers. In this sample the amount of time in day-care was related to the teachers' ratings of their emotional well-being, attractiveness, and assertiveness. In addition, children with more time in high-quality day-care showed more physical affection during peer interactions, were more often assigned to the gifted program, and received higher math grades. PMID:1935347
Reviews research showing that there is a level of quality below which children's development is compromised. Uses analogies of options available to consumers when buying cars to designate features of quality child care. Argues that high-quality care should be available to all children. (AMC)
N. Mills; M. O. Bachmann; I. Harvey; I. Hine; M. McGowan
Initiatives to improve epilepsy care have emphasized the role of specialist nurses. Formal evaluation of these initiatives are scarce. Further evaluative studies are required to ascertain the optimal means of providing epilepsy care. This study aimed to assess the effect of a primary-care-based epilepsy specialist nurse service on patients' reported health status, perceived quality of life, health care use, attitudes
Jerome Richardson; Tanya Anderson; Joseph Flaherty; Carl Bell
In response to the Surgeon General's request for more research on racial disparities in mental health care, especially research that includes high-need populations (e.g., the homeless, incarcerated, children in foster care, and substance abusers), we examined racial disparities in the provision of mental health counseling, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy in hospital outpatient settings using nationally representative data from the 1997 National
McCulloch, Christopher A. G.
It is suggested that evidence-based health care is appropriate in dental care delivery, and dental educators can play an important role in overcoming barriers to teaching and practice of this approach. Obstacles include misinterpretations, insufficient evidence, undeveloped critical appraisal skills, skepticism, inadequate time, and poor access to…
Zima, Bonnie T.; Bussing, Regina; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Ettner, Susan; Belin, Thomas R.; Wells, Kenneth B.
Objective: To examine whether clinical severity is greater among children receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care in primary care compared with those in specialty mental health clinics, and to examine how care processes and clinical outcomes vary by sector across three 6-month time intervals. Method: This was a longitudinal…
Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between type of health insurance coverage and quality of primary care as measured by its distinguishing attributes--first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. METHODS: The household component of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used for this study. The analysis primarily focused on subjects aged younger than 65 years who identified a usual source of care. Logistic regressions were used to examine the independent effects of insurance status on primary care attributes while individual sociodemographic characteristics were controlled for. RESULTS: The experience of primary care varies according to insurance status. The insured are able to obtain better primary care than the uninsured, and the privately insured are able to obtain better primary care than the publicly insured. Those insured through fee-for-service coverage experience better longitudinal care and less of a barrier to access than those insured through health maintenance organizations (HMOs). CONCLUSIONS: While expanding insurance coverage is important for establishing access to care, efforts are needed to enhance the quality of primary health care, particularly for the publicly insured. Policymakers should closely monitor the quality of primary care provided by HMOs. PMID:11111255
Bangha, E; Fritze, B; Yaguboglu, R; Amon, U
With the increasing demands on hospitals for improved quality and lower costs, hospitals have been forced to reevaluate their manner of operation and quality assurance programs. Hospitals have also been faced with customer dissatisfaction and intense competition. This article reviews current quality-management systems and examines their position in dermatology. PMID:10412629
In this article, the total quality programme in the Spanish healthcare system (1986-1992) and the subsequent quality improvement steps that have led to definition and implementation of such an integrated framework, seeking a quality management system and patient safety, are discussed. PMID:15552387
Hui, David; Kim, Sun Hyun; Roquemore, Joyce; Dev, Rony; Chisholm, Gary; Bruera, Edurado
Background Limited data is available on how the timing and setting of palliative care referral can affect end-of-life care. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined how the timing and setting of palliative care (PC) referral were associated with the quality of end-of-life care. Methods All adult patients residing in the Houston area who died of advanced cancer between 9/1/2009 and 2/28/2010 and had a PC consultation were included. We retrieved data on PC referral and quality of end-of-life care indicators. Results Among 366 decedents, 120 (33%) had early PC referral (>3 months before death) and 169 (46%) were first seen as outpatients. Earlier PC referral was associated with fewer emergency room visits (39% vs. 68%, P<0.001), hospitalizations (48% vs. 81%, P<0.003), and hospital deaths (17% vs. 31%, P=0.004) in the last 30 days of life. Similarly, outpatient PC referral was associated with fewer emergency room visits (48% vs. 68%, P<0.001), hospital admissions (52% vs. 86%, P<0.001), hospital deaths (18% vs. 34%, P=0.001) and intensive care unit admissions (4% vs. 14%, P=0.001). In multivariate analysis, outpatient PC referral (odds ratio [OR]=0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.66; P<0.001) was independently associated with less aggressive end-of-life care. Male sex (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.50; P=0.03) and hematologic malignancy (OR=2.57, 95%CI 1.18-5.59; P=0.02) were associated with more aggressive end-of-life care. Conclusion Patients referred to outpatient PC had improved end-of-life care compared to inpatient PC. Our findings support the need to increase the availability of PC clinics and to streamline the process of early referral. PMID:24967463
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating System (QRS...QRS) framework for rating Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) offered through an...
Karen Otsea; Janie Benson; Tibebu Alemayehu; Erin Pearson; Joan Healy
ObjectiveTo implement the Safe Abortion Care (SAC) model in public health facilities in the Tigray region of Ethiopia and document the availability, utilization, and quality of SAC services over time.
Czerwinski, David (David E.)
In this thesis, we describe the use of medical insurance claims data in three important areas of medicine. First, we develop expert- trained statistical models of quality of care based on variables derived from insurance ...
Richards, K F
In summary our purpose has been to evaluate quality in the following terms. Best process of care--narrowing the variation of care decisions, working towards the best method. Best clinical outcome--decreased morbidity ond mortality. Best patient satisfaction--both for clinical outcome and the process of care. Best value--best value at the lowest cost. At Intermountain Health Care we believe that the best way to achieve the best quality improvement in a health care system is to involve all of the participants--patients, providers, and systems--in employing the principles of total quality management. Patient involvement--in prevention; participating in best care process through education and utilisation; in evaluating functional status before, during, and after intervention; in satisfaction; in clinical outcome and follow up with providers. Provider involvement--in planning, implementing, analysing, and educating; in defining guidelines; in reassessing and defining guidelines; in reassessing and continually modifying the care map, always striving for "best care." System involvement--in providing structure and mechanisms, support staff, and information systems and being willing to focus on quality as a part of its mission. An American philosopher, George Santayana, once said: "What we call the contagious force of an idea is really the force of the people who have embraced it." It will be up to all of us collectively to become the force behind moving quality management principles into the forefront of patient care methodology and ensuring that quality remains as the guiding principle of health care delivery in the future. PMID:10172132
Moguchaia, O V; Gumanenko, E K; Simonova, I A; Shchedrenok, V V; Romashova, O V; Kaurova, T A
An analysis of 658 medical records of inpatient treatment from 15 hospitals of St.Petersburg was made using a computer-aided technology of the assessment of medical care quality. It was revealed that a proper quality of medical care in craniocerebral trauma was only in 52.9% cases. Different defects of medical care were noted in the rest of observations. It influenced on the condition of the patients (1.0%), the delivery and assessment of health care (40% and 38%, respectively), health resources (18%), social resources (1.0%). Defects of medical records were indicated in 38% patients. It caused a reduction of medical care. Risks of occurrence of medical care defects are low in children hospitals in the case of combined craniocerebral trauma. PMID:25552116
Piper, Llewellyn E
This article proposes the implementation of a Patient Service Navigator to improve quality, service, and the patient and family experience and to reduce costs in caring for patients in a hospital setting. Under the Affordable Care Act, the Patient Service Navigator is a means to address value-based purchasing whereby hospitals will be reimbursed based on quality and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System scores for Medicare patients. In this article, the reader will learn the history, background, purpose, and role of the Patient Service Navigator as a critical component of a multidisciplinary health care team in supporting inpatient care with a human touch. Navigating for the patient and family in a confusing and complex health care delivery environment is critical today in order to survive the mandates of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:24463591
Emanuel Kuno Beller; Marita Stahnke; Petra Butz; Walter Stahl; Holger Wessels
Two sets of quality measures of group care were used to assess their predictive power for two sets of measures of the development\\u000a of infant and toddlers in group day care. One of the quality measures we investigated was the Early Childhood Environment\\u000a Rating Scale (ECERS). We replicated the findings of Scarr, Eisenberg, & Dealer-Deckard (1994) which were that the
Buell, Martha J.; Cassidy, Deborah J.
Describes how chaos theory can be used to understand the nature of quality in early care and education settings. Reviews research on quality and quality initiatives, noting challenges to such quality enhancement initiatives. Details an application of the tenets of chaos theory to early care and educational settings, and includes recommendations…
Rubin, I M
Let's turn our "flawed system into the Toyota City of world health care," proposes Fortune magazine. I shudder at the thought. Deming-Juran-type TQM procedures can help to ensure that cars and their drivers do not die on the road. Skillfully adapted for health care, these same procedures can help keep patients from dying on the operating table. These procedures can also respond to Fortune's indictment that the "U.S. medical system is as wasteful and managerially backward as Detroit before Henry Ford." However, people are not cars, and care dealers are not car dealers. PMID:10121672
Farber, Harold J
Asthma care is based on three simple, basic concepts: reduce triggers, use controller medicine, and take early action in flare-ups. Implementing these concepts is difficult, however, and nonadherence is common. The patient, family, and health care system tend to focus their attention on crisis care instead of on control, and long-standing behaviors are hard to change. Adherence to asthma control regimens can be improved if clinicians and their patients focus more attention on communication skills, mutual problem solving, and follow-up. Use of a stages-of-change model also can be valuable for facilitating important behavioral change. PMID:22811626
Epping-Jordan, J; Pruitt, S; Bengoa, R; Wagner, E
?? Chronic conditions are increasingly the primary concern of healthcare systems throughout the world. In response to this challenge, the World Health Organization has joined with the MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation to adapt the Chronic Care Model (CCM) from a global perspective. The resultant effort is the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) framework which expands community and policy aspects of improving health care for chronic conditions and includes components at the micro (patient and family), meso (healthcare organisation and community), and macro (policy) levels. The framework provides a flexible but comprehensive base on which to build or redesign health systems in accordance with local resources and demands. PMID:15289634
Shuker, Carl; Bohm, Gillian; Bramley, Dale; Frost, Shelley; Galler, David; Hamblin, Richard; Henderson, Robert; Jansen, Peter; Martin, Geraint; Orsborn, Karen; Penny, Anthea; Wilson, Janice; Merry, Alan F
New Zealand has one of the best value health care systems in the world, but as a proportion of GDP our spending on health care has increased every year since 1999. Further, there are issues of quality and safety in our system we must address, including rates of adverse events. The Health Quality and Safety Commission was formed in 2010 as a crown agent to influence, encourage, guide and support improvement in health care practice in New Zealand. The New Zealand Triple Aim has been defined as: improved quality, safety and experience of care; improved health and equity for all populations; and best value for public health system resources. The Commission is pursuing the Triple Aim via two fundamental objectives: doing the right thing by providing care supported by the best evidence available, focused on what matters to each individual patient, and doing the right thing right, first time, by making sure health care is safe and of the highest quality possible. Improvement efforts must be supported by robust but economical measurements. New Zealand has a strong culture of quality, so the Commission's role is to work with our colleagues to make good health care better. PMID:25662383
Pileggi, Claudia; Manuti, Benedetto; Costantino, Rosa; Bianco, Aida; Nobile, Carmelo G. A.; Pavia, Maria
Objectives To adapt the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators (ACOVE QIs) for use in Italy, to assess the adherence to these indicators as reported in the medical records of residents in a nursing home (NH), to compare this adherence for general medical and geriatric conditions, and eventually, to identify the relationships between patients' characteristics and reported processes of care. Methods Two physicians collected the data by reviewing medical records of all NH residents in the previous 5 years, for a period of one year. Patients aged <65 years were excluded. A total of 245 patients were reviewed during the study period. The ACOVE QIs set, developed for NH processes of care, was used to assess the quality of care. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on quality of processes of care by several domains of care in general medical and geriatric conditions. Results With the exception of diabetes management, quality of processes of care for general medical conditions approached adequate adherence. Care falls substantially short of acceptable levels for geriatric conditions (pressure ulcers, falls, dementia). On the contrary, the recommended interventions for urinary incontinence were commonly performed. Adherence to indicators varied for the different domains of care and was proven worse for the screening and prevention indicators both for geriatric and general medical conditions. Statistical analysis showed disparities in provision of appropriate processes of care associated with gender, age, co-morbidities, level of function and mobility, length of stay and modality of discharge by NHs. Conclusions Adherence to recommended processes of care delivered in NH is inadequate. Substantial work lies ahead for the improvement of care. Efforts should focus particularly on management of geriatric conditions and on preventive healthcare. PMID:24675745
Linda H. Aiken; Sean P. Clarke; Douglas M. Sloane
Objective: To examine the effects of nurse staffing and organizational support for nursing care on nurses' dissatisfaction with their jobs, nurse burnout, and nurse reports of quality of patient care in an international sample of hospitals. Design: Multisite cross-sectional survey Setting: Adult acute-care hospitals in the U.S. (Pennsylvania), Canada (Ontario and British Columbia), England and Scotland. Study Participants: 10319 nurses
Philip Tune; P Eter Bowie
Abstract Objectives: to determine,the environmental,quality of community-based,residential and nursing care for people with dementia. Design: survey of a stratified random,sample,of care homes. Settings: forty-six registered residential and nursing homes,in a single health district. Main outcome measures: scales for the assessment of environments for people with dementia, including care practices, social activities, social facilities, reality orientation cues, physical condition and space
Courtney H. Lyder; Jeanette Preston; Jacqueline N. Grady; Jeanne Scinto; Richard Allman; Nancy Bergstrom; George Rodeheaver
Background: No state peer review organization has at- tempted to identify processes of care related to pressure ulcer prediction and prevention in US hospitals. Objective: To profile and evaluate the processes of care for Medicare patients hospitalized at risk for pressure ul- cer development by means of the Medicare Quality In- dicator System pressure ulcer prediction and preven- tion module.
Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.
Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…
Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan
During a number of years Swedish municipalities have work with improvement of competence and long-term quality in elderly care. The overall aim of the present study was to compare different learning activities (workplace improvement and/or courses), and to relate these activities to learning climate, learning strategies, and perception of care…
Viney, Linda L.; And Others
Compared palliative care staff with staff from burn and neonatal units and with mature age general nursing trainees at end of training. Found that palliative care staff expressed better quality of life, in terms of significantly less anxiety and depression, as well as more good feelings than other staff groups. (Author/NB)
Fuller, B.; Kagan, S.L.; Loeb, S.; Chang, Y.W.
The effects of center-based care on early development, outside of carefully controlled demonstration programs, appear to be positive yet often modest for children from low-income families. But little is known about variation in the quality of centers and preschools found among low-income neighborhoods. Evidence also remains scarce on the observed…
O. Lee McCabe
The concept of evidence-based practice (EBP) is one receiving increasing attention from providers, managers, payers, and regulators of care, yet practical guidelines for professional psychologists who may be interested in incorporating EBPs into their own work settings are not available. The author explores the pragmatics of EBP adoption within the broad context of quality problems in American health care, particularly
Elizabeth A. McGlynn; Steven M. Asch; John Adams; Joan Keesey; Jennifer Hicks; Alison DeCristofaro; Eve A. Kerr
background We have little systematic information about the extent to which standard processes in- volved in health care — a key element of quality — are delivered in the United States. methods We telephoned a random sample of adults living in 12 metropolitan areas in the United States and asked them about selected health care experiences. We also received written
Marga Kowalewski; Albrecht Jahn
Summary In many developing countries human resources to cover quality maternity care and emergency treatment are very unequally distributed. Due to historical development of medical services the main providers of surgical maternity care are still medical profes- sionals. Most countries have only scarce resources on specialist and these tend, like other medical and high qualified paramedical personnel, to stay in
There is an increasing number of studies showing that patients often do not receive necessary care or receive care that is not needed, inefficient or even damaging. There is no lack of ideas and approaches on how to improve practice. In the last decades we have seen the rise of fascinating models for quality improvement, for instance Evidence Based Medicine,
ROBBIE FOY; ANNE WALKER; CRAIG RAMSAY; GILLIAN PENNEY; JEREMY GRIMSHAW; JILLIAN FRANCIS
Background. The UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists published the clinical guideline, The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion, to address recognized variations in care. There is little empirical evidence on factors that influence compliance with the guideline. A better understanding of such factors is needed for quality improvement initiatives. Objective. To identify factors that influence compliance with two
Amy C. Thomason; Karen M. La Paro
Research Findings: The toddler stage is a unique developmental period of early childhood. During this stage, children are developing autonomy, self-regulation, and language capabilities through interactions with significant adults in their lives. Increasing numbers of toddlers are being enrolled in child care. This article focuses on the need to assess quality in child care classrooms serving children ages 15 to
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…
De Marco, Allison; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Research Findings Prior research with older urban children indicates that disadvantaged neighborhood context is associated with poorer early development, including poorer verbal ability, reading recognition, and achievement scores among children. Neighborhood disadvantage in rural communities and at younger age levels may also be related to development; however this relationship has received little examination. In this study we utilize data from the Family Life Project, a representative sample of babies born to mothers in poor rural counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, to address questions related to the relationship between neighborhood context (disadvantage and safety) and children’s early language development. We examine mediation of this relationship by child care quality. We also examine geographic isolation and collective socialization as moderators of the relationship between neighborhood context and child care quality. Results indicated that while neighborhood disadvantage did not predict children’s development or child care quality, neighborhood safety predicted children’s receptive language, with child care quality a partial mediator of this relationship. Collective socialization but not geographic isolation moderated the relationship between neighborhood safety and child care quality. Practice or Policy Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed, including improving community safety through community policing, neighborhood watch, and social networks and increasing access to quality child care. PMID:24817812
Garcia, P C
Investments in critical care in South America have been postponed so that more pressing primary care needs may be funded. Poor underlying health, a lack of organized health care delivery systems, a lack of critical care beds, and regional epidemics, however, result in patients being admitted to pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) late in their illnesses. Pediatric ICU mortality rates are approximately 20%. Hospital problems include insufficient interdepartmental coordination, lack of care protocols, too few pediatric intensivists, inferior quality equipment, and a lack of qualified technicians. Pediatric nurses are poorly paid, have no special pediatric ICU training, and receive no special professional recognition. The few trained ICU nurses are often assigned administrative roles, while pediatric ICUs often employ auxiliary nurses who have the equivalent of 1 high school year of nurse's training. South America needs a model of pediatric intensive care which is different from that implemented in the US. In this model, resources must be optimized, difficulties minimized, and continuous and stable growth permitted until the state of the art is reached. ICUs must improve relationships and coordinate services interregionally, especially with emergency medical care systems, and they should be located in large medical centers. Intermediate care areas could also be developed to smooth the transition out of the pediatric ICU. Intensivists with appropriate training and certification should direct patient care, perform administrative tasks, and train residents on a full-time basis. Further, pediatric ICU nurses should be specially trained and participate in administration, while auxiliary nurses should be better trained to help ease the nursing shortage. Finally, equipment must be upgraded, but invasive, advanced hemodynamic monitoring is presently not a priority. PMID:8365264
Stienen, J J C; Ottevanger, P B; Wennekes, L; van de Schans, S A M; Dekker, H M; van der Maazen, R W M; van Krieken, J H J M; Blijlevens, N M A; Hermens, R P M G
This study outlines trends in quality of delivered non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) care in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2011 and to what extend this was influenced by the national Visible Care program, which aimed at increasing transparency by providing insight into the quality of healthcare. We analyzed data collected from medical records in two observational studies, combined into 20 validated quality indicators (QIs) of which 6 were included in the national program. A random sample of 771 patients, diagnosed with NHL in 26 Dutch hospitals, was examined. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess differences in quality of NHL care and to provide insight into the effect of the national program. We reported improved adherence to only 3 out of 6 QIs involved in the national program and none of the other 14 validated QIs. Improvement was shown for performance of all recommended staging techniques (from 26? to ?43 %), assessment of International Prognostic Index (from 21? to ?43 %), and multidisciplinary discussion of patients (from 23? to ?41 %). We found limited improvement in quality of NHL care between 2007 and 2011; improvement potential (<80 % adherence) was still present for 13 QIs. The national program seems to have a small positive effect, but has not influenced all 20 indicators which represent the most important, measurable parts in quality of NHL care. These results illustrate the need for tailored implementation and quality improvement initiatives. PMID:25772630
Clauser, Steven B; Gayer, Christopher; Murphy, Elizabeth; Majhail, Navneet S; Baker, K Scott
More than a decade after the Institute of Medicine (IOM) first studied the quality of cancer care, obstacles to achieving high-quality care remain, and studies suggest that cancer care is often not as patient centered, accessible, coordinated, or evidence based as it could be. Patients, their families, and clinicians face a wide range of complex and often confusing choices regarding their health and health care concerns and require trustworthy information to decide which options are best for them. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) strives to fund clinical comparative effectiveness research, guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, that will provide high-integrity, evidence-based information to help people make informed health care decisions. This mission is well aligned with the IOM's recent conceptual framework and corresponding recommendations that recognize that addressing the needs of patients with cancer and their families is the most important component of a high-quality cancer care delivery system. PCORI seeks the opportunity to partner with diverse interdisciplinary research teams who demonstrate a strong commitment to the inclusion and engagement of patients and stakeholders as they work to develop high-quality cancer care delivery systems. We see rich opportunities for such partnership in the cancer care community, given the wealth of well-established patient advocacy groups and organizations and cutting-edge research institutions, all of which are working toward the common goal of improving the quality of cancer care for patients and their families. This article and the project it describes provide an example of an avenue for advancing this goal. PMID:25852140
Stavrou, Demetris; Weissman, Oren; Winkler, Eyal; Millet, Eran; Nardini, Gil; Tessone, Ariel; Zmora, Niv; Mushin, Oren Paul; Haik, Joseph
In the modern era of fiscal prudence, managing the relationship between quality health care and cost reduction is a complex and challenging task for policy makers and health care providers. Health economics is an applied field that aids in assessing the feasibility of incorporating new interventions in a certain field. Applying these tools when allocating funds for burn care is even more complicated due to the lack of clinical data regarding the cost effectiveness of different aspects in burn care. Herein we review the existing literature and summarize different approaches for achieving cost effective health care in general and in burn care specifically. Special considerations to funds allocation in burn care are also discussed. PMID:21130580
Lim, Nicholas; Lidofsky, Steven D.
Background Decompensated cirrhosis is a common precipitant for hospitalization, and there is limited information concerning factors that influence the delivery of quality care in cirrhotic inpatients. We sought to determine the relation between physician specialty and inpatient quality care for decompensated cirrhosis. Design We reviewed 247 hospital admissions for decompensated cirrhosis, managed by hospitalists or intensivists, between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome was quality care delivery, defined as adherence to all evidence-based specialty society practice guidelines pertaining to each specific complication of cirrhosis. Secondary outcomes included new complications, length-of-stay, and in-hospital death. Results Overall, 147 admissions (59.5%) received quality care. Quality care was given more commonly by intensivists, compared with hospitalists (71.7% vs. 53.1%, P = .006), and specifically for gastrointestinal bleeding (72% vs. 45.8%, P = .03) and hepatic encephalopathy (100% vs. 63%, P = .005). Involvement of gastroenterology consultation was also more common in admissions in which quality care was administered (68.7% vs. 54.0%, P = .023). Timely diagnostic paracentesis was associated with reduced new complications in admissions for refractory ascites (9.5% vs. 46.6%, P = .02), and reduced length-of-stay in admissions for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (5 days vs. 13 days, P = .02). Conclusions Adherence to quality indicators for decompensated cirrhosis is suboptimal among hospitalized patients. Although quality care adherence appears to be higher among cirrhotic patients managed by intensivists than by hospitalists, opportunities for improvement exist in both groups. Rational and cost-effective strategies should be sought to achieve this end. PMID:25837700
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
This article qualitatively explores women's experiences of choosing quality long day care in a regional community. The study complements recent quantitative research on the quality implications of increased for-profit childcare provision. It also adds to our understanding of current childcare policy by focusing on the experiences of women in a…
The purpose of the study was two fold. First, to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socioeconomic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled. Second, to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality
Tom Trabin; Teresa Kramer
The restructuring of how behavioral health care services are financed, managed, and delivered has controlled costs but raised concerns about quality. The need and opportunity has never been stronger for professionals and organizations from previously disparate segments of the field to closely collaborate on broad-based quality initiatives. This article reviews the collaborative initiatives established by one organization that are affecting
Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth
This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…
Atinga, RA; Baku, AA; Adongo, PB
Background: In spite of the introduction of free maternal healthcare in Ghana, utilization of supervised delivery services continues to be low due partly to poor quality of antenatal care (ANC). Aim: The study sought to identify the determinants of perceived quality of ANC and uptake of skilled delivery services. Subjects and Methods: A total of 363 expectant mothers were randomly selected in urban health facilities for interview. Logistic regression models were computed to examine the relative odds of reporting quality of antenatal as good and the intention to receive skilled delivery care. Results: The odds of reporting ANC quality as good was high for women aged between 30 and 34 years. Perceived quality of ANC increases with increasing access to education but more likely to be higher for women attaining senior high education. Distance to the health facility influences quality perception, but the odds of reporting quality of care as good attenuated with proximity to the health facility. Finally, uptake of supervised delivery services was high for women aged between 35 and 39 years, women with at least junior high education; living close to the health facility and in their second and third trimester. Conclusion: Study's findings demonstrate the need to improve the quality of maternal health services in public health facilities to encourage women to deliver under skilled care providers. PMID:25364600
Questions on the gap between the price parents pay and the "true cost" of quality care were the catalyst for the True Cost of Quality (TCOQ) project launched in the spring of 2001 by the City of Seattle's Northwest Finance Circle. The mission of the Northwest Finance Circle, a community collaboration, was to improve and expand the financing of…
JORGE HERMIDA; MARIA E. ROBALINO
Objective. To determine the effects of hospital quality assurance interventions on compliance with clinical standards, availability of essential drugs, client satisfaction, and utilization. Design. Quasi-experimental, prospective study with four intervention hospitals and four control hospitals. All eight facilities were purposively selected and of comparable complexity. Setting. Ministry of Health secondary care facilities in Ecuador. Interventions. Facility-based quality improvement teams, job
Solomon Kumbi; Yilma Melkamu; Hailu Yeneneh
Background: Comprehensive quality Post Abortion Care (PAC) is one of the important strategies to save lives where access to safe abortion is restricted by Law and services are inaccessible. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the status of quality of PAC in health facilities of Amhara and Oromiya regional states. Methods: The study was cross-sectional by design
Sonja Cleary; Sansnee Jirojwong; Sandra Walker
This paper will present some of the findings of a qualitative study that utilised grounded theory to discover nurses perceptions of quality and factors that affect quality nursing care provided to Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) patients in a large Queensland Metropolitan Hospital. The study used focus group interviews, participant observation, in-depth interviews and published literature to gather data. Fifteen
G Ross Baker
BackgroundEfforts to improve the implementation of effective practice and to speed up improvements in quality and patient safety continue to pose challenges for researchers and policy makers. Organisational research, and, in particular, case studies of quality improvement, offer methods to improve understanding of the role of organisational and microsystem contexts for improving care and the development of theories which might
Harper, Amber; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Harper, James; Roper, Susanne Olsen; South, Mikle
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at risk for having higher stress and lower marital quality than other parents. Survey data regarding respite care, marital quality, and daily hassles and uplifts were obtained from 101 mother-father dyads who were together raising at least one child with ASD (total # of children = 118).…
Joel W. Cohen; William D. Spector
This study uses a nationally representative sample of nursing homes and nursing home residents to examine the effect of Medicaid reimbursement on quality of care. The analysis shows that both reimbursement approach and level affect nursing home quality, as measured by case-mix adjusted staff to resident ratios. The analysis also shows that staffing ratios have a significant impact on resident
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This new publication…
Jin, Lei; Chrisatakis, Nicholas A
While it is well known that the widowed suffer increased mortality risks, the mechanism of this survival disadvantage is still under investigation. In this article, we examine the quality of health care as a possible link between widowhood and mortality using a unique data set of 475,313 elderly couples who were followed up for up to nine years. We address whether the transition to widowhood affects the quality of care that individuals receive and explore the extent to which these changes mediate the elevated mortality hazard for the widowed. We analyze six established measures of quality of health care in a fixed-effect framework to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Caregiving and acute bereavement during the transition to widowhood appear to distract individuals from taking care of their own health care needs in the short run. However, being widowed does not have long-term detrimental effects on individuals' ability to sustain contact with the formal medical system. Moreover, the short-run disruption does not mediate the widowhood effect on mortality. Nevertheless, long after spousal death, men suffer from a decline in the quality of informal care, coordination between formal and informal care, and the ability to advocate and communicate informal medical settings. These findings illustrate women's centrality in the household production of health and identify important points of intervention in optimizing men's adjustment to widowhood. PMID:19771947
Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan
The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…
Barbato, Angelo; Bajoni, Alessia; Rapisarda, Filippo; D'Anza, Vito; De Luca, Luigi Fabrizio; Inglese, Cristiana; Iapichino, Sonia; Mauriello, Fabrizio; D'Avanzo, Barbara
This study assessed the perceived quality of care by consumers with severe mental disorders. A questionnaire investigating service quality was developed by a consumer focus group and filled by 204 consumers. In five areas the negative evaluations exceeded or closely approximated the positive ones: choice of professionals, waiting times, information about illness and medications. All five do not refer to the outcomes of care, but to the concept of responsiveness. The results confirmed that people with severe mental disorders can give value judgments on various aspects of care. However, even in a service strongly oriented towards community care, the consumers' needs in sensitive areas concerning choices, respect and autonomy are not met. The application of the concept of responsiveness to quality improvement may help services to meet consumers' expectations. PMID:24318768
Storm, Marianne; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.; Laugaland, Kristin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn Nåden; Aase, Karina
Introduction Elderly people aged over 75 years with multifaceted care needs are often in need of hospital treatment. Transfer across care levels for this patient group increases the risk of adverse events. The aim of this paper is to establish knowledge of quality in transitional care of the elderly in two Norwegian hospital regions by identifying issues affecting the quality of transitional care and based on these issues suggest improvement measures. Methodology Included in the study were elderly patients (75+) receiving health care in the municipality admitted to hospital emergency department or discharged to community health care with hip fracture or with a general medical diagnosis. Participant observations of admission and discharge transitions (n = 41) were carried out by two researchers. Results Six main challenges with belonging descriptions have been identified: (1) next of kin (bridging providers, advocacy, support, information brokering), (2) patient characteristics (level of satisfaction, level of insecurity, complex clinical conditions), (3) health care personnel's competence (professional, system, awareness of others’ roles), (4) information exchange (oral, written, electronic), (5) context (stability, variability, change incentives, number of patient handovers) and (6) patient assessment (complex clinical picture, patient description, clinical assessment). Conclusion Related to the six main challenges, several measures have been suggested to improve quality in transitional care, e.g. information to and involvement of patients and next of kin, staff training, standardisation of routines and inter-organisational staff meetings. PMID:24868196
Krause, Melanie R; Palmer, Janice L; Bowers, Barbara J; Buckwalter, Kathleen C
For nurse researchers, responding appropriately to resident abuse is straightforward: The abuse must be reported. However, responding to care that is of poor quality-where care practices are problematic but do not meet the definition of reportable abuse-is not so straightforward. Decision making may be influenced by ethical and professional principles, as well as self-interest to complete a research project. The purpose of this article is to provoke a dialogue about a dilemma faced by many researchers conducting research in long-term care: responding to poor-quality care that does not meet the state's definition of resident abuse. We will accomplish this by providing a real-life situation faced by a novice researcher conducting her first funded research project, identifying some of the important considerations and possible responses by nurse researchers. Optimally, nurse researchers will develop a plan for responding to poor care before beginning the study. PMID:20509593
Sloan, F A; Picone, G A; Taylor, D H; Chou, S Y
Nonprofit organizations may predominate when output quality is difficult to monitor. Hospital care has this characteristic. This study compared program cost and quality of care for Medicare patients hospitalized following onset of four common conditions by hospital ownership. Payments on behalf of Medicare patients admitted to for-profit hospitals during the first 6 months following a health shock were higher than for those admitted to other hospitals. With quality measured in terms of survival, changes in functional and cognitive status, and living arrangements, we found no differences in outcomes by hospital ownership. PMID:11148866
Background Total quality management (TQM) has a great potential to address quality problems in a wide range of industries and improve the organizational performance. The growing need to take initiatives by hospitals in countries like India and Iran to improve the service quality and reduce wastage of resources has inspired the authors to develop a survey instrument to measure health care quality and performance in the two countries. Methods Based on the Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals in pursuit of excellence, compared health care services in three countries. The data are collected from the capital cities and their nearby places in India and Iran. Using ANOVAs, three groups in quality planning and performance have been compared. Result Results showed there is significantly difference between groups and in no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks. The average scores of Indian and Iranian hospitals on different constructs of the IHCQPM model are compared with the major results achieved by the recipients of the MBNQ award. Conclusion In no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks (Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals). These results suggested to health care services more attempt to achieve high quality in management and performance. PMID:22204664
Cline, Daniel D; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Kovner, Christine; Boltz, Marie; Kolanowski, Ann; Capezuti, Elizabeth
The rapidly aging population and their frequent use of hospital services will create substantial quality challenges in the near future. Redesigning rural hospital work environments is the key to improving the quality of care for older adults. This study explored how the work environment influences registered nurses' (RNs') perceived quality of geriatric care in rural hospitals. We used an exploratory mixed-methods research design emphasizing the qualitative data (in-depth, semi-structured interviews). Quantitative data (questionnaire) measuring the RN work environment were also collected to augment qualitative data. Four themes emerged: (a) collegial RN relationships, (b) poor staffing/utilization, (c) technology benefits/challenges, and (d) RN-physician interactions, which were identified as key factors influencing the quality of geriatric care. We concluded that rural hospital work environments may not be optimized to facilitate the delivery of quality geriatric care. Targeted interventions are needed to improve overall quality of care for hospitalized older adults in rural settings. PMID:24319004
Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Ndeki, Sidney; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
Background Health care agencies report that the major limiting factor for implementing effective health policies and reforms worldwide is a lack of qualified human resources. Although many agencies have adopted policy development and clinical practice guidelines, the human resources necessary to carry out these policies towards actual reform are not yet in place. Objectives The goal of this article is to evaluate the current status of human resources quality, availability and distribution in Northern Tanzania in order to provide emergency obstetric care services to specific districts in this area. The article also discusses the usefulness of distribution indicators for describing equity in the decision-making process. Methods We conducted a quantitative facility survey in six districts of Northern Tanzania. We collected data from all 129 facilities that provide delivery services in the study area. The data includes information on the emergency obstetric care indicators, as described by the WHO/UNICEF/UFPA guidelines for monitoring the provision of obstetric care. The inventory also includes information on the numbers of qualified health personnel at the basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care level. We analysed the distribution and workload of the available human resources in a wider policy context with a particular focus on equity, use and quality, by means of descriptive statistics and the Spearman's correlation test. Results We determined that there are adequate human resources allocated for health care provision in Tanzania, according to national standards. Compared to similar countries however, Tanzania has a very low availability of health care staff. Most qualified staff are concentrated in a few centralized locations, while those remaining are inequitably and inefficiently distributed in rural areas and lower-level services. Rural districts have restricted access to government-run health care, because these facilities are understaffed. In fact, voluntary agency facilities in these districts have more staff than the government facilities. There is a statistical correlation between availability of qualified human resources and use of services, but the availability of qualified human resources does not automatically translate into higher availability of qualified emergency obstetric care services. Conclusion National guidelines for human resources for health care in Tanzania require focused revisions in order to reflect the quality indicators more adequately when monitoring and setting criteria for HR distribution. Availability of qualified personnel as well as institutional management and capacity determine the quality of emergency obstetric care services and personnel. The current wide distribution of staff of inadequate quality should be reconsidered. The use of distribution indicators alone is not useful to properly monitor equity. This article suggests increasing access to high-quality health care instead of distributing low-quality services widely. PMID:16053519
Austin, Anne; Langer, Ana; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Despite progress in recent years, an estimated 273,500 women died as a result of maternal causes in 2010. The burden of these deaths is disproportionately bourne by women who reside in low income countries or belong to the poorest sectors of the population of middle or high income ones, and it is particularly acute in regions where access to and utilization of facility-based services for childbirth and newborn care is lowest. Evidence has shown that poor quality of facility-based care for these women and newborns is one of the major contributing factors for their elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. In addition, women who perceive the quality of facilty-based care to be poor,may choose to avoid facility-based deliveries, where life-saving interventions could be availble. In this context, understanding the underlying factors that impact the quality of facility-based services and assessing the effectiveness of interventions to improve the quality of care represent critical inputs for the improvement of maternal and newborn health. This series of five papers assesses and summarizes information from relevant systematic reviews on the impact of various approaches to improve the quality of care for women and newborns. The first paper outlines the conceptual framework that guided this study and the methodology used for selecting the reviews and for the analysis. The results are described in the following three papers, which highlight the evidence of interventions to improve the quality of maternal and newborn care at the community, district, and facility level. In the fifth and final paper of the series, the overall findings of the review are discussed, research gaps are identified, and recommendations proposed to impove the quality of maternal and newborn health care in resource-poor settings. PMID:25209614
Background Stroke can result in death and long-term disability. Fast and high-quality care can reduce the impact of stroke, but UK national audit data has demonstrated variability in compliance with recommended processes of care. Though quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) are widely used, whether a QIC could improve reliability of stroke care was unknown. Methods Twenty-four NHS hospitals in the Northwest of England were randomly allocated to participate either in Stroke 90:10, a QIC based on the Breakthrough Series (BTS) model, or to a control group giving normal care. The QIC focused on nine processes of quality care for stroke already used in the national stroke audit. The nine processes were grouped into two distinct care bundles: one relating to early hours care and one relating to rehabilitation following stroke. Using an interrupted time series design and difference-in-difference analysis, we aimed to determine whether hospitals participating in the QIC improved more than the control group on bundle compliance. Results Data were available from nine interventions (3,533 patients) and nine control hospitals (3,059 patients). Hospitals in the QIC showed a modest improvement from baseline in the odds of average compliance equivalent to a relative improvement of 10.9% (95% CI 1.3%, 20.6%) in the Early Hours Bundle and 11.2% (95% CI 1.4%, 21.5%) in the Rehabilitation Bundle. Secondary analysis suggested that some specific processes were more sensitive to an intervention effect. Conclusions Some aspects of stroke care improved during the QIC, but the effects of the QIC were modest and further improvement is needed. The extent to which a BTS QIC can improve quality of stroke care remains uncertain. Some aspects of care may respond better to collaboratives than others. Trial registration ISRCTN13893902. PMID:24690267
Del Prete, Alberto; Bellù, Roberto; Tronick, Ed; Borgatti, Renato
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the neurobehavior of very preterm infants and the level of NICU quality of developmental care. METHODS: The neurobehavior of 178 very preterm infants (gestational age ?29 weeks and/or birth weight ?1500 g) from 25 NICUs participating in a large multicenter, longitudinal study (Neonatal Adequate Care for Quality of Life, NEO-ACQUA) was examined with a standardized neurobehavioral assessment, the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). A questionnaire, the NEO-ACQUA Quality of Care Checklist was used to evaluate the level of developmental care in each of the NICUs. A factor analyses applied to NEO-ACQUA Quality of Care Checklist produced 2 main factors: (1) the infant-centered care (ICC) index, which measures parents’ involvement in the care of their infant and other developmentally oriented care interventions, and (2) the infant pain management (IPM) index, which measures the NICU approach to and the procedures used for reducing infant pain. The relations between NNNS neurobehavioral scores and the 2 indexes were evaluated. RESULTS: Infants from NICUs with high scores on the ICC evidenced higher attention and regulation, less excitability and hypotonicity, and lower stress/abstinence NNNS scores than infants from low-care units. Infants from NICUs with high scores on the IPM evidenced higher attention and arousal, lower lethargy and nonoptimal reflexes NNNS scores than preterm infants from low-scoring NICUs. CONCLUSIONS: Very preterm infant neurobehavior was associated with higher levels of developmental care both in ICC and in IPM, suggesting that these practices support better neurobehavioral stability. PMID:22492762
Hunt, Selina R; Corazzini, Kirsten; Anderson, Ruth A
Director of nursing turnover is linked to staff turnover and poor quality of care in nursing homes; however the mechanisms of these relationships are unknown. Using a complexity science framework, we examined how nurse management turnover impacts system capacity to produce high quality care. This study is a longitudinal case analysis of a nursing home (n = 97 staff) with 400% director of nursing turnover during the study time period. Data included 100 interviews, observations and documents collected over 9 months and were analyzed using immersion and content analysis. Turnover events at all staff levels were nonlinear, socially mediated and contributed to dramatic care deficits. Federal mandated, quality assurance mechanisms failed to ensure resident safety. High multilevel turnover should be elevated to a sentinel event for regulators. Suggestions to magnify positive emergence in extreme conditions and to improve quality are provided. PMID:24652943
Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon
This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…
Joan R. Burns; Mary-ann Bonney; P. Gawaine Powell Davies; Mark F. Harris
This article describes quality of care and health outcome indicator data aggregated from seven Australian Divisions of General Practice, using the CARDIAB®™ register recall system, involving 4359 people with diabetes. Eighty-eight per cent of patients registered had type 2 diabetes. The process of care of these patients was evaluated in nine parameters critical to quality of care in diabetes: glycaemic
Campion, William J.; Kyle, Marybeth
Community colleges are uniquely positioned and well suited to assist in meeting the increasing demand for child care programs. Although a number of colleges have been reluctant to institute these programs due to the problems of liability, operating expenses, and allegations of child abuse, there are a number of advantages to having on-campus child…
Hadler, S C; McFarland, L
Hepatitis A is a significant health problem in day care centers, causing outbreaks that average 12 cases in size and three months in duration. These outbreaks have three characteristic features: children have mild or asymptomatic infections; adults (primarily parents) are the major group with clinical hepatitis; and persons having contact with one- or two-year-old children run the highest risk of infection. Outbreaks are commonest in centers that are large, have long operating hours, and enroll children younger than the age of two years (i.e., those in diapers). The presence of such children is necessary for the rapid spread of the disease. Nationally, outbreaks occur primarily in areas with many infant/toddler centers, which often form the focus for epidemics. Prevention relies on hygiene, especially hand washing. Disease control depends on early detection of outbreaks and aggressive use of immunoglobulin. The spread of hepatitis B has not been documented in day care centers; however, when a child carrying hepatitis B virus enrolls in a center, a low risk of transmission may exist and precautions are recommended, with a focus on personal hygiene. PMID:3018889
Test weighing validation studies in breastfed infants have focused on modifications of procedures to reduce the maternal burden and disruptions of feeding. Results of three studies (31;81;82) examining whether breast milk intake could be estimated from the product of test 43 weights for one or two feeds in a 24-hour period found the highest correlations between intakes estimated with 24-hour test weighing and estimates calculated from two consecutive test weights in the mid 24-hour period.
Attachment and separation are the stuff of which life is made. The bonds between family and child promote resilience, self-regulation, and a positive sense of self. In this article, the author focuses her discussion on the importance of attachment to children's development. She has cited some theories that can help her explain further. For…
Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…
Honig, Alice Sterling
The ability to form secure attachments during early childhood promotes a lifetime of emotional health. This article describes emotional milestones for babies (i.e., activities that promote self-comfort and self-control), as well as for toddlers. In the case of toddlers, a profound emotional milestone that is accomplished during the first year is…
Honig, Alice Sterling
When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…
Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine
Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…
Anne Douglass; Lorraine Klerman
Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program directors, and (e) the organizational climate at programs. SFI's multilevel model
Cella, Margot; Gabay, Mary
This report evaluates the types of data gathered about nursing homes during a survey process by the State of Illinois through its Inspection of Care Review and Quality Incentive Program (QUIP) assessments. The data are compared to other State systems/demonstrations in an effort to choose those indicators which best measure the quality of care in…
Connor, Matthew J; Connor, Michael J
Introduction Advances in information technology offer new avenues for assembling data about diet and care regimens of diabetes patients “in the field.” This creates a challenge for their doctors and the diabetes care community—how to organize and use new data to produce better long-term outcomes for diabetes patients. Methods iAbetics approaches the challenge as a quality management problem, drawing on total quality concepts, which in turn are grounded in application of the scientific method. We frame the diabetes patient's quality-of-care problem as an ongoing scientific investigation aimed at quantifying and predicting relationships between specific care-management actions and their outcomes for individual patients in their ordinary course of life. Results Framing diabetes quality-of-care management as a scientific investigation leads to a seven-step model termed “adaptive empirical iteration.” Adaptive empirical iteration is a deliberate process to perfect the patient's choices, decisions, and actions in routine situations that make up most day-to-day life and to systematically adapt across differences in individual patients and/or changes in their physiology, diet, or environment. The architecture incorporates care-protocol management and version control, structured formats for data collection using mobile smart phones, statistical analysis on secure Web sites, tools for comparing alternative protocols, choice architecture technology to improve patient decisions, and information sharing for doctor review. Conclusions Adaptive empirical iteration is a foundation for information architecture designed to systematically improve quality-of-care provided to diabetes patients who act as their own day-to-day care provider under supervision and with support from their doctor. The approach defines “must-have” capabilities for systems using new information technology to improve long-term outcomes for diabetes patients. PMID:20920451
Risk Management in healthcare is a particularly challenging task. From a health system perspective a systemic and person centered approach is needed. From an ICT perspective, continuity of care and sharing information for clinical purposes, research and care improvement can be supported though interoperable systems and services and concurrent ability of proper interpretation of this knowledge by different users. Research provides solutions to specific patient safety challenges. Supporting the dynamics of change will furthermore necessitate strategies to shorten the innovation cycle from research to implementation, deployment, adoption and routine use. Transferring research results to deployable solutions requires in addition a high degree of co-ordination at EU level, with strong links to the national competent organisations and stakeholder communities. The breadth and complexity of the issues that need to be addressed require that an appropriate, EU Collaborative Governance is set up. PMID:21685611
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…
Aquino, Estela M L; Menezes, Greice; Barreto-de-Araújo, Thália Velho; Alves, Maria Teresa; Alves, Sandra Valongueiro; de Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas; Schiavo, Eleonora; Lima, Luci Praciano; de Menezes, Carlos Augusto Santos; Marinho, Lilian Fátima Barbosa; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Campbell, Oona
Abortion is a serious health problem in Brazil and complications can be avoided by adequate and timely care. The article evaluates the quality of care given to women admitted for abortion in hospitals operated by the Unified Health System, in Salvador, Recife and São Luis, the benchmarks being Ministry of Health norms and user satisfaction. The article analyzes 2804 women admitted to hospital for abortion complications in 19 hospitals, between August and December 2010. Four dimensions were defined: reception and guidance; inputs and physical environment; technical quality and continuity of care. There was a closer fit to norms on reception and guidance. Social support and the right to information were not well rated in all three cities. The technical quality of care was rated poor. With respect to inputs and physical environment, cleanliness was the least adequate criterion. Continuity of care was the most critical situation in all three cities, due to the lack of scheduled follow-up appointments, information about care available after hospital discharge, the risk of further pregnancy and family planning. Abortion care falls short of that advocated under Brazilian norms and by international agencies. PMID:22872338
Mulholland, D M
The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential liability of managed care organizations. Specifically, the paper enumerates the various types of liability of health maintenance organizations for the negligent acts of its contracting physicians. The recent cases discussed below demonstrate both the extent to which courts are willing to stretch the liability of HMOs and also the limits that courts place on that liability. PMID:1603857
Margaret Burchinal; Lauren Nelson; Mary Carlson; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
Research Findings: Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this article relates neighborhood characteristics to the type of child care used in families with toddlers and preschoolers (N = 1,121; representative of children in Chicago in 1996–1998). Neighborhood structural disadvantage was assessed via U.S. Census data, and neighborhood processes (i.e., density of social networks, collective efficacy,
Brooks-Carthon, J. Margo; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Sloane, Douglas M.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Aiken, Linda H.
Purpose To examine the influence of nursing– specifically nurse staffing and the nurse work environment– on quality of care and patient satisfaction in hospitals with varying concentrations of Black patients. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of 2006–2007 nurse survey data collected across four states (Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and California), the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey, and administrative data. Global analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the concentration of Black patients on quality measures (readiness for discharge, patient or family complaints, health care–associated infections) and patient satisfaction, before and after accounting for nursing and hospital characteristics. Results Nurses working in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks reported poorer confidence in patients’ readiness for discharge and more frequent complaints and infections. Patients treated in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks were less satisfied with their care. In the fully adjusted regression models for quality and patient satisfaction outcomes, the effects associated with the concentration of Blacks were explained in part by nursing and structural hospital characteristics. Conclusions This study demonstrates a relationship between nursing, structural hospital characteristics, quality of care, and patient satisfaction in hospitals with high concentrations of Black patients. Clinical Relevance Consideration of nursing factors, in addition to other important hospital characteristics, is critical to understanding and improving quality of care and patient satisfaction in minority-serving hospitals. PMID:21884376
Lassi, Zohra S; Cometto, Giorgio; Huicho, Luis
Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers. Methods Experimental and observational studies comparing mid-level health workers and higher level health workers were identified by a systematic review of the scientific literature. The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria and data were analysed using Review Manager. Findings Fifty-three studies, mostly from high-income countries and conducted at tertiary care facilities, were identified. In general, there was no difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers in the areas of maternal and child health and communicable and noncommunicable diseases and that provided by higher level health workers. However, the rates of episiotomy and analgesia use were significantly lower in women giving birth who received care from midwives alone than in those who received care from doctors working in teams with midwives, and women were significantly more satisfied with care from midwives. Overall, the quality of the evidence was low or very low. The search also identified six observational studies, all from Africa, that compared care from clinical officers, surgical technicians or non-physician clinicians with care from doctors. Outcomes were generally similar. Conclusion No difference between the effectiveness of care provided by mid-level health workers and that provided by higher level health workers was found. However, the quality of the evidence was low. There is a need for studies with a high methodological quality, particularly in Africa – the region with the greatest shortage of health workers. PMID:24347706
Anctil, Tina M.; McCubbin, Laurie D.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.
Introduction: This study used quality of life and resilience as theoretical frameworks for evaluating predictors of outcomes for adults who received foster care services alumni of foster care and were diagnosed with a physical or psychiatric disability while in foster care. Method: First, outcomes for foster care alumni with and without physical…
Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Urech, Tracy; Landrum, Cassie R.; Wang, Degang; Petersen, Laura A.
Objective Studies provide conflicting results about the impact of comorbid conditions on the quality of chronic illness care. We assessed the effect of comorbidity type (concordant, discordant, or both) on the receipt of guideline-recommended care among patients with diabetes. Research Design Patients were assigned to 1 of 4 condition groups: diabetes-concordant (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia), and/or -discordant (arthritis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) conditions, or neither. We evaluated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) readings at index and measured overall good quality of diabetes care, including a 6-month follow-up interval. We assessed the effect of condition group on overall good quality of care with logistic regression and generalized ordered logistic regression. Results We assigned 35,872 patients to the diabetes comorbid condition groups, ranging from 2.0% in the discordant-only group to 58.0% in the concordant-only group. Patients with both types of conditions were more likely than those with no comorbidities to receive overall good quality for glycemic [odds ratio (OR), 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86-2.41], blood pressure (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.40-1.84) and LDL-C (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.08-4.05) control within 6 months of an index visit. They were also more likely to receive overall good quality for all 3 quality measures combined (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.96-2.39). Conclusions Patients with the greatest clinical complexity were more likely than less complex patients to receive high quality diabetes care, suggesting that increased complexity does not necessarily predispose chronically ill patients to receiving poorer care. However, caution should be used in treating certain patient groups, such as the elderly, for whom adherence to multiple condition-specific guidelines may lack benefit or cause harm. PMID:21422952
Siegrist, Richard B; Kane, Nancy M
This research explores the potential benefit of improving the clinical quality and reducing the cost of inpatient care using administrative data to inform or restrict provider choice. Cost and quality measures derived from this source are already available to purchasers, payers, and consumers in support of insurance products designed to provide financial incentives for consumers to seek high-quality, low-cost care. It will be important to further refine the clinical and cost data to take into account measurable differences in the severity of illness of patients, and to acknowledge that some of the differences in cost or quality variation among hospitals may not be captured despite such refinements. Medicare cost report data is merged with Uniform Hospital Discharge Abstracts to identify the additional direct cost of patients experiencing 1 of 6 poor clinical outcomes, or admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, or selected surgical procedures at low volume hospitals. Variability in case mix-adjusted cost per case among community and teaching hospital groups is also quantified; measurable quality differences between low cost and other hospitals in each group is described. Our results suggest that, despite implementation challenges, purchaser and payer initiatives that encourage consumers to seek lower cost inpatient care without sacrificing clinical quality are worth pursuing. PMID:12817615
Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A
As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs. PMID:25847648
Sandel, Lenore, Ed.
In today's standards-focused environment, a real key to student achievement is often overlooked: teachers' personal qualities. In this collection, respected educators give their views on what it takes to be an outstanding teacher. The essays speak on a personal level, providing novice and experienced teachers with guidance about what it takes to…
J. Rees Lewis
The present paper examines research on patient satisfaction and the factors which influence patient attitudes regarding quality in general practice. Although data are used from U.S. and other sources, conclusions are drawn with a specific focus on a U.K. general practice context. This is a research area with a growing literature, much of it based on unsystematic research. The purpose
Wylie, Kate; Crilly, Julia; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; FitzGerald, Gerry; Burke, John; Williams, Ged; Bell, Anthony
To identify current ED models of care and their impact on care quality, care effectiveness, and cost. A systematic search of key health databases (Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMbase) was conducted to identify literature on ED models of care. Additionally, a focused review of the contents of 11 international and national emergency medicine, nursing and health economic journals (published between 2010 and 2013) was undertaken with snowball identification of references of the most recent and relevant papers. Articles published between 1998 and 2013 in the English language were included for initial review by three of the authors. Studies in underdeveloped countries and not addressing the objectives of the present study were excluded. Relevant details were extracted from the retrieved literature, and analysed for relevance and impact. The literature was synthesised around the study's main themes. Models described within the literature mainly focused on addressing issues at the input, throughput or output stages of ED care delivery. Models often varied to account for site specific characteristics (e.g. onsite inpatient units) or to suit staffing profiles (e.g. extended scope physiotherapist), ED geographical location (e.g. metropolitan or rural site), and patient demographic profile (e.g. paediatrics, older persons, ethnicity). Only a few studies conducted cost-effectiveness analysis of service models. Although various models of delivering emergency healthcare exist, further research is required in order to make accurate and reliable assessments of their safety, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25752589
Jha, Ashish K; Orav, E John; Dobson, Allen; Book, Robert A; Epstein, Arnold M
Providers with lower costs may be more efficient and, therefore, provide better care than those with higher costs. However, the relationship between risk-adjusted costs (often described as efficiency) and quality is not well understood. We examined the relationship between hospitals' risk-adjusted costs and their structural characteristics, nursing levels, quality of care, and outcomes. U.S. hospitals with low risk-adjusted costs were more likely to be for-profit, treat more Medicare patients, and employ fewer nurses. They provided modestly worse care for acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure but had comparable rates of risk-adjusted mortality. We found no evidence that low-cost providers provide better care. PMID:19414903
Dantas, Rodrigo Assis Neves; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos; Salvetti, Marina de Góes; Dantas, Daniele Vieira; Mendonça, Ana Elza Oliveira de
OBJECTIVES To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. METHOD A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K) and Content Validity Index (CVI), considering K> 0.80 and CVI ? 0.80. RESULTS Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. CONCLUSION The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services. PMID:26107697
Debra J. Lipson; Samuel Simon
Hospitals and post-acute care providers have developed quality measures to evaluate their effectiveness in preventing readmissions, but these measures are lacking in long-term care. This issue brief discusses the need for similar measures to assess the quality of long-term care for people in nursing homes and other home- and community-based service settings. It also identifies evidence-based care models and interventions
Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg; Margaret R. Burchinal; Richard M. Clifford; Mary L. Culkin; Carollee Howes; Sharon Lynn Kagan; Noreen Yazejian
The cognitive and socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive
Jeroan J. Allison; Catarina I. Kiefe; Norman W. Weissman; Sharina D. Person; Matthew Rousculp; John G. Canto; Sejong Bae; O. Dale Williams; Robert Farmer; Robert M. Centor
CONTEXT: Issues of cost and quality are gaining importance in the delivery of medical care, and whether quality of care is better in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals is an essential question in this current national debate.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To examine the association of hospital teaching status with quality of care and mortality for fee-for-service Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Friedberg, Mark W.; Coltin, Kathryn L.; Pearson, Steven D.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Zheng, Jie; Singer, Janice A.
Purpose Recent reports have emphasized the importance of delivery systems in improving health care quality. However, few prior studies have assessed differences in primary care quality between physician groups that differ in size and organizational configuration. We examined whether larger physician group size and affiliation with networks of multiple groups are associated with higher quality of care. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational analysis of 132 physician groups (including 4,358 physicians) who delivered primary care services in Massachusetts in 2002. We compared physician groups on performance scores for 12 Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures reflecting processes of adult primary care. Results Network-affiliated physician groups had higher performance scores than non-affiliated groups for 10 of the 12 HEDIS measures (p?0.05). There was no consistent relationship between group size and performance scores. Multivariable models including group size, network affiliation, and health plan showed that network-affiliated groups had higher performance scores than non-affiliated groups on 8 of the 12 HEDIS measures (p?0.05), and larger group size was not associated with higher performance scores. Adjusted differences in the performance scores of network-affiliated and non-affiliated groups ranged from 2% to 15%. For 4 HEDIS measures related to diabetes care, performance score differences between network-affiliated and non-affiliated groups were most apparent among the smallest groups. Conclusions Physician group affiliation with networks of multiple groups was associated with higher quality, and for measures of diabetes care the quality advantage of network-affiliation was most evident among smaller physician groups. PMID:17594130
C. Lundh Hagelin; Åke Seiger; C. J. Fürst
Objectives This study was conducted to explore symptoms, other quality of life (QoL) aspects and impact of age, gender, marital status, cancer diagnosis and time of survival in patients with advanced cancer admitted to palliative care.Patients and methods A cross-sectional study of 278 cancer patients completing the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at referral to palliative care.Main
M. N. Lyons; T. D. A. Standley; A. K. Gupta
BackgroundClinical handover is a necessary process for the continuation of safe patient care; however, deficiencies in the handover process can introduce error. While the number of handover studies increases, few have validated implemented improvements with repeated audit.ObjectiveTo improve the morning handover round on a busy critical care unit and assess sustainability of improvement through repeated audit.Design\\/MethodsA quality improvement process based
Need for an incentive-based reimbursement policy toward quality care for dialysis patient management.BackgroundIn view of the growing dialysis population and the increasing reimbursement cost in the industrialized countries, a critical evaluation of the dialysis economy is warranted.MethodsData for the reimbursement and dialysis patients' statistics were collected from the National Medical Care Expenditure (NMCE), 1979–1996, which was published by the Japanese
Carmen C. Y. Poon; Wenbo Gu; Y. T. Zhang
P-Health, a future health model that can be described as a 6-P's paradigm, aims to provide low cost and high quality health care via redesigning care practice and networking information systems at different levels. To realise p-Health, a multi-level health information system has to be developed for the processing, storage, transmission, acquisition and retrieval (P-STAR) of health information that spans
Siamak Aghlmand; Feizollah Akbari; Aboulfath Lameei; Kazem Mohammad; Rhonda Small; Mohammad Arab
BACKGROUND: Current Iranian perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care continues to need improvement. In response, we implemented a multi-faceted intervention to improve the quality of maternity care at an Iranian Social Security Hospital. Using a before-and-after design our aim was to improve the uptake of selected evidence based practices and more closely attend to identified women's needs and preferences. METHODS:
CanCORS has prospectively studied the quality of care and health outcomes of approximately 5,000 lung cancer patients and approximately 5,000 colorectal cancer patients. The study design, which blends patient, provider, and caregiver surveys with detailed clinical data from medical records, provides a rich and comprehensive data resource, allowing the investigators to examine care processes and outcomes during initial treatment as well as long-term survivorship in greater detail than previously possible.
Pinto, Walkyria Araújo Macedo; Rossetti, Heloisa Baccaro; Araújo, Abigail; Spósito Júnior, José Jonas; Salomão, Hellen; Mattos, Simone Siqueira; Rabelo, Melina Vieira; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro
Objective To evaluate the role of quality indicators and adverse events registering in the quality assessment of intensive care physiotherapy and to evaluate the impact of implementing protocolized care and professional training in the quality improvement process. Methods A prospective before-after study was designed to assess 15 indicators of the quality of care. Baseline compliance and adverse events were collected before and after the implementation of treatment protocols and staff training. Results Eighty-nine patients admitted, being 48 in the pre-intervention period and 41 in the post-intervention period with a total of 1246 and 1191 observations respectively. Among the indicators related to the global population, there was a significant improvement in chest x-ray control, multidisciplinary rounds and shift changes as well as in compliance with these decisions. Indicators related to the population under mechanical ventilation, obtained by direct observation at bedside, showed a significant improvement in the compliance with the tidal volume of 6-8mL/Kg, plateau pressure <30cmH2O, adequate mechanical ventilation alarm setting, mechanical ventilation humidification control, adequate humidification line exchange and orotracheal tube position. Among the mechanical ventilation indicators collected through the physiotherapy records, there was significantly improved compliance with the predicted tidal volume registry and cuff pressure registry. There was a significant reduction in the number of adverse events. There was no impact on intensive care unit mortality, length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and ventilator-free days. Conclusion It is possible to measure the quality of physiotherapy care using indicators of quality control. The implementation of care protocols and training of the professionals can improve team performance. PMID:24770683
Andrea Charbonneau; Amy K. Rosen; Richard R. Owen; Spiro Avron III; Arlene S. Ash; Donald R. Miller; Lewis Kazis; Boris Kader; Fran Cunningham; Dan R. Berlowitz
BACKGROUND: Linking process and outcomes is critical to accurately estimating healthcare quality and quantifying its benefits.\\u000aOBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of guideline-based depression process measures with subsequent overall and psychiatric hospitalizations.\\u000aRESEARCH DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study during which we used administrative and centralized pharmacy records for sample identification, derivation of
Walling, Anne M.; Asch, Steven M.; Lorenz, Karl A.; Roth, Carol P.; Barry, Tod; Kahn, Katherine L.; Wenger, Neil S.
Background Patients in American hospitals receive intensive medical treatments. However, when lifesaving treatments are unsuccessful, patients often die in the hospital with distressing symptoms while receiving burdensome care. Systematic measurement of the quality of care planning and symptom palliation is needed. Methods Medical records were abstracted using sixteen Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators within the domains of end of life care and pain management designed to measure the quality of the dying experience for adult decedents hospitalized for at least 3 days between April 2005 and April 2006 (n=496) at a university medical center recognized for providing intensive care for the seriously ill. Results Over half of the patients (mean age 62, 47% female), were admitted to the hospital with end stage disease and 28% were age 75 or older. One third of the patients required extubation from mechanical ventilation prior to death and 15% died while receiving CPR. Overall, patients received recommended care for 70% of applicable indicators (range 25%–100%). Goals of care were addressed in a timely fashion for patients admitted to the ICU approximately half of the time, while pain assessments (94%) and treatments for pain (95%) and dyspnea (87%) were performed with fidelity. Follow-up for distressing symptoms was performed less well than initial assessment and 29% of patients extubated in anticipation of death had documented dyspnea assessments. Conclusions A practical, chart-based assessment identified discrete deficiencies in care planning and symptom palliation that can be targeted to improve care for patients dying in the hospital. PMID:20585072
Venkatesh, Arjun K; Goodrich, Kate
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) of the US Department of Health and Human Services seeks to optimize health outcomes by leading clinical quality improvement and health system transformation through a variety of activities, including quality measure alignment, prioritization, and implementation. CMS manages more than 20 federal quality measurement and public reporting programs that cover the gamut of health care providers and facilities, including both hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and individual emergency physicians. With more than 130 million annual visits, and as the primary portal of hospital admission, US hospital-based EDs deliver a substantial portion of acute care to Medicare beneficiaries. Given the position of emergency care across clinical conditions and between multiple settings of care, the ED plays a critical role in fulfilling all 6 priorities of the National Quality Strategy. We outline current CMS initiatives and future opportunities for emergency physicians and EDs to effect each of these priorities and help CMS achieve the triple aim of better health, better health care, and lower costs. PMID:25128008
Jacobsen, Paul B.; Shibata, David; Siegel, Erin M.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William J.; Alemany, Carlos; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Brown, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Faig, Douglas; Kim, George; Levine, Richard; Markham, Merry-Jennifer; Schreiber, Fred; Sharp, Philip; Malafa, Mokenge
Objective An American Psychosocial Oncology Society workgroup has developed indicators of the quality of psychosocial care that can be measured through review of medical records. The present report describes the first large-scale use of these indicators to evaluate psychosocial care in outpatient medical oncology settings. Methods Medical records of 1660 colorectal, breast and non-small cell cancer patients first seen by a medical oncologist in 2006 at 11 practice sites in Florida were reviewed for performance on indicators of the quality of psychosocial care. Results Assessment of emotional well-being was significantly less likely to be documented than assessment of pain (52 vs 87%, p<0.001). A problem with emotional well-being was documented in 13% of records and evidence of action taken was documented in 58% of these records. Ten of eleven practice sites performed below an 85% threshold on each indicator of psychosocial care. Variability in assessment of emotional-well being was associated (p<0.02) with practice site and patient gender and age while variability in assessment of pain was associated (p<0.001) with practice site and cancer type. Conclusions Findings illustrate how use of the psychosocial care indicators permits identification of specific practice sites and processes of care that should be targeted for quality improvement efforts. Additionally, findings demonstrate the extent to which routine assessment of emotional well-being lags behind routine assessment of pain in cancer patients. PMID:20878724
Pogosian, S G; Sidorenkov, D A; Balokhina, S A; Orlov, A E
The article considers causes of insufficient quality of medical care. The low motivation of paramedical personnel during medical services rendering is examined. The sociological survey data made it possible to analyze opinion of students of medical college as future paramedical personnel concerning attractiveness of this profession. Their social and material status was established. The notions concerning possibility of carrier and professional progress were established too. The factors hampering involvement of this category of professionals into public health system and negatively impacting medical care quality were analyzed. PMID:25373296
Love, John M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Meckstroth, Alicia L.
Recent research suggests that quality of experience in child care centers and family child care homes in the United States is mediocre. The research literature over the past 20 years indicates how variations in quality of care in center-based and family child care affect children's development. Higher levels of quality across a wide range of child…
Shah, Baiju R.; Gunraj, Nadia; Hux, Janet E.
Objectives. We evaluated primary care accessibility and quality for Ontario’s aboriginal population. Methods. We compared a defined aboriginal cohort with nonaboriginal populations with analogous geographic isolation and low socioeconomic status. We determined rates of hospitalization for the following indicators of adequacy of primary care: ambulatory care–sensitive (ACS) conditions and utilization of referral care–sensitive (RCS) procedures from administrative databases. Results. ACS hospitalization rates, relative to the general population, were 2.54, 1.50, and 1.14 for the aboriginal population, the geographic control populations, and the socioeconomic control populations, respectively. The relative RCS procedure utilization rates were 0.64, 0.91, and 1.00, respectively. Conclusions. The increased ACS hospitalization rate and reduced RCS procedure utilization rate suggest that northern Ontario’s aboriginal residents have insufficient or ineffective primary care. PMID:12721147
McLoughlin, V; Leatherman, S
?? The scope and scale of problems in the quality of health service provision have been increasingly recognised in recent years. Policy and planning for financing are usually concerned with how funding is made available and allocated, rather than with what is being achieved, including the quality of health services delivered. A fundamental challenge is how to improve the delivery of health services to achieve improved patient outcomes and to optimize financial outcomes. To accomplish this it is essential that the debates on quality of care and financing are aligned. Approaches to improving the quality of care are drawn from Australia, the US, and the UK. Financing arrangments for care at a national level have a bearing on how payment incentives can be used to promote or impede quality. The level of overall expenditure is obviously important, as are the mechanisms for payment. Long term programs to build knowledge, standardise processes, provide credible performance data and foster accountability are required to ensure that further investments lead to improvement in care. PMID:12679511
Quraishi, Jihan; Jordan, Lorraine
The US Department of Health and Human Services created the National Quality Strategy to provide a framework to focus providers and organizations in achieving greater impact around better care, healthy people and communites, and affordable care. Providing incentive programs around quality measurement is one mechanism used to achieve these aims. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) should begin to familiarize themselves with the consensus development process used in measurement development and the importance of measurement endorsement through the National Quality Forum. Additionally, CRNAs should become familiar with what Physician Quality Reporting System (PORS) measures CRNAs are currently using in anesthesia and the 2015 payment adjustments one may face if not currently reporting to the PORS. PMID:25109155
O'Connor, S J; Lanning, J A
No longer convinced that their viewpoint on quality is the only one, different stakeholders in the health-care arena are sharing perspectives to piece together the quality picture. Although still preoccupied with the cost of health care, purchasers are concerned about value--efficiency, appropriateness, and effectiveness--as well as price. Faced with evidence of medically unnecessary procedures and unexamined medical theory, practitioners are searching for appropriateness guidelines, useful outcome measures, and methods to elicit informed patient preferences about elective surgeries. Underlying this search for reliable indicators of quality--now expanded to include patient satisfaction--is a new interest in the Japanese notion of "Kaizen" or continuous quality improvement. The end product of this ferment may determine whether good medicine drives out the bad--or vice versa. PMID:10118887
Blanc, Ann K; Curtis, Siân L; Croft, Trevor N
This study examines the fertility consequences of contraceptive discontinuation, describes cross-national variation in continuation rates, and assesses the usefulness of the contraceptive discontinuation rate as a summary outcome indicator of quality of care. In the 15 countries included in this analysis, the total fertility rate would be between 28 and 64 percent lower if the births following discontinuations that were not the result of a desire to become pregnant had not occurred. The all-method discontinuation rate for quality-related reasons emerges as the most likely candidate for a summary measure of quality of care. Within a year of starting use of a method, between 7 and 27 percent of women cease to practice contraception for reasons related to the quality of the service environment. The results imply that as fertility declines, family planning programs would profit from a shift in emphasis from providing methods to new clients toward providing services to reduce discontinuation rates. PMID:12132634
Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Scherpbier, Robert W.
Aim To assess the quality of outpatient pediatric care provided by township and village doctors, prevalence of common childhood diseases, care-seeking behavior, and coverage of key interventions in Zhao County in China. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys: 1) maternal, newborn, and child health household survey including1601 caregivers of children younger than two years; 2) health facility survey on case management of 348 sick children younger than five years by local health workers and assessment of the availability of drugs and supplies in health facility. Results Our household survey showed that the prevalence of fever, cough, and diarrhea was 16.8%, 9.2%, and 15.6% respectively. Caregivers of children with fever, cough, and diarrhea sought care primarily in village clinics and township hospitals. Only 41.2% of children with suspected pneumonia received antibiotics, and very few children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solutions (1.2%) and zinc (4.4%). Our facility survey indicated that very few sick children were fully assessed, and only 43.8% were correctly classified by health workers when compared with the gold standard. Use of antibiotics for sick children was high and not according to guidelines. Conclusion We showed poor quality of services for outpatient sick children in Zhao County. Since Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy has shown positive effects on child health in some areas of China, it is advisable to implement it in other areas as well. PMID:24382848
C. l. Chua; Alfons Palangkaraya; Jongsay Yong
Abstract Inferring hospital quality of care using mortality outcomes: An empirical approach using Victorian Hospital Data We propose a method,of deriving a quality indicator for hospitals using mortality outcome
Laronga, Christine; Gray, Jhanelle E; Siegel, Erin M; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William J; Fletcher, Michelle; Schreiber, Fred; Brown, Richard; Levine, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Kim, George; Alemany, Carlos; Faig, Douglas; Sharp, Phillip; Markham, Merry-Jennifer; Shibata, David; Malafa, Mokenge; Jacobsen, Paul B
BACKGROUND The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care (FIQCC), composed of 11 practice sites across Florida, conducted its initial evaluation of adherence to breast cancer quality of care indicators (QCI) in 2006, with feedback provided to encourage quality improvement efforts at participating sites. In this study, our objective was to reassess changes over time resulting from these efforts. STUDY DESIGN Quality care indicators were derived from the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the American College of Surgeons, and expert panel consensus. Medical records were reviewed for breast cancer patients first seen by medical oncologists in 2009 at the FIQCC sites, using the same performance indicators as in 2006. Statistical comparisons of 2006 vs 2009 data across sites were made by Pearson chi-square exact test using Monte Carlo estimation. RESULTS Charts of 602 patients in 2006 and 636 patients in 2009 were compared. Performance on medical oncology QCI improved over time for documentation of clinical trial participation discussion (p = 0.001), documentation of consent for chemotherapy (p = 0.047), definitive surgery done after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.017), and planned dose of chemotherapy consistent with published regimens (p = 0.02). Improvements in surgical QCI were seen for documentation of specimen orientation (p < 0.001), inking of margins (p < 0.0001), and performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS The 2006 FIQCC study identified several medical and surgical oncology QCI improvement needs. Quality improvement efforts resulted in better performance for numerous metrics, therefore speaking to the benefits of reassessment of adherence to performance indicators to guide QCI efforts. PMID:25086813
Stefano Di Bartolomeo
A recent paper has drawn attention to the paucity of widely accepted quality indicators for trauma care. At the same time,\\u000a several studies have measured whether mortality of trauma patients changes between normal working time and other parts of\\u000a the day\\/week, i.e. the so-called 'off-hour' or 'weekend' effect. This measure has the characteristics to become an accepted\\u000a quality indicator because
Leena E Tuomisto; Vesa Jarvinen; Jukka Laitinen; Marina Erhola; Minna Kaila; Pirkko E Brander
Abstract Aims: Toassess the quality of primary care spirometry by visual inspection of the flow-volume expiratory curve and to study the quantity of clinical information provided on the spirometry report sheets. Methods: Retrospective audit of 868 expiratory flow-volume curves referred to three pulmonary,clinics assessed against five predefined quality criteria. Clinical information included on the spirometry report sheets was also collected.
Carpenter, Christopher R.; Heard, Kennon; Wilber, Scott; Ginde, Adit A.; Stiffler, Kirk; Gerson, Lowell W.; Wenger, Neal S.; Miller, Douglas K.
Background Geriatric adults represent an increasing proportion of emergency department (ED) users, and can be particularly vulnerable to acute illnesses. Health care providers have recently begun to focus upon the development of quality indicators to define a minimal standard of care. Objectives The original objective of this project was to develop additional ED-specific quality indicators for older patients within the domains of medication management, screening and prevention, and functional assessment, but the quantity and quality of evidence was insufficient to justify unequivocal minimal standards of care for these three domains. Accordingly, the authors modified the project objectives to identify key research opportunities within these three domains that can be used to develop quality indicators in the future. Methods Each domain was assigned one or two content experts who created potential quality indicators (QI) based on a systematic review of the literature, supplemented by expert opinion. Candidate quality indicators were then reviewed by four groups: the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Geriatric Task Force, the SAEM Geriatric Interest Group, and audiences at the 2008 SAEM Annual Meeting and the 2009 American Geriatrics Society Annual Meeting, using anonymous audience response system technology as well as verbal and written feedback. Results High-quality evidence based on patient-oriented outcomes was insufficient or non-existent for all three domains. The participatory audiences did not reach a consensus on any of the proposed QIs. Key research questions for medication management (3), screening and prevention (2), and functional assessment (3) are presented based upon proposed QIs that the majority of participants accepted. Conclusions In assessing a minimal standard of care by which to systematically derive geriatric QIs for medication management, screening and prevention, and functional assessment, compelling clinical research evidence is lacking. Patient-oriented research questions that are essential to justify and characterize future quality indicators within these domains are described. PMID:21676064
Kosuke Nakanishi; Tokiji Hanihara; Hitoshi Mutai; Shutaro Nakaaki
Aims: Our purpose was to compare recipient and caregiver perception of the quality of life (QoL) of people with dementia in residential care facilities and to identify the factors associated with their perception of QoL. Methods: Residents’ QoL was evaluated by both the patient and the caregiver, using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease and several other indices. Results:
da Silva, Ana Lúcia Andrade; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Miranda, Gabriella Morais Duarte; de Sá, Domicio Aurélio; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Lyra, Tereza Maciel
OBJECTIVE Develop an index to evaluate the maternal and neonatal hospital care of the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This descriptive cross-sectional study of national scope was based on the structure-process-outcome framework proposed by Donabedian and on comprehensive health care. Data from the Hospital Information System and the National Registry of Health Establishments were used. The maternal and neonatal network of Brazilian Unified Health System consisted of 3,400 hospitals that performed at least 12 deliveries in 2009 or whose number of deliveries represented 10.0% or more of the total admissions in 2009. Relevance and reliability were defined as criteria for the selection of variables. Simple and composite indicators and the index of completeness were constructed and evaluated, and the distribution of maternal and neonatal hospital care was assessed in different regions of the country. RESULTS A total of 40 variables were selected, from which 27 single indicators, five composite indicators, and the index of completeness of care were built. Composite indicators were constructed by grouping simple indicators and included the following variables: hospital size, level of complexity, delivery care practice, recommended hospital practice, and epidemiological practice. The index of completeness of care grouped the five variables and classified them in ascending order, thereby yielding five levels of completeness of maternal and neonatal hospital care: very low, low, intermediate, high, and very high. The hospital network was predominantly of small size and low complexity, with inadequate child delivery care and poor development of recommended and epidemiological practices. The index showed that more than 80.0% hospitals had a low index of completeness of care and that most qualified heath care services were concentrated in the more developed regions of the country. CONCLUSIONS The index of completeness proved to be of great value for monitoring the maternal and neonatal hospital care of Brazilian Unified Health System and indicated that the quality of health care was unsatisfactory. However, its application does not replace specific evaluations. PMID:25210827
Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa
The Haifa Study of Early Child Care recruited a large-scale sample (N = 758) that represented the full SES spectrum in Israel, to examine the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant attachment. After controlling for other potential contributing variables--including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, mother-father relationship, infant characteristics and development, and the environment--this study found that center-care, in and of itself, adversely increased the likelihood of infants developing insecure attachment to their mothers as compared with infants who were either in maternal care, individual nonparental care with a relative, individual nonparental care with a paid caregiver, or family day-care. The results suggest that it is the poor quality of center-care and the high infant-caregiver ratio that accounted for this increased level of attachment insecurity among center-care infants. PMID:12146741
Kameli, Y.; Capon, G.; Sondo, B.; Martin-Prével, Y.
Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. Despite the efforts to promote maternal and neonatal care to achieve this goal, the use of delivery care remains below expectations in Burkina Faso. This situation raises the question of the quality of care offered in maternity wards. The aim of this study was to identify primary healthcare facility and antenatal care characteristics predictive of an assisted delivery in rural Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gnagna province (North-East Burkina Faso) in November 2003. The operational capacities of health facilities were assessed, and a non-participating observation of the antenatal care (ANC) procedure was undertaken to evaluate their quality. Scores were established to summarize the information gathered. The rate of professional childbirth (obstetrical coverage) was derived from the number of childbirths registered in the health facility compared to the size of the population. The established scores were related to the obstetrical coverage using non-parametric tests (Kendall). In total, 17 health facilities were visited, and 81 antenatal consultations were observed. Insufficiencies were observed at all steps of ANC (mean total score for the quality of ANC=10.3±3.0, ranging from 6 to 16, out of a maximum of 20). Health facilities are poorly equipped, and the availability of qualified staff remained low (mean total score for the provision of care was 22.9±4.2, ranging from 14 to 33). However, these scores were not significantly related to the rate of professional childbirth (tau Kendall=0.27: p=0.14 and 0.01, p=0.93 respectively). The ability of the primary health centres to provide good antenatal care remains low in rural Burkina Faso. The key factors involved in the limited use of professional childbirth relating to maternal health services may be the quality of ANC. PMID:20214088
Shirley Ann Higuchi; Cherie Jones
\\u000a Over the last two decades, Americans have witnessed a dramatic increase in enrollment in privately insured managed care plans.\\u000a For example, in 1970, there were 33 health maintenance organizations (HMOs) covering 3 million persons, whereas by 1980, there\\u000a were 236 HMOs serving 9.1 million persons (DeLeon, VandenBos, & Bulatao, 1991). Between 1980 and 1992, the number of privately insured managed
Thomas A. Marciniak; Edward F. Ellerbeck; Martha J. Radford; Timothy F. Kresowik; Jay A. Gold; Harlan M. Krumholz; Catarina I. Kiefe; Richard M. Allman; Robert A. Vogel; Stephen F. Jencks
CONTEXT: Medicare has a legislative mandate for quality assurance, but the effectiveness of its population-based quality improvement programs has been difficult to establish.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To improve the quality of care for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction.\\u000aDESIGN: Quality improvement project with baseline measurement, feedback, remeasurement, and comparison samples.\\u000aSETTING: All acute care hospitals in the United States.\\u000aPATIENTS: Preintervention
Mueller, Keith J; Potter, Andrew J; MacKinney, A Clinton; Ward, Marcia M
Tele-emergency services provide immediate and synchronous audio/video connections, most commonly between rural low-volume hospitals and an urban "hub" emergency department. We performed a systematic literature review to identify tele-emergency models and outcomes. We then studied a large tele-emergency service in the upper Midwest. We sent a user survey to all seventy-one hospitals that used the service and received 292 replies. We also conducted telephone interviews and site visits with ninety clinicians and administrators at twenty-nine of these hospitals. Participants reported that tele-emergency improves clinical quality, expands the care team, increases resources during critical events, shortens time to care, improves care coordination, promotes patient-centered care, improves the recruitment of family physicians, and stabilizes the rural hospital patient base. However, inconsistent reimbursement policy, cross-state licensing barriers, and other regulations hinder tele-emergency implementation. New value-based payment systems have the potential to reduce these barriers and accelerate tele-emergency expansion. PMID:24493765
Peabody, John; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Florentino, Jhiedon; Bacate, Marife; McCulloch, Charles E; Solon, Orville
The merits of using financial incentives to improve clinical quality have much appeal, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the potential benefits. The uncertainty surrounding assessments of quality can lead to poor policy decisions, possibly resulting in increased cost with little or no quality improvement, or missed opportunities to improve care. We conducted an experiment involving physicians in thirty Philippine hospitals that overcomes many of the limitations of previous studies. We measured clinical performance and then examined whether modest bonuses equal to about 5 percent of a physician's salary, as well as system-level incentives that increased compensation to hospitals and across groups of physicians, led to improvements in the quality of care. We found that both the bonus and system-level incentives improved scores in a quality measurement system used in our study by ten percentage points. Our findings suggest that when careful measurement is combined with the types of incentives we studied, there may be a larger impact on quality than previously recognized. PMID:21471500
Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M
Objectives To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices. We hypothesised that this new level of quality management might be associated with the aggregate performance indicators on the patient level. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between quality management at the care group level and its aggregate performance indicators. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting All Dutch care groups (n=97). Participants 23 care groups provided aggregate register-based performance indicators of all their practices as well as data on quality management measured with a questionnaire filled out by 1 or 2 of their quality managers. Primary outcomes The association between quality management, overall and in 6 domains (‘organisation of care’, ‘multidisciplinary teamwork’, ‘patient centredness’, ‘performance management’, ‘quality improvement policy’ and ‘management strategies’) on the one hand and 3 process indicators (the percentages of patients with at least 1 measurement of glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and systolic blood pressure), and 3 intermediate outcome indicators (the percentages of patients with glycated haemoglobin below 53?mmol/mol (7%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol below 2.5?mmol/L; and systolic blood pressure below 140?mm?Hg) by weighted univariable linear regression. Results The domain ‘management strategies’ was significantly associated with the percentage of patients with a glycated haemoglobin <53?mmol/mol (? 0.28 (0.09; 0.46) p=0.01) after correction for multiple testing. The other domains as well as overall quality management were not associated with aggregate process or outcome indicators. Conclusions This first exploratory study on quality management showed weak or no associations between quality management of diabetes care groups and their performance. It remains uncertain whether this second layer on quality management adds to better quality of care. PMID:25968001
Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria
In this diverse issue, we have a report on the high cost of diabetes quality improvement programs. Two studies using health information technology, including one that embedded a questionnaire and tool for bipolar disorder into an electronic health record to improve diagnosis, and another that collected information about anxiety and depression for adolescents with a personal digital assistant. Other articles considered sources of disparities in screening for colorectal cancer in rural Georgia, and the characteristics of sepsis in HIV patients. Clinicians will likely find interesting how patients interpret and report provider reactions to interpersonal violence situations. We also have a review of the symptoms patients report in a community practice sample; breast cancer survivors' perspectives on acupuncture for treating hot flashes; clinical reviews about Alzheimer disease and prasugrel; and several interesting brief case reports. PMID:22570385
Shively, Eugene H.; Heine, Michael J.; Schell, Robert H.; Sharpe, J Neal; Garrison, R Neal; Vallance, Steven R.; DeSimone, Kenneth J.S.; Polk, Hiram C.
Objective: To report the experiences of 66 surgical specialists from 15 different hospitals who performed 43 CPT-based procedures more than 16,000 times. Summary Background Data: Surgeons are under increasing pressure to demonstrate patient safety data as quantitated by objective and subjective outcomes that meet or exceed the standards of benchmark institutions or databases. Methods: Data from 66 surgical specialists on 43 CPT-based procedures were accessioned over a 4-year period. The hospitals vary from a small 30-bed hospital to large teaching hospitals. All reported deaths and complications were verified from hospital and office records and compared with benchmarks. Results: Over a 4-year inclusive period (1999–2002), 16,028 elective operations were accessioned. There was a total 1.4% complication rate and 0.05% death rate. A system has been developed for tracking outcomes. A wide range of improvements have been identified. These include the following: 1) improved classification of indications for systemic prophylactic antibiotic use and reduction in the variety of drugs used, 2) shortened length of stay for standard procedures in different surgical specialties, 3) adherence to strict indicators for selected operative procedures, 4) less use of costly diagnostic procedures, 5) decreased use of expensive home health services, 6) decreased use of very expensive drugs, 7) identification of the unnecessary expense of disposable laparoscopic devices, 8) development of a method to compare a one-surgeon hospital with his peers, and 9) development of unique protocols for interaction of anesthesia and surgery. The system also provides a very good basis for confirmation of patient safety and improvement therein. Conclusions: Since 1998, Quality Surgical Solutions, PLLC, has developed simple physician-authored protocols for delivering high-quality and cost-effective surgery that measure up to benchmark institutions. We have discovered wide areas for improvements in surgery by adherence to simple protocols, minimizing death and complications and clarifying cost issues. PMID:15166954
Bismark, Marie M; Studdert, David M
Objectives To describe the engagement of health service boards with quality-of-care issues and to identify factors that influence boards’ activities in this area. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 board members and executives from 13 public health services in Victoria, Australia. Interviews focused on the role currently played by boards in overseeing quality of care. We also elicited interviewees’ perceptions of factors that have influenced their current approach to governance in this area. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from interview transcripts. Results Virtually all interviewees believed boards had substantial opportunities to influence the quality of care delivered within the service, chiefly through setting priorities, monitoring progress, holding staff to account and shaping culture. Perceived barriers to leveraging this influence included insufficient resources, gaps in skills and experience among board members, inadequate information on performance and regulatory requirements that miss the mark. Interviewees converged on four enablers of more effective quality governance: stronger regional collaborations; more tailored board training on quality issues; smarter use of reporting and accreditation requirements; and better access to data that was reliable, longitudinal and allowed for benchmarking against peer organisations. Conclusions Although health service boards are eager to establish quality of care as a governance priority, several obstacles are blocking progress. The result is a gap between the rhetoric of quality governance and the reality of month-to-month activities at the board level. The imperative for effective board-level engagement in this area cannot be met until these barriers are addressed. PMID:24327735
Documentation in a Medical Setting: Effects of Technology on Perceived Quality of Care Julia De conditions portraying a physician conducting a medical interview in which he used one of 5 documenting of a device meant to enhance the medical encounter will necessarily alter the nature of both verbal and non
Rita Mangione-Smith; Alison H. DeCristofaro; Claude M. Setodji; Joan Keesey; David J. Klein; John L. Adams; Mark A. Schuster; Elizabeth A. McGlynn
Methods We assessed the extent to which care processes recommended for pediatric out- patients are delivered. Quality indicators were developed with the use of the RAND- UCLA modified Delphi method. Parents of 1536 children who were randomly se- lected from 12 metropolitan areas provided written informed consent to obtain medical records from all providers who had seen the children during
Faisal Talib; Zillur Rahman; Mohammed Azam
Due to the growing prominence of total quality management (TQM) in health care, the present study was conducted to identify the set of TQM practices for its successful implementation in healthcare institutions through a systematic review of literature. A research strategy was performed on the selected papers published between 1995 and 2009. An appropriate database was chosen and 15 peer-reviewed
de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina
The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…
COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…
Kendrick, Martie; Poulin, Nancy
As part of a program to increase the quality and availability of inclusive childcare and early childhood education in Maine, the University of Maine in Orono developed an instrument to assess inclusive child care programs. Eight of the 16 Child Development Services sites in Maine's early intervention system participated in developing and…
A substantial proportion of American, Canadian and English preschoolers regularly participate in family child care making its quality of vital importance for the children concerned, their parents, the school system and the society in which they live. This article discusses the seven key caregiver behaviors and physical space characteristics…
Shukri F. Khuri; Jennifer Daley; William G. Henderson
rompted by the need to assess comparatively the quality of surgical care in 133 Veter- ans Affairs (VA) hospitals, the Department of Veterans Affairs conducted the National VA Surgical Risk Study between October 1, 1991, and December 31, 1993, in 44 VA medical centers. The study developed and validated models for risk adjustment of 30- day morbidity and 30-day mortality
Khan, Arshia A.
Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…
West, Christopher E.
Research objectives: This dissertation examines the state of development of each of the eight core electronic health record (EHR) functionalities as described by the IOM and describes how the current state of these functionalities limit quality improvement efforts in ambulatory care settings. There is a great deal of literature describing both the…
Charles P. Schade; Karen L. Hannah
Lower extremity amputation (LEA) is a serious complication of diabetes. We sought to determine whether quality of ambulatory care affects risk of LEA. We conducted a claims-based case-control study of 409 Medicare beneficiaries younger than age 75 with diabetes and LEA between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2005. They were matched with controls with diabetes without LEA, on age,
Castle, Nicholas G.; Decker, Frederic H.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Nursing Home Administrator (NHA) leadership style and Director of Nursing (DON) leadership style with quality of care. Design and Methods: Leaders were categorized into 4 groups: consensus managers, consultative autocrats, shareholder managers, or autocrats. This leadership style…
Kim, Hongsoo; Harrington, Charlene; Greene, William H.
Purpose: To examine the relationship between registered nurse (RN) staffing mix and quality of nursing home care measured by regulatory violations. Design and Methods: A retrospective panel data study (1999-2003) of 2 groups of California freestanding nursing homes. One group was 201 nursing homes that consistently met the state's minimum standard…
Objective. This study assesses the links between service quality and patient satisfaction in the context of health services delivered to children in a developing country. With the growing importance of patients' voice in the healthcare environment, it is important to assess the factors that are best able to explain patient satisfaction to influence the art and science of patient care
Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.
Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…
Milka Ganova-Iolovska; Krassimir Kalinov; Max Geraedts
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Bulgaria. Because of notable differences in mortality rates between Bulgaria and other European countries, we presume a tangible difference in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and an underutilization of evidence-based treatments. In order to determine the quality of care of patients with AMI in Bulgaria, we analyzed the
Ponder, Karen W.
Discusses findings that child care quality can be measured effectively and efficiently through telephone interview. Notes that interview items were more highly correlated to the materials composite than to the interaction composite of the Environment Ratings Scales. Describes situations where on-site observation is necessary. Suggests that one…
Cooke, Valerie; Arling, Greg; Lewis, Teresa; Abrahamson, Kathleen A.; Mueller, Christine; Edstrom, Lisa
Purpose: Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) supports provider-initiated projects aimed at improving care quality and efficiency. PIPP moves beyond conventional pay for performance. It seeks to promote implementation of evidence-based practices, encourage innovation and risk taking, foster collaboration…
Frank R. Lichtenberg
The rate of increase of longevity has varied considerably across U.S. states since 1991. This paper examines the effect of the quality of medical care, behavioral risk factors (obesity, smoking, and AIDS incidence), and other variables (education, income, and health insurance coverage) on life expectancy and medical expenditure using longitudinal state-level data. We examine the effects of three different measures
Schober, Pia S.
This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…
Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor
Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. High quality early care and education can play a critical role in promoting young children's early learning and success in life, while also supporting families' economic security. Young…
Eric S. Holmboe; Lorna Lynn; F. Daniel Duffy
Few question the need for continuous professional development throughout a physician's career, but rapid changes in health care are creating demand for physicians to acquire new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to implement quality im- provement in clinical practice.The Internet and World Wide Web are technologies that have the potential to facilitate deep change in physician practice and lifelong learning. This
Rose, Katherine K.; Vittrup, Brigitte; Leveridge, Tinney
Background: This study investigated parental decision making about non-parental child care programs based on the technological and quality components of the program, both child-focused and parent-focused. Child-focused variables related to children's access to technology such as computers, educational television programming, and the internet.…
Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P
Objectives This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of implementing transition programmes in improving the quality of chronic care delivery and (2) identify the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery over time. Settings This longitudinal study was undertaken with professionals working in hospitals and rehabilitation units that participated in the transition programme ‘On Your Own Feet Ahead!’ in the Netherlands. Participantss A total of 145/180 respondents (80.6%) filled in the questionnaire at the beginning of the programme (T1), and 101/173 respondents (58.4%) did so 1?year later at the end of the programme (T2). A total of 90 (52%) respondents filled in the questionnaire at both time points. Two-tailed, paired t tests were used to investigate improvements over time and multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery. Interventions Transition programme. Primary outcome measures Quality of chronic care delivery measured with the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Short version (ACIC-S). Results The overall ACIC-S score at T1 was 5.90, indicating basic or intermediate support for chronic care delivery. The mean ACIC-S score at T2 significantly improved to 6.70, indicating advanced support for chronic care. After adjusting for the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 and significant respondents’ characteristics, multilevel regression analyses showed that team climate at T1 (p<0.01) and changes in team climate (p<0.001) predicted the quality of chronic care delivery at T2. Conclusions The implementation of transition programmes requires a supportive and stimulating team climate to enhance the quality of chronic care delivery to chronically ill adolescents. PMID:24852302
Mayer, Deborah K
This provocative question was addressed in a report from the Institute of Medicine ([IOM], 2013), Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. An interdisciplinary committee synthesized many of the changes that are occurring in our society and health care that will challenge our existing cancer care system. These changes are familiar to many of us: an aging population along with the resulting increase in the number of cancer survivors, an inadequate number of and increased demand for trained healthcare providers, and rising healthcare costs. The IOM report recommended a framework of six interconnected components for improving the quality of cancer care (see Figures 1 and 2). Each of these components is worthy of an editorial and more. I would like to focus, however, on one of them: an adequately staffed, trained, and coordinated workforce. And, for good reason, as I want to retire someday and know that others will be taking my place in caring for cancer survivors across the care continuum. So let's explore this one component in more detail. PMID:25095288
Herring, Roselle; Desai, Tejal; Caldwell, Gordon
In April 2009 a 'considerative checklist' was developed to ensure that all important aspects of care on a team's routine and post-take general internal medicine ward rounds had been addressed and in order to answer the question: How long should a ward round take, when conducted to high standards of quality and safety at the point of care? The checklist has been used on 120 ward rounds: 90 routine ward rounds and 30 post-take ward rounds. Overall, the average time per patient was 12 minutes (10 minutes on routine rounds and 14 minutes on post-take rounds). The considerative checklist has encouraged and enabled documented evidence of high quality and safe medical care, and anecdotally improved team working, communication with patients, and team and patient satisfaction. PMID:21404777