"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that some communities are managing to establish and sustain good-quality infant-toddler care and to make it accessible…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This paper aims to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Everything else the same, high quality infant-toddler care will increase children's cognitive scores immediately (i.e. at 24 months of age). However, without subsequent high quality preschool, children with high quality infant-toddler care will not have higher cognitive and…
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Dang, Tran T.
Research Findings: This study evaluated the effectiveness of 2 professional development interventions aimed at improving the quality of care provided by caregivers in ordinary infant-toddler child care settings, both center- and home-based. In all, 183 participants in a community college course on infant-toddler theory and practice, an in-service…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Green, Sheridan; Koehn, Jo
A survey of research findings on environmental and person variables provides clues as to what is required in a high quality infant-toddler program. One of the most important components of such a program is a loving, responsive caregiver. Research has shown that there are specific adult qualities that nurture the roots of intellectual competence,…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Leading experts in infant/toddler development have contributed succinct essays drawn from research, theory, clinical case studies, and carefully documented practice. Each essay represents current thinking in the field of infant/toddler development and care. Individually and as a collection, the essays provide a springboard for reflection,…
Lally, J. Ronald, Ed.; Mangione, Peter L., Ed.; Greenwald, Deborah, Ed.
by establishing an Infant/Toddler AS/AA Dual Degree track at Miami Dade College and offering these courses/AA dual degree track at Miami Dade College. Develop and obtain approval of five courses specifically targeting infant/toddler development. EEC 2407 Facilitating Social Development (Mind in the Making) EEC
McQuade, D. Tyler
The physical environment of the preschool programmes has been proven to affect both children's overall development and the quality of the programme. However, both nationally and internationally the contribution of the physical environment in the effectiveness of a programme and in the achievement of educational goals is often overlooked. The…
Research Findings: The teacher-child relationships that develop in infant/toddler child care provide a critical caregiving context for young children's socioemotional development. However, gaps remain in researchers' understanding of the individual-level processes that facilitate socioemotional development, specifically in center-based…
Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Barnett, Melissa A.
What do preschool teachers know about infant/toddler care and education? The answer to the question in the title is "Lots!" "if" they are fans of Lilian Katz. The author would not have said that before she sat down to read the new book Lilian wrote with her son Stephen. It's called "Intellectual Emergencies." It starts out with 12 of Lilian's…
These booklets offer to infant/toddler group care programs complete guidelines for (1) safety and health and (2) minimum equipment inventory. The introduction to the safety and health guidelines stresses that adults should be alert and prepare the environment to minimize risks. Children then will be able to explore and play freely and safely.…
Child Day Care Association of St. Louis, MO.
Little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of training strategies for child care providers. The current study used an experimental intent-to-treat design to measure the impact of an established intervention, the on-site caregiver training component of the Program for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC), on child development and child care…
Weinstock, Phyllis; Bos, Johannes; Tseng, Fannie; Rosenthal, Emily; Ortiz, Lorena; Dowsett, Chantelle; Huston, Aletha; Bentley, Alison
The author summarizes trends in infant-toddler child care before 1960 and describes how interdisciplinary meetings on early development at the Mental Health Study Center of the National Institute of Mental Health in the 1970s led to the founding of The National Center for Clinical Infant Programs (now ZERO TO THREE) in 1977. Periodic legislative…
Lally, J. Ronald
This book describes Italian experiences in providing early care and education, focusing on four cities--Milan, Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Pistoia--with outstanding city-run systems designed to serve children under 3 and their families. The book considers specific strategies or practices used, and interprets the significance of the Italian…
Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope, Ed.
The psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R) were examined using 153 classrooms from child-care centers where resources were tied to center performance. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the scale measures one global aspect of quality. To decrease redundancy, subsets of items were…
Bisceglia, Rossana; Perlman, Michal; Schaack, Diana; Jenkins, Jennifer
With increasing numbers of infants in need of child care, the demand for infant care programs has grown. This handbook was designed to meet the need for technical assistance regarding program components and workable practices geared specifically to infant and toddler care. Part 1 of the handbook, "Considerations in Infant and Toddler Care,"…
Godwin, Annabelle; Schrag, Lorraine
Recent research on how infants and toddlers grow and learn has provided new evidence for creating child care practices that support healthy development. The author describes 6 program practices drawn from this research. The article discusses practices that support secure attachments, identity formation, family practices, attention to developmental…
Lally, J. Ronald
In 2001, the authors assessed the quality of care provided to children in 51 care groups from 39 child-care centers in The Netherlands using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (T. Harms, D. Cryer, & R. M. Clifford, 1990) and compared the results with the quality of child care assessed in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G.…
Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M. Gevers; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne
ZERO TO THREE's 2009 parent survey, "Parenting Infants and Toddlers Today," revealed that 25% of all parents surveyed had experienced child care-related hardships as a result of the recent economic downturn. The result is a significant number of children who are experiencing changes in their child care arrangements. Transitions into, and out of,…
Parlakian, Rebecca; Adams, Emily
To address the increasing child care needs of low-income families in the wake of welfare reform, federal and state governments have responded with increased funding for child care and for initiatives to improve quality. Some of these initiatives have been designed specifically to address the unique challenges of infant-toddler care. This report…
Paulsell, Diane; Nogales, Renee; Cohen, Julie
Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales were used…
Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.
The present study is aimed at examining the level of quality and care provided by Greek preschool programmes, from the researcher's and early childhood educators' perspectives and verify whether they evaluate with the same way. Research results indicate that according to the researcher's assessment both preschool and infant/toddler classrooms…
The Infant & Toddler Assessment Clinic When: Please call for appointment. Evaluation is about 2 hrs 541.346.0738 Parents and caregivers of infants/toddlers who have an older sibling with autism and the Child Development and Rehabilitation Center of Oregon Health Science University The Eugene CDRC Infant
This article provides a synthesis of current theory and research in relation to attachment between infants\\/toddlers and their caregivers. Worldwide statistics show that there are a significant number of women working in the global labour market. In Australia, recent research also found that over 300,000 children aged 0–5 years are currently attending long day child care, and a child can
Marjory Ebbeck; Hoi Yin Bonnie Yim
Britt and Gillespie make suggestions for teachers' professional New Year's resolutions, including challenging oneself. They include a collection of resources and urge teachers to join NAEYC's Infant/Toddler Professionals Interest Forum. (Contains 27 resources.)
Britt, Donna R.; Gillespie, Linda Groves
Two members of the U.S. Congress share their visions for infants, toddlers, and families. Senator Christopher Dodd (D-CT), Ranking Member of the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, advocates shifting priorities and resources toward young children and families and…
Dodd, Christopher J.; Castle, Michael N.
The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…
Casby, Michael W.
The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant–toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant–toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy–toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant–toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. PMID:23127299
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
This paper asserts that infant-toddler teachers, like preschool teachers, need to be cognizant of individual children's developmental levels, chronological ages, and general developmental stages, as well as infant-toddler theories and developmentally appropriate practice for infants and toddlers. In that spirit, the paper describes the purpose and…
Gilbert, Jaesook L.
This study documents the reliability and validity of a new infant-toddler authentic assessment, the Learning Through Relating Child Assets Record (LTR-CAR), and its feasibility of use by infant-toddler caregivers in an Early Head Start program. In a sample of 136 children, results indicated a strong internal structure of the LTR-CAR as evidenced…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Klute, Mary M.
The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...
Temperament ratings of infants, toddlers, and preschool children were made by their parents and their all-day nursery school teachers to determine whether low parent-observer reliabilities previously reported may relate to differential experiences with children. Despite the teachers' extensive contact with these children, convergence coefficients…
Field, Tiffany; Greenberg, Reena
This article summarizes state and community policy activities during the first six months of 2006 and provides updates of the progress to serve infants, toddlers, and their families. The following states are included in the report: (1) Rhode Island; (2) Virginia; (3) New York; (4) Pennsylvania; (5) Nebraska; (6) Ohio; (7) Washington; (8) Arizona;…
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…
Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander
This article summarizes state and community policy activities during the final six months of 2006 and provides updates of the progress to serve infants, toddlers, and their families. The following states are included in the report: (1) Rhode Island; (2) Virginia; (3) New York; (4) Pennsylvania; (5) Nebraska; (6) Ohio; (7) Washington; (8) Arizona;…
Objective Using parent-completed questionnaires in (preventive) child health care can facilitate the early detection of psychosocial problems and psychopathology, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A promising questionnaire for this purpose is the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). The screening accuracy with regard to ASD of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scales and a newly calculated Autism score were evaluated. Method Data, that was collected between April 2010 and April 2011, from a community sample of 2-year-olds (N?=?3127), was combined with a sample of preschool children diagnosed with ASD (N?=?159). For the total population and for subgroups by child's gender, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was examined, and across a range of BITSEA Problem, Competence and Autism scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index were reported. Results The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) of the Problem scale was 0.90(0.87–0.92), of the Competence scale 0.93(0.91–0.95), and of the Autism score 0.95(0.93–0.97). For the total population, the screening accuracy of the Autism score was significantly better, compared to the Problem scale. The screening accuracy of the Competence scale was significantly better for girls (AUC?=?0.97; 95%CI?=?0.95–0.98) than for boys (AUC?=?0.91; 95%CI?=?0.88–0.94). Conclusion The results indicate that the BITSEA scales and newly calculated Autism score have good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without ASD. Therefore, the BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of ASD, which could have beneficial effects on the child's development. PMID:24851868
Kruizinga, Ingrid; Visser, Janne C.; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Carter, Alice S.; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein
Early identification and intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) result in improved outcomes.1 Screening for ASDs was implemented during well-child visits. The Iowa Model, the Chronic Care Model, and the DNP Systems Change Model were used as quality improvement frameworks. The Infant-Toddler Checklist2 and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers3 were used to screen 29 children 9
Patricia L. Webb
Background An increasing number of empirical studies indicate that infants, toddlers and preschoolers may suffer from non-transient mental illnesses featuring developmental psychopathology. A few innovative child psychiatric approaches have been developed to treat infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families, but have not yet been conceptually presented and discussed in the framework of different healthcare systems. The organizational and clinical experience gained while developing specific approaches may be important across disciplines and guide future developments in psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their families. Results This article introduces the Preschool Family Day Hospital for Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers and their Families at Münster University Hospital, Germany. This hospital is unique in the German healthcare system with regard to its social-service institution division of labor. Specifically, it uses an intermittent treatment approach and an integrated interactional family psychiatric approach to treat children and their parents as separate patients. This multidisciplinary, developmentally and family-oriented approach includes components of group treatments with children and separate treatments with parents. Specific techniques include video-assisted treatments of the parent–child interaction, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments for parents, and conjoint family therapies that include both parents and siblings. Conclusions The Family Day Hospital for infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families offers innovative family-oriented treatments for those who suffer from a wide range of severe child psychiatric disorders that cannot be sufficiently treated in outpatient settings. Treatment is based on the need for family-oriented approaches to the early psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Family day hospitals are an innovative approach to preschool child psychiatry that requires further evaluation. PMID:23601961
Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…
This newsletter theme issue focuses on providing services to infants with special needs in rural areas. In "Old Threads, New Patterns: Reaching Out to Rural Families," Deborah Harris-Usner discusses bringing infant mental health care and parent-infant psychotherapy to rural New Mexico. In "The People of Kids Place: Creating and Maintaining…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…
Early identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is facilitated by the use of standardized screening scales that assess the social emotional behaviors associated with ASD. Authors examined accuracy of Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) subscales in detecting Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) risk…
Gardner, Lauren M.; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Tylavsky, Frances; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines quality of care as "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." In 1999, the IOM issued Ensuring Quality Cancer Care, a report that documented significant gaps in the quality of cancer care in the United States.
Background: Relatively little is known about the genetic architecture of childhood behavioral disorders in very young children. Method: In this study, parents completed the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, a questionnaire that assesses symptoms of childhood disorders, as well as socio-emotional competencies, for 822 twin pairs…
Van Hulle, C. A.; Lemery-Chalfant, K.; Goldsmith, H. H.
The Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference on December 8, 1997 to examine strategies to expand and improve family child care to meet the increased need for infant/toddler care and care during non-traditional hours. This issue brief summarizes the audioconference's presentations. Presenters were Julie Rogers, special projects…
Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.
This anthology contains 19 articles selected from the "Zero To Three Bulletin" from 1984 through the spring of 1992 and organized into five sections. The section on relationships in infant/toddler child care includes: "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations, and Relationships," by J. H. Pawl; and "Choosing Child Care for…
Provence, Sally, Ed.; And Others
This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report notes that the rate…
Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.
Work is underway to make cancer a working model for quality of care research and the translation of this research into practice. This requires addressing how data collection about cancer care can be standardized and made most useful to a variety of audiences including providers, patients and their families, purchasers, payers, researchers, and policymakers. The Applied Research Program has spearheaded several key activities to carry out this initiative.
Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)
Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.
With the goal of maintaining settings most conducive to helping each child develop optimally, the essays in this book delve into realistic ways in which child care providers can move from providing inadequate or merely adequate day care to providing high quality center-based or family child care. Most of the 12 essays begin with a question or…
The importance and influence of grandparents in the lives of infants and toddlers is reflected in the results of the recent ZERO TO THREE "Parenting Infants and Toddlers Today" survey. In this article, the authors explore the changing role of grandparents in today's society and how the quality of the relationships between grandparents and their…
Bowman, Barbara; Weissbourd, Bernice
Noting that Maria Montessori pioneered early childhood education (ECE) reform in Italy, and the surge in innovation in ECE after WWII, this videotape describes the early childhood system in the city of Pistoia, Italy, known for its high-quality and innovative services. The 30-minute video offers footage from 2 of the 9 full-day infant toddler…
Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Gandini, Lella; Peon-Casanova, Luis; Danielson, Jim
Quality is at the top of American consumers' demand list, and consequently American manufacturing companies have been forced to assign priority to the development of high-quality products. To improve the quality of what they offer, many manufacturers use the management philosophy known as total quality management (TQM), and now the service sector is following in their footsteps. The health care industry is a good example of a service industry that can benefit greatly from TQM, and it is the purpose of this article to show how a health care provider can implement TQM and evaluate its effects. PMID:10178544
Brannan, K M
By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Intensive care has been in the forefront of quality investigations. Outcomes researchers have taken advantage of reliable and robust methods to adjust for severity of illness and other case mix variables, and readily identifiable relevant outcomes (survival and death) to investigate quality factors associated with improved risk-adjusted outcomes. Current studies are limited by using databases of convenience, use of historical controls, small sample sizes, and inadequate case-mix adjustment. Only one study has focused on the comparative advantage of pediatric versus adult intensive care units for injured children; it demonstrated substantially improved risk-adjusted mortality rates. The effect of volume on quality of pediatric intensive care has been the subject of multiple evaluations, although each of these studies has serious limitations. Other studies have demonstrated that the experience of the bedside caregiver is important in patient outcomes. PMID:18091207
Pollack, Murray M
The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) model is a comprehensive developmental approach to help adults understand their role in child development by enhancing the quality of adult-child interactions. This article describes how the Irving B. Harris Program for Infants, Toddlers and Their Families at Bar-Ilan University…
Shohet, Cilly; Jaegermann, Nurit
In health care, relationships between patients or disabled persons and professionals are at least co-constitutive for the quality of care. Many patients complain about the contacts and communication with caregivers and other professionals. From a care-ethical perspective a good patient-professional relationship requires a process of negotiation and shared understanding about mutual normative expectations. Mismatches between these expectations will lead to misunderstandings or conflicts. If caregivers listen to the narratives of identity of patients, and engage in a deliberative dialogue, they will better be able to attune their care to the needs of patients. We will illustrate this with the stories of three women with multiple sclerosis. Their narratives of identity differ from the narratives that caregivers and others use to understand and identify them. Since identities give rise to normative expectations in all three cases there is a conflict between what the women expect of their caregivers and vice-versa. These stories show that the quality of care, defined as doing the right thing, at the right time, in the right way, for the right person, is dependent on the quality of caring relationships. PMID:22110320
Abma, Tineke A; Oeseburg, Barth; Widdershoven, Guy Am; Verkerk, Marian
The Inpatient Prospective Payment System proposed rule for fiscal 2015 continues the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' move toward basing reimbursement on quality of care, not quantity. The rule also asks for public input on the two-midnight rule and a policy to address short-stay patients. CMS is implementing the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program, which penalizes hospitals that perform poorly. The agency proposes to add two safety measures to value-based purchasing in the future. PMID:24946382
Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…
Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.
This article reviews quality of health care initiatives beginning with the quality assessment/quality assurance movement of the 1970s. Conceptually, modern quality of care management is rooted in the intellectual work of Avedis Donabedian who defined quality of care as a combination of structure, process, and outcome. Donabedian's model is presented and some limitations are pointed out. In the late 1980s and 1990s. the health care industry adopted total quality management (TQM). More recently, the pursuit of health care quality has led to substantial performance measurement initiatives such as ORYX by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and MEDIS by the National Commission of Quality Assurance. The importance of CONQUEST, a freely available performance measurement database developed at the Harvard School of Public Health, is noted and discussed. The article concludes with a list of challenges facing public and private parties interests in health care quality improvement. PMID:15188996
Larson, James S; Muller, Andreas
Purpose To demonstrate that assessing quality of informal care involves more than merely determining whether care recipient needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) are satisfied on a routine basis. Potentially harmful behavior (PHB), adequate care, and exemplary care (EC) are conceptually distinct dimensions of quality of care. We investigated the extent to which these three dimensions also are empirically distinguishable. Design 237 care recipients completed the quality of care measures, and their caregivers completed psychosocial measures of depressed affect, life events, cognitive status, and perceived pre-illness relationship quality. Results Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that PHB, adequate care, and EC are empirically distinct factors. Although PHB was moderately related to EC, adequate care was not associated with PHB and was only slightly related to EC. Psychosocial variables were not related to adequate care but were differentially associated with PHB and EC, providing further evidence for the distinction between the measures of quality of care used in this study. Conclusions Assessing quality of informal care is a complex endeavor. ADL assistance can be adequate in the presence of PHB and/or the absence of EC. Declines in EC may signal increases in PHB, independent of adequacy of care. These findings produce a brief, portable, and more comprehensive instrument for assessing quality of informal care. PMID:19469607
Christie, Juliette; Smith, G. Rush; Williamson, Gail M.; Lance, Charles. E.; Shovali, Tamar E.; Silva, Luciana
Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes. PMID:8763215
Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A
Publicity for (and laterly increased economic stringency which makes more likely), failures of care in the NHS engender concern for care quality while its assurance remains the subject of a fragmented and unhelpful literature. A selective attempt is made to examine some underlying principles by posing and answering three questions. What is the quality of care? What basic principles must
B. L. Donald
Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to external quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system. PMID:24493011
Martin, J; Braun, J-P
Treatment of critical ill patients in the intensive care unit is tantamount to well-designed risk or quality management. Several tools of quality management and quality assurance have been developed in intensive care medicine. In addition to extern quality assurance by benchmarking with regard to the intensive care medicine, peer review procedures have been established for external quality assurance in recent years. In the process of peer review of an intensive care unit (ICU), external physicians and nurses visit the ICU, evaluate on-site proceedings, and discuss with the managing team of the ICU possibilities for optimization. Furthermore, internal quality management in the ICU is possible based on the 10 quality indicators of the German Interdisciplinary Society for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI, "Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin"). Thereby every ICU has numerous possibilities to improve their quality management system. PMID:23846174
Martin, J; Braun, J-P
Identifies negative public and professional attitudes that lie beneath the contemporary negative image of quality child care. Argues that concepts and principles of marketing are appropriate for influencing parents to choose high quality services and helping ensure that supplementary care is of sufficient quality to enhance, not inhibit, the…
Caldwell, Bettye M.; Boyd, Harper W., Jr.
Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…
Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.
Since inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disorder, maintaining high quality of care plays an important role in the management of patients with IBD. To develop process-based quality indicator set to improve quality of care, the indicator should be based directly on evidence and consensus. Initially, ImproveCareNow group demonstrated quality improvement by learning how to apply quality improvement methods to improve the care of pediatric patients with IBD. The American Gastroenterological Association has developed adult IBD physician performance measures set and Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) has developed a set of ten most highly rated process and outcome measures. Recently, The Emerging Practice in IBD Collaborative (EPIC) group generated defining quality indicators for best-practice management of IBD in Canada. Quality of Care through the Patient's Eyes (QUOTE-IBD) was developed as a questionnaire to measure quality of care through the eyes of patients with IBD, and it is widely used in European countries. The current concept of quality of care as well as quality indicator will be discussed in this article. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2015;65:139-144). PMID:25797376
Seo, Geom Seog
The issue of quality of care involves many different components, including what cancer care quality looks like, which patients are more likely to receive poor quality care, and ways to measure healthcare quality.
This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…
Child Trends, 2010
Examines the quality of care in two mid-19th-century day nurseries in North America. Finds that quality was associated with saving children's lives within a context of charity-based social welfare. The concern for the health and safety of children led to the entrenchment of a custodial model of child care, which proved resilient into the 20th…
The purpose of these efforts, substantially supported by the Applied Research Program, is to enhance the state of the science on the quality of cancer care and inform federal and private-sector decision making on care delivery, coverage, regulation, and standard setting. Work is underway to make cancer a working model for quality of care research and the translation of this research into practice.
Quality of long-term care has been the focus of 2 recent Institute of Medicine reports: "Improving the Quality of Long-Term Care"(1) and "Improving the Quality of Care in Nursing Homes."(2) Although there has been some improvement in care quality since regulatory reforms were enacted in 1987,(3) poor care persists.(4) Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are challenged in the provision of optimal care by chronic stress in the workplace, leading to absenteeism, reduced job satisfaction, and increased turnover.(5-7) Mindfulness training, which cultivates a practice of being present in the moment, recognizing stressful situations when they arise, and responding to stress in an adaptive manner,(8) holds promise as a simple, inexpensive approach to reduce CNA stress and improve quality of care and quality of life for residents in long-term care settings. Formal and informal mindfulness practices can readily be incorporated into CNA educational programs. PMID:21239085
Zeller, Janice M; Lamb, Karen
The increasing costs and complexity of technologic advances in diagnosis and treatment have been accompanied by other important issues. They are often moral or ethical in nature; they include the public's desire and determination to have access to these "high-tech" advances; and the quality and equity with which those advances are apportioned and applied must be addressed. Seven criteria that can be applied to technology assessment are identified as is a process for that assessment. Together, these procedures can provide valuable information and assistance to those who make decisions about health benefits coverage--both in the public and the private sectors. PMID:2980910
Schaffarzick, R W
The importance of good leadership is becoming increasingly apparent within health care. This paper reviews evidence which shows that it has effects, not only on financial management, but on the quality of care provided. Some theories of leadership are discussed, primarily in terms of how different types of leaders might affect quality in different ways, including the effects that they might have on the stress or wellbeing of their staff which, in turn, is related to the quality of care produced. Finally, the conflicts shown in terms of leadership within the context of health care are discussed, leading to the conclusion that development programmes must be specially tailored to address the complexities of this arena. Key Words: leadership; quality of care; stress; personality PMID:11700372
Firth-Cozens, J; Mowbray, D
Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William
In 1948, Dame Cicely Saunders, the founder of the modem hospice movement, established a core principle of palliative care, Total Pain, which is defined as physical, spiritual, psychological, and social suffering. In 2009, a consensus panel (Puchalski, Ferrell, Virani, Otis-Green, Baird, Bull, et al., 2009) was convened to address the important issue of integrating spirituality in palliative care, which led to renewed efforts to focus on spiritual care as a critical component of quality palliative care. This project is a combination of advocacy for the importance of spiritual care, training chaplains, seminarians, community clergy, and healthcare professionals in palliative care, and creating a spiritual care curriculum which can be self-taught or taught to members of transdisciplinary teams. PMID:23977777
Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders’ perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services. PMID:23922534
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
The focus on quality improvement of health care has been emerging in last decade, due to rapidly increasing competition, cost containment by governmental and private health financing corporations (including health insurance), and high costs structure of health care providing institutions. Accordingly, necessity of evaluation on results of care/outcome (discharge and discontinuation) of care has been drawn prompt attention of decision makers and administrators in health care institutions. However, since, original motive of quality care has been generated from the aspect of care providers' oriented (in US: Market and costs oriented, in Europe: Legislation oriented) bases and directions, in terms of cost performance, downsizing operation, improvement of competing capability and creating new profit making opportunity, evaluation approach, prioritization, itemization, setting goal, and standards were forced to set as forth to meet the providers' objective, in stead of patient's benefit and maximization of patient's satisfaction. Therefore, effective evaluation structure of quality balance management in operation must be built and consisted of four major 1)-4) cores to maintain patient oriented quality and optimal level of quality obligation to community. 1) In process 2) In Services 3) In Inhabitant Benefits 4) In Producing Assured Results. Through the efforts, it is proposed to urge "Evaluation Effectiveness Initiative (EEI) by Japan's leadership" to achieve sustainable safety and effective quality in balance of process through whole operations. PMID:9423195
Our quality improvement program began in 2004 to improve cardiac surgery outcomes. Early tracheal extubation in the cardiovascular intensive unit was utilized as a multidisciplinary driver for the quality improvement program. Continuous improvement in the rate of early extubation to drive multidisciplinary quality improvement in cardiac critical care correlated with decreased mortality, morbidity, and improved operational efficiency. Supportive educational efforts included, but were not limited to, principles of change, trust, competing values, crew resource management, evidence based medicine, and quality improvement. PMID:23439222
Lobdell, K; Camp, S; Stamou, S; Swanson, R; Reames, M; Madjarov, J; Stiegel, R; Skipper, E; Geller, R; Velardo, B; Mishra, A; Robicsek, F
The Children's Services Regulation 2004 (NSW) makes it possible for children aged between birth and two years to be without a university qualified teacher in a centre-based long day care service. However, research demonstrates important links between caregivers' formal training and the quality of early childhood education. This case study, about a…
Research Findings: Previous research has documented conflicting results on the relationship between program quality and the percentage of children receiving subsidized child care (subsidy density) in early childhood centers. This research examined the relationship between subsidy density and the quality of infant and preschool classrooms in child…
Antle, Becky F.; Frey, Andy; Barbee, Anita; Frey, Shannon; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Cox, Megan
Providing transportation to children younger than kindergarten age has become more common for public school districts, and school personnel are unsure as to the rules, guidelines, and best practices that apply to the youngest school bus passengers. This document outlines the current Illinois requirements regarding the transportation of very young…
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) manages the largest fully integrated health care system in the United States. In 1995, the VHA initiated a reinvention effort that included the most radical redesign of VA health care to occur since the veterans health care system was formally established in 1946. The 2 paramount goals of this reinvention effort were to ensure the predictable and consistent provision of high-quality care everywhere in the system and to optimize the value of VA health care. Although still a work in progress, dramatic results have been achieved toward these ends during the past 5 years. This article provides an overview of the veterans health care system, and it highlights selected aspects of the system's reengineering. It also describes various steps that have been taken to better manage performance and to systematize quality improvement and quality innovation. This information provides a global context that should facilitate understanding of the genesis and purposes of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative that is described in other articles in this issue of Medical Care. PMID:10843266
Kizer, K W; Demakis, J G; Feussner, J R
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the intestine. Overall, healthcare delivery for patients with CD is not optimal at the present time and therefore needs improvement. There are evidences which suggest that there is a variation in the care provided to patients with CD by the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experts and community care providers. The delivery of healthcare for patients with CD is often complex and requires coordination between gastroenterologists/IBD specialist, gastrointestinal surgeon, radiologists and IBD nurses. In order to improve the quality of health care for patients with CD, there is need that we focus on large-scale, system-wide changes including creation of IBD comprehensive care units, provision to provide continuous care, efforts to standardize care, and education of the community practitioners. PMID:25400990
Makharia, Govind K
Canadian experts in diverse fields as well as people concerned about social justice and cohesion have identified quality child care as a crucial component in addressing a variety of broad societal goals. This study explored the relationships between child care center quality and: center characteristics; teaching staff wages and working conditions;…
Goelman, Hillel; Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna S.; LaGrange, Annette; Tougas, Jocelyne
The implementation of total quality management (TQM) in health care has gone on in parallel with the growth of managed care. What is the interaction between the two? Key issues are the ascendance of cost control over quality in many areas, erosion of employee commitment and loyalty, and a short-run orientation. Associated with this is an emphasis on organizational learning rather than learning by autonomous professionals. Both TQM and managed care acknowledge the dynamic nature of clinical processes and the ability and responsibility of both institutions and clinicians to improve their processes. Both are consistent with efforts to identify and implement best practices. However, these similarities should not mask fundamental differences. Continuous improvement must shift its focus from avoiding unnecessary variation to facilitating rapid organizational learning and institutionalizing mass customization into the delivery of health services. PMID:9327355
McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D
Management methods for quality of diabetes care need new approaches because of the poor metabolic control of most of these patients. Poor quality of care generally results from poor instruction and training rather than from misbehaviour of both patients and their families. Structure quality of care (who and where?), process quality (how?, which are the goals, what resolution is taken
F. Chiarelli; A. Verrotti; L. di Ricco; M. de Martino; G. Morgese
Humanitarian surgical programs are set up de novo, within days or hours in emergency or disaster settings. In such circumstances, insuring quality of care is extremely challenging. Basic structural inputs such as a safe structure, electricity, clean water, a blood bank, sterilization equipment, a post-anesthesia recovery unit, appropriate medications should be established. Currently, no specific credentials are needed for surgeons to operate in a humanitarian setting; the training of more humanitarian surgeons is desperately needed. Standard perioperative protocols for the humanitarian setting after common procedures such as Cesarean section, burn care, open fractures, and amputations and antibiotic prophylaxis, and post-operative pain management must be developed. Outcome data, especially long-term outcomes, are difficult to collect as patients often do not return for follow-up and may be difficult to trace; standard databases for post-operative infections and mortality rates should be established. Checklists have recently received significant attention as an instrument to support the improvement of surgical quality; knowing which items are most applicable to humanitarian settings remains unknown. In conclusion, the quality of surgical services in humanitarian settings must be regulated. Many other core medical activities of humanitarian organizations such as therapeutic feeding, mass vaccination, and the treatment of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus, are subject to rigorous reporting of quality indicators. There is no reason why surgery should be exempted from quality oversight. The surgical humanitarian community should pull together before the next disaster strikes. PMID:21487849
Chu, Kathryn M; Trelles, Miguel; Ford, Nathan P
BACKGROUND: In the current study, the authors focused on determinants influencing the quality of care and variations in the actual quality of integrated care for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to estimate whether there is room for improvement. METHODS: The authors tested the quality of integrated care for 276 NSCLC patients with 14 quality indicators of professional (4
Mariëlle M. M. T. J. Ouwens; Rosella R. P. M. G. Hermens; René A. R. Termeer; Saskia Y. Vonk-Okhuijsen; Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen; Ad F. T. M. Verhagen; Marlies M. E. J. L. Hulscher; Henri A. M. Marres; Hub C. H. Wollersheim; Richard P. T. M. Grol
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significant health impact of gout, there is no consensus on management standards. To guide physician practice, we sought to develop quality of care indicators for gout management.\\u000aMETHODS: A systematic literature review of gout therapy was performed using the Medline database. Two abstractors independently reviewed each of the articles for relevance and satisfaction of minimal inclusion criteria.
Ted R. Mikuls; Catherine H. MacLean; Jason Olivieri; Fausto G. Patino; Jeroan J. Allison; John T. Farrar; Warren B. Bilker; Kenneth G. Saag
A comprehensive state-of-the-art system for quality improvement in ambulatory care has been designed to test (1) whether patients at 8 intervention sites demonstrate improved health status and satisfaction with their care as compared to patients at 8 control sites and (2) the extent to which timely patient self-reported data influences provider practice patterns. During the study pilot period, several investigators
Gayle E. Reiber; Mary B. McDonell; Anneliese M. Schleyer; Stephan D. Fihn; Domenic J. Reda
In recent years there has been an increase in the regulation of the medical profession. In the past there have been problems. The GMC can act only when things go seriously wrong. It has, however, introduced the health and performance procedures, increased the proportion of lay members, is working on revalidation and has introduced Good Medical Practice which makes very clear what is expected of a doctor and will be relevant to doctors' contracts. The medical Royal Colleges can be influential in raising general standards but the activities of the different colleges are not well co-ordinated and they cannot compel doctors to take part in continuing medical education, although this is an aim. Without statutory powers to introduce changes they have to carry their members with them. Audit has its problems and these are understandable because of the natural defensiveness which can occur if there is a threat of possible litigation. The Department of Health has had no proper system for measuring the quality of the care for which it is responsible and largely sees this as the responsibility of individual doctors. Responsibility for the quality of care is shared in a confusing way between different groups. But there is change in the air. There are moves for a 'patient led NHS'. The Government has a new emphasis on quality of care, there is greater sophistication in the methods used for surveying patients' experiences. Measurement of hard outcome data such as adjusted death rates can reveal underlying system failures. Finally, there is a growing realisation that within medicine, as within other complex organisations, doctors are not perfect and will always make errors. Blaming individuals will not in itself make much contribution to the improvement of the overall system: we have to work towards ways of reducing system failures. PMID:10717887
The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has embarked on a new program to ensure the quality of care provided to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The approach, entitled the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP), focuses on improving the outcomes of care, measuring improvement, and surveying for patient satisfaction. HCQIP, still in its infancy, is undertaken in collaboration with the providers of care. This article describes HCQIP. PMID:10151886
Gagel, B J
A framework for improving health care service quality was implemented at a 12-provider family medicine practice in 2010. A national patient satisfaction research vendor conducted weekly telephone surveys of 840 patients served by that practice: 280 patients served in 2009, and 560 served during 2010 and 2011. After the framework was implemented, the proportion of "excellent" ratings of provider service (the highest rating on a 5-point scale) increased by 5% to 9%, most notably thoroughness (P = .04), listening (P = .04), and explaining (P = .04). Other improvements included prompt test result notification and telephone staff courtesy (each by 10%, P = .02), as well as teamwork (by 8%, P = .04). Overall quality increased by 10% (P = .01), moving the practice from the 68th to the 91st percentile of medical practices in the research vendor's database. Improvements in patient satisfaction suggest that this framework may be useful in value-based payment models. PMID:24418754
Kennedy, Denise M; Nordrum, Jon T; Edwards, Frederick D; Caselli, Richard J; Berry, Leonard L
An integrative model of health care quality is presented. "Health care quality" is defined as provider conformance to patient requirements at three benefit levels: core, intangible, and tangible. The model is operationalized and tested in a clinical setting, a large center for fertility studies with more than 5000 patients. Health care "process variables" such as physician and patient interactions were not as important in patients' evaluations of health care quality when successful outcomes occurred (pregnancy). However, when patients experienced unsuccessful outcomes (no pregnancy), health care "process variables" were important and had a significant influence on patient perceptions of health care quality. Hence, service outcomes can significantly affect the measurement and interpretation of health care quality. Implications for health care management and research are discussed. PMID:10116754
Lytle, R S; Mokwa, M P
Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…
Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay
Continual emphasis on health care cost containment has reopened the issue of cost containment's relationship to quality of care and has created a need to understand the basic composition and nature of that relationship. For unless a new general approach is taken toward cost containment, continual emphasis could disrupt the delicate balance of the components that constitute quality of care
Gwynn X. Lamont
trend for older adults to seek care from non-pri- mary care specialists at a higher rate than in the recent past. In 2005, 43% of ambulatory care visits by patients aged 65 and over were to primary care physicians and 57% were to non-primary care spe- cialists. In 1980, 62% of ambulatory care visits by patients aged 65 and over
In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…
Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina
Studies across medical disciplines have shown gaps in the care recommended in evidence based guidelines and the care actually delivered. Quality improvement projects using systematic audit and feedback interventions such as quality measures, will become increasingly important tools to address these gaps in care. These gaps are also apparent in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Multiple organizations, including the American Gastroenterology Association and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, have developed programs designed to implement quality measures to improve the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Early results show promise of improving quality, but numerous barriers remain. Gastroenterologists need to be aware of these processes to provide the highest care possible to patients with IBD. We review the existing literature on approaches to quality improvement and their potential application and barriers when applied to IBD care. PMID:25071321
Shah, Rajesh; Hou, Jason K
Quality of health care delivery is a growing concern globally given current budget restraints and increasing demands on health care providers. The variety of quality assurance and quality management activities equals the numerous ways health care practitioners of all genres provide health care. Dental hygienists around the world must be knowledgeable about quality assurance and management in health care as it is a significant factor in the evolution of the dental hygiene profession and the quality of oral health care provided by dental hygienists. The objective of this research was to conduct a literature review on quality assurance and quality management. A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2002 was conducted. The search resulted in approximately 145 articles. Additional references from works generated by the search were also obtained. The literature revealed information on the background and history of quality assurance and quality management. Much of the literature was devoted to discussions of the validity, reliability and effectiveness of most prominent quality management activities being utilised in health care today. The investigation revealed numerous issues and barriers surrounding quality management. This article concludes with suggestions for future directions of quality assurance and quality management. PMID:16451516
Bilawka, E; Craig, B J
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of quality of care (QoC) on patients’ quality of life (QoL). In a cross-sectional study, two domains of QoC and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref questionnaire were combined to collect data from 1,059 pre-discharge patients in four accredited hospitals (ACCHs) and four non-accredited hospitals (NACCHs) in Saudi Arabia. Health and well-being are often restricted to the characterization of sensory qualities in certain settings such as unrestricted access to healthcare, effective treatment, and social welfare. The patients admitted to tertiary health care facilities are generally able to present themselves with a holistic approach as to how they experience the impact of health policy. The statistical results indicated that patients reported a very limited correlation between QoC and QoL in both settings. The model established a positive, but ultimately weak and insignificant, association between QoC (access and effective treatment) and QoL (r = 0.349, P = 0.000; r = 0.161, P = 0.000, respectively). Even though the two settings are theoretically different in terms of being able to conceptualize, adopt, and implement QoC, the outcomes from both settings demonstrated insignificant relationships with QoL as the results were quite similar. Though modern medicine has substantially improved QoL around the world, this paper proposes that health accreditation has a very limited impact on improving QoL. This paper raises awareness of this topic with multiple healthcare professionals who are interested in correlating QoC and QoL. Hopefully, it will stimulate further research from other professional groups that have new and different perspectives. Addressing a transitional health care system that is in the process of endorsing accreditation, investigating the experience of tertiary cases, and analyzing deviated data may limit the generalization of this study. Global interest in applying public health policy underlines the impact of such process on patients’ outcomes. As QoC accreditation does not automatically produce improved QoL outcomes, the proposed study encourages further investigation of the value of health accreditation on personal and social well-being. PMID:25114568
Alonazi, Wadi B; Thomas, Shane A
In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government’s largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents’ selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients’ using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092
Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Quality improvement is as central to home health care as to any other field of health care. With the mandated addition in 2000 of Outcome Assessment and Information Set (OASIS) and outcome-based quality improvement (OBQI), Medicare home health agencies entered a new era of documenting, tracking, and systematically improving quality. OBQI is augmented by the Medicare Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) program, which is now entering the ninth in a series of work assignments, with the tenth scope in the planning stages. Evidence has shown that applied quality improvement methods can drive better outcomes using important metrics, such as acute care hospitalization. This article reviews key findings from the past 2 decades of home care quality improvement research and public policy advances, describes specific examples of local and regional programmatic approaches to quality improvement, and forecasts near-future trends in this vital arena of home health care. PMID:19217497
Rosati, Robert J
Explores the notion that the introduction of total quality management (TQM) in the public health-care sector indicates a conceptual break with a tradition in which the authority to define and interpret the meaning of medical practice has been located solely within the medical profession. It also serves to shift the focus of medical practice away from its contextual and interactional character towards numerical representations and codification in monetary terms. Further, it is argued that the realization of management ideals in everyday practice is dependent more on the availability of pre-existing technologies and standard procedures than on the ingenuity of particular organizational and institutional actors. These arguments are illustrated with the reutilization for TQM purposes of "local incident reports" in a Swedish hospital organization. PMID:11200301
Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…
Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna
Focusing on how the definition and assessment of quality day care are culturally specific, this paper reviews the development and validity of the Child Care Facility Schedule (CCFS), a procedure for assessing quality in child care settings in many countries. This project was initiated by the Division of Mental Health of the World Health…
Dragonas, Thalia; And Others
Cancer care quality measurement and system change may serve as a case example for larger possibilities in the health care system related to other diseases. Cancer care quality gaps and variation exist across both technical and patient-centered cancer quality measures, especially among vulnerable populations. There is a need to develop measures that address the following dimensions of quality and its context: disparities, overuse, patient-centeredness, and uncertainty. Developments that may promote system change in cancer care delivery include changes in the information market, organizational accountability, and consumer empowerment. Information market changes include public cancer care quality reporting, enabled by health information exchange, and incentivized by pay-for-performance. Moving organizational accountability, reimbursement, and quality measurement from individual episodes of care to multiple providers providing coordinated cancer care may address quality gaps associated with the fragmentation of care delivery. Consumer empowerment through new technologies, such as personal health records, may lead to the collection of patient-centered quality measures and promote patient self-management. Across all of these developments, leadership and ongoing research to guide informed system changes will be necessary to transform the cancer care delivery system. PMID:20940654
Haggstrom, David A; Doebbeling, Bradley N
Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various mea- sures of quality and how such measures affect the overall quality
Justin Goodson; Wooseung Jang; Marilyn Rantz
Background: Sophisticated approaches are needed to improve the quality of care for elderly people living in residential care facilities. We determined the effects of multidisciplinary integrated care on the quality of care and quality of life for elderly people in residential care facilities. Methods: We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 10 residential care facilities in the Netherlands that included 340 participating residents with physical or cognitive disabilities. Five of the facilities applied multidisciplinary integrated care, and five provided usual care. The intervention, inspired by the disease management model, consisted of a geriatric assessment of functional health every three months. The assessment included use of the Long-term Care Facility version of the Resident Assessment Instrument by trained nurse-assistants to guide the design of an individualized care plan; discussion of outcomes and care priorities with the family physician, the resident and his or her family; and monthly multidisciplinary meetings with the nurse-assistant, family physician, psychologist and geriatrician to discuss residents with complex needs. The primary outcome was the sum score of 32 risk-adjusted quality-of-care indicators. Results: Compared with the facilities that provided usual care, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher sum score of the 32 quality-of-care indicators (mean difference ? 6.7, p = 0.009; a medium effect size of 0.72). They also had significantly higher scores for 11 of the 32 indicators of good care in the areas of communication, delirium, behaviour, continence, pain and use of antipsychotic agents. Interpretation: Multidisciplinary integrated care resulted in improved quality of care for elderly people in residential care facilities compared with usual care. Trial registration: www.controlled-trials.com trial register no. ISRCTN11076857. PMID:21708967
Boorsma, Marijke; Frijters, Dinnus H.M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Ribbe, Miel E.; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein P.J.
...Request for Information Regarding Health Care Quality for Exchanges AGENCY...Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy) to...efforts to improve the quality of health care in the United States. The...
methods Using data from an ongoing performance-evaluation program in the VA, we evaluated the quality of preventive, acute, and chronic care. We assessed the change in quality-of- care indicators from 1994 (before reengineering) through 2000 and compared the qual- ity of care with that afforded by the Medicare fee-for-service system, using the same in- dicators of quality. results In fiscal
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Kenneth W. Kizer; R. Adams Dudley
Evaluates the quality of the caregiving environment for young infants in day care centers in Athens (Greece) using three global measures: ITERS, PROFILE, and CCFS. Reveals a great similarity among the three measures. Reports a generally low quality for day care, lower than for other countries with similar research. (DSK)
Melhuish, Edward C.; Petrogiannis, Konstantinos
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing home staffing level, care received by individual residents, and resident quality-related care processes and functional outcomes. Design and Methods: Nurses recorded resident care time for 5,314 residents on 156 units in 105 facilities in four states (Colorado,…
Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Bershadsky, Julie; Degenholtz, Howard B.
Purpose Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Patients and methods Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Results Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: ?=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2–0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: ?=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9–6.4]). Conclusion Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities.
Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle
Background Health care quality in the US territories is poorly characterized. We used process measures to compare the performance of hospitals in the US territories and in the US states. Methods Our sample included nonfederal hospitals located in the United States and its territories discharging Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia (PNE) (July 2005–June 2008). We compared risk-standardized 30-day mortality and readmission rates between territorial and stateside hospitals, adjusting for performance on core process measures and hospital characteristics. Results In 57 territorial hospitals and 4799 stateside hospitals, hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates were significantly higher in the US territories (P < .001) for AMI (18.8% vs 16.0%), HF (12.3% vs 10.8%), and PNE (14.9% vs 11.4%). Hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) were also significantly higher in the US territories for AMI (20.6% vs 19.8%; P=.04), and PNE (19.4% vs 18.4%; P=.01) but was not significant for HF (25.5% vs 24.5%; P=.07). The higher risk-standardized mortality rates in the US territories remained statistically significant after adjusting for hospital characteristics and core process measure performance. Hospitals in the US territories had lower performance on all core process measures (P< .05). Conclusions Compared with hospitals in the US states, hospitals in the US territories have significantly higher 30-day mortality rates and lower performance on every core process measure for patients discharged after AMI, HF, and PNE. Eliminating the substantial quality gap in the US territories should be a national priority. PMID:21709184
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Herrin, Jeph; Santana, Calie; Curry, Leslie A.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Objective:Experts believe good teamwork among health care providers may improve quality. We sought to measure the frequency of team behaviors during delivery room care and to explore how these behaviors relate to the quality of care.Study design:We video recorded neonatal resuscitation teams then used independent observers to measure teamwork behaviors and compliance with Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines (a measure
E J Thomas; J B Sexton; R E Lasky; R L Helmreich; D S Crandell; J Tyson
Background: Asthma quality of life questionnaires are not readily incorporated into clinical care. We therefore computerised the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (standardised) (PAQLQ(S)) and the Paediatric Asthma Caregivers Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ), with a colour-coded printed graphical report.Objectives: To (a) assess the feasibility of the electronic questionnaires in clinical care and (b) compare the child’s PAQLQ scores
H Mussaffi; R Omer; D Prais; M Mei-Zahav; T Weiss-Kasirer; Z Botzer; H Blau
Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…
Background Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings. Methods We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50–80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND’s Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator. Results Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women) had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9) comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9). Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47%) and those with schizophrenia (35%). Conclusions In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care. PMID:24760077
Streit, Sven; da Costa, Bruno R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Weiler, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas; Frey, Peter; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Battegay, Edouard; Kerr, Eve; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
Problems with the quality of colonoscopy are well recognized. Variation in colonoscopist performance is compounded by payment structures that reward volume rather than quality. Payment reform has emerged as one strategy to address these and more systemic problems in the quality of health care. Various forms of value-based purchasing might encourage a realignment of incentives, and allow reimbursement to be
David G Hewett; Douglas K Rex
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Evaluated effectiveness of day-care center self-assessment materials developed in Britain. Found that over 80% of staff at 76 Hungarian centers thought the materials raised their awareness of quality issues, although the materials did not have a significant impact on quality of care provided. Identified key differences between services in the U.K.…
Munton, Anthony G.; Mooney, Ann; Korintus, Marta
Experience gathered to date confirms that capitation of Medicare does not necessarily decrease quality of health care and may in fact encourage an improvement in health care quality. Incentives inherent in capitated reimbursement are threefold. First, practitioners, by not receiving more payment for more service, are discouraged from providing…
Purpose: Our objective in this study was to compare the quality of care provided under the Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO), a special program designed to serve dually eligible older persons, to care provided to controls who received fee-for-service Medicare and Medicaid managed care. Design and Methods: Two control groups were used; one was…
Kane, Robert L.; Homyak, Patricia; Bershadsky, Boris; Lum, Terry; Flood, Shannon; Zhang, Hui
The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…
Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Background Leadership and staffing are recognised as important factors for quality of care. This study examines the effects of ward leaders' task- and relationship-oriented leadership styles, staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses and ratio of unlicensed staff on three independent measures of quality of care. Methods A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilised: self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, interviews with and questionnaires to 13 nursing home directors and 40 ward managers, telephone interviews with 378 relatives and 900 hours of field observations. Separate multi-level analyses were conducted for quality of care assessed by relatives, staff and field observations respectively. Results Task-oriented leadership style had a significant positive relationship with two of the three quality of care indexes. In contrast, relationship-oriented leadership style was not significantly related to any of the indexes. The lack of significant effect for relationship-oriented leadership style was due to a strong correlation between the two leadership styles (r = 0.78). Staffing levels and ratio of registered nurses were not significantly related to any of the quality of care indexes. The ratio of unlicensed staff, however, showed a significant negative relationship to quality as assessed by relatives and field observations, but not to quality as assessed by staff. Conclusions Leaders in nursing homes should focus on active leadership and particularly task-oriented behaviour like structure, coordination, clarifying of staff roles and monitoring of operations to increase quality of care. Furthermore, nursing homes should minimize use of unlicensed staff and address factors related to high ratios of unlicensed staff, like low staff stability. The study indicates, however, that the relationship between staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses and quality of care is complex. Increasing staffing levels or the ratio of registered nurses alone is not likely sufficient for increasing quality of care. PMID:22123029
BACKGROUND Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States and experience persistent disparities in access to and quality\\u000a of health care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVES (1) To determine the relationship between nativity\\/immigration status and self-reported quality of care and preventive care.\\u000a (2) To assess the impact of a usual source of health care on receipt of preventive care among Latinos.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN Using cross-sectional data
Michael A. Rodríguez; Arturo Vargas Bustamante; Alfonso Ang
Objectives: To identify a generic set of face valid quality indicators for primary care mental health services which reflect a multi-stakeholder perspective and can be used for facilitating quality improvement. Design: Modified two-round postal Delphi questionnaire. Setting: Geographical spread across Great Britain. Participants: One hundred and fifteen panellists representing 11 different stakeholder groups within primary care mental health services (clinical psychologist, health and social care commissioner, community psychiatric nurse, counsellor, general practitioner, practice nurse/district nurse/health visitor, psychiatrist, social worker, carer, patient and voluntary organisations). Main outcome measures: Face validity (median rating of 8 or 9 on a nine point scale with agreement by all panels) for assessing quality of care. Results: A maximum of 334 indicators were rated by panels in the second round; 26% were rated valid by all panels. These indicators were categorised into 21 aspects of care, 11 relating to general practices and 10 relating to health authorities or primary care groups/trusts. There was variation in the total number of indicators rated valid across the different panels. Overall, GPs rated the lowest number of indicators as valid (41%, n=138) and carers rated the highest number valid (91%, n=304). Conclusions: The quality indicators represent consensus among key stakeholder groups in defining quality of care within primary care mental health services. These indicators could provide a guide for primary care organisations embarking on quality improvement initiatives in mental health care when addressing national targets and standards relating to primary care set out in the National Service Framework for Mental Health for England. Although many of the indicators relate to parochial issues in UK service delivery, the methodology used in the development of the indicators could be applied in other settings to produce locally relevant indicators. PMID:12679505
Shield, T; Campbell, S; Rogers, A; Worrall, A; Chew-Graham, C; Gask, L
Objective To examine the effect of nonprice competition among managed care plans on the quality of care in the New York SCHIP market. Data Sources U.S. Census 2000; 2002 New York State Managed Care Plan Performance Report; and 2001 New York State Managed Care Annual Enrollment Report. Study Design Each market is defined as a county, and competition is measured as the number of plans in a market. Quality of care is measured in percentages using three Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey and three Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set scores. Two-stage least squares is applied to address the endogeneity between competition and the quality of care, using population as an instrument. Principle Findings We find a negative association between competition and quality of care. An additional managed care plan is significantly associated with a decrease of 0.40–2.31 percentage points in four out of six quality measures. After adjusting for production cost, a positive correlation is observed between price and quality measures across different pricing regions. Conclusions It seems likely that pricing policy is a constraint on quality production, although it may not be interpreted as a causal relationship and further study is needed. PMID:18454776
Liu, Hangsheng; Phelps, Charles E
Historically, the economic value that nursing brings to the patient care process has not been recognized or quantified. Improving the quality of nursing care through work environment changes or increases in staffing is viewed by many as an added cost, but the benefits in terms of money saved through improved nursing satisfaction and patient outcomes are not considered. This article introduces nine articles that were originally presented at the Economics of Nursing Invitational Conference: Paying for Quality Nursing Care held at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey, June 13 and 14, 2007. Recommendations are to conduct research on the impact of policy and payment changes on the nursing workforce and quality of care and to correct the misalignment of socioeconomic and business case incentives for quality by payment systems and other changes. PMID:18650411
Unruh, Lynn Y; Hassmiller, Susan B; Reinhard, Susan C
Powerful forces are converging in US health care to finally cause recognition of the inherently logical relationship between quality and money. The forces, or marketplace "drivers," which are converging to compel recognition of the relationship between cost and quality are: (1) the increasing costs of care; (2) the recurrence of another medical malpractice crisis; and (3) the recognition inside and outside of health care that quality is inconsistent and unacceptable. It is apparent that hospital administrators, financial officers, board members, and medical staff leadership do not routinely do two things: (1) relate quality to finance; and (2) appreciate the intra-hospital structural problems that impede quality attainment. This article discusses these factors and offers a positive method for re-structuring quality efforts and focusing the hospital and its medical staff on quality. The simple but compelling thesis of the authors is that health care must immediately engage in the transformation to making quality of medical care the fundamental business strategy of the organization. PMID:14977035
Feazell, G Landon; Marren, John P
The demand for health care outcomes assessment is increasing, driven by the proliferation of managed care as a form of health care financing. Providers, consumers, and payers can use health care outcomes to improve the efficiency and quality of care, spur performance improvement, and demonstrate accountability. This review introduces health outcomes and focuses on one particular outcome—pediatric health-related quality of
Michael Seid; James W. Varni; Jenifer R. Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Quality end-of-life care has emerged as an important concept in industrialized countries. DISCUSSION: We argue quality end-of-life care should be seen as a global public health and health systems problem. It is a global problem because 85 % of the 56 million deaths worldwide that occur annually are in developing countries. It is a public health problem because of
Peter A Singer; Kerry W Bowman
Total quality management (TQM) is gaining momentum in health care. The experiences of pioneering organizations provide insights into the hurdles that many organizations face in implementing TQM. Based on their observations of these pioneers, the authors conclude that there are six key success factors for TQM in health care. This article reviews the success factors, considers the common obstacles to achieving them, and looks at some of the future directions for TQM in health care. PMID:10131012
Melum, M M; Sinioris, M E
To assess the quality of some aspects of medical hospital care an explicit review instrument (a 'criteria map') was developed on the basis of available evidence and consensus statements. The criteria are presented as ‘optimal care trajectories’, which depend on the patient's clinical profile. The criteria map was applied in a study of 738 stroke patients over 45 years of
A. van Straten; H. van Crevel; J. D. F. Habbema; M. Limburg
Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts. PMID:25663213
Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S
Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization’s quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts. PMID:25663213
Boucher, Nathan A; McMillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S
This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients. PMID:25072333
This study examines the extent, motivation, and performance implications of normal quality improvement (QI) programs in Pennsylvania nursing care facilities. Responses to a 20-item survey sent to facility administrators indicate that continuous quality improvement/total quality management (CQI/TQM) adopters are more motivated by quality of care and human resource concerns in implementing QI, more satisfied with the results of QI efforts, and more aware of a competitive environment than are non-adopters. There are few differences between adopters and non-adopters with respect to organizational characteristics or performance on quality of care measures. Comparison with the results of a study of QI implementation in hospitals reveals some differences in motivation, but similarities in satisfaction with results. PMID:9116533
Zinn, J S; Brannon, D; Weech, R
This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…
Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet
Objective. To compare the primary care quality among different health care structures in Tibet, China. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire survey including Primary Care Assessment Tool-Tibetan version was used to obtain data from a total of 1386 patients aged over 18 years in the sampling sites in two prefectures in Tibet. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the association between health care structures and primary care quality while controlling for sociodemographic and health care characteristics. Results. The services provided by township health centers were more often used by a poor, less educated, and healthy population. Compared with prefecture (77.42) and county hospitals (82.01), township health centers achieved highest total score of primary care quality (86.64). Factors that were positively and significantly associated with higher total assessment scores included not receiving inpatient service in the past year, less frequent health care visits, good self-rated health status, lower education level, and marital status. Conclusions. This study showed that township health centers patients reported better primary care quality than patients visiting prefecture and county hospitals. Government health reforms should pay more attention to THC capacity building in Tibet, especially in the area of human resource development.
Yin, Aitian; Mao, Zongfu; Liu, Xiaoyun
Objective. To compare the primary care quality among different health care structures in Tibet, China. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire survey including Primary Care Assessment Tool-Tibetan version was used to obtain data from a total of 1386 patients aged over 18 years in the sampling sites in two prefectures in Tibet. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the association between health care structures and primary care quality while controlling for sociodemographic and health care characteristics. Results. The services provided by township health centers were more often used by a poor, less educated, and healthy population. Compared with prefecture (77.42) and county hospitals (82.01), township health centers achieved highest total score of primary care quality (86.64). Factors that were positively and significantly associated with higher total assessment scores included not receiving inpatient service in the past year, less frequent health care visits, good self-rated health status, lower education level, and marital status. Conclusions. This study showed that township health centers patients reported better primary care quality than patients visiting prefecture and county hospitals. Government health reforms should pay more attention to THC capacity building in Tibet, especially in the area of human resource development. PMID:25861619
Wang, Wenhua; Shi, Leiyu; Yin, Aitian; Mao, Zongfu; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyun
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series of country…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
For social work practitioners to engage fully in efforts designed to improve the quality of social services, they need to understand what is meant by quality of care, grapple with its complexity, and know how to identify and leverage the key factors most likely to influence it. This article introduces a conceptual model that articulates numerous…
Megivern, Deborah M.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Striley, Catherine L. W.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.
The present study examined the relationships between teacher structure, teacher behaviors, and child care quality. Participants included 72 female teachers from 44 preschool classrooms. Both a global measure of quality and a measure of teacher-child interaction were utilized. Results showed that a co-teacher structure was associated with higher…
Shim, Jonghee; Hestenes, Linda; Cassidy, Deborah
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series of country…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
This report illustrates the first step of a research project at the Institute of Business Research, University of Zurich, concerning quality improvement techniques in Swiss health care institutions. It endeavors to provide a forecast of further research activities. Apart from the analysis provided by the most recent follow-up on the National Demonstration Project for Quality Improvement in Health Care (NDP), this also shows the lessons learned from the perspective of the initial NDP participants. Additionally, the results are adapted for application to European circumstances for quality improvement activities in health care institutions. US experience shows that physician involvement along with a good database are key success factors for quality improvement. Strategically important processes must be selected early on for quality improvement projects. It is important to start with intensive training of process leaders instead of a broad-based training. Furthermore, the new Swiss law regarding quality assurance and its results are explained. The formation of the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NAQ) means that first-time Swiss health care providers, as well as health insurance-companies and cantonal representatives, are discussing quality measures and clinical standards on a national level. PMID:8792176
Schmidt, S L
With passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, payment incentives were created to improve the "value" of health care delivery. Because physicians and physician practices aim to deliver care that is both clinically effective and patient centered, it is important to understand the association between the patient experience and quality health outcomes. Surveys have become a tool with which to quantify the consumer experience. In addition, results of these surveys are playing an increasingly important role in determining hospital payment. Given that the patient experience is being used as a surrogate marker for quality and value of health care delivery, we will review the patient experience-related pay-for-performance programs and effect on emergency medicine, discuss the literature describing the association between quality and the patient-reported experience, and discuss future opportunities for emergency medicine. PMID:24656761
Farley, Heather; Enguidanos, Enrique R; Coletti, Christian M; Honigman, Leah; Mazzeo, Anthony; Pinson, Thomas B; Reed, Kevin; Wiler, Jennifer L
Background Advance care planning is increasingly common, but whether it influences end-of-life quality of care remains controversial. Design Medicare data and survey data from the Health and Retirement Study were combined to determine whether advance care planning was associated with quality metrics. Setting The nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Participants 4394 decedent subjects (mean age 82.6 years at death, 55% women). Measurements Advance care planning was defined as having an advance directive, durable power of attorney or having discussed preferences for end-of-life care with a next-of-kin. Outcomes included previously reported quality metrics observed during the last month of life (rates of hospital admission, in-hospital death, >14 days in the hospital, intensive care unit admission, >1 emergency department visit, hospice admission, and length of hospice ?3 days). Results Seventy-six percent of subjects engaged in advance care planning. Ninety-two percent of advance directives stated a preference to prioritize comfort. After adjustment, subjects who engaged in advance care planning were less likely to die in a hospital (adjusted RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.94), more likely to be enrolled in hospice (aRR 1.68, 1.43-1.97), and less likely to receive hospice for ?3 days before death (aRR 0.88, 0.85-0.91). Having an advance directive, a durable-power-of-attorney or an advance care planning discussion were each independently associated with a significant increase in hospice use (p<0.01 for all). Conclusion Advance care planning was associated with improved quality of care at the end of life, including less in-hospital death and increased use of hospice. Having an advance directive, assigning a durable power of attorney and conducting advance care planning discussions are all important elements of advance care planning. PMID:23350921
Bischoff, Kara E.; Sudore, Rebecca; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alexander K.
Quality in North Carolina's nursing facilities is intertwined in multiple dimensions of person-centered care, evidence-based practice, innovation, pursuit of continued excellence, meaningful relationships, and recognition of choice and autonomy. By striving to excel in their role of providing skilled nursing care for medically related acuity, North Carolina's nursing facilities have been a contributor to the growth of the long-term care continuum, enabling North Carolina to have an extensive and well-developed system of skilled care and home- and community-based service models. PMID:25237874
Welsh, Polly Godwin; Kivisto, Eric
Sophisticated profiles of the quality of care provided in hospitals are prompting investors and bond rating agencies to ask questions about debt capitalization: What elements of the quality of care--measured by illness outcome, length of stay, morbidity, and mortality--will improve as a result of a proposed capital financing? Can the hospital demonstrate that cost benefits will result from a proposed financing by correlating costs with measurable improvements in patient outcomes? Can the hospital show, through financial feasibility analyses that reflect quality assessments, that its market share will remain stable? Hospitals' ability to gain access to credit markets will be influenced materially by their answers to these questions. PMID:10145599
Oszustowicz, R J
Quality Indicators (QIs) are measures of health care quality that make use of readily available hospital inpatient administrative data. Assessment quality of care can be performed on different levels: national, regional, on a hospital basis or on an individual basis. It can be a mandatory or voluntary system. In all cases development of an adequate database for data extraction, and feedback of the findings is of paramount importance. In the present paper we performed a Medline search on “QIs and breast cancer” and “benchmarking and breast cancer care”, and we have added some data from personal experience. The current data clearly show that the use of QIs for breast cancer care, regular internal and external audit of performance of breast units, and benchmarking are effective to improve quality of care. Adherence to guidelines improves markedly (particularly regarding adjuvant treatment) and there are data emerging showing that this results in a better outcome. As quality assurance benefits patients, it will be a challenge for the medical and hospital community to develop affordable quality control systems, which are not leading to excessive workload. PMID:24753926
van Dam, P.A.; Verkinderen, L.; Hauspy, J.; Vermeulen, P.; Dirix, L.; Huizing, M.; Altintas, S.; Papadimitriou, K.; Peeters, M.; Tjalma, W.
The effects of pharmaceutical care on medication cost and quality of care in a university-based family-practice clinic were studied. Prognostic indicators were used to target patients who should receive pharmaceutical care. Those patients who received care. Those patients who received pharmaceutical care over a 14-month period during 1988-89 were included in the study. A pharmacist interviewed each targeted patient, obtained the patient's medication history, made therapeutic recommendations to the patient's physician, and counseled the patient on his or her therapy. The pharmacist's recommendations were noted, and the outcome of each recommendation was documented on subsequent patient visits. For each recommendation, drug cost avoidance was calculated and patient outcome was analyzed. For quality assessment, a panel of three health-care professionals reviewed the pharmacist's recommendations for 25% of the study patients (randomly selected) and noted their agreement or disagreement with the pharmacist's actions. Over the study period, 184 targeted patients received pharmaceutical care. Clinic physicians accepted 297 (82.5%) of 360 pharmacist recommendations. Annual extrapolated cost avoidance associated with the pharmacist's recommendations was $19,076. For 213 (80.4%) of the 265 accepted recommendations for which outcome data were available, improvement or resolution of the patient's disease state occurred. For 8 (16%) of 50 unaccepted recommendations, the patient's status declined. The peer review panel agreed with 86% of the pharmacist's recommendations. The provision of comprehensive pharmaceutical care in an ambulatory-care clinic can both reduce medication costs and improve quality of care. PMID:1621723
Lobas, N H; Lepinski, P W; Abramowitz, P W
The purpose of this paper was to determine the criteria that reflect the quality of care provided by long-term care institutions. Research was conducted using a two-step procedure that first utilized the SERVQUAL model with Fuzzy Delphi Method to establish the proper criteria by which service quality could be measured. A total of 200 questionnaires were mailed to expert respondents, of which 89 were returned and 77 deemed valid for use in this study. We then applied the Multi-Criteria Decision Making Process to determine the degree of importance of each criterion to long-term care institution service quality planning work. Secondly, 200 questionnaires were distributed and 74 valid responses were returned. Based on the 5 SERVQUAL model constructs, this study found 17 of the 28 criteria, to be pertinent to nursing care quality, with those in the Responsiveness and Empathy domains being the ones most critical. PMID:18080970
Wang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Hong-Jer; Liu, An-Chi; Chen, Yu-Wen
We evaluated the quality of care provided to older patients with complex needs in a dual-eligible, community-based Medicare Special Needs Plan that used a nurse care manager model. Care provided by physicians was substantially supplemented by nurse care managers, as measured by Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. We describe selected nurse care manager activities for six geriatric conditions (falls, dementia, depression, nutrition, urinary incontinence, and end-of-life care) during provision of patient care coordination and management for patients in the highest decile of clinical complexity. We identify areas of high nurse performance (i.e., falls screening, functional assessment, behavioral interventions for dementia problems, advance care planning) and areas of potential missed opportunities (i.e., follow up for new memory problems, targeted dementia counseling, nutrition, and behavioral approaches to urinary incontinence). Increasing the collaborative interaction between nurses providing care in this model and physicians has the potential to enhance nurses' contributions to primary care for vulnerable older adults. PMID:22833891
Roth, Carol P; Ganz, David A; Nickles, Lorraine; Martin, David; Beckman, Robin; Wenger, Neil S
Stages in the development of art expression in infants and toddlers are briefly described and illustrated in this paper. Following this overview, suggestions are made about ways to introduce infants and toddlers to various developmentally appropriate media and how to support the artistic efforts of very young children. Materials recommended…
Diabetes is on the rise world wide; according to the latest report from the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people affected by the disease will increase by 55% from 382 in 2013 to almost 600 million in 2033. Individuals living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for depression and anxiety. Diabetes impacts on physical, emotional, social and financial aspects of life across cultures and countries, yet gaps in care exist around psychosocial and self-management education and support. The DAWN2 study provides a first multinational, multidisciplinary systematic framework for the comparison of unmet needs of people with diabetes and those who care for them in four continents. it is necessary to develop a system of patient-centered care, in which the empowerment of the person is the main instrument, and at the same time target on which to focus. Transforming study results into actions at the national level will represent one of the main activities of the DAWN2 initiative. In Italy, to do so, it is not enough write new documents but new resources are required. PMID:25282349
Purdue University, CALC Symposium September 2012 Does health care quality contribute to disparities;9/26/20122 Big Ideas. Health care quality is not just a pretty word. Where you live shouldn't limit quality, but it does! Consumer voices are critical for quality care. #12;9/26/20123 Big Idea One In health care
Interventions are needed to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia. However, in designing these interventions it would be helpful to understand better which patients are at highest risk for poor-quality care and why care for this disorder is often of poor quality. We study the extent to which patient and treatment factors are associated with poor-quality care in 224
Alexander S. Young; Greer Sullivan; Naihua Duan
This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…
Purpose – The main aim of the study is to provide an empirical analysis of quality management practice among Malaysian Ministry of Health hospital employees, ranging from medical specialists to health attendants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Self-administered questionnaires collected data and cluster sampling used to select hospitals, while stratified random sampling selected employee respondents. The research was limited to peninsular Malaysian public
Noor Hazilah Abd. Manaf
Quality measures allow providers, payers, and patients to assess and compare the performance of medical teams. The ideal quality measure is easy to define and observe, important to patients and physicians, and identifies areas ripe for improvement. There are several challenges unique to obstetrics that complicate quality measurement. Nationally available data are flawed and limited. Adverse outcomes are rare and difficult to compare between groups. An appropriate emphasis on teamwork makes assigning outcomes to individuals improper and impractical. We suggest some strategies that address these challenges and may improve obstetric measures: applying measures to teams rather than individuals, using sentinel events for internal root cause analysis rather than comparisons between groups, devising measures that account for alternatives, and developing data-collection fields that address important quality metrics directly. We highlight four measures that meet these criteria: 1) elective delivery before 39 weeks of gestation, 2) prophylactic antibiotic use for cesarean delivery, 3) the Adverse Outcome Index, and 4) the nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate. We suggest that each institution evaluate local priorities, select a measure, then continue to refine measures based on feedback from frontline clinicians. PMID:20733459
Janakiraman, Vanitha; Ecker, Jeffrey
Background. Patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES) are challenging to treat for myriad reasons. Often patients may be misdiagnosed with having epilepsy and then may suffer unintended consequences of treatment side effects with antiepileptic medication. In addition, patients may be maligned by health care providers due to a lack of ownership by both psychiatrists and neurologists and a dearth of dedicated professionals who are able to effectively treat and reduce severity and frequency of symptoms. Aims of Case Report. Many psychiatrists and neurologists are unaware of the extent of the barriers to care faced by patients with NES (PWNES) and the degree of perception of maltreatment or lack of therapeutic alliance at various stages of their care, including medical workup, video-EEG monitoring, and follow-up plans. We present the case of a patient with NES who experienced numerous barriers as well as incoordination to her care despite being offered a breadth of resources and discuss the quality improvement opportunities that may exist to improve care of patients with NES. Conclusion. No known literature has documented the extensive barriers to care of PWNES in parallel to quality improvement opportunities for improving their care. We endeavor to contribute to the overall formulation and development of a clinical care pathway for PWNES. PMID:25295209
Chen, Jasper J.; Thakur, Devendra S.; Bujarski, Krzysztof A.; Jobst, Barbara C.; Kobylarz, Erik J.; Thadani, Vijay M.
Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r?=?0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r?=?0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient?=?0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion The QPCQ is a valid and reliable instrument that will be useful in future research as an outcome measure to compare quality of care across geographic regions, populations, and service delivery models, and to assess the relationship between quality of care and maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:24894497
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
Our goal was to measure the quality of care provided in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during Therapeutic Apheresis (TA). We described the care as a step by step process. We designed a flow chart to carefully document each step of the process. We then defined each step with a unique clinical indictor (CI) that represented the exact task we felt provided quality care. These CIs were studied and modified for 1 year. We measured our performance in this process by the number of times we accomplished the CI vs. the total number of CIs that were to be performed. The degree of compliance, with these clinical indicators, was analyzed and used as a metric for quality by calculating how close the process is running exactly as planned or "in control." The Apheresis Process was in control (compliance) for 47% of the indicators, as measured in the aggregate for the first observational year. We then applied the theory of Total Quality Management (TQM) through our Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) model. We were able to improve the process and bring it into control by increasing the compliance to > 99.74%, in the aggregate, for the third and fourth quarter of the second year. We have implemented TQM to increase compliance, thus control, of a highly complex and multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care therapy. We have shown a reproducible and scalable measure of quality for a complex clinical process in the PICU, without additional capital expenditure. PMID:22095668
Sussmane, Jeffrey B; Torbati, Dan; Gitlow, Howard S
Studies document that, on average, children cared for in centers, as compared to homes, have higher cognitive test scores but worse socioemotional and health outcomes. The authors assessed whether the quality of care received explains these associations. They considered multiple domains of child development—cognitive, socioemotional, and health—and examined whether mediation is greater when quality measures are better aligned with outcome domains. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, they found that children in centers have better cognitive skills and behavioral regulation than children in homes, but worse social competence and generally equivalent health (N = 1,550). They found little evidence that quality of child care, as measured by standard instruments (e.g., the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale—Revised), accounts for associations between type of care and child developmental outcomes. PMID:24068846
Abner, Kristin S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders
Attempts to improve patient care, its increasing cost and the aggressive malpractice environment have highlighted the need for standards of professional accountability. However, current measures of quality of care have mostly been met with skepticism by the medical community. These measures have been criticized for their uncertain validity and for focusing on secondary aspects of service that measure what is minimally acceptable. The objective of this essay is to review quality improvement methods that have been reported to be feasible, effective and acceptable by practicing physicians. The successful implementation of these methods seems to be related to their being nonintrusive, nonthreatening, and based on agreed upon standards of care. We believe that these three features are essential for a continuous quality improvement process in health care. PMID:10185317
Benbassat, J; Taragin, M
The agenda for health care in developed countries in the 21st century will be dominated by a vision of quality which seeks to address the deep seated problems of the past. The ability to deliver safe, effective, high quality care within organisations with the right cultures, the best systems, and the most highly skilled and motivated work forces will be the key to meeting this challenge. This is an issue which should be a priority for education and training bodies. The need for health services to give priority to developing health professionals equipped to practise in a new way and thrive in new organisational environments requires a rapid response to reshape curricula and training programmes. Developing leadership and management skills will be essential in achieving this transformation in the quality of care delivered to patients. PMID:11700373
Donaldson, L J
The agenda for health care in developed countries in the 21st century will be dominated by a vision of quality which seeks to address the deep seated problems of the past. The ability to deliver safe, effective, high quality care within organisations with the right cultures, the best systems, and the most highly skilled and motivated work forces will be the key to meeting this challenge. This is an issue which should be a priority for education and training bodies. The need for health services to give priority to developing health professionals equipped to practise in a new way and thrive in new organisational environments requires a rapid response to reshape curricula and training programmes. Developing leadership and management skills will be essential in achieving this transformation in the quality of care delivered to patients. Key Words: leadership; management; patient safety PMID:11700373
States have placed high priority on developing early care and education systems that include early learning guidelines, curriculum, program guidelines or standards, and early childhood educator competencies. To explore how professional development and quality improvement initiatives are being integrated into emerging infant-toddler care systems,…
Mangione, Peter L.; Lally, J. Ronald; Poole, Janet L.; Tuesta, Alicia; Paxton, Arlene R.
Quality improvement in primary care has been an important issue worldwide for decades. Quality indicators are increasingly used quantitative tools for quality measurement. One of the possible motivational methods for doctors to provide better medical care is the implementation of financial incentives, however, there is no sufficient evidence to support or contradict their effect in quality improvement. Quality indicators and financial incentives are used in the primary care in more and more European countries. The authors provide a brief update on the primary care quality indicator systems of the United Kingdom, Hungary and other European countries, where financial incentives and quality indicators were introduced. There are eight countries where quality indicators linked to financial incentives are used which can influence the finances/salary of family physicians with a bonus of 1-25%. Reliable data are essential for quality indicators, although such data are lacking in primary care of most countries. Further, improvement of indicator systems should be based on broad professional consensus. PMID:23835354
Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Rurik, Imre
with regard to the care and education of children, as well as business management. Training participants,900 children at 798 child care businesses. Additionally, more than 67,000 online training sessions have been as children are spending more time in care outside the family. More than 60 percent of children from birth
Collaborative networks of intensive care units can help promote a quality-improvement agenda across an entire system or region. Proposed advantages include targeting a greater number of patients, sharing of resources, and common measurement systems for audit and feedback or benchmarking. This review focuses on elements that are essential for the success and sustainability of these collaborative networks, using as examples networks in Michigan and Ontario. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which collaborative networks lead to improved care delivery and to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other approaches to system-level quality improvement. PMID:23182529
Watson, Sam R; Scales, Damon C
This article presents an overview of the grounded theory research method and demonstrates how nurses can employ specific grounded theories to improve patient care quality. Because grounded theory is derived from real-world experience, it is a particularly appropriate method for nursing research. An overview of the method and language of grounded theory provides a background for nurses as they read grounded theories and apply newly acquired understandings to predictable processes and patterns of behavior. This article presents 2 exemplar grounded theories with suggestions as to how nurses can apply these and other grounded theories to improve the provision of quality nursing care. PMID:17873733
Nathaniel, Alvita K; Andrews, Tom
The business case for health-care quality improvement is presented. We contend that investment in process improvement is aligned with patients' interests, the organization's reputation, and the engagement of their workforce. Four groups benefit directly from quality improvement: patients, providers, insurers, and employers. There is ample opportunity, even in today's predominantly pay-for-volume (that is, evolving toward value-based purchasing) insurance system, for providers to deliver care that is in the best interest of the patient while improving their financial performance. PMID:23429226
Swensen, Stephen J; Dilling, James A; Mc Carty, Patrick M; Bolton, Jeffrey W; Harper, Charles M
Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…
Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn
The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591
Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine
Used NICHD Study of Early Child Care data to test paths from child care quality through process indicators to child outcomes. Found that maternal caregiving quality was strongest predictor of cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality related to cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality mediated…
Psychological Science, 2002
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces enormous policy changes to the health care system with several anticipated benefits and a growing number of unanticipated challenges for child and adolescent health. Because the ACA gives each state and their payers substantial autonomy and discretion on implementation, understanding potential effects will require state-by-state monitoring of policies and their impact on children. The "voltage drop" framework is a useful interpretive guide for assessing the impact of insurance market change on the quality of care received. Using this framework we suggest a state-level checklist to examine ACA statewide implementation, assess its impact on health care delivery, and frame policy correctives to improve child health system performance. Although children's health care is a small part of US health care spending, child health provides the foundation for adult health and must be protected in ACA implementation. PMID:25225140
Cheng, Tina L; Wise, Paul H; Halfon, Neal
Stroke, the second leading cause of death throughout the world, has a major impact on society. This article provides a summary of quality improvement initiatives, including those relating to hospitals, the system of care delivery infrastructure, and legislative efforts in the United States and in various countries outside of the United States. Through quality improvement initiatives, it is projected that stroke outcomes may improve and the economic burden of stroke may be reduced. PMID:19026908
Health-related quality of life has become an important end point in modern day clinical practice in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Patients have unique symptoms and problems from diagnosis till death, which require interventions that are multidisciplinary in nature. Here, we review and summarize the various key issues in palliative care, quality of life and end of life in patients with brain tumors, with the focus on primary gliomas. PMID:25165570
Background Improving end-of-life care in the hospital is a national priority. Purpose To explore the prevalence and reasons for implementation of hospital-wide and ICU practices relevant to quality care in key end-of-life care domains,and to discern major structural determinants of practice implementation. Design Cross-sectional mixed-mode survey of Chief Nursing Officers of Pennsylvania structural determinants of practice implementation. Results The response rate was 74% (129 of 174). The prevalence of hospital and ICU practices ranged from 95% for a hospital-wide formal code policy to 6% for regularly scheduled family meetings with an attending physician in the ICU. Most practices had less than 50% implementation; most were implemented primarily for quality improvement or to keep up with the standard of care. In a multivariable model including hospital structural characteristics, only hospital size independently predicted the presence of one or more hospital initiatives (ethics consult service, OR 6.13, adjusted p=0.02; private conference room in the ICU for family meetings, OR 4.54, adjusted p<0.001). Conclusions There is low penetration of hospital practices relevant to quality end-of-life care in Pennsylvania acute care hospitals. Our results may serve to inform the development of future benchmark goals. It is critical establish a strong evidence base for the practices most associated with improved end-of-life care outcomes and to develop quality measures for end-of-life care to complement existing hospital quality measures that primarily focus on life extension. PMID:20427307
Lin, Caroline Y.; Arnold, Robert; Lave, Judith R.; Angus, Derek C.; Barnato, Amber
The study applies the principles behind the SERVQUAL model and uses Donabedian's framework to compare and contrast Malta's public and private hospital care service quality. Through the identification of 16 service quality indicators and the use of a Likert-type scale, two questionnaires were developed. The first questionnaire measured patient pre-admission expectations for public and private hospital service quality (in respect of one another). It also determined the weighted importance given to the different service quality indicators. The second questionnaire measured patient perceptions of provided service quality. Results showed that private hospitals are expected to offer a higher quality service, particularly in the "hotel services", but it was the public sector that was exceeding its patients' expectations by the wider margin. A number of implications for public and private hospital management and policy makers were identified. PMID:10185325
Camilleri, D; O'Callaghan, M
Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861
Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel
This article discusses the impact of selected findings from a PhD-study that focuses on compassion as a guiding principle for contemporary nursing education and practice. The study, of which the literature review and empirical findings have already been published, looked at compassion as perceived within the relationship of nurses and older persons with a chronic disease. The patient group was chosen because daily life for them is characterized by long-term dependency on care. The literature review resulted in a theoretical framework of compassion that also explores other closely related concepts such as suffering and empathy. The empirical part of the study, in which 61 in-depth interviews and 6 group interviews with patients and nurses took place, showed that compassion is a mirroring process in response to grief. Compassion consists of seven dimensions such as attentiveness and presence, in which saliency, so as to anticipate patients' needs, is of major importance. Compassion is perceived by participants as an indispensable aspect of care, which helps to reveal relevant information in order to establish appropriate outcomes of care. This article focuses on the aspects of the PhD-study in which an analysis of compassion in the context of both modern as well as the history of nursing took place. Currently evidence based practice is regarded as the standard for good quality care. Nevertheless there is an on-going debate about what constitutes good quality care. Within this debate two opposing views are apparent. One view defines good care as care supported by the best scientific evidence. The other view states that good care takes place within the nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse performs professional care based on intuitive knowing. It is suggested that compassion is the (missing) link between these views. PMID:24856582
van der Cingel, Margreet
and behaviors. We approach our work in a professional manner: · I will model integrity by being honest will strive to be helpful in every situation. · I will demonstrate and encourage positive behaviors. We alwaysOU Medicine Standards of Excellence PROFESSIONALISM - CARING - COMMUNICATION - QUALITY - INNOVATION
Oklahoma, University of
Summary • Quality Control (QC) in Point of Care Testing (PoCT) is often thought of as a complex issue; however intelligent system analysis can simplify matters and greatly increase the chances of a well controlled system. What we want to achieve is a QC program which adequately controls the PoCT system, but does not excessively contribute to the operating costs
Cameron L Martin
Institutional rearing adversely affects children's development, but the extent to which specific characteristics of the institutional context and the quality of care provided contribute to problematic development remains unclear. In this study, 72 preschoolers institutionalised for at least 6 months were evaluated by their caregiver using the…
Oliveira, Paula Salgado; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Belsky, Jay; Fachada, Inês; Soares, Isabel
Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Nearly fourteen years ago the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, triggered a national movement to improve patient safety. Despite the substantial and concentrated efforts that followed, quality and safety problems in health care continue to routinely result in harm to patients. Desired progress will not be achieved unless substantial changes are made to the way in which quality improvement is conducted. Alongside important efforts to eliminate preventable complications of care, there must also be an effort to seriously address the widespread overuse of health services. That overuse, which places patients at risk of harm and wastes resources at the same time, has been almost entirely left out of recent quality improvement endeavors. Newer and much more effective strategies and tools are needed to address the complex quality challenges confronting health care. Tools such as Lean, Six Sigma, and change management are proving highly effective in tackling problems as difficult as hand-off communication failures and patient falls. Finally, the organizational culture of most American hospitals and other health care organizations must change. To create a culture of safety, leaders must eliminate intimidating behaviors that suppress the reporting of errors and unsafe conditions. Leaders must also hold everyone accountable for adherence to safe practices. PMID:24101066
Chassin, Mark R
MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality INTRODUCTION The squid resources in the proper handling of squid at sea and through the processing and dis- tribution stages. Typically, squid for squid is primarily a small-boat fishery, and the catch is sometimes not iced at sea. In southern New
One result of a policy in the UK of providing support for older people to remain in their own homes has been an increase in frailty in the residents of care homes, many of whom suffer from dementia. The importance of enabling these residents to enjoy a good quality of life is recognized. Results from two research projects show that
This chapter aims to describe the origin and current status of quality assurance (QA) in health care and to provide a background of similar developments in other industries, which have provided a major impetus for QA initiatives in health care. The interest in quality and safety in the health care sector has rapidly risen over the past decade. Without important lessons learnt from other industries, the interest and obtained improvements would have been far less fast. Knowledge on basic principles and challenges faced by other industries like the airline, car, and nuclear energy industry, that drove quality improvement projects, is of major relevance to understand the evolutions taking place in health care. To fully appreciate the QA movement, and design or implement quality improvement projects, its basic principles need to be understood. This chapter aims to give insights in basic principles underlying QA, and to discuss historical lessons that have been learnt from other industries. Furthermore, it discusses how to implement and assure a sustainable QA program. PMID:21764002
de Jonge, Vincent; Sint Nicolaas, Jerome; van Leerdam, Monique E; Kuipers, Ernst J
A 20-item checklist is provided for parents assessing the quality of day care programs. Items include the following: (1) caregivers nourish children with body snuggling; (2) caregivers arrange safe, interesting learning experiences; (3) caregivers are keen observers; (4) child health and safety needs are met; (5) teachers encourage competency; (6)…
Honig, Alice S.
The objective of this study was to define "quality" of headache care, and develop indicators that are applicable in different settings and cultures and to all types of headache. No definition of quality of headache care has been formulated. Two sets of quality indicators, proposed in the US and UK, are limited to their localities and/or specific to migraine and their development received no input from people with headache. We first undertook a literature review. Then we conducted a series of focus-group consultations with key stakeholders (doctors, nurses and patients) in headache care. From the findings we proposed a large number of putative quality indicators, and refined these and reduced their number in consultations with larger international groups of stakeholder representatives. We formulated a definition of quality from the quality indicators. Five main themes were identified: (1) headache services; (2) health professionals; (3) patients; (4) financial resources; (5) political agenda and legislation. An initial list of 160 putative quality indicators in 14 domains was reduced to 30 indicators in 9 domains. These gave rise to the following multidimensional definition of quality of headache care: "Good-quality headache care achieves accurate diagnosis and individualized management, has appropriate referral pathways, educates patients about their headaches and their management, is convenient and comfortable, satisfies patients, is efficient and equitable, assesses outcomes and is safe." Quality in headache care is multidimensional and resides in nine essential domains that are of equal importance. The indicators are currently being tested for feasibility of use in clinical settings. PMID:22733141
Peters, Michele; Jenkinson, Crispin; Perera, Suraj; Loder, Elizabeth; Jensen, Rigmor; Katsarava, Zaza; Gil Gouveia, Raquel; Broner, Susan; Steiner, Timothy
Managed care companies contend there is still waste in the healthcare system that should be eliminated. Healthcare providers argue that further cuts will reduce quality. Which side is right? In order to answer this question it is necessary to determine the threshold implicit in the corollary question: How far can we go in reducing healthcare expense without diminishing quality? A new variability based methodology is proposed that has the potential to determine the threshold at which cost reduction will negatively impact quality. Illustrations of its specific application are provided. PMID:10977431
Litvak, E; Long, M C
Background There is strong evidence to show that lower nurse staffing levels in hospitals are associated with worse patient outcomes. One hypothesised mechanism is the omission of necessary nursing care caused by time pressure—‘missed care’. Aim To examine the nature and prevalence of care left undone by nurses in English National Health Service hospitals and to assess whether the number of missed care episodes is associated with nurse staffing levels and nurse ratings of the quality of nursing care and patient safety environment. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 2917 registered nurses working in 401 general medical/surgical wards in 46 general acute National Health Service hospitals in England. Results Most nurses (86%) reported that one or more care activity had been left undone due to lack of time on their last shift. Most frequently left undone were: comforting or talking with patients (66%), educating patients (52%) and developing/updating nursing care plans (47%). The number of patients per registered nurse was significantly associated with the incidence of ‘missed care’ (p<0.001). A mean of 7.8 activities per shift were left undone on wards that are rated as ‘failing’ on patient safety, compared with 2.4 where patient safety was rated as ‘excellent’ (p?<0.?001). Conclusions Nurses working in English hospitals report that care is frequently left undone. Care not being delivered may be the reason low nurse staffing levels adversely affects quality and safety. Hospitals could use a nurse-rated assessment of ‘missed care’ as an early warning measure to identify wards with inadequate nurse staffing. PMID:23898215
Ball, Jane E; Murrells, Trevor; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Morrow, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Peter
Critical care medicine frequently involves decisions and measures that may result in significant consequences for patients. In particular, mistakes may directly or indirectly derive from daily routine processes. In addition, consequences may result from the broader pharmaceutical and technological treatment options, which frequently involve multidimensional aspects. The increasing complexity of pharmaceutical and technological properties must be monitored and taken into account. Besides the presence of various disciplines involved, the provision of 24-hour care requires multiple handovers of significant information each day. Immediate expert action that is well coordinated is just as important as a professional handling of medicine's limitations. Intensivists are increasingly facing professional quality management within the ICU (Intensive Care Unit). This article depicts a practical and effective approach to this complex topic and describes external evaluation of critical care according to peer reviewing processes, which have been successfully implemented in Germany and are likely to gain in significance. PMID:21063473
Braun, Jan-Peter; Bause, Hanswerner; Bloos, Frank; Geldner, Götz; Kastrup, Marc; Kuhlen, Ralf; Markewitz, Andreas; Martin, Jörg; Mende, Hendrik; Quintel, Michael; Steinmeier-Bauer, Klaus; Waydhas, Christian; Spies, Claudia
Is TQM dead in health care? If it is alive and well, what role does quality improvement play in managing the changes that come with health care reform? William Byham and Greg Nelson begin this article by presenting results from a recent international study on TQM, outlining factors common to successful and unsuccessful quality initiatives. The key to success? Organizations must improve how people work as much as what they do in their work, and that means empowering people to improve processes. Easier said than done, say Byham and Nelson. Empowerment requires culture change and training. People first need the right environment to work differently, then the skills, knowledge, and techniques to participate in and influence the quality process. PMID:10135584
Byham, W C; Nelson, G D
Thirteen years of activities in the field of quality assurance in the health care field in The Netherlands bring to life the many ups and some downs in this intriguing endeavour. Back in 1974, quality assurance was in the minds of few individuals and in the hands of nobody. This has changed dramatically: not only are there now functioning programmes carried out by knowledgeable and dedicated health care providers, there is legislation that suits the convenience of quality assurance, and a firm delineation of responsibilities. At the same time there is flexibility which enables the various actors to interpret their roles according to their capabilities and tastes. The various contributions in this issue are part of this national development. PMID:3566639
This article argues for attention to a neglected dimension of family planning services--their quality. A framework for assessing quality from the client's perspective is offered, consisting of six parts (choice of methods, information given to clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, follow-up and continuity mechanisms, and the appropriate constellation of services). The literature is reviewed regarding evidence that improvements in these various dimensions of care result in gains at the individual level; an even scarcer body of literature is reviewed for evidence of gains at the level of program efficiency and impact. A concluding section discusses how to make practical use of the framework and distinguishes three vantage points from which to view quality: the structure of the program, the service-giving process itself, and the outcome of care, particularly with respect to individual knowledge, behavior, and satisfaction with services. PMID:2191476
Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS)--a strategy to improve families' access to high-quality child care--assess the quality of child care programs, offer incentives and assistance to programs to improve their ratings, and give information to parents about the quality of child care. These systems are operating in a growing number of…
Schulman, Karen; Matthews, Hannah; Blank, Helen; Ewen, Danielle
Purpose Although the American health care system is the most expensive in the world, it delivers inconsistent (and sometimes poor)\\u000a quality of care. Recent health care legislation contains several delivery system reforms that will attempt to address these\\u000a issues. We review these programs and discuss the implications for practicing urologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We evaluated the medical, legal, and public policy literature (both print
Christopher P. Filson; John M. Hollingsworth; Ted A. Skolarus; J. Quentin Clemens; Brent K. Hollenbeck
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between managed care, physician job satisfaction, and the quality of primary care, and to determine\\u000a whether physician job satisfaction is associated with health outcomes among primary care patients with pain and depressive\\u000a symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Offices of 261 primary physicians in private practice in Seattle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: We screened 17,187 patients in waiting
David Grembowski; David Paschane; Paula Diehr; Wayne Katon; Diane Martin; Donald L. Patrick
Abstract Low back pain (LBP) has received considerable attention from researchers and health care systems because of its substantial personal, social, work-related, and economic consequences. A narrative review was conducted summarizing data about the epidemiology, care seeking, and utilization patterns for LBP in the adult US population. Recommendations from a consensus of clinical practice guidelines were compared to findings about the current state of clinical practice for LBP. The impact of the first provider consulted on the quality and value of care was analyzed longitudinally across the continuum of episodes of care. The review concludes with a description of recently published evidence that has demonstrated that favorable health and economic outcomes can be achieved by incorporating evidence-informed decision criteria and guidance about entry into conservative low back care pathways. (Population Health Management 2013;16:390–396) PMID:23965043
Elton, David; Shulman, Stephanie A.; Clarke, Janice L.; Skoufalos, Alexis; Solis, Amanda
Health care and today's medical and technical achievements and approved standards of treatment provide comprehensive quality, safety and traceability of medical procedures respecting the principles of health protection. Continuous education improves the quality of nursing health care and increases the effectiveness of patient care, consequently maintaining and enhancing patient safety. Patient health problems impose the need of appropriate, planned and timely nursing care and treatment. In providing quality nursing care, attention is focused on the patient and his/her needs in order to maintain and increase their safety, satisfaction, independence and recovery or peaceful death, so the health and nursing practices must be systematized, planned and based on knowledge and experience. Health and nursing care of patients at risk of developing acute and chronic wounds or already suffering from some form of this imply preventive measures that are provided through patient education, motivation, monitoring, early recognition of risk factors and causes, and reducing or removing them through the prescribed necessary medical treatment which is safe depending on the patient health status. Except for preventive measures, nursing care of patients who already suffer from some form of acute or chronic wounds is focused on the care and treatment of damaged tissue by providing appropriate and timely diagnosis, timely and proper evaluation of the wound and patient general status, knowledge and understanding of the wide range of local, oral and parenteral therapy and treatment, aiming to increase patient safety by preventing progression of the patient general condition and local wound status and reducing the possibility of developing infection or other complications of the underlying disease. In the overall patient management, through nursing process, medical interventions are implemented and aimed to maintain and optimize health status, prevent complications of existing diseases and conditions, provide appropriate wound treatment, increase satisfaction, reduce pain, increase mobility, reduce and eliminate aggravating factors, and achieve a satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcome. Many scientific researches and knowledge about the pathophysiological processes of wound formation and healing are currently available. Modern achievements can accelerate independence, reduce pain and encourage faster wound healing, thus it is important to continuously develop awareness, knowledge and experience, along with the treatment to achieve, maintain and enhance the quality of health care and patient safety. PMID:25326985
Fumi?, Nera; Marinovi?, Marin; Brajan, Dolores
Studies conducted by the Institute of Medicine have demonstrated a serious gap between what the American health care system provides and its full potential. This results from a substantial amount of overuse, underuse, and misuse of health care. An Institute of Medicine (IOM) publication focusing attention on medical errors--To Err is Human: Building a Safer Healthcare System--galvanized the public and private sector as well as the professions to strive for building a safer health care system. In its report, Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, the IOM's committee visualized a series of aims and rules for the health care system that would propel it successfully into the 21st century. Multidisciplinary professional teams should provide care for an increasing portion of the population (now about 40%) who have one or more chronic illnesses. Since 20 conditions account for 80% of America's health care costs, the author recommends that a special focus be placed upon 15 of these conditions to systematically improve the quality of care over the next five years. Information technology offers important opportunities to improve patient safety and contribute to better and continuous improvement of quality. The elimination of written clinical notes by the year 2010 is an achievable objective. These developments require medical educators and health professionals to move from a 20th-century paradigm of the physician who was in solo practice, held autonomy as a central value, prided himself or herself upon continuous learning and the acquisition of new knowledge, and laid claim to infallibility when confronting patients and colleagues. The 21st-century paradigm is that of physicians who understand teamwork and systems of care in which they can provide leadership. Group practice, both virtual and real, will allow the support of information systems, the collection of evidence about care, and efforts for continuous quality improvement. Fallibility should be replaced by an approach to multidisciplinary problem solving, and the acquisition of knowledge must be associated with the commitment and understanding of the need for change. PMID:11788332
Shine, Kenneth I
Approximately four million adults in the United States are homebound, and many of them cannot access office-based primary care. Home-based medical care can improve outcomes and reduce health care costs, but this care operates in a quality measurement desert, having been largely left out of the national conversation on care quality. To address this shortcoming, two of the authors created the National Home-Based Primary and Palliative Care Network, an organization whose members include exemplary home-based medical practices, professional societies, and patient advocacy groups. This article describes the current status of home-based medical care in the United States and offers a brief narrative of a fictional homebound patient and the health events and fragmented care she faces. The article then describes the network's quality-of-care framework, which includes ten quality-of-care domains, thirty-two standards, and twenty quality indicators that are being tested in the field. The same two authors also developed a practice-based registry that will be used for quality-of-care benchmarking, practice-based quality improvement, performance reporting, and comparative effectiveness research. Together, these steps should help bring home-based medical care further into the mainstream of US health care. PMID:25561640
Leff, Bruce; Carlson, Charlotte M; Saliba, Debra; Ritchie, Christine
The present study explored nurses' and patients' expectations of nursing service quality, their perception of performance of nursing service quality performed by nurses, and compared nursing service quality, as perceived by nurses and patients. The sample consisted of 162 nurses and 383 patients from 11 inpatient wards/units in a tertiary care hospital in the Maldives. Data were collected using the Service Quality scale, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results indicated that the highest expected dimension and perceived dimension for nursing service quality was Reliability. The Responsiveness dimension was the least expected dimension and the lowest performing dimension for nursing service quality as perceived by nurses and patients. There was a statistically significant difference between nursing service quality perceived by nurses and patients. The study results could be used by nurse administrators to develop strategies for improving nursing service quality so that nursing service delivery process can be formulated in such a way as to reduce differences of perception between nurses and patients regarding nursing service quality. PMID:22093756
Nashrath, Mariyam; Akkadechanunt, Thitinut; Chontawan, Ratanawadee
OBJECTIVE: To examine the 2-year effect of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts’ global budget arrangement, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), on pediatric quality and spending for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and non-CSHCN. METHODS: Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compared quality and spending trends for 126?975 unique 0- to 21-year-olds receiving care from AQC groups with 415?331 propensity-matched patients receiving care from non-AQC groups; 23% of enrollees were CSHCN. We compared quality and spending pre (2006–2008) and post (2009–2010) AQC implementation, adjusting analyses for age, gender, health risk score, and secular trends. Pediatric outcome measures included 4 preventive and 2 acute care measures tied to pay-for-performance (P4P), 3 asthma and 2 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder quality measures not tied to P4P, and average total annual medical spending. RESULTS: During the first 2 years of the AQC, pediatric care quality tied to P4P increased by +1.8% for CSHCN (P < .001) and +1.2% for non-CSHCN (P < .001) for AQC versus non-AQC groups; quality measures not tied to P4P showed no significant changes. Average total annual medical spending was ?5 times greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN; there was no significant impact of the AQC on spending trends for children. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 years of the contract, the AQC had a small but significant positive effect on pediatric preventive care quality tied to P4P; this effect was greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN. However, it did not significantly influence (positively or negatively) CSHCN measures not tied to P4P or affect per capita spending for either group. PMID:24366988
Song, Zirui; Chernew, Michael E.; Landon, Bruce E.; McNeil, Barbara J.; Safran, Dana G.; Schuster, Mark A.
The diagnosis and treatment of early arthritis is associated with improved patient outcomes. One way to achieve this is by organising early arthritis clinics (EACs). The objective of this project was to develop standards of quality for EACs. The standards were developed using the two-round Delphi method. The questionnaire, developed using the best-available scientific evidence, includes potentially relevant items describing the dimensions of quality of care in the EAC. The questionnaire was completed by 26 experts (physicians responsible for the EACs in Spain and chiefs of the rheumatology service in Spanish hospitals). Two hundred and forty-four items (standards) describing the quality of the EAC were developed, grouped by the following dimensions: (1) patient referral to the EAC; (2) standards of structure for an EAC; (3) standards of process; (4) relation between primary care physicians and the EAC; (5) diagnosis and assessment of early arthritis; (6) patient treatment and follow-up in the EAC; (7) research and training in an EAC; and (8) quality of care perceived by the patient. An operational definition of early arthritis was also developed based on eight criteria. The standards developed can be used to measure/establish the requirements, resources, and processes that EACs have or should have to carry out their treatment, research, and educational activities. These standards may be useful to health professionals, patient associations, and health authorities. PMID:23568381
Ivorra, José Andrés Román; Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Navarro, Federico; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; de Miguel, Eugenio; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto
Background An increasing number of older people reach the end of life in care homes. The aim of this study is to explore the perceived benefits of, and barriers to, implementation of the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes (GSFCH), a quality improvement programme in palliative care. Methods Nine care homes involved in the GSFCH took part. We conducted semi-structured interviews with nine care home managers, eight nurses, nine care assistants, eleven residents and seven of their family members. We used the Framework approach to qualitative analysis. The analysis was deductive based on the key tasks of the GSFCH, the 7Cs: communication, coordination, control of symptoms, continuity, continued learning, carer support, and care of the dying. This enabled us to consider benefits of, and barriers to, individual components of the programme, as well as of the programme as a whole. Results Perceived benefits of the GSFCH included: improved symptom control and team communication; finding helpful external support and expertise; increasing staff confidence; fostering residents' choice; and boosting the reputation of the home. Perceived barriers included: increased paperwork; lack of knowledge and understanding of end of life care; costs; and gaining the cooperation of GPs. Many of the tools and tasks in the GSFCH focus on improving communication. Participants described effective communication within the homes, and with external providers such as general practitioners and specialists in palliative care. However, many had experienced problems with general practitioners. Although staff described the benefits of supportive care registers, coding predicted stage of illness and advance care planning, which included improved communication, some felt the need for more experience of using these, and there were concerns about discussing death. Conclusions Most of the barriers described by participants are relevant to other interventions to improve end of life care in care homes. There is a need to investigate the impact of quality improvement programmes in care homes, such as the GSFCH, on a wider range of outcomes for residents and their families, and to monitor the sustainability of any resulting improvements. It is also important to explore the impact of the different components of these complex interventions. PMID:21658253
Background Although we are observing a general move towards larger primary care practices, surprisingly little is known about the influence of key components of practice organization on primary care. We aimed to determine the relationships between practice size, and revenue sharing agreements, and quality of care. Methods As part of a large cross sectional study, group practices were randomly selected from different primary care service delivery models in Ontario. Patient surveys and chart reviews were used to assess quality of care. Multilevel regressions controlled for patient, provider and practice characteristics. Results Positive statistically significant associations were found between the logarithm of group size and access, comprehensiveness, and disease prevention. Negative significant associations were found between logarithm group size and continuity. No differences were found for chronic disease management and health promotion. Practices that shared revenues were found to deliver superior health promotion compared to those who did not. Interacting group size with the presence of a revenue-sharing arrangement had a negative impact on health promotion. Conclusions Despite the limitations of our study, our findings have provided preliminary evidence of the tradeoffs inherent with increasing practice size. Larger group size is associated with better access and comprehensiveness but worse continuity of care. Revenue sharing in group practices was associated with higher health promotion compared to sharing only common costs. Further work is required to better inform policy makers and practitioners as to whether the pattern revealed in larger practices mitigates any of the previously reported benefits of continuity of primary care. We found few benefits of revenue sharing – even then the effect of revenue sharing on health promotion seemed diminished in larger practices. PMID:24165413
The national cost of cancer care is projected to reach $173 billion by 2020, increasing from $125 billion in 2010. This steep upward cost trajectory has placed enormous an financial burden on patients, their families, and society as a whole and raised major concern about the ability of the health care system to provide and sustain high-quality cancer care. To better understand the cost drivers of cancer care and explore approaches that will mitigate the problem, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine held a workshop entitled “Delivering Affordable Cancer Care in the 21st Century” in October 2012. Workshop participants included bioethicists, health economists, primary care physicians, and medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists, from both academic and community settings. All speakers expressed a sense of urgency about the affordability of cancer care resulting from the future demographic trend as well as the high cost of emerging cancer therapies and rapid diffusion of new technologies in the absence to evidence indicating improved outcomes for patients. This article is our summary of presentations at the workshop that highlighted the overuse and underuse of screening, treatments, and technologies throughout the cancer care continuum in oncology practice in the United States. PMID:24127450
Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Ganz, Patricia A.; Aberle, Denise; Abernethy, Amy; Bekelman, Justin; Brawley, Otis; Goodwin, James S.; Hu, Jim C.; Schrag, Deborah; Temel, Jennifer S.; Schnipper, Lowell
Patients and physicians often cite symptom control as one of their most important goals in cancer care. Despite this, a previous systematic review found few tools for evaluating the quality of supportive cancer management. We developed a comprehensive set of quality indicators for evaluating pain and nonpain symptom management as well as care planning needs in cancer patients. Based on the prevalence and quality-of-life data, clinician-researchers prioritized pain, psychosocial distress, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and anorexia, treatment-associated toxicities, and information and care planning for quality-indicator development. Using search terms and selection criteria, we identified English-language documents from Medline (1997-2007) and Internet-based searches. Based on this evidence, clinician-reviewers proposed process quality indicators. We then used the VA Health Services Research and Development (VA HSR & D) appropriateness methods to compile the ratings of a multidisciplinary, international expert panel of the validity and feasibility of each indicator. The panel judged 92 out of 133 (69%) proposed quality indicators valid and feasible (15 out of 23 pain, 5 out of 6 depression, 8 out of 11 dyspnea, 15 out of 19 nausea and vomiting, 13 out of 26 fatigue and anorexia, 23 out of 32 other treatment-associated toxicities, and 13 out of 16 information and care planning). Of the final indicators, 67 are potentially useful for inpatient and 81 for outpatient evaluation, and 26 address screening, 12 diagnostic evaluation, 20 management, and 21 follow-up. These quality indicators provide evidence-explicit tools for measuring processes critical to ensuring high-quality supportive cancer care. Research is needed to characterize adherence to recommended practices and to evaluate the use of these measures in quality improvement efforts. PMID:19359135
Lorenz, Karl A; Dy, Sydney M; Naeim, Arash; Walling, Anne M; Sanati, Homayoon; Smith, Patricia; Shanman, Roberta; Roth, Carol P; Asch, Steven M
This study analyses the market for secondary health care services when patient choice depends on the quality/distance mix that achieves utility maximization. First, the hospital's equilibrium in a Hotelling spatial competition model under simultaneous quality choices is analyzed to define hospitals' strategic behavior. A first equilibrium outcome is provided, the understanding of which is extremely useful for the policy maker wishing to improve social welfare. Second, patients are assumed to be unable, because of asymmetry of information, to observe the true quality provided. Their decisions reflect the perceived quality, which is affected by bias. Using the mean-variance method, the equilibrium previously found is investigated in a stochastic framework. PMID:15791476
Background Child health care is an important part of the UK general practice workload; in 2009 children aged <15 years accounted for 10.9% of consultations. However, only 1.2% of the UK’s Quality and Outcomes Framework pay-for-performance incentive points relate specifically to children. Aim To improve the quality of care provided for children and adolescents by defining a set of quality indicators that reflect evidence-based national guidelines and are feasible to audit using routine computerised clinical records. Design and setting Multi-step consensus methodology in UK general practice. Method Four-step development process: selection of priority issues (applying nominal group methodology), systematic review of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) clinical guidelines, translation of guideline recommendations into quality indicators, and assessment of their validity and implementation feasibility (applying consensus methodology used in selecting QOF indicators). Results Of the 296 national guidelines published, 48 were potentially relevant to children in primary care, but only 123 of 1863 recommendations (6.6%) met selection criteria for translation into 56 potential quality indicators. A further 13 potential indicators were articulated after review of existing quality indicators and standards. Assessment of the validity and feasibility of implementation of these 69 candidate indicators by a clinical expert group identified 35 with median scores 8 on a 9-point Likert scale. However, only seven of the 35 achieved a GRADE rating >1 (were based on more than expert opinion). Conclusion Producing valid primary care quality indicators for children is feasible but difficult. These indicators require piloting before wide adoption but have the potential to raise the standard of primary care for all children. PMID:25452539
Gill, Peter J; O’Neill, Braden; Rose, Peter; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony
To assess the effects of an Integrated Care System (ICS) on parent-reported quality of care and satisfaction for Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). In 2006 Florida reformed its Medicaid program in Broward and Duval counties. Children's Medical Services Network (CMSN) chose to participate in the reform and developed an ICS for CSHCN. The ICS ushered in several changes such as more prior approval requirements and closing of the provider network. Telephone surveys were conducted with CMSN parents whose children reside in the reform counties and parents whose children reside outside of the reform counties in 2006 and 2007 (n = 1,727). Results from multivariate quasi-experimental models show that one component of parent-report quality of care, customer service, increased. Following implementation of the ICS, customer service increased by 0.22 points. After implementation of the ICS, parent-reported quality and satisfaction were generally unaffected. Although significant increases were not seen in the majority of the quality and satisfaction domains, it is nonetheless encouraging that parents did not report negative experiences with the ICS. It is important to present these interim findings so that progress can be monitored and decision-makers can begin to consider if the program should be expanded statewide. PMID:21509433
Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth
Although US health care expenditures reached 17.6 percent of GDP in 2009, quality measurement in this important service sector remains limited. Studying quality changes associated with 11 years of health care for patients ...
Eggleston, Karen N
The management of inpatient hyperglycemia is a focus of quality improvement projects across many hospital systems while remaining a point of controversy among clinicians. The association of inpatient hyperglycemia with suboptimal hospital outcomes is accepted by clinical care teams; however, the clear benefits of targeting hyperglycemia as a mechanism to improve hospital outcomes remain contentious. Glycemic management is also frequently confused with efforts aimed at intensive glucose control, further adding to the confusion. Nonetheless, several regulatory agencies assign quality rankings based on attaining specified glycemic targets for selected groups of patients (Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures). The current paper reviews the data supporting the benefits associated with inpatient glycemic control projects, the components of a successful glycemic control intervention, and utilization of the electronic medical record in implementing an inpatient glycemic control project. PMID:25715828
Aloi, Joseph A; Mulla, Christopher; Ullal, Jagdeesh; Lieb, David C
Leadership is increasingly recognized as a potential factor in the success of primary care quality improvement efforts, yet little is definitively known about which specific leadership behaviors are most important. Until more research is available, the authors suggest that primary care clinicians who are committed to developing their leadership skills should commit to a series of actions. These actions include embracing a theory of leadership, modeling the approach for others, focusing on the goal of improving patient outcomes, encouraging teamwork, utilizing available sources of power, and reflecting on one's approach in order to improve it. Primary care clinicians who commit themselves to such actions will be more effective leaders and will be more prepared as new research becomes available on this important factor. PMID:22800874
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Bisognano, Maureen; Reinertsen, James L; Meehan, Thomas P
...51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No...
Training clinical users to effectively and efficiently use and integrate the EMR into their workflow is one of the most important aspects of a successful implementation. Appropriate training and use facilitates achieving the benefits of quality, safety and efficiency in providing care. In their absence, these benefits are likely to suffer. Here we discuss the challenges, learning and innovative approaches in training a large academic medical center to use an integrated EMR. PMID:17238593
Kamath, Janine; Storlie, Debbie; Ferguson, Jennifer
Training clinical users to effectively and efficiently use and integrate the EMR into their workflow is one of the most important aspects of a successful implementation. Appropriate training and use facilitates achieving the benefits of quality, safety and efficiency in providing care. In their absence, these benefits are likely to suffer. Here we discuss the challenges, learning and innovative approaches in training a large academic medical center to use an integrated EMR. PMID:17238593
Kamath, Janine; Storlie, Debbie; Ferguson, Jennifer
The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.
Izu, Regina Moromizato
Introduction A paucity of data exists addressing the quality of care provided to women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We sought to develop a means to measure this quality through the development of quality-of-care indicators (QIs). Methods QIs were modeled after those previously described in the Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) project. The indicators were then presented to a panel of nine experts. Using the RAND Appropriateness Method, we analyzed each indicator’s preliminary rankings. A forum was then held in which each indicator was thoroughly discussed by the panelists as a group, after which panelists individually re-rated the indicators. QIs with median scores of at least seven were considered valid. Results QIs were developed that addressed screening, diagnosis, work-up, and both nonsurgical and surgical management. Areas of controversy included whether screening should be performed to identify prolapse, whether pessary users should undergo a vaginal exam by a health professional every six months versus annually, and whether a colpocleisis should be offered to older women planning to undergo surgery for POP. Fourteen of 21 potential indicators were rated as valid for pelvic organ prolapse (median score ? 7). Conclusion We developed and rated fourteen potential quality indicators for the care of women with POP. Once these QIs are tested for feasibility they can be used on a larger scale to measure and compare the care provided to women with prolapse in different clinical settings. PMID:23644812
Anger, Jennifer T.; Scott, Victoria C.S.; Kiyosaki, Krista; Khan, Aqsa A.; Sevilla, Claudia; Connor, Sarah E.; Roth, Carol P.; Litwin, Mark S.; Wenger, Neil S.; Shekelle, Paul G.
Quality of life - an important outcome factor of long-term care - development and psychometric testing of an audit instrument, the Quality of Life Index, (QoL index"), to assess the consideration for individual quality of life aspects during the care process in long-term care settings is evaluated ?-? even for clients with limited communication skills.A stratified random sample of n=209 residents was drawn out of the population of N=1 128 residents of 8 nursing homes and their individual QoL-aspects were assessed with SEIQoL-DW or in difficult communication situations with "LQ-Index-Informationssammlung". The LQ-Index's new items were validated via a parallel testing with the reference instrument SEIQoL-DW, the split half-reliability, the interrater reliability (Kappa) and a structured expert review according to the cognitive interview technique.All 209 participants were assessed via LQ-Index. The SEIQoL-Interview was completed and estimated valid by 18 (8.61%) residents. The psychometric testing results and the expert review indicate high feasibility, good reliability, validity and objectivity of the instrument "LQ-Index".As a result of this study a feasible and valid instrument is now available to assess the consideration for individual quality of life aspects during the care process in long-term care settings - even for clients with limited communication skills. PMID:22322335
Herold-Majumdar, A; Behrens, J
Documentation in a Medical Setting: Effects of Technology on Perceived Quality of Care Julia De with the quality of care (QoC) delivered during the medical interview. Results reveal that the type of technology. INTRODUCTION The quality of care (QoC) perceived by a patient during the medical encounter has implications
Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has led the industry in measuring facility performance as a critical element in improving quality of care, investing substantial resources to develop and maintain valid and cost-effective measures. The External Peer Review Program (EPRP) of the VA is the official data source for monitoring facility performance, used to prioritize the quality areas needing most attention. Facility performance measurement has significantly improved preventive and chronic care, as well as overall quality; however, much variability still exists in levels of performance across measures and facilities. Audit and feedback (A&F), an important component of effective performance measurement, can help reduce this variability and improve overall performance. Previous research suggests that VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high EPRP performance scores tend to use EPRP data as a feedback source. However, the manner in which EPRP data are used as a feedback source by individual providers as well as service line, facility, and network leadership is not well understood. An in-depth understanding of mental models, strategies, and specific feedback process characteristics adopted by high-performing facilities is thus urgently needed. This research compares how leaders of high, low, and moderately performing VAMCs use clinical performance data from the EPRP as a feedback tool to maintain and improve quality of care. Methods We will conduct a qualitative, grounded theory analysis of up to 64 interviews using a novel method of sampling primary care, facility, and Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) leadership at high-, moderate-, and low-performing facilities. We will analyze interviews for evidence of cross-facility differences in perceptions of performance data usefulness and strategies for disseminating performance data evaluating performance, with particular attention to timeliness, individualization, and punitiveness of feedback delivery. Discussion Most research examining feedback to improve provider and facility performance lacks a detailed understanding of the elements of effective feedback. This research will highlight the elements most commonly used at high-performing facilities and identify additional features of their successful feedback strategies not previously identified. Armed with this information, practices can implement more effective A&F interventions to improve quality of care. PMID:22607640
Quality of management is a necessary, yet not sufficient, prerequisite in quality of care. There are two main approaches to improved quality. One is the individualist approach, where the role of the manager is emphasized. The other is the contextual approach. Focus is on managerial prerequisites such as organizational structure, culture, participation in decision making, and use of management time. Individualist as well as contextualist approaches are presented. Each decade during the 20th century has had its own "pet theory" regarding what problems the manager should allocate time on. A study of 41 Nordic public health researchers illustrates that cost-benefit analysis is the best known of ten theories. Management ethics, with the manager as ideologist, is seen as particularly demanding on managerial creativity. PMID:1983249
Background Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) defines a condition of varying degrees of pain near the lateral epicondyle. Studies on the management of LE indicated unexplained variations in the use of pharmacologic, non-pharmacological and surgical treatments. The main aim of this paper was to develop and evaluate clinical quality measures (QMs) or quality indicators, which may be used to assess the quality of the processes of examination, education and treatment of patients with LE. Methods Different QMs were developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts in Quality Management of Health Services during a period of one year. The process was based following a 3-step model: i) review and proportion of existing evidence-based recommendations; ii) review and development of quality measures; iii) pilot testing of feasibility and reliability of the indicators leading to a final consensus by the whole panel. Results Overall, a set of 12 potential indicators related to medical and physical therapy assessment and treatment were developed to measure the performance of LE care. Different systematic reviews and randomized control trials supported each of the indicators judged to be valid during the expert panel process. Application of the new indicator set was found to be feasible; only the measurement of two quality measures had light barriers. Reliability was mostly excellent (Kappa?>?0.8). Conclusions A set of good practice indicators has been built and pilot tested as feasible and reliable. The chosen 3-step standardized evidence-based process ensures maximum clarity, acceptance and sustainability of the developed indicators. PMID:24172311
Nurses play a vital role in improving the safety and quality of patient care. The authors provide the front-line nurse providers with an overview of critical concepts related to quality management of patient care. A historical approach provides the reader with an overview of the trajectory or the quality in health care movement. Furthermore, the article provides the nurse with a basic understanding of national and international organizations that focus on quality patient care. A brief introduction of measures of quality care is presented as well as implications for nursing practice. PMID:25680485
Owens, Laura D; Koch, Robert W
Noting that the education and training of most early childhood practitioners lack information on child care as an adult work environment, this guide is designed to assist trainers in providing practitioners information about working with the array of adults they encounter on the job, the serious challenges and instabilities in the field, and the…
Bellm, Dan; Haack, Peggy
Purpose High-quality supportive care is an essential component of comprehensive cancer care. We implemented a patient-centered quality of cancer care survey to examine and identify predictors of quality of supportive care for bowel problems, pain, fatigue, depression, and other symptoms among 1,109 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with new diagnosis of colorectal cancer at any Veterans Health Administration medical center nationwide in 2008 were ascertained through the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry and sent questionnaires assessing a variety of aspects of patient-centered cancer care. We received questionnaires from 63% of eligible patients (N = 1,109). Descriptive analyses characterizing patient experiences with supportive care and binary logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of receipt of help wanted for each of the five symptom categories. Results There were significant gaps in patient-centered quality of supportive care, beginning with symptom assessment. In multivariable modeling, the impact of clinical factors and patient race on odds of receiving wanted help varied by symptom. Coordination of care quality predicted receipt of wanted help for all symptoms, independent of patient demographic or clinical characteristics. Conclusion This study revealed substantial gaps in patient-centered quality of care, difficult to characterize through quality measurement relying on medical record review alone. It established the feasibility of collecting patient-reported quality measures. Improving quality measurement of supportive care and implementing patient-reported outcomes in quality-measurement systems are high priorities for improving the processes and outcomes of care for patients with cancer. PMID:24493712
van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M.; Arora, Neeraj K.; Haggstrom, David A.; Jackson, George L.; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Griffin, Joan M.; Zullig, Leah L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Yeazel, Mark W.; Jindal, Rahul M.; Clauser, Steven B.
The aim was to describe and compare nursing assistants', enrolled nurses' and registered nurses' perceptions of quality of care, working conditions, competence and personal health in older peoples' care. Altogether 70 nursing assistants, 163 enrolled nurses and 198 registered nurses completed a questionnaire comprising Quality from the Patient's Perspective modified for caregivers, Creative Climate Questionnaire, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, items on education and competence and Health Index. The caregivers reported higher perceived reality of quality of care in medical-technical competence and physical-technical conditions than in identity-oriented approach and socio-cultural atmosphere. In subjective importance, the highest rating was assessed in one of the physical-technical items. The organisational climate was for three of the dimensions rather close/reached the value for a creative climate, for seven dimensions close to a stagnant climate. In perceived stress of conscience, there were low values. Nursing assistants had lower values than enrolled nurses and registered nurses. The caregivers reported highest values regarding previous education making them feel safe at work and lowest value on the item about education increasing the ability for a scientific attitude. Registered nurses could use knowledge in practice and to a higher degree than nursing assistants/enrolled nurses reported a need to gain knowledge, but the latter more often received education during working hours. The health index among caregivers was high, but registered nurses scored lower on emotional well-being than nursing assistants/enrolled nurses. The caregivers' different perceptions of quality of care and work climate need further attention. Although stress of conscience was low, it is important to acknowledge what affected the caregivers work in a negative way. Attention should be paid to the greater need for competence development among registered nurses during working hours. PMID:23088213
From, Ingrid; Nordström, Gun; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Johansson, Inger
Explored how research can be useful for improving day-care quality. Studied relationship of pedagogic content and parent policy to day-care center aims, finding a strong relationship between special goals and quality standards. Suggested that improvement requires context-bound theories and a stronger theoretical framework for working with groups…
Singer, Elly; Miltenburg, Ruth
Brain metastases impact on the survival of the patients, but on their quality of life as well. The objective of the management of these patients is then double. Currently, due to medical advances, survivals tend to improve, especially for some tumor subtypes. During the course of the disease, different neurological signs and symptoms can be observed according to the location, the number and the volume of the metastase(s). Patients and caregivers are especially worried about the loss of autonomy and cognitive impairments. A permanent dialogue, during the course of the disease, is mandatory, in order to adapt the management to the objectives determined by the patients and the medical team. These objectives may vary according to the objective response rates of the disease to anticancer therapies, according to the impact of the disease and its management in daily living. Anticancer therapies and supportive care must be appreciated according to their impact on the survival, on the preservation of the functional independence and the quality of life of the patient, on their abilities to preserve the neurological status and delay the apparition of new neurological signs and symptoms, and their adverse events. Supportive care, cognition and quality of life should be regularly evaluated and adapted according to the objectives of the management of brain metastases patients. Different approaches are described in this paper. PMID:25640218
Le Rhun, É; Taillibert, S; Blonski, M; Jouniaux Delbez, N; Delgadillo, D; Taillia, H; Auquier, P; Belin, C; Bonnetain, F; Varin, D; Tallet, A; Taillandier, L
Ensuring and maintaining a high level of quality in nursing care becomes more and more important as economic pressure is increasing and personnel is being reduced. The nursing executives of four large Swiss hospitals therefore commissioned a group of nursing scientists and nursing experts with the task of developing a trendsetting model to represent, assess, and interpret the quality of nursing care. The "Quality of Health Outcome Model" (QHOM) served as a basis for development. More than 60 nurses from acute care hospitals and specialized clinics assessed a first draft of the model in hearings and by means of questionnaires. The model integrated earlier attempts at quality screening regarding structures, processes and results, complementing these three elements with a fourth: the patients, whose characteristics influence the results of nursing care remarkably. Thus, the former one-dimensional, linear viewpoint was resolved into a dynamic representation of all four elements, illustrating a specific concept of nursing care. Through the multi-dimensionality of the model the complexity of the nursing process is better represented. The model's core consists of eight exemplary indicators of quality, each of which is relevant to nursing and for each of which criteria and assessment tools have been formulated. The model is seen as a basis and reference for the quality development and first opportunities for clinical application have been succesfully employed. The project can serve as a paradigm of networking amongst hospitals and cooperation between nursing scientists and experts, and of the critical significance of such collaboration to the advancement of nursing quality. PMID:18850535
Schmid-Büchi, Silvia; Rettke, Horst; Horvath, Eva; Marfurt-Russenberger, Katrin; Schwendimann, René
Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in inpatient quality of care are well known. However, whether men and women receive equivalent ambulatory\\u000a care is less well understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To study gender differences in quality of care for patients receiving primary care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care\\u000a System.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional samples of VA enrollees during fiscal years 1999 to 2000.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Samples
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Michael A. Steinman; John W. Peabody; John Z. Ayanian
The purpose of this study was to measure the efficiency of simple searches in retrieving controlled evidence about specific primary health care quality improvement interventions and their effects. Searches were conducted to retrieve evidence on seven interventions and seven effect variables. Specific words and the closest Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) recommended by professional librarians were used to search the MEDLINE database. Searches were restricted to the MeSH publication type "randomized controlled trial." Two reviewers independently judged retrieved citations for relevancy to the selected interventions and effects. In selecting MeSH terms, the average agreement among librarians was 64.3% (+/-26.1) for interventions and 57.1% (+/-19.9) for effects. Analysis of the 755 retrieved reports showed that MeSH term searches had an overall recall rate of 58% while the same rate for textword searches was significantly lower (11%, p < .001). The difference in overall precision rates was nonsignificant (26% versus 33%, p = .15). In the group of MeSH searches, overall precision and recall was significantly lower for effects than for interventions (12% versus 52%, p < .001 and 41% versus 69%, p < .001). Two textwords appeared in more than 25% of the benchmark collection: reminder (25.7%) and cost (25.0%). The results of this study indicate that information needs for health care quality improvement cannot be met by simple literature searches. Certain MeSH terms and combinations of textwords yield moderately efficient recall and precision in literature searches for health care quality improvement. Clinicians and physician executives gaining direct access to bibliographic database could probably be better served by structured indexing of critical aspects of randomized controlled clinical trials: design, sample, interventions, and effects. PMID:9172067
Balas, E A; Stockham, M G; Mitchell, J A; Sievert, M E; Ewigman, B G; Boren, S A
Background Improving the healthcare for patients with depression is a priority health policy across the world. Roughly, two major problems can be identified in daily practice: (1) the content of care is often not completely consistent with recommendations in guidelines and (2) the organization of care is not always integrated and delivered by multidisciplinary teams. Aim To describe the content and preliminary results of a quality improvement project in primary care, aiming at improving the uptake of clinical depression guidelines in daily practice as well as the collaboration between different mental health professionals. Method A Depression Breakthrough Collaborative was initiated from December 2006 until March 2008. The activities included the development and implementation of a stepped care depression model, a care pathway with two levels of treatment intensity: a first step treatment level for patients with non-severe depression (brief or mild depressive symptoms) and a second step level for patients with severe depression. Twelve months data were measured by the teams in terms of one outcome and several process indicators. Qualitative data were gathered by the national project team with a semi-structured questionnaire amongst the local team coordinators. Results Thirteen multidisciplinary teams participated in the project. In total 101 health professionals were involved, and 536 patients were diagnosed. Overall 356 patients (66%) were considered non-severely depressed and 180 (34%) patients showed severe symptoms. The mean percentage of non-severe patients treated according to the stepped care model was 78%, and 57% for the severely depressed patient group. The proportion of non-severely depressed patients receiving a first step treatment according to the stepped care model, improved during the project, this was not the case for the severely depressed patients. The teams were able to monitor depression symptoms to a reasonable extent during a period of 6 months. Within 3 months, 28% of monitored patients had recovered, meaning a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of 10 and lower, and another 27% recovered between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions and discussion A stepped care approach seems acceptable and feasible in primary care, introducing different levels of care for different patient groups. Future implementation projects should pay special attention to the quality of care for severely depressed patients. Although the Depression Breakthrough Collaborative introduced new treatment concepts in primary and specialty care, the change capacity of the method remains unclear. Thorough data gathering is needed to judge the real value of these intensive improvement projects. PMID:19590610
Franx, Gerdien; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A.C; Sinnema, Henny; Spijker, Jan; Huyser, Jochanan; Wensing, Michel; de Lange, Jacomine
A pilot study was conducted to identify which, if any, demographic or quality indicators differentiate HIV-positive patients from other long-term care patients. This study used the Minimum Data Set files for all New York state nursing homes submitted in 1997. Chi-square tests were used to assess difference in proportions of demographics and quality indicators between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. The HIV-positive patients tended to be between 40 and 59 years of age and male and were more likely to be Black or Hispanic. HIV-positive patients had a significantly higher prevalence of diagnosis or symptoms of depression without any treatment compared to HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher prevalence of weight loss, antipsychotic use, antianxiety/hypnotic use, and incontinence of bladder and bowel compared to HIV-negative patients. This study paves the way for the development of a more appropriate quality indicator system tailored to the AIDS population and allows facilities to make necessary improvements in the quality of care offered to this vulnerable population. PMID:11936066
Shin, Jinah K; Newman, Laurie S; Gebbie, Kristine M; Fillmore, Herbert H
This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…
Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn
Nursing home medical-record documentation of daily-care occurrence may be inaccurate, and information is not documented about important quality-of-life domains. The inadequacy of medical record data creates a barrier to improving care quality, because it supports an illusion of care consistent with regulations, which reduces the motivation and…
Schnelle, John F.; Osterweil, Dan; Simmons, Sandra F.
The demand for quality child care services from low- and middle-income families continues to increase. Government regulation is one means to ensure a basic threshold of high-quality care; however, political support for effective, comprehensive regulation of child care is declining. For example, few states require licensing staff to possess a…
Gazan, Harold S.
At the heart of the Institute of Medicine's re- port Crossing the Quality Chasm was the need to address the improvement of quality of care through major changes in how health care is organized. 1 The Institute of Medicine's central tenet was that only through significant, sus- tained, and innovative efforts to reorganize the health care system were substantive gains
Elizabeth M. Yano; Barbara F. Simon; Andrew B. Lanto; Lisa V. Rubenstein
Quality of child care is most commonly evaluated in light of the child's immediate surroundings, namely — family life conditions and child care settings, taking into consideration individual differences among children. This paper, while adopting a broader ecological picture, calls for attention to the importance of evaluating the quality of child care in the light of cultural differences.Examples taken from
Purpose: This study aimed to develop home care quality indicators (HCQIs) to be used by a variety of audiences including consumers, agencies, regulators, and policy makers to support evidence-based decision making related to the quality of home care services. Design and Methods: Data from 3,041 Canadian and 11,252 U.S. home care clients assessed…
Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Morris, John N.; Ikegami, Naoki; Zimmerman, David; Dalby, Dawn M.; Aliaga, Pablo; Hammer, Suzanne; Jones, Richard
Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, social-emotional classroom activities (RECC).…
Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Swank, Paul R.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; de Viliers, Jill; de Viliers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice
Child care is the first out-of-home learning opportunity for many children. For low-income children, a high-quality child care placement can provide many of the experiences and skills that help build a foundation for later school success. Among the many measures of child care quality, some closely linked to later success in school are those…
St.Clair-Christman, JeanMarie; Buell, Martha; Gamel-McCormick, Michael
Purpose: There are few empirical studies relating components of long-term care to quality of life for residents with dementia. This study relates elements of dementia care in residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/ AL) facilities and nursing homes to resident quality of life and considers the guidance this information provides for practice and policy. Design and Methods: We used a variety of
Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane; Christianna S. Williams; Peter S. Reed; John S. Preisser; J. Kevin Eckert; Malaz Boustani; Debra Dobbs
Rural health services are difficult to maintain because of low patient volumes, limited numbers of providers, and unfavorable economies of scale. Rural patients may perceive poor quality in local health care, directly impacting the sustainability of local health care services. This study examines perceptions of local health care quality in 7…
Nesbitt, Thomas S.; Marcin, James P.; Daschbach, Martha M.; Cole, Stacey L.
The SERVQUAL scale has been widely used to measure service quality in the health care industry. This research is the first study that used SERVQUAL to assess U.S. medical tourists' expectations and perceptions of the service quality of health care facilities located outside the United States. Based on a sample of U.S. consumers, who had traveled abroad for medical care,
Michael Guiry; David G. Vequist
Context The quality of health care and the financial costs affected by receiving care represent two fundamental dimensions for judging health care performance. No existing conceptual framework appears to have described how quality influences costs. Methods We developed the Quality-Cost Framework, drawing from the work of Donabedian, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, reports by the Institute of Medicine, and other sources. Findings The Quality-Cost Framework describes how health-related quality of care (aspects of quality that influence health status) affects health care and other costs. Structure influences process, which, in turn, affects proximate and ultimate outcomes. Within structure, subdomains include general structural characteristics, circumstance-specific (e.g., disease-specific) structural characteristics, and quality-improvement systems. Process subdomains include appropriateness of care and medical errors. Proximate outcomes consist of disease progression, disease complications, and care complications. Each of the preceding subdomains influences health care costs. For example, quality improvement systems often create costs associated with monitoring and feedback. Providing appropriate care frequently requires additional physician visits and medications. Care complications may result in costly hospitalizations or procedures. Ultimate outcomes include functional status as well as length and quality of life; the economic value of these outcomes can be measured in terms of health utility or health-status-related costs. We illustrate our framework using examples related to glycemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus or the appropriateness of care for low back pain. Conclusions The Quality-Cost Framework describes the mechanisms by which health-related quality of care affects health care and health status–related costs. Additional work will need to validate the framework by applying it to multiple clinical conditions. Applicability could be assessed by using the framework to classify the measures of quality and cost reported in published studies. Usefulness could be demonstrated by employing the framework to identify design flaws in published cost analyses, such as omitting the costs attributable to a relevant subdomain of quality. PMID:23758513
Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J; Asch, Steven M
Abstract This paper discusses the economic,rationale for alternative business models in private sector health care delivery. “Social franchising” and other business models of health care delivery secure cooperation between providers, and coordinating agencies in order to improve quality, access, and efficiency of primary health care (PHC) in the private sector. The paper develops a simple economic,theory of health care production
Objective: Depression is commonly seen, but infrequently adequately treated, in primary care clinics. Improving access to depression care in primary care clinics has improved outcomes in clinical trials; however, these interventions are largely unstudied in clinical settings. This study examined the effectiveness of a quality improvement project improving access to mental healthcare in a large primary care clinic.Methods: A before–after
Bradley V Watts; Brian Shiner; Andrew Pomerantz; Patricia Stender
Blue Shield ensures uninterrupted access to quality medical care after Palm Drive Hospital ceases emergency care and in-patient care at Palm Drive. We are working with our members to ensure a smooth of California member in the Sonoma County area seeking emergency medical services or inpatient care, please
Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…
Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael
Purpose. To describe key historical and operational elements of change that may assist an organization to develop quality indi- cators for implementing a strategic plan to improve care, align health care improvement efforts with national directions, and examine the types of medication indicators used to assess these changes. Setting. The Baylor Health Care System (BHCS) is an integrated health care
DAVID J. BALLARD
Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary
Based on the belief that all children have a right to quality care and education, early childhood best practices, and trained staff/providers, this guide details quality standards for early care and education programs in West Virginia, developed through the Early Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP). The standards are voluntary and not…
West Virginia Governor's Cabinet on Children and Families, Charleston.
Objective: ‘Quality of life’ is an important but poorly defined outcome in health and health care research. We sought to identify stroke professionals' definitions of quality of life and views of the purpose of its assessment.Design: Using issues identified during in-depth interviews with stroke care professionals, we designed a postal survey questionnaire. Participants were asked to define quality of life,
C. McKevitt; J. Redfern; V. La-Placa; C. D. A. Wolfe
The potential conflict between cost containment practices and the preservation of quality care is reviewed and discussed. Then a framework for considering the present state of knowledge about the relationship between different methods of cost containment and quality is presented. The view that cost containment poses a threat to the quality of care is advanced and the provider's central role
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Background In recent years, there have been several studies, using a wide variety of methods, aimed at developing quality indicators for palliative care. In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive and valid quality indicator set which can contribute to a standardized method for use in other countries. Methods and design Firstly, an extensive literature review identified existing international quality indicators and relevant themes for measuring quality in palliative care. Secondly, the most relevant of these were selected by an expert panel. Thirdly, those prioritized by the experts were scored by a second multidisciplinary expert panel for usability and relevance, in keeping with the RAND/UCLA-method, combining evidence with consensus among stakeholders. This panel included carers and policymakers as well as patients and next-of-kin. Fourthly, the draft set was tested and evaluated in practice for usability and feasibility; the indicators were then translated into questionnaires presented to patients, next-of-kin and care providers. To encourage the acceptance and use of the indicators, stakeholders, including national palliative care organizations, were involved throughout the whole project. Conclusion Our indicator development trajectory resulted in a set of quality indicators applicable to all patients in all palliative care settings. The set includes patient and relative perspectives and includes outcome, process and structure indicators. Our method can contribute internationally to a more standardized and rigorous approach to developing quality indicators for palliative care. PMID:23394401
The health care quality chasm is better described as a gulf for certain segments of the population, such as racial and ethnic minority groups, given the gap between actual care received and ideal or best care quality. The landmark Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century challenges all health care organizations to pursue six major aims of health care improvement: safety, timeliness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and patient-centeredness. “Equity” aims to ensure that quality care is available to all and that the quality of care provided does not differ by race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics unrelated to a patient's reason for seeking care. Baylor Health Care System is in the unique position of being able to examine the current state of equity in a typical health care delivery system and to lead the way in health equity research. Its organizational vision, “culture of quality,” and involved leadership bode well for achieving equitable best care. However, inequities in access, use, and outcomes of health care must be scrutinized; the moral, ethical, and economic issues they raise and the critical injustice they create must be remedied if this goal is to be achieved. Eliminating any observed inequities in health care must be synergistically integrated with quality improvement. Quality performance indicators currently collected and evaluated indicate that Baylor Health Care System often performs better than the national average. However, there are significant variations in care by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that indicate the many remaining challenges in achieving “best care” for all. PMID:16609733
Nicewander, David A.; Qin, Huanying; Ballard, David J.
The NIH Roadmap and National Cancer Institute strategic plans repeatedly emphasize the importance of involving health care systems in research. Integrated care delivery systems can address key research questions that cannot be answered in other types of settings. Research in this setting can lead to essential insights about the quality of care, including the quality of cancer care and how best to improve patient outcomes.
We explore and compare the importance of various quality dimensions for health care and e-commerce web sites. The results show that the importance of various quality attributes for all except four of ten quality dimensions studied differ between health care and e-commerce web sites. These results can help health care managers to improve and/or to guide the design of their web sites. PMID:18998907
Le Rouge, Cynthia; De Leo, Gianluca
Using the Six Sigma quality improvement framework of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control, nurses in the medical cardiac intensive care unit at a large academic medical center in the Midwest identified a gap in the quality of central line site care, evaluated the current state of site care, implemented an intervention to create an improvement in nursing performance of site care, quantified this improvement, and created a model for sustained quality control. Reasons for nonocclusive dressings were revealed and addressed. An unexpected benefit was found in a unifying sense of pride in improving patient care. PMID:25545973
Hickox, Benjamin C
We present a methodology for using health insurance claims data to monitor quality of care. The method uses a statistical model trained on the quality ratings of a medical expert. In a pilot study, the expert rated the ...
Bertsimas, Dimitris J.
Surveying the literature on the assessment of quality of care from the patient's perspective, the concept has often been operationalized as patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction has been a widely investigated subject in health care research, and dozens of measuring instruments were developed during the past decade. Quality of care from the patient's perspective, however, has been investigated only very recently, and only a few measuring instruments have explicitly been developed for the assessment of quality of care from the patient's perspective. The authors consider patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality of care from the patient's perspective. This review is concerned with the question of whether any reliable and valid instruments have been developed to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective. PMID:10143573
van Campen, C; Sixma, H; Friele, R D; Kerssens, J J; Peters, L
The Institute of Medicine's publications To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm publicized the widespread deficits in U.S. health care quality. Emerging studies continue to reveal deficits in the quality of adult and pediatric care, including subspecialty care. The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis require diligent, long-term management and attention to their impact on intestinal and extraintestinal organ systems. Although the quality of IBD care has not been prospectively or comprehensively evaluated in the United States, several small studies have demonstrated significant variation in care. As variation may indicate underuse, overuse, or misuse of medical services, such variation suggests a clear need for translating evidence-based practices into the actual practice and follow-up provided for patients. This article reviews the history, rationale, and methods of quality measurement and improvement and identifies the unique challenges in adapting these general strategies to the care of the inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19572335
Kappelman, Michael D; Palmer, Lena; Boyle, Brendan M; Rubin, David T
Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample of 12 directors from NQCCs who were recruited from 12 provinces in China to evaluate the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: 1) lag of evaluation index; 2) limitations of evaluation content; 3) simplicity of evaluation method; 4) excessive emphasis on terminal quality. Conclusion: It is of great realistic significance to ameliorate nursing quality evaluation criteria, modify the evaluation content based on patient needs-oriented idea, adopt scientific evaluation method to evaluate nursing quality, and scientifically and reasonably draw horizontal comparisons of nursing quality between hospitals, as well as longitudinal comparisons of a hospital’s nursing quality. These methods mentioned above can all enhance a hospital’s core competitiveness and benefit more patients. PMID:25419427
Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan
PURPOSE In 2006, Illinois established Illinois Health Connect (IHC), a primary care case management program for Medicaid that offered enhanced fee-for-service, capitation payments, performance incentives, and practice support. Illinois also implemented a complementary disease management program, Your Healthcare Plus (YHP). This external evaluation explored outcomes associated with these programs. METHODS We analyzed Medicaid claims and enrollment data from 2004 to 2010, covering both pre- and post-implementation. The base year was 2006, and 2006–2010 eligibility criteria were applied to 2004–2005 data to allow comparison. We studied costs and utilization trends, overall and by service and setting. We studied quality by incorporating Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures and IHC performance payment criteria. RESULTS Illinois Medicaid expanded considerably between 2006 (2,095,699 full-year equivalents) and 2010 (2,692,123). Annual savings were 6.5% for IHC and 8.6% for YHP by the fourth year, with cumulative Medicaid savings of $1.46 billion. Per-beneficiary annual costs fell in Illinois over this period compared to those in states with similar Medicaid programs. Quality improved for nearly all metrics under IHC, and most prevention measures more than doubled in frequency. Medicaid inpatient costs fell by 30.3%, and outpatient costs rose by 24.9% to 45.7% across programs. Avoidable hospitalizations fell by 16.8% for YHP, and bed-days fell by 15.6% for IHC. Emergency department visits declined by 5% by 2010. CONCLUSIONS The Illinois Medicaid IHC and YHP programs were associated with substantial savings, reductions in inpatient and emergency care, and improvements in quality measures. This experience is not typical of other states implementing some, but not all, of these same policies. Although specific features of the Illinois reforms may have accounted for its better outcomes, the limited evaluation design calls for caution in making causal inferences. PMID:25354404
Phillips, Robert L.; Han, Meiying; Petterson, Stephen M.; Makaroff, Laura A.; Liaw, Winston R.
Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents’ and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-perceived service quality were job satisfaction and degree of consent on national evaluation criteria. National evaluation results on long-term care hospitals and work environment also had positive effects on service quality. Conclusion The findings of the study show that organizational characteristics are significant determinants of service quality in long-term care hospitals. Assessment of the extent to which hospitals address factors related to employeeperceived quality of services could be the first step in quality improvement activities. Results have implications for efforts to improve service quality in longterm care hospitals and designing more comprehensive national evaluation criteria. PMID:24159497
Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok
BACKGROUND It is important to maintain high-quality cancer care while reducing spending. This requires an understanding of how stakeholders define “quality.” The objective of this literature review was to understand the perceptions patients, physicians, and managed care professionals have about quality cancer care, especially chemotherapy. METHODS A computerized literature search was conducted for articles concerning quality cancer care in patients who received chemotherapy. Among >1100 identified sources, 25 presented interviews/survey results from stakeholders. RESULTS Patients defined quality cancer care as being treated well by providers, having multiple treatment options, and being part of the decision-making process. Waiting to see providers, having problems with referrals, going to different locations for treatment, experiencing billing inaccuracies, and navigating managed care reimbursement negatively affected patients' quality-of-care perceptions. Providers perceived quality cancer care as making decisions based on the risks-benefits of specific chemotherapy regimens and patients' health status rather than costs. Providers objected to spending substantial time interacting with payers instead of delivering care to patients. Payers must control the costs of cancer care but do not want an adversarial relationship with providers and patients. Payers' methods of managing cancer more efficiently involved working with providers to develop assessment and decision-assist tools. CONCLUSIONS Delivering quality cancer care is increasingly difficult because of the shortage of oncologists and rising costs of chemotherapy agents, radiation therapy, and imaging tests. The definition of quality cancer care differed among stakeholders, and healthcare reform must reflect these various needs to maintain and improve quality while controlling costs. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society PMID:20939015
Colosia, Ann D; Peltz, Gerson; Pohl, Gerhardt; Liu, Esther; Copley-Merriman, Kati; Khan, Shahnaz; Kaye, James A
Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we recruited individuals from the local community to serve as undercover patients and trained them to present consistent symptoms of two common illnesses (dysentery and angina). Based on 82 covert interactions between the standardized patients and local clinicians, we find that the quality of care is low as measured by adherence to clinical checklists and the rates of correct diagnoses and treatments. Further analysis suggests that quality is most strongly correlated with provider qualifications. Our results highlight the need for policy action to address the low quality of care delivered by grassroots providers. PMID:24653216
Sylvia, Sean; Shi, Yaojiang; Xue, Hao; Tian, Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingmei; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott
This study identified training needs for Pennsylvania child care providers and assessed the impact of training, classroom/caregiver dynamics, and staff characteristics on child care quality. Participating were 29 family child care providers, 30 group homes, and 60 child care centers, stratified by type of site and geographic region. Quality of…
Iutcovich, Joyce; Fiene, Richard; Johnson, James; Koppel, Ross; Langan, Francine
The process of radiotherapy (RT) is complex and involves understanding of the principles of medical physics, radiobiology, radiation safety, dosimetry, radiation treatment planning, simulation and interaction of radiation with other treatment modalities. Each step in the integrated process of RT needs quality control and quality assurance (QA) to prevent errors and to give high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. Recent advances in RT, including intensity-modulated and image-guided RT, focus on the need for a systematic RTQA program that balances patient safety and quality with available resources. It is necessary to develop more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods, such as failure mode and effect analysis, to focus available QA resources optimally on process components. External audit programs are also effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operated both an on-site and off-site postal dosimetry audit to improve practice and to assure the dose from RT equipment. Several countries have adopted a similar approach for national clinical auditing. In addition, clinical trial QA has a significant role in enhancing the quality of care. The Advanced Technology Consortium has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials, including credentialing and individual case review. These activities have an impact not only on the treatment received by patients enrolled in clinical trials, but also on the quality of treatment administered to all patients treated in each institution, and have been adopted globally; by the USA, Europe and Japan also. PMID:18952706
In response to legal and accreditation mandates as well as pressures from purchasers and consumers for quality improvement, hospital governing boards seek to improve their oversight of quality of care by adopting various practices. Based on a previous survey of hospital presidents/chief executive officers, this study examines differences in hospital quality performance associated with the adoption of particular practices in board oversight of quality. Quality was measured by performance in process of care and risk-adjusted mortality, using the Hospital Compare data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project inpatient databases of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Board practices found to be associated with better performance in both process of care and mortality include (1) having a board quality committee; (2) establishing strategic goals for quality improvement; (3) being involved in setting the quality agenda for the hospital; (4) including a specific item on quality in board meetings; (5) using a dashboard with national benchmarks that includes indicators for clinical quality, patient safety, and patient satisfaction; and (6) linking senior executives' performance evaluation to quality and patient safety indicators. Involvement of physician leadership in the board quality committee further enhanced the hospital's quality performance. Taken together, these findings seem to support the will-execution-constancy of purpose framework on improving the effectiveness of hospital boards in overseeing quality. Future study should examine how specific board practices influence the culture and operations of the hospital that lead to better quality of care. PMID:19227851
Jiang, H Joanna; Lockee, Carlin; Bass, Karma; Fraser, Irene
Pharmaceutical care has caused considerable attention in the pharmacy literature, because this concept alters the care and services that pharmacists provide to the public. In the pharmaceutical care concept, pharmacists must ultimately accept their responsibility not only to dispense drugs but also to identify, correct and prevent drug-related problems. Pharmaceutical care represents a significant transition in the profession of pharmacy,
Waleed M. S. Al-Shaqha; Mohamed Zairi
Objective To develop a valid quality measure that captures clinical inertia, the failure to initiate or intensify therapy in response to medical need, in diabetes care and to link this process measure with outcomes of glycemic control. Data Sources Existing databases from 13 Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals between 1997 and 1999. Study Design Laboratory results, medications, and diagnoses were collected on 23,291 patients with diabetes. We modeled the decision to increase antiglycemic medications at individual visits. We then aggregated all visits for individual patients and calculated a treatment intensity score by comparing the observed number of increases to that expected based on our model. The association between treatment intensity and two measures of glycemic control, change in HbA1c during the observation period, and whether the outcome glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was greater than 8 percent, was then examined. Principal Findings Increases in antiglycemic medications occured at only 9.8percent of visits despite 39percent of patients having an initial HbA1c level greater than 8 percent. A clinically credible model predicting increase in therapy was developed with the principal predictor being a recent HbA1c greater than 8 percent. There were considerable differences in the intensity of therapy received by patients. Those patients receiving more intensive therapy had greater improvements in control (p<.001). Conclusions Clinical inertia can be measured in diabetes care and this process measure is linked to patient outcomes of glycemic control. This measure may be useful in efforts to improve clinicians management of patients with diabetes. PMID:16336551
Berlowitz, Dan R; Ash, Arlene S; Glickman, Mark; Friedman, Robert H; Pogach, Leonard M; Nelson, Audrey L; Wong, Ashley T
Quality anesthetic care is a goal fundamental to our tradition and our training, but defining and measuring quality in anesthesia presents special challenges. Industrial models of quality, especially those so fundamental to the re-emergence of post-war Japan, deserve careful study and are discussed at some length, but they clearly have limitations in understanding quality in anesthesiology. We suggest that most current quality efforts are inherently flawed. Whether or not they rigorously attempt to define quality, they are hampered by lack of data concerning outcomes and alternatives, as well as lack of distinction between quality and efficacy. Quality efforts in American medicine and anesthesiology seem mired in a "criterion of potential benefit," which is still central to many of our prescriptions for individual medical care. Current quality improvement efforts do not seem well suited to correct these flaws. Anesthetic care, and that of American medicine in general, is fragmented, enormously costly, and sometimes inappropriate or poor. Anesthesiologists are suspicious of current quality efforts to improve this care. The system often seems more geared to eliminate bad apples than to improve patient care. Because anesthesia is a specialty that facilitates care but seldom "cures," we face greater challenges in studying and defining quality than do other specialties. Because of this, it is imperative that several principles govern future quality improvement efforts in anesthesiology. First, a reasonable balance must be attained between study of outcomes and processes of anesthesia care. Second, anesthesia-specific severity of illness indexing must be developed. Third, and perhaps most important, anesthetic processes and outcomes must be reported on a national level. Fundamental to future quality efforts in our specialty, we believe, is the establishment of a protected National Anesthesia Outcome Registry. This article reviews the industrial and medical history of quality, its measurement and improvement, and attempts to apply principles learned over many decades to anesthesiology. PMID:10135626
Jensen, N F; Tinker, J H
The identification and measurement of service quality are critical factors that are responsible for customer satisfaction. This article identifies 11 attributes that define quality of care and patient satisfaction and reveals various gaps among the patient, physician, and administrator groups in the perceived importance of those dimensions. Managerial implications for patient-focused health care are discussed. PMID:9803321
Jun, M; Peterson, R T; Zsidisin, G A
This manual, which presents the principles and steps involved in the two-year Citizen Involvement for Day Care Quality Project in Massachusetts, serves as a guide for developing a citizen network to address the need for quality day care. The Project was housed by the Office for Children (OFC), the state agency which licenses and monitors all day…
Fried, Mindy; O'Reilly, Elaine
Patients with advanced cancer often do not receive high-quality pain and symptom management or support with coordination of care, communication, and decision making. Implementing quality indicators that are reflective of the scope of care, feasible to implement, and supported by evidence might help to identify areas and settings most in need of improvement. However, recent reviews and policy initiatives identified
Hsien Seow; Claire F. Snyder; Richard A. Mularski; Lisa R. Shugarman; Jean S. Kutner; Karl A. Lorenz; Albert W. Wu; Sydney M. Dy
This study examined the effectiveness of using the Internet to teach consumers about quality health care, compared consumer definitions of quality health care prior to and following completion of the Internet experience, and compared ratings of learning, satisfaction and value of the Internet instruction between consumers who completed the…
Lesley, Marsha L.; Oermann, Marilyn H.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.
For the 1.6 million Americans who reside in nursing homes, the quality of care largely de- termines the quality of life. Most patients in acute-care hospitals will return to their homes and families, regaining command of their sleep schedules, food choices, hygiene, and mobility. They can generally change physicians and hospitals if dissatisfied. But most nursing home patients cannot go
Charlene Harrington; Steffie Woolhandler; Joseph Mullan; Helen Carrillo; David U. Himmelstein
SIU Student Health Initiative Working for quality and affordable student heath care at Southern. Benefit Comparison Current SIUC self-funded student insurance plan* Affordable Care Act (ACA) compliant,000 lifetime benefits cap) No limits on mental health care appointments Limited number of therapy appointments
Nickrent, Daniel L.
. Fact Sheet 1. Students want health coverage that is fully compliant with the Affordable Care Act (ACASIU Student Health Initiative Working for quality and affordable student heath care at Southern even if they could afford it. 8. As students are having more difficulty finding affordable health care
Nickrent, Daniel L.
First Children's Finance is a national nonprofit organization located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, whose work strives to break the cycle of poverty, starting with those who care for and educate the nation's youngest citizens--child care businesses. First Children's Finance asks the question: How do Americans talk about providing quality child care…
Schlueter, Heidi H.
Objective: To assess the quality of life (QOL) of intensive care survivors 1 year after discharge with special emphasis on multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Design: Prospective, observational study. Setting: A ten-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital. Patients: Among the 591 consecutive patients admitted in the year 1995, 307 of 378 patients who survived 1 year were
Ville Pettilä; Anne Kaarlola; Annikki Mäkeläinen
Falls are one of the most common adverse events in hospitals and fall management remains a major challenge in the medical care quality. Falls in patients are associated with major health complications that can result in health decline and increased medical care cost. To deliver medical care in time, reliable location-aware fall detection is needed. In this paper, we propose
Chih-ning Huang; Chih-yen Chiang; Jui-sheng Chang; Yi-chieh Chou; Ya-xuan Hong; Steen J. Hsu; Woei-chyn Chu; Chia-tai Chan
Using a cross-sectional design of 400 primary care patients with diabetes, the authors evaluated demographics, health status, subjective health and mental health, health behaviors, health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes treatment, satisfaction with medical care, and quality of medical care as potential predictors of QoL and QoL in the hypothetical…
Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony; Porter, Boaz
A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…
Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle
HIC 2001 Realising Quality Health Care * Paper reviewed according to DETYA standard 1999 Austin, D , et al. ISBN 0 9585370 8 9 Understanding community health care: Implications for technology design case study of a community health care setting. The intention of this study was to better understand
Background: Because of an increase in life expectancy and de-institutionalisation, many adults with intellectual disability (ID) live with and are cared for by their parents throughout their adult lives. Because of caring demands, the quality of life (QOL) of parents may be affected. The study explored the impact of caring for an adult with ID on…
Yoong, A.; Koritsas, S.
Objectives: To investigate the concept of clinical governance being advocated by primary care groups/trusts (PCG/Ts), approaches being used to implement clinical governance, and potential barriers to its successful implementation in primary care. Design: Qualitative case studies using semi-structured interviews and documentation review. Setting: Twelve purposively sampled PCG/Ts in England. Participants: Fifty senior staff including chief executives, clinical governance leads, mental health leads, and lay board members. Main outcome measures: Participants' perceptions of the role of clinical governance in PCG/Ts. Results: PCG/Ts recognise that the successful implementation of clinical governance in general practice will require cultural as well as organisational changes, and the support of practices. They are focusing their energies on supporting practices and getting them involved in quality improvement activities. These activities include, but move beyond, conventional approaches to quality assessment (audit, incentives) to incorporate approaches which emphasise corporate and shared learning. PCG/Ts are also engaged in setting up systems for monitoring quality and for dealing with poor performance. Barriers include structural barriers (weak contractual levers to influence general practices), resource barriers (perceived lack of staff or money), and cultural barriers (suspicion by practice staff or problems overcoming the perceived blame culture associated with quality assessment). Conclusion: PCG/Ts are focusing on setting up systems for implementing clinical governance which seek to emphasise developmental and supportive approaches which will engage health professionals. Progress is intentionally incremental but formidable challenges lie ahead, not least reconciling the dual role of supporting practices while monitoring (and dealing with poor) performance. PMID:12078380
Campbell, S; Sheaff, R; Sibbald, B; Marshall, M; Pickard, S; Gask, L; Halliwell, S; Rogers, A; Roland, M
There is a growing consensus that a hybrid of two common approaches to quality improvement (QI), local participatory QI and expert QI, might be the best method for achieving quality care. Achieving such a hybrid requires that content experts establish an ongoing dialogue with both frontline staff members and managers. In this study we examined frontline staff members' and managers' preferences regarding how to conduct such a dialogue, and we provide practical suggestions for implementation. The two groups shared a number of preferences (e.g., verbal face-to-face exchanges, discussions focused on quality of care). There were also some differences. For example, although managers were interested in discussions of business aspects (e.g., costs), frontline staff members were concerned with workload issues. Finally, although informants acknowledged that engaging in a QI dialogue was time consuming, they also believed it was essential if health care organizations are to improve the quality of care they provide. PMID:19092141
Parker, Louise E; Kirchner, JoAnn E; Bonner, Laura M; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Ritchie, Mona J; Simons, Carol E; Yano, Elizabeth M
In this first paper in a series of four papers on midwifery, we aimed to examine, comprehensively and systematically, the contribution midwifery can make to the quality of care of women and infants globally, and the role of midwives and others in providing midwifery care. Drawing on international definitions and current practice, we mapped the scope of midwifery. We then developed a framework for quality maternal and newborn care using a mixed-methods approach including synthesis of findings from systematic reviews of women's views and experiences, effective practices, and maternal and newborn care providers. The framework differentiates between what care is provided and how and by whom it is provided, and describes the care and services that childbearing women and newborn infants need in all settings. We identified more than 50 short-term, medium-term, and long-term outcomes that could be improved by care within the scope of midwifery; reduced maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, reduced stillbirth and preterm birth, decreased number of unnecessary interventions, and improved psychosocial and public health outcomes. Midwifery was associated with more efficient use of resources and improved outcomes when provided by midwives who were educated, trained, licensed, and regulated. Our findings support a system-level shift from maternal and newborn care focused on identification and treatment of pathology for the minority to skilled care for all. This change includes preventive and supportive care that works to strengthen women's capabilities in the context of respectful relationships, is tailored to their needs, focuses on promotion of normal reproductive processes, and in which first-line management of complications and accessible emergency treatment are provided when needed. Midwifery is pivotal to this approach, which requires effective interdisciplinary teamwork and integration across facility and community settings. Future planning for maternal and newborn care systems can benefit from using the quality framework in planning workforce development and resource allocation. PMID:24965816
Renfrew, Mary J; McFadden, Alison; Bastos, Maria Helena; Campbell, James; Channon, Andrew Amos; Cheung, Ngai Fen; Silva, Deborah Rachel Audebert Delage; Downe, Soo; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Malata, Address; McCormick, Felicia; Wick, Laura; Declercq, Eugene
The authors assessed the quality of child care in a representative national sample of 42 child-care centers in the Netherlands and compared it with the quality of care that researchers have found using similar samples in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. J. M. Stams, M. J. E. Verhoeven, & E. J. Reiling, 1998) and 2001 (M. J. J.…
Vermeer, Harriet J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; de Kruif, Renee E. L.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Zeijl, Jantien
The 1984 liberalization of the New Zealand economy has resulted in a health care sector that has become very competitive (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). The private sector is now able to supply health care services and, as a result, a greater value is being placed on patient satisfaction (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). However, despite the increasing focus on customer satisfaction, research into health care patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality is scarce. This can be problematic, as quality of care is an essential issue in the strategic marketing of health care services (Turner and Pol, 1995). This study takes a step towards addressing this deficiency by identifying patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality in health care. The findings of this study are based on the empirical analysis of a sample of 389 respondents interviewed by telephone. The findings indicate that the service quality dimensions identified in this health care specific study differ in number and dimensional structure from the widely adopted service quality dimensions first identified by Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1988): reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. The service quality dimensions identified in this study were: reliability, tangibles, assurance, empathy, food, access, outcome, admission, discharge and responsiveness. In addition, health care patients perceive the service quality dimensions relating to the core product in health care delivery (for example, outcome and reliability) as more important than the service quality dimensions relating to the peripheral product in health care delivery (for example, food, access and tangibles). Finally, the results of this study suggest that patients with different geographic, demographic, and behavioristic characteristics have different needs and wants during health care delivery and therefore perceive different service quality dimensions as important. PMID:11727291
Clemes, M D; Ozanne, L K; Laurensen, W L
Regulatory and reimbursement policies in the health care industry have generally been developed on the assumption that a trade-off exists between quality enhancement and cost control. In this study of 494 proprietary, nonprofit, and government nursing home facilities in New York State, I examined the relationship between quality and costs while controlling for facility characteristics and resident characteristics. I found that although the capital-intensive aspects of patient care quality make a significant impact on costs, the labor-intensive aspects of patient care quality do not. I discuss the policy implications of these findings. PMID:2931372
Ullmann, S G
There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union and the right to quality health care and to point out the problems that arise when integrating quality concerns in competition law analysis. Guidelines must be issued and competition authorities must work together with institutions that have expertise in the field of health care quality measurement in order to integrate these dimensions in competition practice. PMID:20195428
Background Physician job satisfaction is reportedly associated with interpersonal quality of care, such as patient satisfaction, but\\u000a its association with technical quality of care, as determined by whether patients are offered recommended services, is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective We explored whether the job satisfaction of hospital-employed physicians in Japan is associated with the technical quality\\u000a of care, with an emphasis on process qualities as
Makiko Utsugi-Ozaki; Seiji Bito; Shinji Matsumura; Yasuaki Hayashino; Shunichi Fukuhara
Introduction Receiving quality cancer follow-up care influences survivorship outcomes. Among Latinas, breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death; yet Latinas do not receive adequate follow-up care. This study examined quality of cancer follow-up care among Latina breast cancer survivors (BCS) and whether it differs by participant language and healthcare system variables (provider specialty, and medical setting). Methods Two hundred thirty-two (95 English-speaking Latina and 137 Spanish-speaking) Latina BCS were recruited from the California Cancer Registry, hospital cancer registries, and community agencies. Results English-speaking Latina BCS were more likely to report receiving cancer follow-up care at a doctor’s office (p<0.001). BCS without a regular place for cancer follow-up care were more likely to report not seeing a primary care provider (p<0.05) or cancer specialist (p<0.001) in the past 12 months. English-speaking Latina BCS (p<0.001), BCS who saw a cancer specialist in the past 12 months (p<0.001), and received follow-up care at a doctor’s office (p<0.05) reported higher quality of care. Speaking English, having seen a cancer specialist, and receiving follow-up care at a doctor’s office were independently associated with higher quality of care, explaining 44 % of the variance. Conclusions Our study findings suggest that examining the influence of ethnic and linguistic factors on quality of cancer follow-up care is necessary to address health disparities. Improved access to cancer follow-up care for Spanish-speaking Latina BCS is of particular concern. Implication of Cancer Survivors Identifying follow-up care needs of Latina BCS may contribute to providing high-quality care and improved survivorship outcomes. PMID:24563169
Ashing, Kimlin; Napoles, Anna
...services to correct the assessed problem, and (2) A resident...when there is a nutritional problem. (j) Hydration. The...Respiratory care; (7) Foot care; and (8) Prostheses...medication error rates of five percent or greater; and (2)...
Objective: To find out the quality of ANC in the Upazila Health Complexes (PHC centres) of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was done in purposively selected three upazilas among the clients receiving antenatal care (ANC). Data were collected with questionnaire cum checklist in the context of two aspects of quality issues, namely assessment of physical arrangements for ANC (input) and services rendered by the providers (process). Results: The mean age of respondents was 24.6±4.5 years. Majority of the respondents were with primary level education (60.3%). About half (52.8%) of the families had monthly income ranging from 3000-5000 taka (38-64 US$). Nearly half (48.9%) had no child, little more than one third (42.3%) were primigravida and 528 (57.7%) were multigravida. Out of 528 multigravid respondents 360 (68.2%) took ANC in their previous pregnancy whereas 168 (31.8%) did not take ANC Pregnancy outcome was found to be associated with receiving ANC (?2=73.599; p=0.000). Respondents receiving ANC had more good pregnancy outcome. The mean waiting time for receiving ANC was 0.77±.49 hours. Out of the 13 centers, only 3 (23.1%) have sufficient instruments to render ANC services. Findings showed that where the modes of ANC service delivery in the ANC centers are fairly satisfactory. Though some of the points of standard operation procedures (SOPs) on ANC are not covered by some ANC centers, those were not considered necessary. But, regarding the physical facilities available for rendering ANC services, it is seen that facilities are not quite satisfactory. Number of doctors and nurses are not very satisfactory. One of the centers under this study has no doctor, where ANC services are given by nurses. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ANC services at the primary health care level is not adequate in Bangladesh. To ensure further improvement of the quality of ANC services, instruments used in logistics and supplies should be enhanced. PMID:25530770
Mansur, Ahmed M. S. A.; Rezaul, Karim M.; Mahmudul, Hoque. M.; S, Chowdhury
Emergency medical services (EMS) in the Republic of Croatia are currently organized as part of the existing health care system and delivered in the form of pre-hospital and hospital EMS. The pre-hospital EMS are delivered by standalone EMS Centers, EMS units set up in community health centers, and by general practitioners working in shifts and on call in remote and scarcely populated areas. In hospitals, each ward usually has its own emergency reception area, and only in a couple of cases there is an integrated emergency admission unit for the entire hospital. The current EMS structure does not meet the basic requirements that would make an EMS system optimal, i.e. equal quality, equal access, effectiveness and appropriate equipment. The EMS Restructuring Project is part of the Croatian health care system reform and is addressed by the National Health Development Strategy 2006-2011. As part of restructuring efforts, the Croatian National Institute of Emergency Medicine, 21 County Institutes of Emergency Medicine and county-level call centers are going to be set up. In addition, the project will introduce the following: integrated emergency admission areas at hospitals; telemedicine as part of emergency medicine; emergency medicine specialty for physicians and additional specialized training for nurses/technicians; separation of emergency and non-emergency transport; standards for vehicles and equipment and guidelines/protocols/algorithms for care. The Croatian National Institute of Emergency Medicine is an umbrella EMS organization. It shapes the EMS in Croatia and proposes, plans, monitors and analyzes EMS actions in Croatia. In addition, it submits a proposal of the Emergency Medicine Network to the minister, sets standards for EMS transport, and coordinates, guides and supervises the work of County Institutes of Emergency Medicine. County Institutes organize and deliver pre-hospital EMS in their counties. Integrated hospital emergency admission units represent a single point of entry for all emergencies at a particular hospital. Upon triage, depending on the level of emergency, patients are provided with appropriate care and treatment. The introduction of EMS specialty for physicians and additional specialized training for nurses/ technicians is going to increase competencies of all EMS team members. The main objectives of the EMS Restructuring Project to be achieved in the 5-year period are the following: to reduce the response time of pre-hospital EMS teams to 10 minutes in urban areas and 20 minutes in rural areas in 20% of team interventions; to bring patients to hospital within the "golden hour" in 80% of cases; to have 200 physicians specialized in emergency medicine; and to have 220 nurses/technicians that have successfully completed their specialized training in emergency medicine. The objectives are going to be monitored through indicators as part of the World Bank Project for which data have already been collected throughout Croatia: number of interventions; number of emergency interventions; time between call receipt and arrival to scene; time between call receipt and arrival to hospital emergency reception area; percentage of arrivals to hospital by EMS vehicles within 12 hours of symptom onset; polytrauma and cardiac arrest survival rate before admission to hospital; time spent in hospital emergency reception areas and integrated hospital emergency admission units; polytrauma and cardiac arrest survival rate within 24 hours of hospital admission; number of integrated hospital emergency admission units per county; and number of pre-hospital EMS teams per capita. PMID:21692265
Predavec, Sanja; Sogori?, Selma; Jurkovi?, Drazen
The challenge of demographic transition requires a health care reform which strengthens competition and quality in health care. With this, important contributions in stabilizing intergenerational relations, especially intergenerational solidarity in the public health care system, can be achieved. The reform proposal by an expert group, invited by the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation to develop a concept of health care reform, takes these considerations into account. PMID:12426875
Efforts to improve community-based children’s mental health care should be based on valid information about effective practices\\u000a and current routine practices. Emerging research on routine care practices and outcomes has identified discrepancies between\\u000a evidence-based practices and “usual care.” These discrepancies highlight potentially potent quality improvement interventions.\\u000a This article reviews existing research on routine or “usual care” practice, identifies strengths and
Ann F. Garland; Leonard Bickman; Bruce F. Chorpita
LEARNING OUTCOME: Understand the importance of integrating client input and home-delivered meal quality issues with medical nutrition therapy to improve the nutritional care for home-bound elders.A Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) process monitoring nutrition care for homebound elders should include client input, home-delivered meal quality, caterer involvement, and medical nutrition services. Our home health agency became a meals provider to improve
S. de Oliveira; L. Ruedemann; J. Powers; D. Weddle
Provision of palliative care in long-term care (LTC) facilities is important, but limited research has been undertaken to investigate the most appropriate outcome measure for use in this setting. In this systematic review we aimed to measure the psychometric properties (reliability/validity) and feasibility of palliative outcome measures used to assess the quality of palliative care provided in LTC. For identification of outcome measures we undertook systematic searches of electronic databases from 1 January 2000 to 12 September 2008. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using an appraisal checklist developed for the review to evaluate validity, reliability and feasibility. Ten articles were included in the final review and these provided specific information on the psychometric properties of 10 outcome measures. Four of these measures reported data specifically for residents in LTC facilities, while the remaining six measures reported a sub-set of data for residents in LTC facilities. The Family Perceptions of Care Scale is considered by the authors as the most suitable outcome measure for use in LTC facilities. Of the remaining nine measures, a further two were also considered suitable for measuring the quality of palliative care in residential aged care facilities. These are the Quality of Dying in Long-term Care scale and the Toolkit Interview. PMID:20817748
Parker, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Brent
While quality of care is a major concern in the western world, not many studies investigate this topic in low-income countries. Even less is known about the quality of care in humanitarian aid settings, where additional challenges from natural or manmade disasters contribute to additional challenges. This study tried to address this gap by introducing a new approach to systematically measure quality of care in a project of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Agok area, between South Sudan and Sudan. Our objective was to obtain a valid snapshot of quality of care for a MSF project in three weeks that has the potential to serve as a baseline for quality improvement strategies. The evaluation followed a cross-sectional study design to assess structural, process and outcome quality according to Donabedian's criteria of quality of care. A bundle of well-established methods for collection of quantitative and qualitative data was used to assess the project by following a triangulated mixed-methods approach. Mean structural quality scored 73% of expected performance level and mean process quality 59%. The overall mortality rate for the hospital was 3.6%. On average, less complicated cases got a better level of care than patients who were seriously ill. Significant motivational issues were discovered in staff interviews potentially affecting quality of care. The tool appeared to be quick, feasible and effective in judging quality of care in the selected project. To tap the whole potential of the approach a re-evaluation should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of implemented improvement strategies in Agok. To confirm the usefulness of the approach, more studies are needed covering the variety of different humanitarian aid settings. PMID:23683715
Kersten, Roland; Bosse, Götz; Dörner, Frank; Slavuckij, Andrej; Fernandez, Gustavo; Marx, Michael
As the debate over managed care continues, measuring quality has increasingly become a focus in health care. One approach to measuring quality is the use of a scorecard, which summarizes a critical set of indicators that measure the quality of care. The author describes the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), a tool developed for use in businesses to implement strategic plans for meeting an organization's objectives, and shows how the BSC can be adapted for use in behavioral health care. The scorecard addresses quality of care at five levels: financial, customer, outcomes, internal processes, and learning and growth. No more than four or five realistic objectives are chosen at each level, and an indicator for the achievement of each objective is designed. The BSC integrates indicators at the five levels to help organizations guide implementation of strategic planning, report on critical outcomes, and offer a report card for payers and consumers to make informed choices. PMID:10577875
Santiago, J M
Background There is limited information available on how characteristics of the organization of nursing home care and especially group\\u000a living home care and staff ratio contribute to care staff well being, quality of care and residents' quality of life. Furthermore,\\u000a it is unknown what the consequences of the increasingly small scale organization of care are for the amount of care staff
Bernadette M Willemse; Dieneke Smit; Jacomine de Lange; Anne Margriet Pot
Background Quality of care from the perspective of users is increasingly used in evaluating health care performance. Going beyond satisfaction studies, quality of care from the users' perspective is conceptualised in two dimensions: the importance users attach to aspects of care and their actual experience with these aspects. It is well established that health care systems differ in performance. The question in this article is whether there are also differences in what people in different health care systems view as important aspects of health care quality. The aim is to describe and explain international differences in the importance that health care users attach to different aspects of health care. Methods Data were used from different studies that all used a version of the QUOTE-questionnaire that measures user views of health care quality in two dimensions: the importance that users attach to aspects of care and their actual experience. Data from 12 European countries and 5133 individuals were used. They were analysed using multi-level analysis. Results Although most of the variations in importance people attach to aspects of health care is located at the individual level, there are also differences between countries. The ranking of aspects shows similarities. 'My GP should always take me seriously' was in nearly all countries ranked first, while an item about waiting time in the GP's office was always ranked lowest. Conclusion Differences between countries in how health care users value different aspects of care are difficult to explain. Further theorising should take into account that importance and performance ratings are positively related, that people compare their experiences with those of others, and that general and instrumental values might be related through the institutions of the health care system. PMID:15723701
Groenewegen, Peter P; Kerssens, Jan J; Sixma, Herman J; van der Eijk, Ingrid; Boerma, Wienke GW
Background Antenatal care is a very important component of maternal health services. It provides the opportunity to learn about risks associated with pregnancy and guides to plan the place of deliveries thereby preventing maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. In ‘Pakistan’ antenatal services to rural population are being provided through a network of primary health care facilities designated as 'Basic Health Units and Rural Health Centers. Pakistan is a developing country, consisting of four provinces and federally administered areas. Each province is administratively subdivided in to ‘Divisions’ and ‘Districts’. By population ‘Punjab’ is the largest province of Pakistan having 36 districts. This study was conducted to assess the coverage and quality antenatal care in the primary health care facilities in ‘Punjab’ province of ‘Pakistan’. Methods Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used to collect data. Using multistage sampling technique nine out of thirty six districts were selected and 19 primary health care facilities of public sector (seventeen Basic Health Units and two Rural Health Centers were randomly selected from each district. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with clients, providers and health managers. Results The overall enrollment for antenatal checkup was 55.9% and drop out was 32.9% in subsequent visits. The quality of services regarding assessment, treatment and counseling was extremely poor. The reasons for low coverage and quality were the distant location of facilities, deficiency of facility resources, indifferent attitude and non availability of the staff. Moreover, lack of client awareness about importance of antenatal care and self empowerment for decision making to seek care were also responsible for low coverage. Conclusion The coverage and quality of the antenatal care services in ‘Punjab’ are extremely compromised. Only half of the expected pregnancies are enrolled and out of those 1/3 drop out in follow-up visits. PMID:25409502
Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Hasnain, Seema; Akram, Javaid; Siddiqui, Arif; Memon, Zahid Ali
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary...Medicaid Program: Initial Core Set of Health Care Quality Measures for Medicaid-Eligible...notice announces the initial core set of health care quality measures for...
Many clinicians remain unsure of the relevance of measuring quality of life to their clinical practice. In health economics quality of life measures have become the standard means of assessing the results of health care interventions and, more controversially, the means of prioritising funding; but they have many other applications. This article--the first of three on measuring quality of life--reviews
R. Fitzpatrick; A. Fletcher; S. Gore; D. Jones; D. Spiegelhalter; D. Cox
This study assesses the quality of services in the therapeutic foster care programs used by one county in the Midwest. Using a consultative quality assurance review methodology, evaluators examined 67 randomly sampled cases across seven agencies to assess the service quality issues experienced by children. Following interviews with staff, foster parents, and children, and a review of case records, reviewers
Thomas W. Pavkov; Richard W. Hug; Ira S. Lourie; Sesen Negash
In an era of heightened accountability, remarkably little is known empirically about the quality of social work services. This article applies insights from health services research to propose a research agenda on the quality of care in the social services. The agenda calls for studies that address the definition of quality service, variations in…
McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Megivern, Deborah; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.; Dickey, Barbara
This paper reviews the major developments during the late 1990s in quality monitoring for Medicaid managed care and offers an assessment of major challenges faced at the year 2000. We highlight the dramatic increase in activities to ensure and improve quality in Medicaid managed care. Prior to these developments, little was known about the actual level of quality of care. Thus, a major accomplishment of the late 1990s is that we now know more about quality, through some key indicators, and that states and plans have implemented activities and structures designed to improve quality. Despite this achievement, there is still a critical gap in our understanding about which activities and structures effectively improve the health of beneficiaries. There are also three operational challenges. First, as state quality assurance and improvement systems become increasingly comprehensive, states are challenged to keep them well coordinated and well targeted to key issues. Second, the dynamics of both plan turnover and enrollment-including steep drops in Medicaid enrollment-present a challenge for measuring and improving quality. A third challenge is to ensure that quality assurance and improvement programs work for enrollees with special health care needs. Finally, devoting sufficient resources to quality monitoring and improvement is a challenge for both states and plans since managed care programs are expected to save money as well as improve quality. PMID:11194301
Background Care for falls and urinary incontinence (UI) among older patients is inadequate. One possible explanation is that physicians provide less recommended care to patients who are not as concerned about their falls and UI. Objective To test whether patient-reported severity for two geriatric conditions, falls and UI, is associated with quality of care. Research Design Prospective cohort study of elders with falls and/or fear of falling (n=384) and UI (n=163). Subjects Participants in the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders-2 Study (2002–3), which evaluated an intervention to improve the care for falls and UI among older (age ?75) ambulatory care patients with falls/fear of falling or UI. Measures Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Incontinence Quality of Life (IQOL) surveys measured at baseline, quality of care measured by a 13-month medical record abstraction. Results There was a small difference in falls quality scores across the range of FES, with greater patient-perceived falls severity associated with better odds of passing falls quality indicators (OR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02–1.21) per 10-point increment in FES). Greater patient-perceived UI severity (IQOL score) was not associated with better quality of UI care. Conclusions Although older persons with greater patient-perceived falls severity receive modestly better quality of care, those with more distressing incontinence do not. For both conditions, however, even the most symptomatic patients received less than half of recommended care. Low patient-perceived severity of condition is not the basis of poor care for falls and UI. PMID:21079526
Min, Lillian C.; Reuben, David B.; Keeler, Emmett; Ganz, David A.; Fung, Constance H.; Shekelle, Paul; Roth, Carol P.; Wenger, Neil S.
Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving health care quality. A number of integrated health care delivery systems use advanced information systems and integrated decision support to carry out quality assurance activities, but none as large as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The VHA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is a large-scale, multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative designed to ensure excellence in all areas where VHA provides health care services, including inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings. In this paper, we describe the role of information systems in the VHA QUERI process, highlight the major information systems critical to this quality improvement process, and discuss issues associated with the use of these systems. PMID:15187063
Hynes, Denise M.; Perrin, Ruth A.; Rappaport, Steven; Stevens, Joanne M.; Demakis, John G.
Objective To determine the quality of outpatient hospital care for children under 5 years in Afghanistan. Design Case management observations were conducted on 10–12 children under five selected by systematic random sampling in 31 outpatient hospital clinics across the country, followed by interviews with caretakers and providers. Main Outcome Measures Quality of care defined as adherence to the clinical standards described in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Results Overall quality of outpatient care for children was suboptimal based on patient examination and caretaker counseling (median score: 27.5 on a 100 point scale). Children receiving care from female providers had better care than those seen by male providers (OR: 6.6, 95% CI: 2.0–21.9, P = 0.002), and doctors provided better quality of care than other providers (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1–6.4, P = 0.02). The poor were more likely to receive better care in hospitals managed by non-governmental organizations than those managed by other mechanisms (OR: 15.2, 95% CI: 1.2–200.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions Efforts to strengthen optimal care provision at peripheral health clinics must be complemented with investments at the referral and tertiary care facilities to ensure care continuity. The findings of improved care by female providers, doctors and NGO's for poor patients, warrant further empirical evidence on care determinants. Optimizing care quality at referral hospitals is one of the prerequisites to ensure service utilization and outcomes for the achievement of the Child health Millennium Development Goals for Afghanistan. PMID:21242157
Lind, Allison; Edward, Anbrasi; Bonhoure, Philippe; Mustafa, Lais; Hansen, Peter; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.
Background: Our aim was to determine the service quality of delivered care for people with Caesarean Section and Normal Delivery. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 people who had caesarean section and normal delivery in Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital in Tabriz, north western Iran. Service quality was calculated using: Service Quality = 10 – (Importance × Performance) based on importance and performance of service quality aspects from the postpartum women’s perspective.A hierarchical regression analysis was applied in two steps using the enter method to examine the associations between demographics and SQ scores. Data were analysed using the SPSS-17 software. Results: “Confidentiality”, “autonomy”, “choice of care provider” and “communication” achieved scores at the highest level of quality; and “support group”, “prompt attention”, “prevention and early detection”, “continuity of care”, “dignity”, “safety”, “accessibility and “basic amenities” got service quality score less than eight. Statistically significant relationship was found between service quality score and continuity of care (P=0.008). Conclusion: A notable gap between the participants? expectations and what they have actually received in most aspects of provided care. So, there is an opportunityto improve the quality of delivered care. PMID:25650105
Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Askari, Samira; Fardiazar, Zahra; Koshavar, Hossein; Gholipour, Kamal
The new government drive for quality to be at the heart of health care is discussed, following which an insight into the membership and remit of the new European Health-Care Working Group is given. The article also provides a brief description of the European Foundation for Quality Management model and the benefits associated with applying self-assessment as a tool for attaining business excellence. Finally, the first stages of the work proposed by the European Health-Care Working Group is highlighted along with the potential effect on health care within the UK. PMID:10346303
Background Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information on social media and quality of health care. However, some drawbacks exist, especially regarding the use of rating sites. For example, since rating is anonymous, rating values are not risk adjusted and therefore vulnerable to fraud. Also, ratings are often based on only a few reviews and are predominantly positive. Furthermore, people providing feedback on health care via social media are presumably not always representative for the patient population. Conclusions Social media and particularly rating sites are an interesting new source of information about quality of care from the patient’s perspective. This new source should be used to complement traditional methods, since measuring quality of care via social media has other, but not less serious, limitations. Future research should explore whether social media are suitable in practice for patients, health insurers, and governments to help them judge the quality performance of professionals and organizations. PMID:24566844
Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B
... Disparities Report (NHDR) focuses on "prevailing disparities in health care delivery as it relates to racial factors and socioeconomic factors in priority populations." Priority populations include racial and ...
Background Hospitalists improve efficiency, but little information exists regarding whether they impact quality of care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To determine hospitalists’ effect on the quality of acute congestive heart failure care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and Participants Using data from the Multicenter Hospitalist Study, we retrospectively evaluated quality of care in patients admitted with\\u000a congestive heart failure who were assigned to hospitalists (n?=?120) or non-hospitalists (n?=?252) among six
Eduard E. Vasilevskis; David Meltzer; Jeffrey Schnipper; Peter Kaboli; Tosha Wetterneck; David Gonzales; Vineet Arora; James Zhang; Andrew D. Auerbach
Purpose: Literature on institutionalization of patients with dementia has not considered the role of caregivers' quality of care, which encompasses caregivers' exemplary care (EC) behaviors and caregivers' potentially harmful behaviors (PHBs) toward care recipients. This study sought to understand the role of quality of care in mediating between…
Sun, Fei; Durkin, Daniel W.; Hilgeman, Michelle M.; Harris, Grant; Gaugler, Joseph E.; Wardian, Jana; Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.
PURPOSE: Quality improvement and disease management programs for heart failure have improved quality of care and patient outcomes at large tertiary care hospitals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a regional, multihospital, collaborative quality improvement intervention on care and outcomes in heart failure in community hospitals.PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled study included 10 acute
Edward F Philbin; Thomas A Rocco; Norman W Lindenmuth; Kathleen Ulrich; Maureen McCall; Paul L Jenkins
Purpose This study explores the short-term value of integrated care for the frail elderly by evaluating the effects of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care after three months. Intervention Frailty was preventively detected in elderly living at home with the Groningen Frailty Indicator. Geriatric nurse practitioners and secondary care geriatric nursing specialists were assigned as case managers and co-ordinated the care agreed upon in a multidisciplinary meeting. The general practitioner practice functions as a single entry point and supervises the co-ordination of care. The intervention encompasses task reassignment between nurses and doctors and consultations between primary, secondary and tertiary care providers. The entire process was supported by multidisciplinary protocols and web-based patient files. Methods The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In this study, 205 frail elderly patients of three general practitioner practices that implemented the integrated care model were compared with 212 frail elderly patients of five general practitioner practices that provided usual care. The outcomes were assessed using questionnaires. Baseline measures were compared with a three-month follow-up by chi-square tests, t-tests and regression analysis. Results and conclusion In the short term, the integrated care model had a significant effect on the attachment aspect of quality of life. The frail elderly patients were better able to obtain the love and friendship they desire. The use of care did not differ despite the preventive element and the need for assessments followed up with case management in the integrated care model. In the short term, there were no significant changes in health. As frailty is a progressive state, it is assumed that three months are too short to influence changes in health with integrated care models. A more longitudinal approach is required to study the value of integrated care on changes in health and the preservation of the positive effects on quality of life and health care use. PMID:25489294
Looman, Wilhelmina Mijntje; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina; Huijsman, Robbert
This paper describes the American College of Surgeons' 100-plus-year commitment to improving quality and patient care. It summarizes programs that the College established a century ago to improve patient care, including the Hospital Standardization Program, and new initiatives, such as the ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The College's longstanding experience with quality improvement programs is enabling the organization to play a critical and influential role in helping to ensure that health care reforms, including those in the Affordable Care Act, are implemented in a way that best serves that interests of the surgical patient. Through a combination of these data analysis systems and the application of a finely tuned set of values, the College has become a respected voice in quality and patient safety. The ultimate goal is to create an environment where high value and high reliability take precedence over high volume and where all health care professionals play an active leadership role in delivering optimal, coordinated care. This article further describes how the surgical culture can be reshaped to meet these evolving needs and demands. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) has a longstanding commitment to improving the quality of surgical care through outcome measurement, standards setting, accreditation, and educational activities. This legacy has enabled the ACS to play an influential role in recent developments related to implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare physician payment reform. PMID:25637309
Hoyt, David B; Schneidman, Diane S
It is suggested that evidence-based health care is appropriate in dental care delivery, and dental educators can play an important role in overcoming barriers to teaching and practice of this approach. Obstacles include misinterpretations, insufficient evidence, undeveloped critical appraisal skills, skepticism, inadequate time, and poor access to…
McCulloch, Christopher A. G.
School Age Care (SAC) services have existed in Australia for over 100 years but they have tended to take a back seat when compared with provision for school-aged children and those under school age using early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. Many SAC services are housed in shared premises and many children attending preparatory or…
Cartmel, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Susan
Reviews the range of quality activity in a National Health Service hospital trust, using a staff questionnaire survey, self-assessment against the Baldrige Quality Award criteria, and the application of the SERVQUAL approach to service quality assessment. Reviews the acute health care quality programme literature. Finds that there are needs for greater integration of quality effort, to engage with patients in a more meaningful manner, and to achieve greater commitment and involvement from clinicians and managers. Identifies lack of time and resources as a major barrier to greater application of quality programmes. Explores ways of developing a more holistic and integrated programme of quality improvement. Describes the creation and implementation of a model for continuous improvement in health care quality. PMID:10166023
In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…
Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Objective: To examine whether clinical severity is greater among children receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care in primary care compared with those in specialty mental health clinics, and to examine how care processes and clinical outcomes vary by sector across three 6-month time intervals. Method: This was a longitudinal…
Zima, Bonnie T.; Bussing, Regina; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Ettner, Susan; Belin, Thomas R.; Wells, Kenneth B.
Prepared as part of an effort to attain minimum quality standards for Brazilian day care centers, this document focuses on day-to-day provision of day care services for children from birth to 6 years old as well as broader day care administrative concerns. The first version of this document was prepared as part of a training project for day care…
Campos, Maria Malta; Rosemberg, Fulvia
In this article, the total quality programme in the Spanish healthcare system (1986-1992) and the subsequent quality improvement steps that have led to definition and implementation of such an integrated framework, seeking a quality management system and patient safety, are discussed. PMID:15552387
A common definition of architectural qualities in general and the values of the qualities in particular can differ significantly in the understanding of different operators in the building construction sector. One platform to define and investigate architectural qualities is to use a property management perspective and focus on the tenants and their individual well-being in the accommodation. In this study,
Ulf Nordwall; Thomas Olofsson
Patient care experience surveys evaluate the degree to which care is patient-centered. This article reviews the literature on the association between patient experiences and other measures of health care quality. Research indicates that better patient care experiences are associated with higher levels of adherence to recommended prevention and treatment processes, better clinical outcomes, better patient safety within hospitals, and less health care utilization. Patient experience measures that are collected using psychometrically sound instruments, employing recommended sample sizes and adjustment procedures, and implemented according to standard protocols are intrinsically meaningful and are appropriate complements for clinical process and outcome measures in public reporting and pay-for-performance programs. PMID:25027409
Elliott, Marc N.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Hays, Ron D.; Lehrman, William G.; Rybowski, Lise; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Cleary, Paul D.
In the trajectory of disease progress and treatment plan, patients and the family members are confronted with challenging situations like unsurmountable physical distress, inadequate coping patterns, unanswered spiritual issues in the background of serious threat to very existence of life leads to a debilitating Quality of life.The Palliative Care team approach addresses all the issues and also sees the patient to go through the protocols of Palliative care management as well as Oncological treatment plan. Further, this fecilitates a smooth transition from the hospital to home and hospice care. Various studies conducted globally revealed that patients received palliative care intervention along with oncological treatments had higher scores of Quality of life compared to patients received onlyoncology care alone.This article discusses the various factors contributing to late referrals to palliative care team and also care giver’s views pertaining to need for early referral. Timely referral to palliative care minimises the patient’s and care giver’s distress, ensures modest Quality of life and appropriate measures at the end of life care. PMID:21811360
Devi, P Saraswathi
During the 1990s, the hospital industry was transformed by mergers and acquisitions. This synthesis looks at why this rapid consolidation occurred and what impact it had on the price and quality for patients, and the cost of care for hospitals. Key findings include: Managed care was not a main driver of consolidation, but fear of managed care may have played a part. Other factors, including technological advances that reduced inpatient demand, and an antitrust environment that was receptive to consolidation contributed to consolidation. Research suggests hospital prices increased by 5 percent or more as a result of consolidation. When two hospitals merge, not only does the surviving hospital raise prices but so do its competitors. Evidence of the impact of consolidation on quality of care is limited and mixed, but the strongest studies show a reduction in quality. Hospital consolidation does modestly reduce the cost to hospitals of providing care. PMID:22051574
Vogt, William B; Town, Robert; Williams, Claudia H
Objective The authors examined the validity of documentation produced during paediatric emergency care to determine if a patient-driven health information technology called ParentLink produced higher-quality data than ...
Porter, Stephen Calder
Conclusions—Better quality of life in patients receiving conventional MDT care may be attributable to improved social functioning and greater attention to higher function and caregiver needs during rehabilitation. (Stroke. 2002;33:1600- 1604.)
David Sulch; Anne Melbourn; Inigo Perez; Lalit Kalra
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating System (QRS...QRS) framework for rating Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) offered through an...
In this thesis, we describe the use of medical insurance claims data in three important areas of medicine. First, we develop expert- trained statistical models of quality of care based on variables derived from insurance ...
Czerwinski, David (David E.)
The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Public and Professional Relations Committee to develop a short white paper describing quality measures of clinical pharmacists' patient care services in transitional care settings. Transitional care describes patient movement from one health care setting or service to another. Care transitions are associated with an increased risk of adverse events for patients. Pharmacists play an important role in ensuring that medication errors and adverse events are minimized during these transitions, largely through the reconciliation of medications and assurance of continuity of care. Quality measures are often divided into three domains: structure, process, and outcome. Given the typical nature of the pharmacist's role, process indicators are best suited to evaluate quality clinical pharmacist services. However, process indicators relevant to pharmacists' activities are not yet fully described in the literature. The committee searched available literature describing quality measures that are directly influenced by the pharmacist during care transitions. This white paper describes these process indicators as quality measures of clinical pharmacists' services, identifies the transitional settings and activities to which they are most applicable, and provides the published sources from which indicators were derived. For process indicators that could not be found in published sources, we propose relevant measures that can be adapted for use in a given setting. As pharmacists become more involved in diverse and emerging patient care areas such as transitional care, it will be critical that they use these types of measures to document the quality of new services and reinforce the need for pharmacist participation during transitions of care. PMID:23108762
Kirwin, Jennifer; Canales, Ann E; Bentley, Michael L; Bungay, Kathy; Chan, Tammy; Dobson, Erica; Holder, Renee M; Johnson, Daniel; Lilliston, Andrea; Mohammad, Rima A; Spinler, Sarah A
Robinson-Smith G, Johnston MV, Allen J. Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:460-4. Objective: To determine the relationship of self-care self-efficacy to functional independence, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Methods: Longitudinal, descriptive correlational design. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation facility at 1 month after stroke and home at 6 months after stroke. Participants:
Gale Robinson-Smith; Mark V Johnston; Judith Allen
Early return to hospital is a frequently measured outcome in mental health system performance monitoring yet its validity\\u000a for evaluating quality of inpatient care is unclear. This study reviewed research conducted in the last decade on predictors\\u000a of early readmission (within 30 to 90 days of discharge) to assess the association between this indicator and quality of inpatient\\u000a psychiatric care. Only
Janet Durbin; Elizabeth Lin; Crystal Layne; Moira Teed
Many believe that the "boarding" of emergency department (ED) patients awaiting inpatient beds compromises quality of care. To better study the quality of care of boarded patients, one should identify and understand the mechanisms accounting for any potential differences in care. This paper presents a conceptual boarding "structure-process-outcome" model to help assess quality of care provided to boarded patients and to aid in recognizing potential solutions to improve that quality, if it is deficient. The goal of the conceptual model is to create a practical framework on which a research and policy agenda can be based to measure and improve quality of care for boarded patients. PMID:21496148
Liu, Shan W; Singer, Sara J; Sun, Benjamin C; Camargo, Carlos A
An important aim of the government's quality policy is to stimulate quality management (QM) in health care organizations. The relationship between the government's quality policy and QM in health care organizations is unknown. This article explores that relationship by comparing two countries with different quality policies, The Netherlands and Finland. In The Netherlands QM is required by law and health
Emmy M. Sluijs; Maarit Outinen; Cordula Wagner; Matti Liukko; Dinny H. de Bakker
New Zealand has one of the best value health care systems in the world, but as a proportion of GDP our spending on health care has increased every year since 1999. Further, there are issues of quality and safety in our system we must address, including rates of adverse events. The Health Quality and Safety Commission was formed in 2010 as a crown agent to influence, encourage, guide and support improvement in health care practice in New Zealand. The New Zealand Triple Aim has been defined as: improved quality, safety and experience of care; improved health and equity for all populations; and best value for public health system resources. The Commission is pursuing the Triple Aim via two fundamental objectives: doing the right thing by providing care supported by the best evidence available, focused on what matters to each individual patient, and doing the right thing right, first time, by making sure health care is safe and of the highest quality possible. Improvement efforts must be supported by robust but economical measurements. New Zealand has a strong culture of quality, so the Commission's role is to work with our colleagues to make good health care better. PMID:25662383
Shuker, Carl; Bohm, Gillian; Bramley, Dale; Frost, Shelley; Galler, David; Hamblin, Richard; Henderson, Robert; Jansen, Peter; Martin, Geraint; Orsborn, Karen; Penny, Anthea; Wilson, Janice; Merry, Alan F
Background A variety of clinical process indicators exists to measure the quality of care provided by maternal and neonatal health (MNH) programs. To allow comparison across MNH programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a core set of essential process indicators is needed. Although such a core set is available for emergency obstetric care (EmOC), the ‘EmOC signal functions’, a similar approach is currently missing for MNH routine care evaluation. We describe a strategy for identifying core process indicators for routine care and illustrate their usefulness in a field example. Methods We first developed an indicator selection strategy by combining epidemiological and programmatic aspects relevant to MNH in LMICs. We then identified routine care process indicators meeting our selection criteria by reviewing existing quality of care assessment protocols. We grouped these indicators into three categories based on their main function in addressing risk factors of maternal or neonatal complications. We then tested this indicator set in a study assessing MNH quality of clinical care in 33 health facilities in Malawi. Results Our strategy identified 51 routine care processes: 23 related to initial patient risk assessment, 17 to risk monitoring, 11 to risk prevention. During the clinical performance assessment a total of 82 cases were observed. Birth attendants’ adherence to clinical standards was lowest in relation to risk monitoring processes. In relation to major complications, routine care processes addressing fetal and newborn distress were performed relatively consistently, but there were major gaps in the performance of routine care processes addressing bleeding, infection, and pre-eclampsia risks. Conclusion The identified set of process indicators could identify major gaps in the quality of obstetric and neonatal care provided during the intra- and immediate postpartum period. We hope our suggested indicators for essential routine care processes will contribute to streamlining MNH program evaluations in LMICs. PMID:25875252
Brenner, Stephan; De Allegri, Manuela; Gabrysch, Sabine; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Sarker, Malabika; Muula, Adamson S.
Objective: To examine the effects of nurse staffing and organizational support for nursing care on nurses' dissatisfaction with their jobs, nurse burnout, and nurse reports of quality of patient care in an international sample of hospitals. Design: Multisite cross-sectional survey Setting: Adult acute-care hospitals in the U.S. (Pennsylvania), Canada (Ontario and British Columbia), England and Scotland. Study Participants: 10319 nurses
Linda H. Aiken; Sean P. Clarke; Douglas M. Sloane
Objectives Primary care is the key element of health reform in China. The objective of this study was to compare patient assessed quality of public primary care between Hong Kong, a city with established primary care environment influenced by its colonial history, and Shanghai, a city leading primary care reform in Mainland China; and to measure the equity of care in the two cities. Methods Cross sectional stratified random sampling surveys were conducted in 2011. Data were collected from 1,994 respondents in Hong Kong and 811 respondents in Shanghai. A validated Chinese version of the primary care assessment tool was employed to assess perceived quality of primary care with respect to socioeconomic characteristics and health status. Results We analyzed 391 and 725 respondents in Hong Kong and Shanghai, respectively, who were regular public primary care users. Respondents in Hong Kong reported significant lower scores in first contact accessibility (1.59 vs. 2.15), continuity of care (2.33 vs. 3.10), coordination of information (2.84 vs. 3.64), comprehensiveness service availability (2.43 vs. 3.31), comprehensiveness service provided (2.11 vs. 2.40), and the total score (23.40 vs. 27.40), but higher scores in first contact utilization (3.15 vs. 2.54) and coordination of services (2.67 vs. 2.40) when compared with those in Shanghai. Respondents with higher income reported a significantly higher total primary care score in Hong Kong, but not in Shanghai. Conclusions Respondents in Shanghai reported better quality of public primary care than those in Hong Kong, while quality of public primary care tended to be more equitable in Shanghai. PMID:25826616
Wei, Xiaolin; Li, Haitao; Yang, Nan; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Owolabi, Onikepe; Xu, Jianguang; Shi, Leiyu; Tang, Jinling; Li, Donald; Griffiths, Sian M.
Optimizing patient experiences with care is especially important in cancer because cancer care is often complex and involves communication with and coordination across providers of multiple specialties and across multiple institutional settings. Unsatisfactory interactions with the health care system pose an additional burden on patients when they are already ill and vulnerable. More importantly, less-than-optimal patient experiences can have a significant negative impact on patients’ health-related quality of life.
OBJECTIVES. We sought to compare visit rates, emergency care use, and markers of quality of care between adolescents who use school-based health centers and those who use other community centers within a safety-net health care system for low-income and uninsured patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS. In this retrospective cohort study we used Denver Health electronic medical chart data, the Denver Health
Mandy A. Allison; Lori A. Crane; Brenda L. Beaty; Arthur J. Davidson; Paul Melinkovich; Allison Kempe
and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. The SIU Student Health Initiative is a public education and policySIU Student Health Initiative Working for quality and affordable student heath care at Southern for a student health plan that is both affordable and easily accessible to a wide range of students. Students
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…
Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna
This paper describes the development of indicators of quality in the health promo tion work of primary health care nurses through a study commissioned by the Health Education Authority (HEA). The study commenced with a review of the accident- prevention literature in primary health care nursing and three in-depth workshops with locality-based project teams consisting of commissioners of primary health
Jill Macleod Clark; Jill Maben
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe good quality care at the end of life (EOL) for hospice-enrolled residents in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain detailed descriptions of EOL care provided by ALF medication aides, caregivers, nurses, and hospice nurses in…
Cartwright, Juliana C.; Miller, Lois; Volpin, Miriam
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: We were interested to find out how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-patients judge the quality of care received from their HIV nursing consultants, compared with the care delivered by HIV specialists and general practitioners. Furthermore, we were interested in how the opinions of HIV patients on the HIV nursing consultant compared with the opinions of patients with rheumatic
Christine F Hekkink; Lode Wigersma; C. J. IJzermans; Patrick JE Bindels
Wherever elderly individuals with diabetes reside, whether at home, in a residential home or in a nursing home, they deserve to have good-quality, structured care provided by carers who have the relevant knowledge and skills. In order to achieve this carers need ongoing education and training. The evidence suggests that diabetes care in residential and nursing homes is varied and
There is an increasing number of studies showing that patients often do not receive necessary care or receive care that is not needed, inefficient or even damaging. There is no lack of ideas and approaches on how to improve practice. In the last decades we have seen the rise of fascinating models for quality improvement, for instance Evidence Based Medicine,
Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…
Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
This was a population-based observational study to assess the impact of managed care (MC) on several dimensions of quality of surgical care among Medicare beneficiaries undergoing carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) (N = 9308) in New York. Clinical data were abstracted from medical charts to assess appropriateness and deaths or strokes within 30 days of surgery. Differences in patients, appropriateness, and outcomes
Ethan A. Halm; Jason Wang; Mary Rojas; Mark R. Chassin
45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01...Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND...
45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01...Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND...
45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND...
45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01...Activities to improve the quality of child care. 98.51 Section 98.51 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human...Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND...
The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
A survey of 414 child care providers in southeastern Wisconsin reveals that cost as well as low wages and lack of benefits for workers can constrain providers from pursuing improvements to child-care quality. Of survey respondents, approximately half of whom are home-based and half center-based, 13% have at least three of five structural factors…
Public Policy Forum, 2008
BACKGROUND: Dementia among nursing home residents is often accompanied by high care dependency and behavioral disturbances, resulting in an increased workload for the caregivers. Snoezelen, integrated into 24-hour dementia care, is an approach that might improve the quality of working life of dementia caregivers. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of integrated snoezelen on work-related outcomes (workload and psychological
Julia C. M. van Weert; Alexandra M. van Dulmen; Peter M. M. Spreeuwenberg; Jozien M. Bensing; Miel W. Ribbe
The next of kin play a decisive role in the care provided for patients. This and their unique experience of psychiatric care make it important to include them when defining quality of care. The aim of the present study was to describe how next of kin perceive the concept of quality of care in the case of psychiatric care. Twelve next of kin were included in a qualitative interview study and a phenomenographic approach was used for the analysis of the interviews. The next of kin described quality of care mainly from their own perspective but also to a large extent from the patient's perspective as well. Five descriptive categories resulted: dignity, security, participation, recovery, and health-promoting surroundings. Good relations and communication between staff, patients, and next of kin emerged as the central factors regarding the quality of psychiatric care. The next of kin asked for information about psychiatric illnesses and wanted to cooperate in the care. They avoid telling others about their family member's psychiatric illness because of a feeling of shame and guilt. Staff education regarding such feelings and stigmatization could be useful in furthering the understanding of the next of kin's distress and developing interventions to alleviate it. Clinical practice can be improved by guidelines and instruments developed on the basis of this study. PMID:17845550
Schröder, Agneta; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Ahlström, Gerd
background We have little systematic information about the extent to which standard processes in- volved in health care — a key element of quality — are delivered in the United States. methods We telephoned a random sample of adults living in 12 metropolitan areas in the United States and asked them about selected health care experiences. We also received written
Elizabeth A. McGlynn; Steven M. Asch; John Adams; Joan Keesey; Jennifer Hicks; Alison DeCristofaro; Eve A. Kerr
...CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS...associated with a medication error; or (ii) Any...these drugs. (n) Medication Errors. The facility management...ensure that— (1) Medication errors are identified...
...CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS...associated with a medication error; or (ii) Any...these drugs. (n) Medication Errors. The facility management...ensure that— (1) Medication errors are identified...
...CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS...associated with a medication error; or (ii) Any...these drugs. (n) Medication Errors. The facility management...ensure that— (1) Medication errors are identified...
Background Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Methods Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61). Conclusion Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health. PMID:21599882
Purpose Quality of care for long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia at the end-of-life is often evaluated using standardized\\u000a instruments that were not developed for or thoroughly tested in this population. Given the importance of using appropriate\\u000a instruments to evaluate the quality of care (QOC) and quality of dying (QOD) in LTC, we compared the validity and reliability\\u000a of ten available
Mirjam C. van Soest-Poortvliet; Jenny T. van der Steen; Sheryl Zimmerman; Lauren W. Cohen; Maartje. S. Klapwijk; Mirjam Bezemer; Wilco P. Achterberg; Dirk L. Knol; Miel W. Ribbe; Henrica C. W. de Vet
Research Findings Prior research with older urban children indicates that disadvantaged neighborhood context is associated with poorer early development, including poorer verbal ability, reading recognition, and achievement scores among children. Neighborhood disadvantage in rural communities and at younger age levels may also be related to development; however this relationship has received little examination. In this study we utilize data from the Family Life Project, a representative sample of babies born to mothers in poor rural counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, to address questions related to the relationship between neighborhood context (disadvantage and safety) and children’s early language development. We examine mediation of this relationship by child care quality. We also examine geographic isolation and collective socialization as moderators of the relationship between neighborhood context and child care quality. Results indicated that while neighborhood disadvantage did not predict children’s development or child care quality, neighborhood safety predicted children’s receptive language, with child care quality a partial mediator of this relationship. Collective socialization but not geographic isolation moderated the relationship between neighborhood safety and child care quality. Practice or Policy Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed, including improving community safety through community policing, neighborhood watch, and social networks and increasing access to quality child care. PMID:24817812
De Marco, Allison; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
The SERVQUAL scale has been widely used to measure service quality in the health care industry. This research is the first study that used SERVQUAL to assess U.S. medical tourists' expectations and perceptions of the service quality of health care facilities located outside the United States. Based on a sample of U.S. consumers, who had traveled abroad for medical care, the results indicated that there were significant differences between U.S. medical tourists' perceived level of service provided and their expectations of the service that should be provided for four of the five dimensions of service quality. Reliability had the largest service quality gap followed by assurance, tangibles, and empathy. Responsiveness was the only dimension without a significantly different gap score. The study establishes a foundation for future research on service quality in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry. PMID:21815742
Guiry, Michael; Vequist, David G
An influential series of papers have found that an increase in Medicaid reimbursement decreases the level of nursing home quality in the presence of certificate-of-need (CON) and construction moratorium regulations. Using more recent national data, an outcome-oriented measure of quality, and an alternative methodology, this study finds a positive, albeit small, effect of reimbursement on quality. Although this paper does
David C. Grabowski
Background: Outside the USA, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) prevention quality indicators (PQIs) have been used to compare the quality of primary care services only at a national or regional level. However, in several national health systems, primary care is not directly managed by the regions but is in charge of smaller territorial entities. We evaluated whether PQIs might be used to compare the performance of local providers such as Italian local health authorities (LHAs) and health districts. Methods: We analysed the hospital discharge abstracts of 44 LHAs (and 11 health districts) of five Italian regions (including ?18 million residents) in 2008–10. Age-standardized PQI rates were computed following AHRQ specifications. Potential predictors were investigated using multilevel modelling. Results: We analysed 11 470 722 hospitalizations. The overall rates of preventable hospitalizations (composite PQI 90) were 1012, 889 and 988 (×100 000 inhabitants) in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Composite PQIs were able to differentiate LHAs and health districts and showed small variation in the performance ranking over years. Conclusion: Although further research is required, our findings support the use of composite PQIs to evaluate the performance of relatively small primary health care providers (50 000–60 000 enrollees) in countries with universal health care coverage. Achieving high precision may be crucial for a structured quality assessment system to align hospitalization rate indicators with measures of other contexts of care (cost, clinical management, satisfaction/experience) that are typically computed at a local level. PMID:24367065
Flacco, Maria Elena; De Vito, Corrado; Arcà, Silvia; Carle, Flavia; Capasso, Lorenzo; Marzuillo, Carolina; Muraglia, Angelo; Samani, Fabio; Villari, Paolo
Background. Owing to the involvement of multiple professionals from various institutions, integrated care settings are prone to suboptimal patient care communication. To assure continuity, communication gaps should be identified for targeted improvement initiatives. However, available assessment methods are often one-sided evaluations not appropriate for integrated care settings. - \\u000aObjective. We developed an evaluation approach that takes into account the multiple
J. Gulmans; M. M. R. Vollenbroek-Hutten; Gemert-Pijnen van J. E. W. C; Harten van W. H
The promotion of quality and safety in health care faces many challenges and barriers including lack of cooperation by physicians. Complexity and uncertainty in measuring quality raise methodological difficulties. Lack of sufficient awareness about these limitations, also among those who measure quality, contributes to physicians lack of interest, suspicion and mistrust. Strategic issues associated with quality assessment in the Israeli health care system derive from lack of regulation and evasiveness about the accountability of executives and governing bodies regarding the quality of the services provided to patients in hospitals and clinics. Some of these challenges relate to the intrusion of market forces into the world of medicine without needed adaptations, so that reimbursement is often conveniently linked to the quantity of services and not to their quality. Efficiency, which characterizes competitive markets, is not easily translated in the clinical world where empathy, listening skills, and capability of explaining are critical physician attributes. This clinical world values giving beyond monetary compensation, and cooperation between institutions--rather than competition--all crucial for the continuity of patient's care. The interface between economics and health care calls for creative thinking, with a novel definition for the social value of medical and nursing care according to their quality and not their quantity. PMID:22519258
Brezis, Mayer; Cohen, Matan J; Frankel, Meir; Chinitz, David
A progress report on the primary health care quality assessment and improvement program in Chile is presented. In March 1991, the Quality Assurance Project (QAP) and the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health of Chile initiated a collaborative effort to improve the quality of primary health care services. During the first year of the project, significant progress has been made. Over 400 health professionals nationwide have received basic training in quality assurance, and over 30 quality improvement activities are underway. The project started by raising awareness among top-level managers. Next, reflecting the decentralized focus of Chile's health system, training and technical assistance were provided to managers and supervisors at the district level. Chilean health professionals trained by QAP are encouraged to meet with their clinic staffs to identify problems that affect the quality of their services, and determine the causes of these problems. While the project focuses on primary health care clinics in the public sector, QAP is also working with universities, professional associations, and nongovernmental organizations. Because of their expertise and influence in primary health care, these entities have been an integral part of the effort from the outset. Included in this paper are the three main components of the quality assurance (QA) effort in Chile: training, application of QA methods, and institutionalization. PMID:12295541
OBJECTIVE We investigated the quality of care and factors associated with variations in care among a national cohort of Medicaid enrollees with incident lupus nephritis. METHODS Using Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) files from 47 U.S. states and D.C. for 2000–2006, we identified a cohort of individuals with incident lupus nephritis. We assessed performance on three measures of health care quality: receipt of immunosuppressive, renal-protective anti-hypertensive, and anti-malarial medications. We examined performance on these measures over one year, and applied multivariable logistic regression models to understand whether sociodemographic, geographic or health care access factors were associated with higher performance on quality measures. RESULTS We identified 1711 Medicaid enrollees with incident lupus nephritis. Performance on quality measures was low at 90 days (21.9% for immunosuppressive therapy, 44.0% for renal protection and 36.4% for anti-malarials), but increased by one year (33.7%, 56.4%, and 45.8%, respectively). Younger individuals, Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to receive immunosuppressive therapy and hydroxychloroquine. Younger individuals were less likely to receive renal-protective anti-hypertensive medications. We found significant geographic variation in performance, with patients in the Northeast receiving higher quality of care compared to other regions. Poor access to health care, as assessed by having a greater number of treat-and-release emergency departments visits compared to ambulatory encounters, was associated with lower receipt of recommended treatment. CONCLUSION These nationwide data suggest low overall quality of care and potential delays in care for Medicaid enrollees with incident lupus nephritis. Significant regional differences also suggest room for quality improvement. PMID:24124011
Yazdany, Jinoos; Feldman, Candace H.; Liu, Jun; Ward, Michael M.; Fischer, Michael A.; Costenbader, Karen H.
issues in healthcare. 3) To understand the diverse perspectives that can be used to address quality and safety issues in different healthcare organizations. #12;Course Readings A packet of required readings The objectives of this course are: 1) To review the conceptualization and measurement of quality of healthcare
Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917
Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B.; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A.
OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ? 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days) for assistance, and waiting time (in hours) in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services.
Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Thumé, Elaine; Tomasi, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
Background Postnatal care is an important link in the continuum of care for maternal and child health. However, coverage and quality of postnatal care are poor in low- and middle-income countries. In 2009, the Chinese government set a policy providing free postnatal care services to all mothers and their newborns in China. Our study aimed at exploring coverage, quality of care, reasons for not receiving and barriers to providing postnatal care after introduction of this new policy. Methods We carried out a mixed method study in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China from July to August 2011. To quantify the coverage, quality of care and reasons for not using postnatal care, we conducted a household survey with 1601 caregivers of children younger than two years of age. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 township maternal and child healthcare workers to evaluate their views on workload, in-service training and barriers to postnatal home visits. Results Of 1442 (90% of surveyed caregivers) women who completed the postnatal care survey module, 8% received a timely postnatal home visit (within one week after delivery) and 24% of women received postnatal care within 42 days after delivery. Among women who received postnatal care, 37% received counseling or guidance on infant feeding and 32% on cord care. 24% of women reported that the service provider checked jaundice of their newborns and 18% were consulted on danger signs and thermal care of their newborns. Of 991 mothers who did not seek postnatal care within 42 days after birth, 65% of them said that they did not knew about postnatal care and 24% of them thought it was unnecessary. Qualitative findings revealed that staff shortages and inconvenient transportation limited maternal and child healthcare workers in reaching out to women at home. In addition, maternal and child healthcare workers said that in-service training was inadequate and more training on postnatal care, hands-on practice, and supervision were needed. Conclusions Coverage and quality of postnatal care were low in rural Hebei Province and far below the targets set by Chinese government. We identified barriers both from the supply and demand side. PMID:24438644
Background Decompensated cirrhosis is a common precipitant for hospitalization, and there is limited information concerning factors that influence the delivery of quality care in cirrhotic inpatients. We sought to determine the relation between physician specialty and inpatient quality care for decompensated cirrhosis. Design We reviewed 247 hospital admissions for decompensated cirrhosis, managed by hospitalists or intensivists, between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome was quality care delivery, defined as adherence to all evidence-based specialty society practice guidelines pertaining to each specific complication of cirrhosis. Secondary outcomes included new complications, length-of-stay, and in-hospital death. Results Overall, 147 admissions (59.5%) received quality care. Quality care was given more commonly by intensivists, compared with hospitalists (71.7% vs. 53.1%, P = .006), and specifically for gastrointestinal bleeding (72% vs. 45.8%, P = .03) and hepatic encephalopathy (100% vs. 63%, P = .005). Involvement of gastroenterology consultation was also more common in admissions in which quality care was administered (68.7% vs. 54.0%, P = .023). Timely diagnostic paracentesis was associated with reduced new complications in admissions for refractory ascites (9.5% vs. 46.6%, P = .02), and reduced length-of-stay in admissions for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (5 days vs. 13 days, P = .02). Conclusions Adherence to quality indicators for decompensated cirrhosis is suboptimal among hospitalized patients. Although quality care adherence appears to be higher among cirrhotic patients managed by intensivists than by hospitalists, opportunities for improvement exist in both groups. Rational and cost-effective strategies should be sought to achieve this end. PMID:25837700
Lim, Nicholas; Lidofsky, Steven D.
The physician quality reporting initiative (PQRI) is a voluntary program for reporting certain quality measures on Medicare patients in return for receiving a small bonus payment. However, the PQRI procedures are such that a large number of those who try to participate do not receive incentive payments. Also, many indicate that the small bonus for participation is not worth the effort and costs incurred. Furthermore, it has been found that many of the quality measures are not a good indicator of a favorable outcome, and do not clearly promote significant increases in the quality of patient care. However, penalties will be given from the year 2015 for not participating in PQRI. Also, it is expected that PQRI will be a precursor to Pay for Performance legislation, which will require mandatory participation by physicians. Therefore, participation in PQRI now is recommended by many experts, so that health care professionals can learn the procedures and make necessary adjustments in their practice procedures. PMID:21220973
Harolds, Jay A; Merrill, Janette K
This document is intended to introduce health occupations educators to the principles of the portable action lab and help them use those principles to create quality learning projects for students preparing for careers in health care. Section 1 outlines the concepts and frameworks of quality project-based learning, which is based on the following…
Alongi, Anthony; Arora, Sonia; Hogan, Christopher; Steinberg, Adria; Vickers, Margaret
The purpose of the study was to determine if nursing home patients' perception of nursing staff members were associated with quality of nursing home care. Three hospital professional staff members who were familiar with the homes in the study rated the LO homes on a 1 = excellent to 4 = poor quality. Patients (N = 239) admitted to the
Shayna Stein; Margaret W. Linn; Elliott M. Stein
This study examined the factors associated with childcare staff members' readiness to implement quality standards in early childhood settings in Ireland. To coincide with a new government policy that provides every three-year-old child with access to a free preschool year, a framework designed to improve the quality of early childhood care and…
Doyle, Orla; Logue, Caitriona; McNamara, Kelly A.
This article qualitatively explores women's experiences of choosing quality long day care in a regional community. The study complements recent quantitative research on the quality implications of increased for-profit childcare provision. It also adds to our understanding of current childcare policy by focusing on the experiences of women in a…
This study uses a nationally representative sample of nursing homes and nursing home residents to examine the effect of Medicaid reimbursement on quality of care. The analysis shows that both reimbursement approach and level affect nursing home quality, as measured by case-mix adjusted staff to resident ratios. The analysis also shows that staffing ratios have a significant impact on resident
Joel W. Cohen; William D. Spector
BACKGROUND: Participation by communities in improving the quality of health services has become a feature of government policy in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to involve a deprived community in the UK in shaping quality improvements of local primary care services. The specific objectives were firstly to create participation by local people in evaluating the primary
Peter G Cawston; Stewart W Mercer; Rosaline S Barbour
Purpose: This study investigated whether the use of restraining devices and related measures of care quality are different in nursing homes that score in the upper and lower quartiles on the Minimum Data Set (MDS) "prevalence of restraint" quality indicator, which assesses daily use of restraining devices when residents are out of bed. Design and…
Schnelle, John F.; Bates-Jensen, Barbara M.; Levy-Storms, Lene; Grbic, Valena; Yoshii, June; Cadogan, Mary; Simmons, Sandra F.
Explored 122 children's perceptions of their child care experiences in classrooms of varied quality. Found that children verbalized accurate understanding of procedures, events, and activities, but responses differed by classroom quality. Play was the favorite activity of all children in all classrooms. Mean behaviors, circle time, and nap time…
Wiltz, Nancy, W.; Klein, Elisa L.
In spite of the prevalence of neoplastic disorders as a cause of chronic illness, very few of the currently available generic measures of health-related quality of life or health status have been utilized with cancer patients. In this paper we reviewed our studies with the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES), a cancer-specific measure of rehabilitation needs and quality of life.
P. A. Ganz; C. A. C. Schag; J. J. Lee; M.-S. Sim
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This new publication…
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011
This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Trends, 2010
Although early care and education have gained some momentum in recent years, shortfalls in quality are still pervasive. This book defines the elements of a high-quality system and suggests strategies for improvement. Frontmatter includes a preface, editors' and contributors' biographies, and an introduction entitled "The Changing Context of…
Kagan, Sharon L., Ed.; Cohen, Nancy E., Ed.
Purpose: This study examined whether providing outcomes information to 120 nursing homes facilitated improvements in quality over a 12-month period, as compared with 1,171 facilities not receiving this information. The outcomes information provided consisted of a report mailed to administrators that examined six measures of care quality. These…
Castle, Nicholas G.
This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…
Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth
The relationship between financial performance and quality of care in nursing homes is not well defined and prior work has been mixed. The recent focus on improving the quality of nursing homes through market-based incentives such as public reporting may have changed this relationship, as public reporting provides nursing homes with increased incentives to engage in quality-based competition. If quality improvement activities require substantial production costs, nursing home profitability may become a more important predictor of quality under public reporting. This study explores the relationship between financial performance and quality of care and test whether this relationship changes under public reporting. Using a 10-year (fiscal years 1997-2006) panel data set of 9444 skilled nursing facilities in the US, this study employs a facility fixed-effects with and without instrumental variables approach to test the effect of finances on quality improvement and correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that better financial performance, as reflected by the 1-year lagged total profit margin, is modestly associated with higher quality but only after public reporting is initiated. These findings have important policy implications as federal and state governments use market-based incentives to increase demand for high-quality care and induce providers to compete based on quality. PMID:20578255
Park, Jeongyoung; Werner, Rachel M
The objective of this study was to critically review the empirical evidence from all relevant disciplines regarding obesity stigma in order to (i) determine the implications of obesity stigma for healthcare providers and their patients with obesity and (ii) identify strategies to improve care for patients with obesity. We conducted a search of Medline and PsychInfo for all peer-reviewed papers presenting original empirical data relevant to stigma, bias, discrimination, prejudice and medical care. We then performed a narrative review of the existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of obesity stigma and weight bias for healthcare quality and outcomes. Many healthcare providers hold strong negative attitudes and stereotypes about people with obesity. There is considerable evidence that such attitudes influence person-perceptions, judgment, interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. These attitudes may impact the care they provide. Experiences of or expectations for poor treatment may cause stress and avoidance of care, mistrust of doctors and poor adherence among patients with obesity. Stigma can reduce the quality of care for patients with obesity despite the best intentions of healthcare providers to provide high-quality care. There are several potential intervention strategies that may reduce the impact of obesity stigma on quality of care. PMID:25752756
Phelan, S M; Burgess, D J; Yeazel, M W; Hellerstedt, W L; Griffin, J M; van Ryn, M
Summary The objective of this study was to critically review the empirical evidence from all relevant disciplines regarding obesity stigma in order to (i) determine the implications of obesity stigma for healthcare providers and their patients with obesity and (ii) identify strategies to improve care for patients with obesity. We conducted a search of Medline and PsychInfo for all peer-reviewed papers presenting original empirical data relevant to stigma, bias, discrimination, prejudice and medical care. We then performed a narrative review of the existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of obesity stigma and weight bias for healthcare quality and outcomes. Many healthcare providers hold strong negative attitudes and stereotypes about people with obesity. There is considerable evidence that such attitudes influence person-perceptions, judgment, interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. These attitudes may impact the care they provide. Experiences of or expectations for poor treatment may cause stress and avoidance of care, mistrust of doctors and poor adherence among patients with obesity. Stigma can reduce the quality of care for patients with obesity despite the best intentions of healthcare providers to provide high-quality care. There are several potential intervention strategies that may reduce the impact of obesity stigma on quality of care. PMID:25752756
Phelan, S. M.; Burgess, D. J.; Yeazel, M. W.; Hellerstedt, W. L.; Griffin, J. M.; van Ryn, M.
The current state of health care and its reform will require physician leaders to take on greater management responsibilities, which will require a set of organizational and leadership competencies that traditional medical education does not provide. Physician leaders can form a bridge between the clinical and administrative sides of a health-care organization, serving to further the organization's strategy for growth and success. Recognizing that the health-care industry is rapidly changing and physician leaders will play a key role in that transformation, Hartford HealthCare has established a Physician Leadership Development Institute that provides advanced leadership skills and management education to select physicians practicing within the health-care system. PMID:23248866
Orlando, Rocco; Haytaian, Marcia
Background When the number of patients requiring hospital admission exceeds the number of available department-allotted beds, patients are often placed on a different specialty's inpatient ward, a practice known as “bedspacing”. Whether bedspacing affects quality of patient care has not been previously studied. Methods We reviewed consecutive general internal medicine (GIM) admissions for congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Canada, from 2007 to 2011 and examined whether quality of care differs between bedspaced and nonbedspaced patients. We matched each bedspaced patient with a GIM ward patient admitted on the same call shift with the same diagnosis. The primary outcome was the ratio of the actual to the estimated length of stay (ELOS). General and disease specific measures for CHF, COPD, and pneumonia (e.g. fluid restriction) were evaluated, as well as 30-day Emergency Department (ED) and hospital readmissions. Results Overall, 1639 consecutive admissions were reviewed, and 39 matched pairs for CHF, COPD and pneumonia were studied. Differences in both general and disease specific care measures were not detected between groups. For many disease-specific comparisons, ordering and adherence to quality of care indicators was low in both groups. Conclusions We were unable to detect differences in quality of care between bedspaced and nonbedspaced patients. As high patient volumes and hospital overcrowding remains, bedspacing will likely continue. More research is required in order to determine if quality of care is compromised by this ongoing practice. PMID:25184480
Liu, Jessica; Griesman, Joshua; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bell, Chaim M.
Incentives to improve the quality of care provided in Medicaid managed care plans are increasingly common and take many forms. One is a pay-for-performance program that automatically assigns new enrollees to better-performing Medicaid plans in California. Our qualitative and quantitative study of this program examined the expected and actual impacts of the performance incentive on all areas of care. We compared quality outcomes in plans included in the pay-for-performance, "auto-assignment" incentive and comparable outcomes in plans that were not included. We found that quality did not improve significantly faster in plans included in the incentive scheme. Combined with some evidence of negative impact on other areas of care, the findings raise questions about the usefulness of this program in California Medicaid, and about similar programs in other states. PMID:20679655
Guthrie, Bruce; Auerback, Glenna; Bindman, Andrew B
Objective To examine the effects of race/ethnicity, language, and potential access on parents' reports of pediatric primary care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary survey data were collected (67 percent response rate) from 3,406 parents of students in kindergarten through sixth grade in a large urban school district in California during the 1999–2000 school year. Data Collection The data were collected by mail, telephone, and in person. Surveys were administered in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Tagalog. Study Design Data were analyzed using multiple regression models. The dependent variable was parents' reports of primary care quality, assessed via the previously validated Parents' Perceptions of Primary Care measure (P3C). The independent variables were race/ethnicity, language, and potential access to care (insurance status, presence of a regular provider of care), controlling for child age, gender, and chronic health condition status, and mother's education. Principal Findings Parents' reports of primary care quality varied according to race/ethnicity, with Asian and Latino parents reporting lower P3C scores than African Americans and whites. In multivariate analyses, both language and potential access exerted strong independent effects on primary care quality, reducing the effect of race/ethnicity such that the coefficient for Latinos was no longer significant, and the coefficient for Asians was much smaller, though still statistically significant. Conclusions To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in primary care, attention should be paid both to policies aimed at improving potential access and to providing linguistically appropriate services. PMID:12968814
Seid, Michael; Stevens, Gregory D; Varni, James W
Introduction Elderly people aged over 75 years with multifaceted care needs are often in need of hospital treatment. Transfer across care levels for this patient group increases the risk of adverse events. The aim of this paper is to establish knowledge of quality in transitional care of the elderly in two Norwegian hospital regions by identifying issues affecting the quality of transitional care and based on these issues suggest improvement measures. Methodology Included in the study were elderly patients (75+) receiving health care in the municipality admitted to hospital emergency department or discharged to community health care with hip fracture or with a general medical diagnosis. Participant observations of admission and discharge transitions (n = 41) were carried out by two researchers. Results Six main challenges with belonging descriptions have been identified: (1) next of kin (bridging providers, advocacy, support, information brokering), (2) patient characteristics (level of satisfaction, level of insecurity, complex clinical conditions), (3) health care personnel's competence (professional, system, awareness of others’ roles), (4) information exchange (oral, written, electronic), (5) context (stability, variability, change incentives, number of patient handovers) and (6) patient assessment (complex clinical picture, patient description, clinical assessment). Conclusion Related to the six main challenges, several measures have been suggested to improve quality in transitional care, e.g. information to and involvement of patients and next of kin, staff training, standardisation of routines and inter-organisational staff meetings. PMID:24868196
Storm, Marianne; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.; Laugaland, Kristin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn Nåden; Aase, Karina
Many clinicians remain unsure of the relevance of measuring quality of life to their clinical practice. In health economics quality of life measures have become the standard means of assessing the results of health care interventions and, more controversially, the means of prioritising funding; but they have many other applications. This article--the first of three on measuring quality of life--reviews the instruments available and their application in screening programmes, audit, health care research, and clinical trials. Using the appropriate instrument is essential if outcome measures are to be valid and clinically meaningful. Images p1076-a PMID:1467690
Fitzpatrick, R.; Fletcher, A.; Gore, S.; Jones, D.; Spiegelhalter, D.; Cox, D.
The literature on the level of quality of care delivered by foreign medical graduates (FMGs) has been reviewed in order to derive policy recommendations concerning their use in the United States. This review revealed a paucity in information on direct measures of the level of quality of care provided by FMGs. Differences between U.S. medical graduates (USMGs) and FMGs, especially with regard to the less than fully licensed FMGs and those FMGs at the start of graduate training, were found on examining proxy measures of quality, such as achievement of standard professional credentials or the quality of clinical training. Given this lack of evidence as to differences in performance between FMGs and USMGs, it is difficult to formulate recommendations, but four are advanced. These include (1) acknowledgment of the crucial significance of their heterogeneity, especially in regard to the quality of care provided, (2) assurance of the principle that peer-review activities are administered even-handedly to FMGs and USMGs alike, (3) improvement of the medical care capabilities of the less able provider, and (4) performance of quality of care studies, in both hospital and office practice settings, which compare FMGs with USMGs, not to ideal standards. PMID:1044425
Williams, K N; Brook, R H
The purpose of this study was to describe Japanese hospital nurses' perceptions of the nursing practice environment and examine its association with nurse-reported ability to provide quality nursing care, quality of patient care, and ward morale. A cross-sectional survey design was used including 223 nurses working in 12 acute inpatient wards in a large Japanese teaching hospital. Nurses rated their work environment favorably overall using the Japanese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Subscale scores indicated high perceptions of physician relations and quality of nursing management, but lower scores for staffing and resources. Ward nurse managers generally rated the practice environment more positively than staff nurses except for staffing and resources. Regression analyses found the practice environment was a significant predictor of quality of patient care and ward morale, whereas perceived ability to provide quality nursing care was most strongly associated with years of clinical experience. These findings support interventions to improve the nursing practice environment, particularly staffing and resource adequacy, to enhance quality of care and ward morale in Japan. PMID:23855754
Anzai, Eriko; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann
Background Total quality management (TQM) has a great potential to address quality problems in a wide range of industries and improve the organizational performance. The growing need to take initiatives by hospitals in countries like India and Iran to improve the service quality and reduce wastage of resources has inspired the authors to develop a survey instrument to measure health care quality and performance in the two countries. Methods Based on the Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals in pursuit of excellence, compared health care services in three countries. The data are collected from the capital cities and their nearby places in India and Iran. Using ANOVAs, three groups in quality planning and performance have been compared. Result Results showed there is significantly difference between groups and in no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks. The average scores of Indian and Iranian hospitals on different constructs of the IHCQPM model are compared with the major results achieved by the recipients of the MBNQ award. Conclusion In no case the hospitals from India and Iran are found scoring close to the benchmarks (Baldrige health care criteria for performance excellence 2009-2010 and the guidelines proposed by the American Hospitals Association for hospitals). These results suggested to health care services more attempt to achieve high quality in management and performance. PMID:22204664
Increasingly, financial incentives are being used in health care as a result of increasing demand for health care coupled with fiscal pressures. Financial incentive schemes are one approach by which the system may incentivize providers of health care to improve productivity and/or adapt to better quality provision. Pay for performance (P4P) is an example of a financial incentive which seeks to link providers’ payments to some measure of performance. This paper provides a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of P4P, gives an overview of the health P4P evidence base, and provide a detailed case study of a particularly large scheme from the English National Health Service. Lessons are then drawn from the evidence base. Overall, we find that the evidence for the effectiveness of P4P for improving quality of care in primary care is mixed. This is to some extent due to the fact that the P4P schemes used in primary care are also mixed. There are many different schemes that incentivize different aspects of care in different ways and in different settings, making evaluation problematic. The Quality and Outcomes Framework in the United Kingdom is the largest example of P4P in primary care. Evidence suggests incentivized quality initially improved following the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework, but this was short-lived. If P4P in primary care is to have a long-term future, the question about scheme effectiveness (perhaps incorporating the identification and assessment of potential risk factors) needs to be answered robustly. This would require that new schemes be designed from the onset to support their evaluation: control and treatment groups, coupled with before and after data. PMID:25061341
Allen, T; Mason, T; Whittaker, W
Providing appropriate treatment for detoxification patients is both challenging and difficult because alcohol abuse and dependence are largely underestimated in the acute hospital setting. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is treated not only by addictionologists on chemical dependency units, but also by primary care physicians in acute inpatient settings. The need for consistent inpatient treatment through the use of identified protocols can help provide safe and effective care. The need for consistent, inpatient medical-surgical detoxification treatment in our organization became apparent with the staff's identification of patient care concerns. Using an organizational approach, a multidisciplinary team was created to standardize the care of detoxification patients, beginning with patient admission and ending with discharge and referral for outpatient management. Standardization would ensure consistent assessment and intervention, and improve communication among the clinical team members. A protocol was developed for both the emergency department and the inpatient units. The goals of the team were to decrease the adverse events related to detoxification, such as seizures and aggression, and provide a consistent method of treatment for staff to follow. PMID:16583874
Becker, Kathy; Semrow, Sue
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has become a policy priority in many countries. A growing body of research recognises that it provides a wide range of benefits, including social and economic benefits, better child well-being and learning outcomes as a foundation for lifelong learning, more equitable outcomes and reduction of poverty, and…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Longitudinal study related characteristics of 214 sheltered-care facilities for mentally ill population, their residents, and communities to subsequent licensure and considered differences between licensed and unlicensed facilities at follow-up. Results indicated that, although licensure occurred with greater frequency among facilities serving…
Segal, Steven P.; Hwang, Sung-Dong
Nursing home patients suffering from dementia had a desire for placement in a setting where their special needs could be addressed. This resulted in the creation of special nursing home units designed to meet patient needs. Recent reports have provided evidence that nursing home residents suffering from dementia who receive care on these special…
Salamon, Michael J.
Recent healthcare reform efforts in Mexico have focused on the need to improve the efficiency and equity of a fragmented healthcare system. In light of these reform initiatives, there is a need to assess whether healthcare subsystems are effective at providing high-quality healthcare to all Mexicans. Nationally representative household survey data from the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (National Health and Nutrition Survey) were used to assess perceived healthcare quality across different subsystems. Using a sample of 7234 survey respondents, we found evidence of substantial heterogeneity in healthcare quality assessments across healthcare subsystems favoring private providers over social security institutions. These differences across subsystems remained even after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and health factors. Our analysis suggests that improvements in efficiency and equity can be achieved by assessing the factors that contribute to heterogeneity in quality across subsystems. PMID:19305224
Puig, Andrea; Pagán, José A.; Wong, Rebeca
The American Society of Clinical Oncology's Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) is an oncologist-led, practice-based quality improvement initiative. Its goal is to promote excellence in cancer care by helping practices create a culture of self-examination and improvement. QOPI includes a set of quality measures, a specified chart selection strategy, a secure system for data entry, automated data analysis and reporting, and a network of resources for improvement. Currently, more than 250 oncology practices are registered for QOPI.
Background Stroke can result in death and long-term disability. Fast and high-quality care can reduce the impact of stroke, but UK national audit data has demonstrated variability in compliance with recommended processes of care. Though quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) are widely used, whether a QIC could improve reliability of stroke care was unknown. Methods Twenty-four NHS hospitals in the Northwest of England were randomly allocated to participate either in Stroke 90:10, a QIC based on the Breakthrough Series (BTS) model, or to a control group giving normal care. The QIC focused on nine processes of quality care for stroke already used in the national stroke audit. The nine processes were grouped into two distinct care bundles: one relating to early hours care and one relating to rehabilitation following stroke. Using an interrupted time series design and difference-in-difference analysis, we aimed to determine whether hospitals participating in the QIC improved more than the control group on bundle compliance. Results Data were available from nine interventions (3,533 patients) and nine control hospitals (3,059 patients). Hospitals in the QIC showed a modest improvement from baseline in the odds of average compliance equivalent to a relative improvement of 10.9% (95% CI 1.3%, 20.6%) in the Early Hours Bundle and 11.2% (95% CI 1.4%, 21.5%) in the Rehabilitation Bundle. Secondary analysis suggested that some specific processes were more sensitive to an intervention effect. Conclusions Some aspects of stroke care improved during the QIC, but the effects of the QIC were modest and further improvement is needed. The extent to which a BTS QIC can improve quality of stroke care remains uncertain. Some aspects of care may respond better to collaboratives than others. Trial registration ISRCTN13893902. PMID:24690267
This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…
Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon
Despite progress in recent years, an estimated 273,500 women died as a result of maternal causes in 2010. The burden of these deaths is disproportionately bourne by women who reside in low income countries or belong to the poorest sectors of the population of middle or high income ones, and it is particularly acute in regions where access to and utilization of facility-based services for childbirth and newborn care is lowest. Evidence has shown that poor quality of facility-based care for these women and newborns is one of the major contributing factors for their elevated rates of morbidity and mortality. In addition, women who perceive the quality of facilty-based care to be poor,may choose to avoid facility-based deliveries, where life-saving interventions could be availble. In this context, understanding the underlying factors that impact the quality of facility-based services and assessing the effectiveness of interventions to improve the quality of care represent critical inputs for the improvement of maternal and newborn health. This series of five papers assesses and summarizes information from relevant systematic reviews on the impact of various approaches to improve the quality of care for women and newborns. The first paper outlines the conceptual framework that guided this study and the methodology used for selecting the reviews and for the analysis. The results are described in the following three papers, which highlight the evidence of interventions to improve the quality of maternal and newborn care at the community, district, and facility level. In the fifth and final paper of the series, the overall findings of the review are discussed, research gaps are identified, and recommendations proposed to impove the quality of maternal and newborn health care in resource-poor settings. PMID:25209614
Director of nursing turnover is linked to staff turnover and poor quality of care in nursing homes; however the mechanisms of these relationships are unknown. Using a complexity science framework, we examined how nurse management turnover impacts system capacity to produce high quality care. This study is a longitudinal case analysis of a nursing home (n = 97 staff) with 400% director of nursing turnover during the study time period. Data included 100 interviews, observations and documents collected over 9 months and were analyzed using immersion and content analysis. Turnover events at all staff levels were nonlinear, socially mediated and contributed to dramatic care deficits. Federal mandated, quality assurance mechanisms failed to ensure resident safety. High multilevel turnover should be elevated to a sentinel event for regulators. Suggestions to magnify positive emergence in extreme conditions and to improve quality are provided. PMID:24652943
Hunt, Selina R.; Corazzini, Kirsten; Anderson, Ruth A.
The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of cancer care in Spain through patient's views, experiences and perceptions; with the purpose of making recommendations to improve cancer care. A modified citizen's jury was organised with the participation of 30 members and four experts as witnesses. For 1 day jurors representing 13 of 17 Spanish Autonomous Communities were met to make recommendations for improving the quality of cancer care in Spain. Concerns were identified regarding care fragmentation, test delays, duplications and poor social and emotional support. Some recommendations highlighted the need to improve the access to psycho-oncology care as well as support in social care and counselling, addressing patients to specific care. Some strategies proposed by the jury included a 24-h call centre, continuity in palliative care and appropriate follow-up and support after the end of therapy. In conclusion, the experience of cancer should include access to multiple specialists, effective coordination of care, accurate information about the disease and treatment options, and timely attention to symptoms and psychosocial needs. PMID:24841164
Arrighi, E; Blancafort, S; Jovell, A J; Navarro Rubio, M D
Background In Senegal, traditional supervision often focuses more on collection of service statistics than on evaluation of service quality. This approach yields limited information on quality of care and does little to improve providers' competence. In response to this challenge, Management Sciences for Health (MSH) has implemented a program of formative supervision. This multifaceted, problem-solving approach collects data on quality of care, improves technical competence, and engages the community in improving reproductive health care. Methods This study evaluated changes in service quality and community involvement after two rounds of supervision in 45 health facilities in four districts of Senegal. We used checklists to assess quality in four areas of service delivery: infrastructure, staff and services management, record-keeping, and technical competence. We also measured community involvement in improving service quality using the completion rates of action plans. Results The most notable improvement across regions was in infection prevention. Management of staff, services, and logistics also consistently improved across the four districts. Record-keeping skills showed variable but lower improvement by region. The completion rates of action plans suggest that communities are engaged in improving service quality in all four districts. Conclusion Formative supervision can improve the quality of reproductive health services, especially in areas where there is on-site skill building and refresher training. This approach can also mobilize communities to participate in improving service quality. PMID:18047678
Suh, Siri; Moreira, Philippe; Ly, Moussa
Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services ‘for’ the carer or ‘for’ care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved. PMID:24330095
Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at risk for having higher stress and lower marital quality than other parents. Survey data regarding respite care, marital quality, and daily hassles and uplifts were obtained from 101 mother-father dyads who were together raising at least one child with ASD (total # of children = 118). Number of hours of respite care was positively related to improved marital quality for both husbands and wives, such that a 1-h increase in weekly respite care was associated with a one-half standard deviation increase in marital quality. This relationship was significantly mediated by perceived daily stresses and uplifts in both husbands and wives. More respite care was associated with incr