"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that some communities are managing to establish and sustain good-quality infant-toddler care and to make it accessible…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This paper aims to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Everything else the same, high quality infant-toddler care will increase children's cognitive scores immediately (i.e. at 24 months of age). However, without subsequent high quality preschool, children with high quality infant-toddler care will not have higher cognitive and…
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Dang, Tran T.
Research Findings: This study evaluated the effectiveness of 2 professional development interventions aimed at improving the quality of care provided by caregivers in ordinary infant-toddler child care settings, both center- and home-based. In all, 183 participants in a community college course on infant-toddler theory and practice, an in-service…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Green, Sheridan; Koehn, Jo
by establishing an Infant/Toddler AS/AA Dual Degree track at Miami Dade College and offering these courses's Forum, and the FSU Center for Prevention & Early Intervention Policy. Create an Infant/Toddler AS/AA/Toddler AS/AA Track at MDC b Miami-Dade staff worked tirelessly to institutionalize the Infant/Toddler AS/AA
McQuade, D. Tyler
Research Findings: The teacher-child relationships that develop in infant/toddler child care provide a critical caregiving context for young children's socioemotional development. However, gaps remain in researchers' understanding of the individual-level processes that facilitate socioemotional development, specifically in center-based…
Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Barnett, Melissa A.
Changes in distress and problem behaviors of 38 infants/toddlers were examined after children transitioned from familiar to new classrooms to look at effects of non-continuity of caregiver. Child's age, classroom quality, teacher sensitivity, and transitioning with a peer were examined as possible mediators. Results suggest that transitions were…
Cryer, Debby; Wagner-Moore, Laura; Burchinal, Margaret; Yazejian, Noreen; Hurwitz, Sarah; Wolery, Mark
Analyzed sleep-wake schedules and nap times in multiage infant-toddler groups through three case studies in Finnish day care centers. Found complex interactions among family daily patterns, day care patterns, and young children's sleep disturbances. Identified major differences in day care practices regarding sleep quality related to timing,…
Siren-Tiusanen, Helena; Robinson, Helja Antola
Little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of training strategies for child care providers. The current study used an experimental intent-to-treat design to measure the impact of an established intervention, the on-site caregiver training component of the Program for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC), on child development and child care…
Weinstock, Phyllis; Bos, Johannes; Tseng, Fannie; Rosenthal, Emily; Ortiz, Lorena; Dowsett, Chantelle; Huston, Aletha; Bentley, Alison
The author summarizes trends in infant-toddler child care before 1960 and describes how interdisciplinary meetings on early development at the Mental Health Study Center of the National Institute of Mental Health in the 1970s led to the founding of The National Center for Clinical Infant Programs (now ZERO TO THREE) in 1977. Periodic legislative…
Lally, J. Ronald
The Georgia Parent Infant Network for Educational Services (PINES) is a home intervention program currently serving over 300 hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired (MHSI) preschoolers. The infant-toddler evaluation component is described, with sections on screening and diagnosis, parent education concerning…
Funderburg, Ruth Seth; Forney, Paula
This book describes Italian experiences in providing early care and education, focusing on four cities--Milan, Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Pistoia--with outstanding city-run systems designed to serve children under 3 and their families. The book considers specific strategies or practices used, and interprets the significance of the Italian…
Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope, Ed.
Age-appropriate activities for children and curriculum guidelines for mothers operating family day care homes for infants and toddlers were developed with the goal of improving the quality of day care programming. Curriculum goals were to (1) facilitate children's achievement of self-identity and self-esteem; (2) provide an outlet for creative…
While much research exists looking at parental preferences for child care, much of that research uses child care choice as a proxy for preference. In an effort to examine the types of care mothers prefer if no constraints were placed on their decision, this quantitative study investigated how family demographic factors and family role ideology relate to the types of
Katherine Kensinger Rose; James Elicker
ZERO TO THREE's 2009 parent survey, "Parenting Infants and Toddlers Today," revealed that 25% of all parents surveyed had experienced child care-related hardships as a result of the recent economic downturn. The result is a significant number of children who are experiencing changes in their child care arrangements. Transitions into, and out of,…
Parlakian, Rebecca; Adams, Emily
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Responding to family needs in the wake of September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, this issue focuses on infants, toddlers, and terror. Articles…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales were used…
Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.
This paper reports on the design, methodology, and results of a study of quality in 326 classrooms in 239 Canadian child care centers. This study, the largest and most extensive ever undertaken in Canada, used the Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS) to rate the adult-child interactions in the classrooms and the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating…
Goelman, Hillel; Forer, Barry; Kershaw, Paul; Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna; LaGrange, Annette
541.346.0738 Parents and caregivers of infants/toddlers who have an older sibling with autism the development of young children who may be at risk for autism. Research study: eirb #000958 Research Study Have a Child with Autism? with a younger sibling 6 months to 18 months old? Call for Information
Two members of the U.S. Congress share their visions for infants, toddlers, and families. Senator Christopher Dodd (D-CT), Ranking Member of the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, advocates shifting priorities and resources toward young children and families and…
Dodd, Christopher J.; Castle, Michael N.
The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…
Casby, Michael W.
The purpose of this guide is to present some of the tools used by the teachers of the Brookline Early Education Project in preparing teaching sessions with parents. The material is used during the Infant-Toddler phase of the BEEP program. It is relevant to families with babies between birth and two years of age. During this period, services of the…
Yurchak, Mary-Jane H.; And Others
Comprehensive, integrated services for infants, toddlers, and families are essential for optimal child development, and collaboration across systems is increasingly important to maximize limited resources. The authors describe three successful initiatives in Oklahoma that use a collaborative systems approach to providing direct services to young…
Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.
Many very young children attend early care and education programs, but current information about the quality of center-based care for toddlers is scarce. Using 2 observation instruments, the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) and the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Toddler Version (CLASS-Toddler), 93 child care…
La Paro, Karen M.; Williamson, Amy C.; Hatfield, Bridget
This paper reviews major research dealing with the effects of infant/toddler day care on the behavior and development of infants, with special emphasis on useful research implications for those concerned with providing high quality group care for infants outside the home. A brief examination of major analytic issues dealing with the problem of…
Ricciuti, Henry N.
This study documents the reliability and validity of a new infant-toddler authentic assessment, the Learning Through Relating Child Assets Record (LTR-CAR), and its feasibility of use by infant-toddler caregivers in an Early Head Start program. In a sample of 136 children, results indicated a strong internal structure of the LTR-CAR as evidenced…
Moreno, Amanda J.; Klute, Mary M.
In this paper the refinement and psychometric properties of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) are described. Results from a sociodemographically diverse birth cohort sample of 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 12 and 36 months are presented. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized Internalizing, Externalizing, Regulatory, and Competence do- mains as well as the 17 individual
Alice S. Carter; Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Stephanie M. Jones; Todd D. Little
In this paper the refinement and psychometric properties of the Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) are described. Results from a sociodemographically diverse birth cohort sample of 1,235 parents of children between the ages of 12 and 36 months are presented. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesized Internalizing, Externalizing, Regulatory, and Competence domains as well as the 17 individual scales
Alice S. Carter; Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Stephanie M. Jones; Todd D. Little
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare diagnoses of patients from a special outpatient department for infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Specifically, overlap, age and gender differences according to the two classification systems DC: 0-3R and ICD-10 were examined. 299 consecutive children aged 0-5;11 years received both ICD-10 and…
Equit, Monika; Paulus, Frank; Fuhrmann, Pia; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander
Objective Using parent-completed questionnaires in (preventive) child health care can facilitate the early detection of psychosocial problems and psychopathology, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A promising questionnaire for this purpose is the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). The screening accuracy with regard to ASD of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scales and a newly calculated Autism score were evaluated. Method Data, that was collected between April 2010 and April 2011, from a community sample of 2-year-olds (N?=?3127), was combined with a sample of preschool children diagnosed with ASD (N?=?159). For the total population and for subgroups by child's gender, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was examined, and across a range of BITSEA Problem, Competence and Autism scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index were reported. Results The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) of the Problem scale was 0.90(0.87–0.92), of the Competence scale 0.93(0.91–0.95), and of the Autism score 0.95(0.93–0.97). For the total population, the screening accuracy of the Autism score was significantly better, compared to the Problem scale. The screening accuracy of the Competence scale was significantly better for girls (AUC?=?0.97; 95%CI?=?0.95–0.98) than for boys (AUC?=?0.91; 95%CI?=?0.88–0.94). Conclusion The results indicate that the BITSEA scales and newly calculated Autism score have good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without ASD. Therefore, the BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of ASD, which could have beneficial effects on the child's development. PMID:24851868
Kruizinga, Ingrid; Visser, Janne C.; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Carter, Alice S.; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein
This article reviews eight resources for working with infants, toddlers, and young children who are blind or visually impaired. Resources include a guide on early intervention with young children with multiple disabilities, a manual on developmental guidelines for infants with visual impairments, a video on early concept development, and Web…
Hatton, Deborah; Catlett, Camille; Winton, Pamela J.; Mitchell, Anna
The SKI-HI program, which provides home-based family support services for infants, toddlers, and preschool children who are deaf or hard of hearing, has been implemented by approximately 250 agencies and annually serves about 4,000 families. Information is provided on the program's rationale, development, family-centered home-based services,…
Glover, Barbara; And Others
Early identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is facilitated by the use of standardized screening scales that assess the social emotional behaviors associated with ASD. Authors examined accuracy of Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) subscales in detecting Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) risk…
Gardner, Lauren M.; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Tylavsky, Frances; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn
Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…
Honig, Alice Sterling
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines quality of care as "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." In 1999, the IOM issued Ensuring Quality Cancer Care, a report that documented significant gaps in the quality of cancer care in the United States.
Comprehensive Training of Personnel and Technical Assistance in Establishment of Home Intervention Program for Families of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Aged Children with Hearing Impairment. Final Report.
This final report describes activities and accomplishments of an outreach project of Project SKI-HI, a family-centered, home intervention model designed to provide training to early intervention professionals serving infants, toddlers, and preschoolers with hearing impairments. In the project, an early intervention professional or a parent advisor…
Barringer, Don; Johnson, Dorothy
This anthology contains 19 articles selected from the "Zero To Three Bulletin" from 1984 through the spring of 1992 and organized into five sections. The section on relationships in infant/toddler child care includes: "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations, and Relationships," by J. H. Pawl; and "Choosing Child Care for…
Provence, Sally, Ed.; And Others
Child care quality is not a single dimension, but rather a multidimensional characteristic of programs that support the family in its child-rearing role and programs in which children thrive developmentally, socially, cognitively, physically, and emotionally. At the regulatory and accreditation level, approaches to quality focus on group size,…
Maintains that infants and toddlers, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to a variety of infectious diseases from infant-toddler child care centers. These diseases include infectious diarrhea; rubella; cytomeglovirus; hepatitis A, and haemophilus influenza type B. Suggests ways to prevent the spread of such diseases. (BB)
Kendall, Earline D.; Moukaddem, Virginia E.
Work is underway to make cancer a working model for quality of care research and the translation of this research into practice. This requires addressing how data collection about cancer care can be standardized and made most useful to a variety of audiences including providers, patients and their families, purchasers, payers, researchers, and policymakers. The Applied Research Program has spearheaded several key activities to carry out this initiative.
This document is comprised of the six 1999 issues of a bimonthly newsletter providing information on young children's health and safety for California's child care professionals. Regular features include a column on infant/toddler concerns, a question-answer column regarding medical and health issues, a nutrition column, and resources for child…
Walery, Nancy, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.
This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in mak- ing child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child
Suzanne W. Helburn; Carollee Howes
The importance of early developmental and behavioral treatment for children with autism is increasingly recognized. Little is known, however, about early intervention policies that may affect service delivery to these children. The current study describes states’ policies for providing early intervention services to children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part C and examines how Part C policies are associated with the proportion of school-age children diagnosed with autism served under IDEA. Results indicate few consistencies among states in policies and practices regarding the identification and care of infants and toddlers with autism. The implications of state variation for policy makers are discussed. PMID:16758329
Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.
By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…
Honig, Alice Sterling
In FY 2009, the Children's Bureau funded the Center for the Study of Social Policy, in partnership with ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, and the National Alliance of Children's Trust and Prevention Funds, to create a National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood (QIC-EC) focused on child maltreatment…
Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2009
This brief summarizes a study conducted by researchers at the RAND Corporation that measured the quality of health care for randomly selected adults from 12 communities across the United States. Because the researchers used 439 quality indicators to evaluate health care performance in 30 clinical areas, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, and related preventive care, the size and comprehensiveness of this study is particularly noteworthy. The findings reveal comparable deficits in adherence to standard care processes by both inpatient and outpatient providers within the 12 chosen communities. Overall, study participants received only half of the care consistent with evidence-based knowledge. Thus, study results provide systematic evidence detailing the gaps between the science and the practice of health care delivery throughout the country. PMID:15875428
Home care quality assurance (QA) must consider features inherent in home care, including: multiple goals, limited provider control, and unique family roles. Successive panels of stakeholders were asked to rate the importance of selected home care outcomes. Most highly rated outcomes were freedom from exploitation, satisfaction with care, physical safety, affordability, and physical functioning. Panelists preferred outcome indicators to process and structure, and all groups emphasized “enabling” criteria. Themes highlighted included: interpersonal components of care; normalizing life for clientele; balancing quality of life with safety; developing flexible, negotiated care plans; mechanisms for accountability and case management. These themes were formulated differently according to the stakeholders' role. Providers preferred intermediate outcomes, akin to process. PMID:10140158
Kane, Rosalie A.; Kane, Robert L.; Illston, Laurel H.; Eustis, Nancy N.
The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) model is a comprehensive developmental approach to help adults understand their role in child development by enhancing the quality of adult-child interactions. This article describes how the Irving B. Harris Program for Infants, Toddlers and Their Families at Bar-Ilan University…
Shohet, Cilly; Jaegermann, Nurit
This paper examines child care quality and the effects of in-home and out-of-home child care on children's quality of life, focusing on the results of a 1992 study of child care in northern and central Italy. The study surveyed the parents of 2,158 toddlers cared for exclusively in the home and 2,346 toddlers attending public day care centers. It…
As the primary providers of round-the-clock bedside care, nurses are well positioned to report on hospital quality of care. Researchers have not examined how nurses’ reports of quality correspond with standard process or outcomes measures of quality. We assess the validity of evaluating hospital quality by aggregating hospital nurses’ responses to a single item that asks them to report on quality of care. We found that a 10% increment in the proportion of nurses reporting excellent quality of care was associated with lower odds of mortality and failure to rescue; greater patient satisfaction; and higher composite process of care scores for acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and surgical patients. Nurse reported quality of care is a useful indicator of hospital performance. PMID:22911102
McHugh, Matthew D.; Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski
These four quarterly newsletter issues address various topics of interest to child caregivers. Each issue includes articles on a specific theme, along with regular news or a column by an AECI Executive Board vice president. The Fall 2000 issue focuses on the special features and unique concerns of employer-sponsored child care, with one article…
Barry, Virginia M., Ed.; Cantor, Patricia, Ed.
Everyone brings specific values, beliefs, and assumptions about child rearing and child development to their work with infants and toddlers. Even two teachers who share the same ethnic culture may not share the same beliefs about what is best for young children. Conflicts around these issues can arise with colleagues and families in early care and…
Im, Janice; Parlakian, Rebecca; Sanchez, Sylvia
This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…
Child Trends, 2010
The issue of quality of care involves many different components, including what cancer care quality looks like, which patients are more likely to receive poor quality care, and ways to measure healthcare quality.
The purpose of these efforts, substantially supported by the Applied Research Program, is to enhance the state of the science on the quality of cancer care and inform federal and private-sector decision making on care delivery, coverage, regulation, and standard setting. Work is underway to make cancer a working model for quality of care research and the translation of this research into practice.
The increasing costs and complexity of technologic advances in diagnosis and treatment have been accompanied by other important issues. They are often moral or ethical in nature; they include the public's desire and determination to have access to these "high-tech" advances; and the quality and equity with which those advances are apportioned and applied must be addressed. Seven criteria that can be applied to technology assessment are identified as is a process for that assessment. Together, these procedures can provide valuable information and assistance to those who make decisions about health benefits coverage--both in the public and the private sectors. PMID:2980910
Schaffarzick, R W
Palliative medicine must prioritize the routine assessment of the quality of clinical care we provide. This includes regular assessment, analysis, and reporting of data on quality. Assessment of quality informs opportunities for improvement and demonstrates to our peers and ourselves the value of our efforts. In fact, continuous messaging of the value of palliative care services is needed to sustain our discipline; this requires regularly evaluating the quality of our care. As the reimbursement mechanisms for health care in the U.S. shift from fee-for-service to fee-for-value models, palliative care will be expected to report robust data on quality of care. We must move beyond demonstrating to our constituents (including patients and referrers), "here is what we do," and increase the focus on "this is how well we do it" and "let us see how we can do it better." It is incumbent on palliative care professionals to lead these efforts. This involves developing standardized methods to collect data without adding additional burden, comparing and sharing our experiences to promote discipline-wide quality assessment and improvement initiatives, and demonstrating our intentions for quality improvement on the clinical frontline. PMID:25057987
Kamal, Arif H; Hanson, Laura C; Casarett, David J; Dy, Sydney M; Pantilat, Steven Z; Lupu, Dale; Abernethy, Amy P
Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William
In 1948, Dame Cicely Saunders, the founder of the modem hospice movement, established a core principle of palliative care, Total Pain, which is defined as physical, spiritual, psychological, and social suffering. In 2009, a consensus panel (Puchalski, Ferrell, Virani, Otis-Green, Baird, Bull, et al., 2009) was convened to address the important issue of integrating spirituality in palliative care, which led to renewed efforts to focus on spiritual care as a critical component of quality palliative care. This project is a combination of advocacy for the importance of spiritual care, training chaplains, seminarians, community clergy, and healthcare professionals in palliative care, and creating a spiritual care curriculum which can be self-taught or taught to members of transdisciplinary teams. PMID:23977777
Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders’ perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services. PMID:23922534
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
Providing transportation to children younger than kindergarten age has become more common for public school districts, and school personnel are unsure as to the rules, guidelines, and best practices that apply to the youngest school bus passengers. This document outlines the current Illinois requirements regarding the transportation of very young…
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
This paper presents a profile of Oregon's Child Care Quality Indicators Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Trends, 2010
The objective of this study was to explore the practicability of using process and outcome indicators to routinely assess the quality of diabetes care. Health care data of diabetic patients using antidiabetic drugs older than 40 years old in 2006-2008 were retrieved from an electronic information system of Phramongkutklao Hospital, Thailand. The process and outcome indicators were taken from the
Inthira Kanchanaphibool; Sanita Hirunrassami; Pensri Tongpugdee
Quality of care is growing concern among health care professionals and managers. As a multidimensional concept, it cannot be reduced to simple customer satisfaction. Taking into account the views of the three major players in the health care system-patients, providers and payers-quality can be defined as the capacity to satisfy patients' needs according to professional knowledge and within available resources. Efficacy, efficiency, appropriateness, acceptability, legitimacy and equity are dimensions of health care quality. Contrary to popular belief, quality is neither maximum performance, nor satisfaction at all costs, nor punishment or elimination of "bad apples". In ambulatory medicine, quality implies first of all the ability to master the processes occurring during an office visit. However, although history taking and physical examination are the cornerstones of medical practice, they have not been well studied. Improving quality of care in the ambulatory sector will require better knowledge about medical decision-making processes, in particular identification of the most relevant information required for a decision and the optimal way of obtaining it in any specific clinical situation. PMID:9190666
Guillain, H; Raetzo, M A
Examines some of the basic issues involved in creating a warm and safe day-care environment for infants and toddlers, one that supports and promotes development and learning. Describing policies that were generated from everyday classroom experience, discusses the issues of security and trust, separation anxiety, group size, exploration and…
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the intestine. Overall, healthcare delivery for patients with CD is not optimal at the present time and therefore needs improvement. There are evidences which suggest that there is a variation in the care provided to patients with CD by the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experts and community care providers. The delivery of healthcare for patients with CD is often complex and requires coordination between gastroenterologists/IBD specialist, gastrointestinal surgeon, radiologists and IBD nurses. In order to improve the quality of health care for patients with CD, there is need that we focus on large-scale, system-wide changes including creation of IBD comprehensive care units, provision to provide continuous care, efforts to standardize care, and education of the community practitioners. PMID:25400990
Makharia, Govind K
Disparities in Health Care Quality Among Minority Women Selected Findings From the 2011 National Healthcare Quality and Dispar Findings From the 2011 ... race and ethnicity are combined. Return to Contents Health Care Delivery and Systems Information about health care delivery ...
Canadian experts in diverse fields as well as people concerned about social justice and cohesion have identified quality child care as a crucial component in addressing a variety of broad societal goals. This study explored the relationships between child care center quality and: center characteristics; teaching staff wages and working conditions;…
Goelman, Hillel; Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna S.; LaGrange, Annette; Tougas, Jocelyne
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the issue of quality of care in the US managed care system and to compare state-level policies and programs. Specifically, it aims to describe five states which are making the most quality of care improvements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study examines the literature to identify states' care quality rankings. Additionally, five state case studies
Kristina L. Guo
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significant health impact of gout, there is no consensus on management standards. To guide physician practice, we sought to develop quality of care indicators for gout management.\\u000aMETHODS: A systematic literature review of gout therapy was performed using the Medline database. Two abstractors independently reviewed each of the articles for relevance and satisfaction of minimal inclusion criteria.
Ted R. Mikuls; Catherine H. MacLean; Jason Olivieri; Fausto G. Patino; Jeroan J. Allison; John T. Farrar; Warren B. Bilker; Kenneth G. Saag
To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991. PMID:24101680
Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H
The Institute of Medicine’s publications To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm publicized the widespread deficits in health-care quality. The quality of care for digestive diseases has not been evaluated comprehensively, although emerging literature suggests that the gap between recommended care and actual practice may be quite substantial. This paper reviews the history of, the rationale behind, and
Michael D Kappelman; Spencer D Dorn; Erica Peterson; Thomas Runge; John I Allen
This article describes the challenges accepted by two healthcare teams at the Hampton Veterans Affairs Medical Center, which impacted significantly upon the practice of nursing. The first healthcare team developed a medium size glycerine suppository ("glycerine bomb"), which was determined to be more effective than the bisacodyl in oil base suppository. The second team evaluated the effectiveness of a suppository of choice ("Magic Bullet") which was approved for use and replaced the "glycerine bomb." The need for a formalized protocol for a bowel care program was identified, developed and implemented. A bowel care program quality improvement monitor was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol. With continuous monitoring, we are challenged to evaluate our findings and restructure our interventions. PMID:7792580
Walker-Dalton, L M
This study examined the influence on children's social development of variation in the quality of their child-care environments. The sample consisted of 166 children attending representative child-care centers that varied widely in quality. Possible relations associated with age, child-care experience, and family background were controlled using hierarchical multiple regression. Both global estimates of child-care quality and specific program features, such
Deborah Phillips; Kathleen McCartney; Sandra Scarr
Background This paper describe the development of interRAI’s second-generation home care quality indicators (HC-QIs). They are derived from two of interRAI’s widely used community assessments: the Community Health Assessment and the Home Care Assessment. In this work the form in which the quality problem is specified has been refined, the covariate structure updated, and two summary scales introduced. Methods Two data sets were used: at the client and home-care site levels. Client-level data were employed to identify HC-QI covariates. This sample consisted of 335,544 clients from Europe, Canada, and the United States. Program level analyses, where client level data were aggregated at the site level, were also based on the clients from the samples from Europe, Canada, and the United States. There were 1,654 program-based observations – 22% from Europe, 23% from the US, and 55% from Canada. The first task was to identify potential HC-QIs, including both change and prevalence measures. Next, they were reviewed by industry representatives and members of the interRAI network. A two-step process adjustment was followed to identify the most appropriate covariance structure for each HC-QI. Finally, a factor analytic strategy was used to identify HC-QIs that cluster together and thus are candidates for summary scales. Results The set of risk adjusted HC-QIs are multi-dimensional in scope, including measures of function, clinical complexity, social life, distress, and service use. Two factors were identified. The first includes a set of eleven measures that revolve around the absence of decline. This scale talks about functional independence and engagement. The second factor, anchored on nine functional improvement HC-QIs, referenced positively, this scale indicates a return to clinical balance. Conclusions Twenty-three risk-adjusted, HC-QIs are described. Two new summary HC-QI scales, the “Independence Quality Scale” and the “Clinical Balance Quality Scale” are derived. In use at a site, these two scales can provide a macro view of local performance, offering a way for a home care agency to understand its performance. When scales perform less positively, the site then is able to review the HC-QI items that make up the scale, providing a roadmap for areas of greatest concern and in need of targeted interventions. PMID:24245920
A framework for improving health care service quality was implemented at a 12-provider family medicine practice in 2010. A national patient satisfaction research vendor conducted weekly telephone surveys of 840 patients served by that practice: 280 patients served in 2009, and 560 served during 2010 and 2011. After the framework was implemented, the proportion of "excellent" ratings of provider service (the highest rating on a 5-point scale) increased by 5% to 9%, most notably thoroughness (P = .04), listening (P = .04), and explaining (P = .04). Other improvements included prompt test result notification and telephone staff courtesy (each by 10%, P = .02), as well as teamwork (by 8%, P = .04). Overall quality increased by 10% (P = .01), moving the practice from the 68th to the 91st percentile of medical practices in the research vendor's database. Improvements in patient satisfaction suggest that this framework may be useful in value-based payment models. PMID:24418754
Kennedy, Denise M; Nordrum, Jon T; Edwards, Frederick D; Caselli, Richard J; Berry, Leonard L
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the Kuwait Diabetes Care Program on the quality of care provided for diabetic patients in the Primary Health Care setting. Materials and Methods: The Kuwait Diabetes Care Program developed, published and disseminated clinical practice guidelines, conducted training courses, standards for diabetes care, and introduced a monitoring and evaluation system. Four audits (September 1999, October
Afaf Al-Adsani; Jamila Al-Faraj; Fatma Al-Sultan; Mohamed El-Feky; Nouria Al-Mezel; Wafik Saba; Sharifa Aljassar
Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…
Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay
Examined the relationship between preschool children's development and the quality of child care, group size, adult-child ratio, caregiving style, and caregiver child interactions in child care centers in Athens, Greece. Found that development could be predicted by the overall quality of the child care center, with smaller effect from group size.…
Purpose: The purpose of this project was to gain insight into the quality of care and services provided through adult day care from the user’s perspective. Design and Methods: The project utilized 13 focus groups to explore aspects associated with user needs, preferences, and satisfaction with adult day care centers. Results: Focus group participants described aspects of adult day care
Amy Leventhal Stern; Francis G. Caro
1 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITIES IN HEALTH CARE VERSUS RESEARCH 04/30/2013 Policy Scope."1 Quality improvement (QI) in health care, unlike research, focuses on translating existing In general, a quality improvement (QI) project does not need to be submitted to the IRB. An IRB submission
The quality of medical care is a potentially important determinant of health outcomes. Nevertheless, it remains an understudied area. The limited research that exists defines quality either on the basis of drug availability or facility characteristics, but little is known about how provider quality affects the provision of health care. Das and Hammer address this gap through a survey in
Jishnu Das; Jeffrey Hammer
High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…
Collins, Vikki K.
In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…
Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of quality of care (QoC) on patients’ quality of life (QoL). In a cross-sectional study, two domains of QoC and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref questionnaire were combined to collect data from 1,059 pre-discharge patients in four accredited hospitals (ACCHs) and four non-accredited hospitals (NACCHs) in Saudi Arabia. Health and well-being are often restricted to the characterization of sensory qualities in certain settings such as unrestricted access to healthcare, effective treatment, and social welfare. The patients admitted to tertiary health care facilities are generally able to present themselves with a holistic approach as to how they experience the impact of health policy. The statistical results indicated that patients reported a very limited correlation between QoC and QoL in both settings. The model established a positive, but ultimately weak and insignificant, association between QoC (access and effective treatment) and QoL (r = 0.349, P = 0.000; r = 0.161, P = 0.000, respectively). Even though the two settings are theoretically different in terms of being able to conceptualize, adopt, and implement QoC, the outcomes from both settings demonstrated insignificant relationships with QoL as the results were quite similar. Though modern medicine has substantially improved QoL around the world, this paper proposes that health accreditation has a very limited impact on improving QoL. This paper raises awareness of this topic with multiple healthcare professionals who are interested in correlating QoC and QoL. Hopefully, it will stimulate further research from other professional groups that have new and different perspectives. Addressing a transitional health care system that is in the process of endorsing accreditation, investigating the experience of tertiary cases, and analyzing deviated data may limit the generalization of this study. Global interest in applying public health policy underlines the impact of such process on patients’ outcomes. As QoC accreditation does not automatically produce improved QoL outcomes, the proposed study encourages further investigation of the value of health accreditation on personal and social well-being. PMID:25114568
Alonazi, Wadi B; Thomas, Shane A
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of quality of care (QoC) on patients' quality of life (QoL). In a cross-sectional study, two domains of QoC and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref questionnaire were combined to collect data from 1,059 pre-discharge patients in four accredited hospitals (ACCHs) and four non-accredited hospitals (NACCHs) in Saudi Arabia. Health and well-being are often restricted to the characterization of sensory qualities in certain settings such as unrestricted access to healthcare, effective treatment, and social welfare. The patients admitted to tertiary health care facilities are generally able to present themselves with a holistic approach as to how they experience the impact of health policy. The statistical results indicated that patients reported a very limited correlation between QoC and QoL in both settings. The model established a positive, but ultimately weak and insignificant, association between QoC (access and effective treatment) and QoL (r = 0.349, P = 0.000; r = 0.161, P = 0.000, respectively). Even though the two settings are theoretically different in terms of being able to conceptualize, adopt, and implement QoC, the outcomes from both settings demonstrated insignificant relationships with QoL as the results were quite similar. Though modern medicine has substantially improved QoL around the world, this paper proposes that health accreditation has a very limited impact on improving QoL. This paper raises awareness of this topic with multiple healthcare professionals who are interested in correlating QoC and QoL. Hopefully, it will stimulate further research from other professional groups that have new and different perspectives. Addressing a transitional health care system that is in the process of endorsing accreditation, investigating the experience of tertiary cases, and analyzing deviated data may limit the generalization of this study. Global interest in applying public health policy underlines the impact of such process on patients' outcomes. As QoC accreditation does not automatically produce improved QoL outcomes, the proposed study encourages further investigation of the value of health accreditation on personal and social well-being. PMID:25114568
Alonazi, Wadi B; Thomas, Shane A
Purpose: Consumers and providers demand better indi- cators for quality of care and quality of life at the end of life. This article presents recommendations for advancing the science of measurement at end of life. Design and Methods: The authors reviewed the extant literature and applied the Institute of Medicine's conceptual framework for national health care quality to end-of-life care
Virginia P. Tilden; Susan Tolle; Linda Drach; Susan Hickman
Quality improvement is as central to home health care as to any other field of health care. With the mandated addition in 2000 of Outcome Assessment and Information Set (OASIS) and outcome-based quality improvement (OBQI), Medicare home health agencies entered a new era of documenting, tracking, and systematically improving quality. OBQI is augmented by the Medicare Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) program, which is now entering the ninth in a series of work assignments, with the tenth scope in the planning stages. Evidence has shown that applied quality improvement methods can drive better outcomes using important metrics, such as acute care hospitalization. This article reviews key findings from the past 2 decades of home care quality improvement research and public policy advances, describes specific examples of local and regional programmatic approaches to quality improvement, and forecasts near-future trends in this vital arena of home health care. PMID:19217497
Rosati, Robert J
This paper presents a profile of Louisiana's Quality Start Child Care Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Trends, 2010
BACKGROUND Standard indicators of quality of care have been developed in the United States. Limited information exists about quality\\u000a of care in countries with universal health care coverage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of preventive care and care for cardiovascular risk factors in a country with universal health care\\u000a coverage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged
Tinh-Hai Collet; Sophie Salamin; Lukas Zimmerli; Eve A. Kerr; Carole Clair; Michel Picard-Kossovsky; Eric Vittinghoff; Edouard Battegay; Jean-Michel Gaspoz; Jacques Cornuz; Nicolas Rodondi
This study examines the link between human resource management, (HRM), work organization and patient care quality in US long-term care settings, proposing a key role for both management philosophy and improved front-line staffing arrangements in delivering consistently higher quality care, defined to include both physical and psychological outcomes. Using the ‘high performance’ model from industrial relations as a lens, the
Susan C. Eaton
Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…
Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna
It is no longer possible to ignore the issue of quality in health care. Care institutions strive to\\u000aprovide all patients with effective, efficient, safe, timely, patient-centered care. Increased\\u000aattention for quality is also found in discussions regarding use of information and\\u000acommunication technologies (ICTs) in health care processes. In these discussions, ICT is almost\\u000aalways brought into a direct
Mul de M
As managed care has grown to dominate the US health care delivery system, questions have been raised about the impact on the quality of care provided to its enrollees. Two important aspects of health care quality are access to care and the appropriateness of care. This analysis evaluated the occurrence of preventable hospitalizations among managed care (MCO) versus fee for
L. Clark Paramore; Anne Elixhauser
Purpose – This paper aims to compare and contrast quality improvement in the domain of health care disparities with quality improvement in other domains. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The author provides a descriptive essay and review to put forward the findings of their research. Findings – In the USA, health care quality improvement systems have largely been accepted and institutionalized. Most if
Wally R. Smith
Purpose. This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health promotion, and which could be used to assess the performance of primary care systems. Methods. Existing quality indicators from
MARTIN MARSHALL; NIEK KLAZINGA; SHEILA LEATHERMAN; CHARLIE HARDY; ECKHARD BERGMANN; LUIS PISCO; SOEREN MATTKE; JAN MAINZ
...Request for Information Regarding Health Care Quality for Exchanges AGENCY...Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy) to...efforts to improve the quality of health care in the United States. The...
methods Using data from an ongoing performance-evaluation program in the VA, we evaluated the quality of preventive, acute, and chronic care. We assessed the change in quality-of- care indicators from 1994 (before reengineering) through 2000 and compared the qual- ity of care with that afforded by the Medicare fee-for-service system, using the same in- dicators of quality. results In fiscal
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Kenneth W. Kizer; R. Adams Dudley
BackgroundCare of the elderly is recognized as an increasingly important segment of health care. The Assessing Care Of Vulnerable Elderly (ACOVE) quality indicators (QIs) were developed to assess and improve the care of elderly patients.ObjectivesThe purpose of this review is to summarize studies that assess the quality of care using QIs from or based on ACOVE, in order to evaluate
Marjan Askari; Peter C. Wierenga; Saied Eslami; Stephanie Medlock; Sophia E. de Rooij; Ameen Abu-Hanna
Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…
Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace
This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…
Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin
Examined the relationships between day-care quality, children's emotional expression, and temperament among 60 3- to 5-year-olds in 26 day-care centers. Found that the appropriateness of the caregiving, but not the appropriateness of activities in the child-care center, significantly predicted the proportion of positive emotional affect in…
Hestenes, Linda L.; And Others
Objective Investigate whether high-quality chronic care delivery improved the experiences of patients. Design This study had a longitudinal design. Setting and Participants We surveyed professionals and patients in 17 disease management programs targeting patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, stroke, comorbidity and eating disorders. Main Outcome Measures Patients completed questionnaires including the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) [T1 (2010), 2637/4576 (58%); T2 (2011), 2314/4330 (53%)]. Professionals' Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) scores [T1, 150/274 (55%); T2, 225/325 (68%)] were used as a context variable for care delivery. We used two-tailed, paired t-tests to investigate improvements in chronic illness care quality and patients' experiences with chronic care delivery. We employed multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of chronic care delivery quality in improving patients' experiences with care delivery. Results Overall, care quality and patients' experiences with chronic illness care delivery significantly improved. PACIC scores improved significantly from 2.89 at T1 to 2.96 at T2 and ACIC-S scores improved significantly from 6.83 at T1 to 7.18 at T2. After adjusting for patients' experiences with care delivery at T1, age, educational level, marital status, gender and mental and physical quality of life, analyses showed that the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 (P < 0.001) and changes in care delivery quality (P < 0.001) predicted patients' experiences with chronic care delivery at T2. Conclusion This research showed that care quality and changes therein predict more positive experiences of patients with various chronic conditions over time. PMID:24123243
Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra
This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance. PMID:23252087
Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn
The peer-review organizations (PROs) were created by Congress in 1984 to monitor the cost and quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. In order to do this, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) contracted with the PROs through a series of contracts referred to as "Scopes of Work." Under the Fourth Scope of Work, the HCFA initiated the Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) in 1990, as an application of the principles of continuous quality improvement. Since then, the PROs have participated with health care providers in cooperative projects to improve the quality of primarily inpatient care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. Through HCFA-supplied administrative data and clinical data abstracted from patient records, the PROs have been able to identify opportunities for improvements in patient care. In May 1995, the HCFA proposed a new Fifth Scope of Work, which will shift the focus of HCQIP from inpatient care projects to projects in outpatient and managed care settings. This article describes the HCQIP process, the types of data used by the PROs to conduct cooperative projects with health care providers, and the informatics challenges in improving the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:8750387
Grant, J B; Hayes, R P; Pates, R D; Elward, K S; Ballard, D J
Objective To test the responsiveness of the Infant\\/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) to five health conditions. In addition,\\u000a to evaluate the impact of the child’s age and gender on the ITQOL domain scores.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Observational study of 494 Dutch preschool-aged children with five clinical conditions and 410 healthy preschool children\\u000a randomly sampled from the general population. The clinical conditions included neurofibromatosis
A. T. Spuijbroek; R. Oostenbrink; J. M. Landgraf; E. Rietveld; A. de Goede-Bolder; E. F. van Beeck; M. van Baar; H. Raat; H. A. Moll
This article tells the story of the 4-year consensus-building process to design quality standards for the field of family child care. Working with the National Association for Family Child Care, the Family Child Care Project at Wheelock College was funded to create an accreditation system for home-based child care programs using innovative methods…
Background Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings. Methods We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50–80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND’s Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator. Results Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women) had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9) comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9). Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47%) and those with schizophrenia (35%). Conclusions In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care. PMID:24760077
Streit, Sven; da Costa, Bruno R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Weiler, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas; Frey, Peter; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Battegay, Edouard; Kerr, Eve; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
The aim of this study was to gather comprehensive data from three hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, in order to gain in-depth understanding of the quality of antenatal care in this setting. The Bruce-Jain framework for quality of care was adapted for use in evaluating antenatal care. Methods included examination of hospital records, in-depth interviews, exit questionnaires, and structured observations. The study revealed deficiencies in the quality of antenatal care being delivered at the study hospitals in all six elements of the quality-of-care framework. The technical content of visits varied greatly among the hospitals, and an overuse of technology was accompanied by neglect of some essential components of antenatal care. Although at the private hospital some problems with the technical content of care were identified, client satisfaction was higher there, where the care included good interpersonal relations, information provision, and continuity. Providers at all three hospitals felt constrained by heavy patient loads and a lack of resources. Multifaceted approaches are needed to improve the quality of antenatal care in this setting. PMID:16570730
Turan, Janet Molzan; Bulut, Ay?pen; Nalbant, Hacer; Ortayli, Nuriye; Akalin, A Arzu Kolo?lu
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Background: Existing performance indicators for asses- sing quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) focus mostly on registration of measurements and clinical outcomes, and not on quality of prescribing. Objective: To develop a set of valid prescribing quality indicators (PQI) for internal use in T2DM, and assess the operational validity of the PQI using electronic medical records. Methods:
L Martirosyan; J Braspenning; P Denig; W J C de Grauw; M Bouma; F Storms; F M Haaijer-Ruskamp
BACKGROUND: Existing performance indicators for assessing quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) focus mostly on registration of measurements and clinical outcomes, and not on quality of prescribing. OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of valid prescribing quality indicators (PQI) for internal use in T2DM, and assess the operational validity of the PQI using electronic medical records. METHODS: Potential
L. Martirosyan; J. C. C. Braspenning; P. Denig; W. J. C. de Grauw; M. Bouma; F. Storms; F. M. Haaijer-Ruskamp
The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…
Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We examine the impact of state child care regulations on the supply and quality of care in child care markets. We exploit panel data on both individual establishments and local markets to control for state, time, and, where possible, establishment-specific fixed effects to mitigate the potential bias due to policy endogeneity. We find that the imposition of regulations reduces the number of center-based child care establishments, especially in lower income markets. However, such regulations increase the quality of services provided, especially in higher income areas. Thus, there are winners and losers from the regulation of child care services. PMID:24991060
Joseph Hotz, V.; Xiao, Mo
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing home staffing level, care received by individual residents, and resident quality-related care processes and functional outcomes. Design and Methods Nurses recorded resident care time for 5,314 residents on 156 units in 105 facilities in four states (Colorado, Indiana, Minnesota, and Mississippi). We linked residents' care times to their measures of health and functioning from Minimum Data Set assessments. Major variables were unit- and resident-specific minutes of care per day, process measures (physical restraints, range of motion, toileting program, and training in activities of daily living [ADLs]), outcome measures (ADL decline, mobility decline, and worsening behavior between the time study and 90-day follow-up), and covariates such as unit type and resident health status. We used multilevel analysis to examine staffing and quality relationships. Results Residents with toileting programs, range of motion or ADL training, and restraints received significantly more care from unlicensed but not from licensed staff. However, functional outcomes were not significantly related to care received from licensed or unlicensed staff, except for ADL decline, which was greatest for residents receiving more unlicensed minutes of care. Unit staffing level (licensed and unlicensed) was unrelated to any of the care processes or outcome measures, although higher overall staffing was associated with more time devoted to direct resident care. Implications Future research into nursing home quality should focus on organization and delivery rather than simply the amount of care available. PMID:17989409
Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Bershadsky, Julie; Degenholtz, Howard B.
The operations of any portion of the healthcare delivery system, eg, ambulatory care, the consultation and referral process, or hospital care, are critically dependent upon their control systems. The quality of health care produced by the system and its components is also subject to "control." One of the regulatory mechanisms involves performance measures. The development of good measures of quality is a complex and dynamic process. Within endocrinology, most measures have addressed diabetes care and most quality measurement in diabetes has focused on the ambulatory setting and mainly includes measures of process and intermediate outcomes. This review addresses quality and performance measures for diabetes, their development, characteristics, use, misuse, and future prospects. PMID:24496919
Aron, David C
Background Breast cancer in women is increasingly frequent, and care is complex, onerous and expensive, all of which lend urgency to improvements in care. Quality measurement is essential to monitor effectiveness and to guide improvements in healthcare. Methods Ten databases, including Medline, were searched electronically to identify measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women (diagnosis, treatment, followup, documentation of care). Eligible studies measured adherence to standards of breast cancer care in women diagnosed with, or in treatment for, any histological type of adenocarcinoma of the breast. Reference lists of studies, review articles, web sites, and files of experts were searched manually. Evidence appraisal entailed dual independent assessments of data (e.g., indicators used in quality measurement). The extent of each quality indicator's scientific validation as a measure was assessed. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was asked to contribute quality measures under development. Results Sixty relevant reports identified 58 studies with 143 indicators assessing adherence to quality breast cancer care. A paucity of validated indicators (n = 12), most of which assessed quality of life, only permitted a qualitative data synthesis. Most quality indicators evaluated processes of care. Conclusion While some studies revealed patterns of under-use of care, all adherence data require confirmation using validated quality measures. ASCO's current development of a set of quality measures relating to breast cancer care may hold the key to conducting definitive studies. PMID:17176480
Schachter, Howard M; Mamaladze, Vasil; Lewin, Gabriela; Graham, Ian D; Brouwers, Melissa; Sampson, Margaret; Morrison, Andra; Zhang, Li; O'Blenis, Peter; Garritty, Chantelle
The demand for health care outcomes assessment is increasing, driven by the proliferation of managed care as a form of health care financing. Providers, consumers, and payers can use health care outcomes to improve the efficiency and quality of care, spur performance improvement, and demonstrate accountability. This review introduces health outcomes and focuses on one particular outcome—pediatric health-related quality of
Michael Seid; James W. Varni; Jenifer R. Jacobs
Purpose: As palliative care further integrates into cancer care, descriptions of how supportive care quality measures improve patient outcomes are necessary to establish best practices. Methods: We assessed the relationship between conformance to 18 palliative care quality measures and quality of life from data obtained using our novel point-of-care, electronic quality monitoring system, the Quality Data Collection Tool for Palliative Care (QDACT-PC). All patients with cancer from January 2008 through March 2011 seen in the Carolinas Palliative Care Consortium were evaluated for demographic, disease, prognostic, performance status, and measure conformance variables. Using univariate and multivariate regression, we examined the relationship between these variable and high quality of life at the initial specialty palliative care consultation. Results: Our cohort included 459 patients, the majority of whom were over age 65 years (66%) and white (84%). Lung (29.1%) and GI (24.7%) cancers were most common. In univariate analyses, conformance to assessment of comprehensive symptoms, fatigue and constipation assessment, timely management of pain and constipation, and timely emotional well-being assessment were associated with highest levels of quality of life (all Ps < .05). In a multivariate model (C-stat = 0.66), performance status (odds ratio [OR], 5.21; P = .003), estimated life expectancy (OR, 22.6; P = .003), conformance to the measure related to emotional well-being assessment (OR, 1.60; P = .026), and comprehensive screening of symptoms (OR, 1.74, P = .008) remained significant. Conclusion: Oncology care pathways that routinely incorporate supportive care principles, such as comprehensive symptom and emotional well-being assessments, may improve patient outcomes. PMID:23942504
Kamal, Arif H.; Bull, Janet; Stinson, Charles S.; Blue, Debra L.; Abernethy, Amy P.
Objectives To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses‘ workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses‘ capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling. Principal Findings Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL. Conclusions Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses‘ work. PMID:19207589
Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale; Wall, Melanie
Health care reform has increased demand for pediatric health care quality evaluations, particularly those that assess the impact of care on patient and population health outcomes. Many of today's most common childhood conditions are characterized by symptoms, behaviors, and functional limitations that are best assessed as patient reported outcomes (PROs). Although they remain greatly underutilized, PROs have the potential to improve pediatric health care quality assessment at the point of care and through system-level performance evaluations. The functions, benefits, and challenges of these PRO applications are described and illustrated in case examples. Although challenges remain, numerous methodological and technical innovations facilitate the use of PROs as health care quality metrics. These include advances in PRO measure development methodologies, the integration of PRO measures into electronic health records, and developing consensus among providers that PROs provide valuable information that can be used to enhance patient care. Although additional work is needed to address remaining methodological challenges, pediatric PROs are increasingly recognized as valuable indicators of health care quality in the clinical environment and as measures of organization- and provider-level performance. PMID:25169465
Bevans, Katherine B; Moon, JeanHee; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A; Lai, Jin-Shei; DiMarco, Lindsay; Muller, Nicole; Woods, Donna
This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients. PMID:25072333
Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization’s quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.
Boucher, Nathan A; McMillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S
BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of primary care is becoming a priority in national healthcare agendas. Audit and feedback on healthcare quality performance indicators can help improve the quality of care provided. In some instances, fewer numbers of more comprehensive indicators may be preferable. This paper describes the use of the Summary Quality Index (SQUID) in tracking quality of care among
Paul J Nietert; Andrea M Wessell; Ruth G Jenkins; Chris Feifer; Lynne S Nemeth; Steven M Ornstein
This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…
Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet
Imprecise or delayed care can reflect many factors, including straightforward difficulties in physician judgment and false negative tests. However, the movement toward decreasing physician work hours also leads to delays in care caused by inadequate staffing or inadequate communication between staffing, which must be addressed if quality of care is to remain high. The demonstration of delays in the management
Marc D Basson
The adoption of managed behavioral health care by state Medicaid agencies has the potential to increase the quality of treatment for racial minorities by promoting access to substance abuse treatment and creating more appropriate utilization patterns. This paper examines three indicators of quality for white, Black, and Hispanic Medicaid clients who received substance abuse treatment in Massachusetts between 1992 and
Marilyn C. Daley; Grant A. Ritter; Dominic Hodgkin; Richard H. Beinecke
For social work practitioners to engage fully in efforts designed to improve the quality of social services, they need to understand what is meant by quality of care, grapple with its complexity, and know how to identify and leverage the key factors most likely to influence it. This article introduces a conceptual model that articulates numerous…
Megivern, Deborah M.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Striley, Catherine L. W.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.
Managed care companies contend there is still waste in the healthcare system that should be elimi- nated. Healthcare providers argue that further cuts will reduce quality. Which side is right? In order to answer this question it is necessary to determine the threshold implicit in the corollary question: How far can we go in reducing healthcare expense without diminishing quality?
Eugene Litvak; Michael C. Long
With passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, payment incentives were created to improve the "value" of health care delivery. Because physicians and physician practices aim to deliver care that is both clinically effective and patient centered, it is important to understand the association between the patient experience and quality health outcomes. Surveys have become a tool with which to quantify the consumer experience. In addition, results of these surveys are playing an increasingly important role in determining hospital payment. Given that the patient experience is being used as a surrogate marker for quality and value of health care delivery, we will review the patient experience-related pay-for-performance programs and effect on emergency medicine, discuss the literature describing the association between quality and the patient-reported experience, and discuss future opportunities for emergency medicine. PMID:24656761
Farley, Heather; Enguidanos, Enrique R; Coletti, Christian M; Honigman, Leah; Mazzeo, Anthony; Pinson, Thomas B; Reed, Kevin; Wiler, Jennifer L
Quality in North Carolina's nursing facilities is intertwined in multiple dimensions of person-centered care, evidence-based practice, innovation, pursuit of continued excellence, meaningful relationships, and recognition of choice and autonomy. By striving to excel in their role of providing skilled nursing care for medically related acuity, North Carolina's nursing facilities have been a contributor to the growth of the long-term care continuum, enabling North Carolina to have an extensive and well-developed system of skilled care and home- and community-based service models. PMID:25237874
Welsh, Polly Godwin; Kivisto, Eric
Quality Indicators (QIs) are measures of health care quality that make use of readily available hospital inpatient administrative data. Assessment quality of care can be performed on different levels: national, regional, on a hospital basis or on an individual basis. It can be a mandatory or voluntary system. In all cases development of an adequate database for data extraction, and feedback of the findings is of paramount importance. In the present paper we performed a Medline search on “QIs and breast cancer” and “benchmarking and breast cancer care”, and we have added some data from personal experience. The current data clearly show that the use of QIs for breast cancer care, regular internal and external audit of performance of breast units, and benchmarking are effective to improve quality of care. Adherence to guidelines improves markedly (particularly regarding adjuvant treatment) and there are data emerging showing that this results in a better outcome. As quality assurance benefits patients, it will be a challenge for the medical and hospital community to develop affordable quality control systems, which are not leading to excessive workload. PMID:24753926
van Dam, P.A.; Verkinderen, L.; Hauspy, J.; Vermeulen, P.; Dirix, L.; Huizing, M.; Altintas, S.; Papadimitriou, K.; Peeters, M.; Tjalma, W.
?Quality Indicators (QIs) are measures of health care quality that make use of readily available hospital inpatient administrative data. Assessment quality of care can be performed on different levels: national, regional, on a hospital basis or on an individual basis. It can be a mandatory or voluntary system. In all cases development of an adequate database for data extraction, and feedback of the findings is of paramount importance. In the present paper we performed a Medline search on "QIs and breast cancer" and "benchmarking and breast cancer care", and we have added some data from personal experience. The current data clearly show that the use of QIs for breast cancer care, regular internal and external audit of performance of breast units, and benchmarking are effective to improve quality of care. Adherence to guidelines improves markedly (particularly regarding adjuvant treatment) and there are data emerging showing that this results in a better outcome. As quality assurance benefits patients, it will be a challenge for the medical and hospital community to develop affordable quality control systems, which are not leading to excessive workload. PMID:24753926
van Dam, P A; Verkinderen, L; Hauspy, J; Vermeulen, P; Dirix, L; Huizing, M; Altintas, S; Papadimitriou, K; Peeters, M; Tjalma, W
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Conceived by the Zero to Three Child Welfare Task Force, this issue focuses on agents of change for infants and toddlers in foster…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
Background: No primary practice care model has been shown to be superior in achieving high-quality primary care. We aimed to identify the organizational characteristics of primary care practices that provide high-quality primary care. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional observational study involving a stratified random sample of 37 primary care practices from 3 regions of Quebec. We recruited 1457 patients who had 1 of 2 chronic care conditions or 1 of 6 episodic care conditions. The main outcome was the overall technical quality score. We measured organizational characteristics by use of a validated questionnaire and the Team Climate Inventory. Statistical analyses were based on multilevel regression modelling. Results: The following characteristics were strongly associated with overall technical quality of care score: physician remuneration method (27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0–35.0), extent of sharing of administrative resources (7.6; 95% CI 0.8–14.4), presence of allied health professionals (15.3; 95% CI 5.4–25.2) and/or specialist physicians (19.6; 95% CI 8.3–30.9), the presence of mechanisms for maintaining or evaluating competence (7.7; 95% CI 3.0–12.4) and average organizational access to the practice (4.9; 95% CI 2.6–7.2). The number of physicians (1.2; 95% CI 0.6–1.8) and the average Team Climate Inventory score (1.3; 95% CI 0.1–2.5) were modestly associated with high-quality care. Interpretation: We identified a common set of organizational characteristics associated with high-quality primary care. Many of these characteristics are amenable to change through practice-level organizational changes. PMID:23877669
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Haggerty, Jeannie; Tousignant, Pierre; Barnsley, Janet; Hogg, William; Geneau, Robert; Hudon, Éveline; Duplain, Réjean; Denis, Jean-Louis; Bonin, Lucie; Del Grande, Claudio; Dragieva, Natalyia
Background In the Netherlands, the first formal haemophilia comprehensive care centre was established in 1964, and Dutch haemophilia doctors have been organised since 1972. Although several steps were taken to centralise haemophilia care and maintain quality of care, treatment was still delivered in many hospitals, and formal criteria for haemophilia treatment centres as well as a national haemophilia registry were lacking. Material and methods In collaboration with patients and other stakeholders, Dutch haemophilia doctors have undertaken a formal process to draft new quality standards for the haemophilia treatment centres. First a project group including doctors, nurses, patients and the institute for harmonisation of quality standards undertook a literature study on quality standards and performed explorative visits to several haemophilia treatment centres in the Netherlands. Afterwards concept standards were defined and validated in two treatment centres. Next, the concept standards were evaluated by haemophilia doctors, patients, health insurance representatives and regulators. Finally, the final version of the standards of care was approved by Central body of Experts on quality standards in clinical care and the Dutch Ministry of Health. Results A team of expert auditors have been trained and, together with an independent auditor, will perform audits in haemophilia centres applying for formal certification. Concomitantly, a national registry for haemophilia and allied disorders is being set up. Discussion It is expected that these processes will lead to further concentration and improved quality of haemophilia care in the Netherlands. PMID:24922288
Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Fischer, Kathelijn
Diabetes is on the rise world wide; according to the latest report from the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people affected by the disease will increase by 55% from 382 in 2013 to almost 600 million in 2033. Individuals living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for depression and anxiety. Diabetes impacts on physical, emotional, social and financial aspects of life across cultures and countries, yet gaps in care exist around psychosocial and self-management education and support. The DAWN2 study provides a first multinational, multidisciplinary systematic framework for the comparison of unmet needs of people with diabetes and those who care for them in four continents. it is necessary to develop a system of patient-centered care, in which the empowerment of the person is the main instrument, and at the same time target on which to focus. Transforming study results into actions at the national level will represent one of the main activities of the DAWN2 initiative. In Italy, to do so, it is not enough write new documents but new resources are required. PMID:25282349
This PhD study aimed to explore nurses’ perceptions of quality nursing care and why they were unable to provide this. The specific aims of this study were to; compare actual quality of care provided to patients by clinical nurses rather than perceived quality of care that should be provided; identify significant nursing care issues impacting on quality; and make recommendations
This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Maine's Quality for ME prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Miami-Dade's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Indiana's Paths to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Ohio's Step Up to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Missouri's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Mississippi's Quality Step System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Application…
Child Trends, 2010
This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…
Background Antitrust authorities treat price as a proxy for hospital quality since health care quality is difficult to observe. As the ability to measure quality improved, more research became necessary to investigate the relationship between hospital market power and patient outcomes. This paper examines the impact of hospital competition on the quality of care as measured by the risk-adjusted mortality rates with the hospital as the unit of analysis. The study separately examines the effect of competition on non-profit hospitals. Methods We use California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) data from 1997 through 2002. Empirical model is a cross-sectional study of 373 hospitals. Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationship between Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) risk-adjusted mortality rates and hospital competition. Results Regression results show lower risk-adjusted mortality rates in the presence of a more competitive environment. This result holds for all alternative hospital market definitions. Non-profit hospitals do not have better patient outcomes than investor-owned hospitals. However, they tend to provide better quality in less competitive environments. CABG volume did not have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Conclusion Quality should be incorporated into the antitrust analysis. When mergers lead to higher prices and lower quality, thus lower social welfare, the antitrust challenge of hospital mergers is warranted. The impact of lower hospital competition on quality of care delivered by non-profit hospitals is ambiguous. PMID:18430219
Background. Patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES) are challenging to treat for myriad reasons. Often patients may be misdiagnosed with having epilepsy and then may suffer unintended consequences of treatment side effects with antiepileptic medication. In addition, patients may be maligned by health care providers due to a lack of ownership by both psychiatrists and neurologists and a dearth of dedicated professionals who are able to effectively treat and reduce severity and frequency of symptoms. Aims of Case Report. Many psychiatrists and neurologists are unaware of the extent of the barriers to care faced by patients with NES (PWNES) and the degree of perception of maltreatment or lack of therapeutic alliance at various stages of their care, including medical workup, video-EEG monitoring, and follow-up plans. We present the case of a patient with NES who experienced numerous barriers as well as incoordination to her care despite being offered a breadth of resources and discuss the quality improvement opportunities that may exist to improve care of patients with NES. Conclusion. No known literature has documented the extensive barriers to care of PWNES in parallel to quality improvement opportunities for improving their care. We endeavor to contribute to the overall formulation and development of a clinical care pathway for PWNES. PMID:25295209
Chen, Jasper J.; Thakur, Devendra S.; Bujarski, Krzysztof A.; Jobst, Barbara C.; Kobylarz, Erik J.; Thadani, Vijay M.
Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r?=?0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r?=?0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient?=?0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion The QPCQ is a valid and reliable instrument that will be useful in future research as an outcome measure to compare quality of care across geographic regions, populations, and service delivery models, and to assess the relationship between quality of care and maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:24894497
Despite a growing emphasis on providing health care consumers with more information about quality care, useful and valid provider-specific information often has not been available to the public or has been underutilized. To assess this issue in New York State, random telephone surveys were conducted in September 2002 and March 2003, respectively, of 1,001 and 500 English- or Spanish-speaking persons, 18 years or older. Results indicated that 33% of New Yorkers were very concerned about the quality of care, with African Americans being particularly concerned. Less than half of the respondents recalled hearing or seeing information about health care quality in the past year and less than 20% actually used this information in medical decision making. African Americans were the least likely to recall receiving or being exposed to quality-related information, whereas women and more educated adults were the most likely to report being exposed. Furthermore, New Yorkers received quality information from multiple sources, with about 20% saying that they obtained information about physician and hospital quality from media (eg, newspaper) and nonmedia (eg, recommendation by family member) sources. Evaluations of different kinds of information suggested that some types (eg, whether or not a doctor is board certified) carried more weight in health care decision making than other types (eg, government ratings). Unexpectedly, those who used information to make health care decisions were more likely to have reported experiencing a medical error in the household. Finally, in the 6-month follow-up survey, concerns about the quality of care in the state remained about the same, while fears of terrorism decreased and preparations for future terrorist attacks increased. In the survey, few major differences were found in results based on payer status (eg, private insurance versus Medicaid/no insurance). These findings have implications for both the private and public health care sectors. Specifically, they suggest that greater access to and use of provider-specific health care information by the public is a viable way to improve quality, particularly if health care professionals support the public use of these data. PMID:15253520
Boscarino, Joseph A; Adams, Richard E
Studies document that, on average, children cared for in centers, as compared to homes, have higher cognitive test scores but worse socioemotional and health outcomes. The authors assessed whether the quality of care received explains these associations. They considered multiple domains of child development—cognitive, socioemotional, and health—and examined whether mediation is greater when quality measures are better aligned with outcome domains. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort, they found that children in centers have better cognitive skills and behavioral regulation than children in homes, but worse social competence and generally equivalent health (N = 1,550). They found little evidence that quality of child care, as measured by standard instruments (e.g., the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale—Revised), accounts for associations between type of care and child developmental outcomes. PMID:24068846
Abner, Kristin S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders
Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…
Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn
The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591
Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine
Background Structured quality management is an important aspect for improving patient dental care outcomes, but reliable evidence to validate effects is lacking. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of a quality management program in primary dental care settings in Germany. Methods This was an exploratory study with a before-after-design. 45 dental care practices that had completed the European Practice Assessment (EPA) accreditation scheme twice (intervention group) were selected for the study. The mean interval between the before and after assessment was 36 months. The comparison group comprised of 56 dental practices that had undergone their first assessment simultaneously with follow-up assessment in the intervention group. Aggregated scores for five EPA domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, ‘quality and safety’ and ‘people’ were calculated. Results In the intervention group, small non-significant improvements were found in the EPA domains. At follow-up, the intervention group had higher scores on EPA domains as compared with the comparison group (range of differences was 4.2 to 10.8 across domains). These differences were all significant in regression analyses, which controlled for relevant dental practice characteristics. Conclusions Dental care practices that implemented a quality management program had better organizational quality in contrast to a comparison group. This may reflect both improvements in the intervention group and a selection effect of dental practices volunteering for the first round of EPA practice assessment. PMID:24773764
In this article the author presents the theoretical concepts of quality of life, labor satisfaction, and service professions. Then describes the politic-institution characteristics of the actual national context in which the professionals that work in the Health field, developed their daily work. Presents a proposal of indicators, specially constructed by the author to analyze the labor context, that are being used in different research projects she developed since the beginning on XXI century. Finally presents the necessity of generate project that considers protagonist points of view and allow the construct of diagnosis of the situation, that generate public policies to answer the problem. PMID:20038992
Tonon de Toscano, Graciela
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces enormous policy changes to the health care system with several anticipated benefits and a growing number of unanticipated challenges for child and adolescent health. Because the ACA gives each state and their payers substantial autonomy and discretion on implementation, understanding potential effects will require state-by-state monitoring of policies and their impact on children. The "voltage drop" framework is a useful interpretive guide for assessing the impact of insurance market change on the quality of care received. Using this framework we suggest a state-level checklist to examine ACA statewide implementation, assess its impact on health care delivery, and frame policy correctives to improve child health system performance. Although children's health care is a small part of US health care spending, child health provides the foundation for adult health and must be protected in ACA implementation. PMID:25225140
Cheng, Tina L; Wise, Paul H; Halfon, Neal
Health-related quality of life has become an important end point in modern day clinical practice in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Patients have unique symptoms and problems from diagnosis till death, which require interventions that are multidisciplinary in nature. Here, we review and summarize the various key issues in palliative care, quality of life and end of life in patients with brain tumors, with the focus on primary gliomas. PMID:25165570
BACKGROUND: Maternity care is all care in relation to pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. In the Netherlands maternity care is provided by midwives and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care and midwives and gynecologists in secondary care. To be able to interpret women's experience with the quality of maternity care, it is necessary to take into account their 'care
Therese A Wiegers
Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861
Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel
This study evaluated the effectiveness of implementation of common assessment tools, collaborative care plans, and symptom management guidelines for cancer patients as a strategy to improve the quality, coordination, and integration of palliative care service across organizations and health care sectors. A pre-post design to measure the impact on symptom management, caregiver burden and satisfaction with care delivery, and service utilization was used. Two cohorts of eligible patients and caregivers completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scales, Caregiver Reaction Assessment and FAMCARE Scales and chart audits were conducted. Administrative data from each participating site were examined for utilization trends. Audits of 53 charts preimplementation and 63 postimplementation showed an increase in documentation of pain from 24.5% to 74.6% (P<0.001) of charts. Administrative data showed a decrease in the percentage of patients with at least one emergency room visit from 94.3% to 84.8% (P<0.001), in the percentage of patients with at least one admission to the acute care hospital (P<0.001), and deaths in acute care 43.1%-35.7% (P=0.133). There was minimal change in the intensity of symptoms (P=0.591), and no change in the burden on the caregiver (P=0.086) or caregiver satisfaction with care (P=0.942). This study showed that implementation of common assessment tools, collaborative care plans, and symptom management guidelines across health sectors can result in some increased documentation of symptoms and efficiencies in care. Future projects should consider imbedding a continuous quality improvement methodology and longer timelines into their projects to improve outcomes. PMID:18358693
Dudgeon, Deborah J; Knott, Christine; Eichholz, Mary; Gerlach, Jacqueline Lochhaas; Chapman, Cheryl; Viola, Raymond; Van Dijk, Janice; Preston, Sharon; Batchelor, Diane; Bartfay, Emma
This article discusses the impact of selected findings from a PhD-study that focuses on compassion as a guiding principle for contemporary nursing education and practice. The study, of which the literature review and empirical findings have already been published, looked at compassion as perceived within the relationship of nurses and older persons with a chronic disease. The patient group was chosen because daily life for them is characterized by long-term dependency on care. The literature review resulted in a theoretical framework of compassion that also explores other closely related concepts such as suffering and empathy. The empirical part of the study, in which 61 in-depth interviews and 6 group interviews with patients and nurses took place, showed that compassion is a mirroring process in response to grief. Compassion consists of seven dimensions such as attentiveness and presence, in which saliency, so as to anticipate patients' needs, is of major importance. Compassion is perceived by participants as an indispensable aspect of care, which helps to reveal relevant information in order to establish appropriate outcomes of care. This article focuses on the aspects of the PhD-study in which an analysis of compassion in the context of both modern as well as the history of nursing took place. Currently evidence based practice is regarded as the standard for good quality care. Nevertheless there is an on-going debate about what constitutes good quality care. Within this debate two opposing views are apparent. One view defines good care as care supported by the best scientific evidence. The other view states that good care takes place within the nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse performs professional care based on intuitive knowing. It is suggested that compassion is the (missing) link between these views. PMID:24856582
van der Cingel, Margreet
The staff of the American Psychiatric Assocition (APA), the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE), and a national panel of experts in bipolar disorder and practice guideline development have collaborated to generate a set of quality of care indicators for the pharmacologic and psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorder. The indicators were derived from APA’s evidence-based Practice Guideline for
Farifteh Firoozmand Duffy; William Narrow; Joyce C. West; Laura J. Fochtmann; David A. Kahn; Trisha Suppes; John M. Oldham; John S. McIntyre; Ronald W. Manderscheid; Paul Sirovatka; Darrel Regier
Research Findings: This study was designed to assess whether investments in child care quality were maintained 3 years after public funding for these centers was significantly reduced. An earlier evaluation documented significant improvements in classroom environments, teachers' sensitivity, and teachers' child-centered beliefs following a…
Roach, Mary A.; Kim, YaeBin; Riley, David A.
A 20-item checklist is provided for parents assessing the quality of day care programs. Items include the following: (1) caregivers nourish children with body snuggling; (2) caregivers arrange safe, interesting learning experiences; (3) caregivers are keen observers; (4) child health and safety needs are met; (5) teachers encourage competency; (6)…
Honig, Alice S.
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
This paper suggests that different cultural communities may hold different definitions of “quality” in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) conforming with their respective, culturally valued educational goals and culturally based beliefs regarding practices that facilitate their attainment. Despite the negative implication of stereotyping socio-cultural communities as “individualist” or “collectivist” (Triandis, 1995), the conceptualisation of cultural variations in educational goals
Miriam K. Rosenthal
Nearly fourteen years ago the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, triggered a national movement to improve patient safety. Despite the substantial and concentrated efforts that followed, quality and safety problems in health care continue to routinely result in harm to patients. Desired progress will not be achieved unless substantial changes are made to the way in which quality improvement is conducted. Alongside important efforts to eliminate preventable complications of care, there must also be an effort to seriously address the widespread overuse of health services. That overuse, which places patients at risk of harm and wastes resources at the same time, has been almost entirely left out of recent quality improvement endeavors. Newer and much more effective strategies and tools are needed to address the complex quality challenges confronting health care. Tools such as Lean, Six Sigma, and change management are proving highly effective in tackling problems as difficult as hand-off communication failures and patient falls. Finally, the organizational culture of most American hospitals and other health care organizations must change. To create a culture of safety, leaders must eliminate intimidating behaviors that suppress the reporting of errors and unsafe conditions. Leaders must also hold everyone accountable for adherence to safe practices. PMID:24101066
Chassin, Mark R
MFR PAPER 1257 Care and Maintenance of Squid Quality INTRODUCTION The squid resources in the proper handling of squid at sea and through the processing and dis- tribution stages. Typically, squid for squid is primarily a small-boat fishery, and the catch is sometimes not iced at sea. In southern New
The objective of this study was to define "quality" of headache care, and develop indicators that are applicable in different settings and cultures and to all types of headache. No definition of quality of headache care has been formulated. Two sets of quality indicators, proposed in the US and UK, are limited to their localities and/or specific to migraine and their development received no input from people with headache. We first undertook a literature review. Then we conducted a series of focus-group consultations with key stakeholders (doctors, nurses and patients) in headache care. From the findings we proposed a large number of putative quality indicators, and refined these and reduced their number in consultations with larger international groups of stakeholder representatives. We formulated a definition of quality from the quality indicators. Five main themes were identified: (1) headache services; (2) health professionals; (3) patients; (4) financial resources; (5) political agenda and legislation. An initial list of 160 putative quality indicators in 14 domains was reduced to 30 indicators in 9 domains. These gave rise to the following multidimensional definition of quality of headache care: "Good-quality headache care achieves accurate diagnosis and individualized management, has appropriate referral pathways, educates patients about their headaches and their management, is convenient and comfortable, satisfies patients, is efficient and equitable, assesses outcomes and is safe." Quality in headache care is multidimensional and resides in nine essential domains that are of equal importance. The indicators are currently being tested for feasibility of use in clinical settings. PMID:22733141
Peters, Michele; Jenkinson, Crispin; Perera, Suraj; Loder, Elizabeth; Jensen, Rigmor; Katsarava, Zaza; Gil Gouveia, Raquel; Broner, Susan; Steiner, Timothy
Background There is strong evidence to show that lower nurse staffing levels in hospitals are associated with worse patient outcomes. One hypothesised mechanism is the omission of necessary nursing care caused by time pressure—‘missed care’. Aim To examine the nature and prevalence of care left undone by nurses in English National Health Service hospitals and to assess whether the number of missed care episodes is associated with nurse staffing levels and nurse ratings of the quality of nursing care and patient safety environment. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 2917 registered nurses working in 401 general medical/surgical wards in 46 general acute National Health Service hospitals in England. Results Most nurses (86%) reported that one or more care activity had been left undone due to lack of time on their last shift. Most frequently left undone were: comforting or talking with patients (66%), educating patients (52%) and developing/updating nursing care plans (47%). The number of patients per registered nurse was significantly associated with the incidence of ‘missed care’ (p<0.001). A mean of 7.8 activities per shift were left undone on wards that are rated as ‘failing’ on patient safety, compared with 2.4 where patient safety was rated as ‘excellent’ (p?<0.?001). Conclusions Nurses working in English hospitals report that care is frequently left undone. Care not being delivered may be the reason low nurse staffing levels adversely affects quality and safety. Hospitals could use a nurse-rated assessment of ‘missed care’ as an early warning measure to identify wards with inadequate nurse staffing. PMID:23898215
Ball, Jane E; Murrells, Trevor; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Morrow, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Peter
The delivery of safe high quality patient care is a major issue in clinical settings. However, the implementation of evidence-based practice and educational interventions are not always effective at improving performance. A staff-led behavioral management process was implemented in a large single-site acute (secondary and tertiary) hospital in the North of England for 26 weeks. A quasi-experimental, repeated-measures, within-groups design was used. Measurement focused on quality care behaviors (ie, documentation, charting, hand washing). The results demonstrate the efficacy of a staff-led behavioral management approach for improving quality-care practices. Significant behavioral change (F [6, 19] = 5.37, p < 0.01) was observed. Correspondingly, statistically significant (t-test [t] = 3.49, df = 25, p < 0.01) reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained. Discussion focuses on implementation issues. PMID:18360574
Cooper, Dominic; Farmery, Keith; Johnson, Martin; Harper, Christine; Clarke, Fiona L; Holton, Phillip; Wilson, Susan; Rayson, Paul; Bence, Hugh
Hospitals have been looking for ways to improve quality and operational efficiency and cut costs for nearly three decades, using a variety of quality improvement strategies. However, based on recent reports, approximately 200,000 Americans die from preventable medical errors including facility-acquired conditions and millions may experience errors. In 2008, medical errors cost the United States $19.5 billion. About 87 percent or $17 billion were directly associated with additional medical cost, including: ancillary services, prescription drug services, and inpatient and outpatient care, according to a study sponsored by the Society for Actuaries and conducted by Milliman in 2010. Additional costs of $1.4 billion were attributed to increased mortality rates with $1.1 billion or 10 million days of lost productivity from missed work based on short-term disability claims. The authors estimate that the economic impact is much higher, perhaps nearly $1 trillion annually when quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are applied to those that die. Using the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) estimate of 98,000 deaths due to preventable medical errors annually in its 1998 report, To Err Is Human, and an average of ten lost years of life at $75,000 to $100,000 per year, there is a loss of $73.5 billion to $98 billion in QALYs for those deaths--conservatively. These numbers are much greater than those we cite from studies that explore the direct costs of medical errors. And if the estimate of a recent Health Affairs article is correct-preventable death being ten times the IOM estimate-the cost is $735 billion to $980 billion. Quality care is less expensive care. It is better, more efficient, and by definition, less wasteful. It is the right care, at the right time, every time. It should mean that far fewer patients are harmed or injured. Obviously, quality care is not being delivered consistently throughout U.S. hospitals. Whatever the measure, poor quality is costing payers and society a great deal. However, health care leaders and professionals are focusing on quality and patient safety in ways they never have before because the economics of quality have changed substantially. PMID:23155743
Andel, Charles; Davidow, Stephen L; Hollander, Mark; Moreno, David A
Presents some examples of the implications derived from imposing the objective of maximizing social welfare, subject to limited resources, on ethical care patients management in respect of quality performance of health services. Conventional knowledge of health economics points out that critically ill patients are responsible for increased use of technological resources and that they receive a high proportion of health care resources. Attempts to answer, from the point of view of microeconomics, the question: how do we measure comparative efficiency in the management of intensive care units? Analyses this question through data from an international empirical study using micro-economic measures of productive efficiency in public services (data envelopment analysis). Results show a 28.8 per cent level of technical inefficiency processing data from 25 intensive care units in the USA. PMID:10169231
Junoy, J P
Child care quality is usually measured along two dimensions--structural and process. In this paper the authors focus on process quality--the quality of child care center instructional practices and teacher interactions with students. They use an instrumental variables technique to estimate the effect of child care center process quality on…
Auger, Anamarie; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Burchinal, Peg; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Health care and today's medical and technical achievements and approved standards of treatment provide comprehensive quality, safety and traceability of medical procedures respecting the principles of health protection. Continuous education improves the quality of nursing health care and increases the effectiveness of patient care, consequently maintaining and enhancing patient safety. Patient health problems impose the need of appropriate, planned and timely nursing care and treatment. In providing quality nursing care, attention is focused on the patient and his/her needs in order to maintain and increase their safety, satisfaction, independence and recovery or peaceful death, so the health and nursing practices must be systematized, planned and based on knowledge and experience. Health and nursing care of patients at risk of developing acute and chronic wounds or already suffering from some form of this imply preventive measures that are provided through patient education, motivation, monitoring, early recognition of risk factors and causes, and reducing or removing them through the prescribed necessary medical treatment which is safe depending on the patient health status. Except for preventive measures, nursing care of patients who already suffer from some form of acute or chronic wounds is focused on the care and treatment of damaged tissue by providing appropriate and timely diagnosis, timely and proper evaluation of the wound and patient general status, knowledge and understanding of the wide range of local, oral and parenteral therapy and treatment, aiming to increase patient safety by preventing progression of the patient general condition and local wound status and reducing the possibility of developing infection or other complications of the underlying disease. In the overall patient management, through nursing process, medical interventions are implemented and aimed to maintain and optimize health status, prevent complications of existing diseases and conditions, provide appropriate wound treatment, increase satisfaction, reduce pain, increase mobility, reduce and eliminate aggravating factors, and achieve a satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcome. Many scientific researches and knowledge about the pathophysiological processes of wound formation and healing are currently available. Modern achievements can accelerate independence, reduce pain and encourage faster wound healing, thus it is important to continuously develop awareness, knowledge and experience, along with the treatment to achieve, maintain and enhance the quality of health care and patient safety. PMID:25326985
Fumi?, Nera; Marinovi?, Marin; Brajan, Dolores
Approximately four million adults in the United States are homebound, and many of them cannot access office-based primary care. Home-based medical care can improve outcomes and reduce health care costs, but this care operates in a quality measurement desert, having been largely left out of the national conversation on care quality. To address this shortcoming, two of the authors created the National Home-Based Primary and Palliative Care Network, an organization whose members include exemplary home-based medical practices, professional societies, and patient advocacy groups. This article describes the current status of home-based medical care in the United States and offers a brief narrative of a fictional homebound patient and the health events and fragmented care she faces. The article then describes the network's quality-of-care framework, which includes ten quality-of-care domains, thirty-two standards, and twenty quality indicators that are being tested in the field. The same two authors also developed a practice-based registry that will be used for quality-of-care benchmarking, practice-based quality improvement, performance reporting, and comparative effectiveness research. Together, these steps should help bring home-based medical care further into the mainstream of US health care. PMID:25561640
Leff, Bruce; Carlson, Charlotte M; Saliba, Debra; Ritchie, Christine
SUMMARY Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients’ homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition. PMID:23670849
JUNG, KYOUNGRAE; POLSKY, DANIEL
This article asks whether financial incentives can improve the quality of health care. A conceptual framework drawn from microeconomics, agency theory, behavioral economics, and cognitive psychology motivates a set of propositions about incentive effects on clinical quality. These propositions are evaluated through a synthesis of extant peer-reviewed empirical evidence. Comprehensive financial incentives--balancing rewards and penalties; blending structure, process, and outcome measures; emphasizing continuous, absolute performance standards; tailoring the size of incremental rewards to increasing marginal costs of quality improvement; and assuring certainty, frequency, and sustainability of incentive payoffs--offer the prospect of significantly enhancing quality beyond the modest impacts of prevailing pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Such organizational innovations as the primary care medical home and accountable health care organizations are expected to catalyze more powerful quality incentive models: risk- and quality-adjusted capitation, episode of care payments, and enhanced fee-for-service payments for quality dimensions (e.g., prevention) most amenable to piece-rate delivery. PMID:19296779
Conrad, Douglas A; Perry, Lisa
There is considerable policy interest in understanding the role of child care in children's development. Yet little research has examined whether individual children experience changes in child care quality across their early years, and less has included children's varying levels of exposure to care in analyses of child care trajectories. Using…
Hynes, Kathryn; Habasevich-Brooks, Tara
Although US health care expenditures reached 17.6 percent of GDP in 2009, quality measurement in this important service sector remains limited. Studying quality changes associated with 11 years of health care for patients ...
Eggleston, Karen N
Though principles, guidelines, and procedures for assessing the quality of foster care in kinship settings have been introduced, research on the factors that mediate the quality and outcome of kinship care has been ...
Chipman, Robert; Wells, Susan J.; Johnson, Michelle A.
Israel has made impressive progress in improving performance on key measures of the quality of health care in the community in recent years. These achievements are all the more notable given Israel's modest overall spending on health care and because they have accrued to virtually the entire population of the country.Health care systems in most developed nations around the world find themselves in a similar position today with respect to health care quality. Despite significantly increased improvement efforts over the past decade, routine safety processes, such as hand hygiene and medication administration, fail routinely at rates of 30% to 50%. People with chronic diseases experience preventable episodes of acute illness that require hospitalization due to medication mix-ups and other failures of outpatient management. Patients continue to be harmed by preventable adverse events, such as surgery on the wrong part of the body and fires in operating theaters. Health care around the world is not nearly as safe as other industries, such as commercial aviation, that have mastered highly effective ways to manage serious hazards.Health care organizations will have to undertake three interrelated changes to get substantially closer to the superlative safety records of other industries: leadership commitment to zero major quality failures, widespread implementation of highly effective process improvement methods, and the adoption of all facets of a culture of safety. Each of these changes represents a major challenge to the way today's health care organizations plan and carry out their daily work. The Israeli health system is in an enviable position to implement these changes. Universal health insurance coverage, the enrolment of the entire population in a small number of health plans, and the widespread use of electronic health records provide advantages available to few other countries.Achieving and sustaining levels of safety comparable to, say, commercial aviation will be a long journey for health care--one we should begin promptly.This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/1/1/3/ PMID:22913581
Chassin, Mark R
Currently, 1.2 million full-time equivalent employees (FTEs) care for more than 1.5 million residents in nursing homes where 75% of residents have dementia. By the year 2010, the number of residents in these institutions may double. Registered nurses (RNs) make up less than 7% of a home's total FTEs. In contrast, certified nursing assistants (CNAs) account for more than 40% of total FTEs. Thus, CNAs serve as the primary caregivers in nursing homes. Typically, CNAs have a high school education or less, and receive little more than minimum wage. Their extensive contact with residents has a tremendous impact on quality of life, but significant barriers limit their caregiving effectiveness. These barriers include poor pay, minimal long-term benefits, and insufficient training, recognition and support for their physically and emotionally labor-intensive care. This paper addresses the issues of training CNAs for dementia care by suggesting an organizational framework within which to view dementia training; providing an overview of barriers to empowering CNAs to provide quality care to dementia residents; reviewing research that has addressed a specific barrier; making recommendations for future research; and suggesting research approaches to address these recommendations. PMID:10202662
Beck, C; Ortigara, A; Mercer, S; Shue, V
In the health policy arena, policy-makers listen when physicians use quality as their battle cry in promoting or opposing health care innovations. Physician-managers are being challenged to measure quality and determine whether it is appropriate to deviate from community standards or expert opinion in providing care. Their responsibility extends to shaping their organization's culture and values, strategic planning, technology acquisition, and clinical performance. The effort to ascertain what constitutes genuinely effective medicine would be furthered by construction of a national Quality Reserve System. Designed to help--not police--individuals and organizations, it could accept data on diagnoses, processes of care, and functional outcomes and then provide "depositors" with evaluations of the effectiveness of various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, suggest improved processes, and report on the clinical performance of each organization. PMID:10286733
Ellwood, P M
Background Health information exchange is a national priority, but there is limited evidence of its effectiveness. Objective We sought to determine the effect of health information exchange on ambulatory quality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study over two years of 138 primary care physicians in small group practices in the Hudson Valley region of New York State. All physicians had access to an electronic portal, through which they could view clinical data (such as laboratory and radiology test results) for their patients over time, regardless of the ordering physician. We considered 15 quality measures that were being used by the community for a pay-for-performance program, as well as the subset of 8 measures expected to be affected by the portal. We adjusted for 11 physician characteristics (including health care quality at baseline). Results Nearly half (43%) of the physicians were portal users. Non-users performed at or above the regional benchmark on 48% of the measures at baseline and 49% of the measures at followup (p = 0.58). Users performed at or above the regional benchmark on 57% of the measures at baseline and 64% at follow-up (p<0.001). Use of the portal was independently associated with higher quality of care at follow-up for those measures expected to be affected by the portal (p = 0.01), but not for those not expected to be affected by the portal (p = 0.12). Conclusions Use of an electronic portal for viewing clinical data was associated with modest improvements in ambulatory quality. PMID:23646072
Kern, L.M.; Barrón, Y.; Dhopeshwarkar, R.V.; Kaushal, R.
Background Since 2000, Israel has had a national program for ongoing monitoring of the quality of the primary care services provided by the country's four competing non-profit health plans. Previous research has demonstrated that quality of care has improved substantially since the program's inception and that the program enjoys wide support among health plan managers. However, prior to this study there were anecdotal and journalistic reports of opposition to the program among primary care physicians engaged in direct service delivery; these raised serious questions about the extent of support among physicians nationally. Goals To assess how Israeli primary care physicians experience and rate health plan efforts to track and improve the quality of care. Method The study population consisted of primary care physicians employed by the health plans who have responsibility for the quality of care of a panel of adult patients. The study team randomly sampled 250 primary-care physicians from each of the four health plans. Of the 1,000 physicians sampled, 884 met the study criteria. Every physician could choose whether to participate in the survey by mail, e-mail, or telephone. The anonymous questionnaire was completed by 605 physicians – 69% of those eligible. The data were weighted to reflect differences in sampling and response rates across health plans. Main findings The vast majority of respondents (87%) felt that the monitoring of quality was important and two-thirds (66%) felt that the feedback and subsequent remedial interventions improved medical care to a great extent. Almost three-quarters (71%) supported continuation of the program in an unqualified manner. The physicians with the most positive attitudes to the program were over age 44, independent contract physicians, and either board-certified in internal medicine or without any board-certification (i.e., residents or general practitioners). At the same time, support for the program was widespread even among physicians who are young, board-certified in family medicine, and salaried. Many physicians also reported that various problems had emerged to a great or very great extent: a heavier workload (65%), over-competitiveness (60%), excessive managerial pressure (48%), and distraction from other clinical issues (35%). In addition, there was some criticism of the quality of the measures themselves. Respondents also identified approaches to addressing these problems. Conclusions The findings provide perspective on the anecdotal reports of physician opposition to the monitoring program; they may well accurately reflect the views of the small number of physicians directly involved, but they do not reflect the views of primary care physicians as a whole, who are generally quite supportive of the program. At the same time, the study confirms the existence of several perceived problems. Some of these problems, such as excess managerial pressure, can probably best be addressed by the health plans themselves; while others, such as the need to refine the quality indicators, are probably best addressed at the national level. Cooperation between primary care physicians and health plan managers, which has been an essential component of the program's success thus far, can also play an important role in addressing the problems identified. PMID:22913311
Background An association between quality of care and staffing levels, particularly registered nurses, has been established in acute hospitals. Recently an association between nurse staffing and quality of care for several chronic conditions has also been demonstrated for primary care in English general practice. A smaller body of literature identifies organisational factors, in particular issues of human resource management, as
Peter Griffiths; Jill Maben; Trevor Murrells
Health care professionals working in HIV\\/AIDS are dedicated to providing quality care for their clients. They also need to care for themselves. This study examines why burnout occurs and how it may be prevented in the care of clients with HIV\\/AIDS. The sample of Australian HIV\\/AIDS health care professionals (n = 84). consisted of 54 nurses, 16 doctors and 14
L. Bennett; M. Kelaher; M. Ross
OBJECTIVE: To assess user expectations and degree of client satisfaction and quality of health care provided in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 1913 persons chosen by systematic random sampling were successfully interviewed immediately after having received care in government health facilities. FINDINGS: The most powerful predictor for client satisfaction with the government services was provider behaviour, especially respect and politeness. For patients this aspect was much more important than the technical competence of the provider. Furthermore, a reduction in waiting time (on average to 30 min) was more important to clients than a prolongation of the quite short (from a medical standpoint) consultation time (on average 2 min, 22 sec), with 75% of clients being satisfied. Waiting time, which was about double at outreach services than that at fixed services, was the only element with which users of outreach services were dissatisfied. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores that client satisfaction is determined by the cultural background of the people. It shows the dilemma that, though optimally care should be capable of meeting both medical and psychosocial needs, in reality care that meets all medical needs may fail to meet the client's emotional or social needs. Conversely, care that meets psychosocial needs may leave the clients medically at risk. It seems important that developing countries promoting client-oriented health services should carry out more in-depth research on the determinants of client satisfaction in the respective culture. PMID:11436472
Mendoza Aldana, J.; Piechulek, H.; al-Sabir, A.
Clinical governance has been introduced as a new approach to quality improvement in the UK national health service. This article maps clinical governance against a discussion of the four main approaches to measuring and improving quality of care: quality assessment, quality assurance, clinical audit, and quality improvement (including continuous quality improvement). Quality assessment underpins each approach. Whereas clinical audit has,
S. A. Buetow; M. Roland
Context Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) play a crucial role in the nation’s rural safety net. Current policy efforts have focused primarily on helping these small, isolated hospitals remain financially viable to ensure access for Americans living in rural areas. However, we know little about the quality of care they provide, or the outcomes their patients achieve. Objective To examine the quality of care and patient outcomes at CAHs, and to understand why patterns of care might differ for CAHs versus non-CAHs. Design Retrospective analysis of national data from Medicare and other sources. Setting U.S. hospitals. Patients Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia, discharged in 2008–2009. Main Outcome Measures Clinical capabilities, performance on processes of care, and 30-day mortality rates. Results Compared to other hospitals, CAHs were less likely to have intensive care units (30.0% versus 74.4%, p<0.001), cardiac catheterization capabilities (0.5% versus 47.7%, p<0.001), and at least basic electronic health records (4.6% versus 9.9%, p<0.001). CAHs had lower performance on process measures than non-CAHs for all three conditions examined (Hospital Quality Alliance summary score for AMI 91.0% versus 97.8%, for CHF, 80.6% versus 93.5%, and for pneumonia 89.3% versus 93.7%, p<0.001 for each). Patients admitted to a CAH had higher 30-day mortality rates for each condition than those admitted to non-CAHs (for AMI, 23.5% versus 16.2%, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.61, 1.80), p<0.001; for CHF, 13.4% versus 10.9%, OR 1.28 (1.23, 1.32), p<0.001; and for pneumonia 14.1% versus 12.1%, OR 1.20 (1.16, 1.24) p<0.001). Conclusions Care in CAHs, compared with non-CAHs, is associated with worse processes of care and higher mortality rates. PMID:21730240
Joynt, Karen E.; Harris, Yael; Orav, E. John; Jha, Ashish K.
The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability. PMID:20572095
Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.
Electronic Patient Records can be interfaced with medical decision support systems and quality of care assessment tools. An easy way of measuring the quality of EPR data is therefore essential. This study identified a number of global quality indicators (tracers) that could be easily calculated and validated them by correlating them with the Sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of data extracted from the EPR. Sensitivity and PPV of automatically extracted data were calculated using a gold standard constructed using answers to questions GPs were asked at the end of each contact with a patient. These properties were measured for extracted diagnoses, drug prescriptions, and certain parameters. Tracers were defined as drug-disease pairs (e.g. insulin-diabetes) with the assumption that if the patient is taking the drug, then the patient is suffering from the disease. Four tracers were identified that could be used for the ResoPrim primary care research database, which includes data from 43 practices, 10,307 patients, and 13,372 contacts. Moderately positive correlations were found between the 4 tracers and between the tracers and the sensitivity of automatically extracted diagnoses. For some purposes, these results may support the potential use of tracers for monitoring the quality of information systems such as EPRs. PMID:23542969
De Clercq, Etienne; Moreels, Sarah; Van Casteren, Viviane; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Goderis, Geert
Background Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) defines a condition of varying degrees of pain near the lateral epicondyle. Studies on the management of LE indicated unexplained variations in the use of pharmacologic, non-pharmacological and surgical treatments. The main aim of this paper was to develop and evaluate clinical quality measures (QMs) or quality indicators, which may be used to assess the quality of the processes of examination, education and treatment of patients with LE. Methods Different QMs were developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts in Quality Management of Health Services during a period of one year. The process was based following a 3-step model: i) review and proportion of existing evidence-based recommendations; ii) review and development of quality measures; iii) pilot testing of feasibility and reliability of the indicators leading to a final consensus by the whole panel. Results Overall, a set of 12 potential indicators related to medical and physical therapy assessment and treatment were developed to measure the performance of LE care. Different systematic reviews and randomized control trials supported each of the indicators judged to be valid during the expert panel process. Application of the new indicator set was found to be feasible; only the measurement of two quality measures had light barriers. Reliability was mostly excellent (Kappa?>?0.8). Conclusions A set of good practice indicators has been built and pilot tested as feasible and reliable. The chosen 3-step standardized evidence-based process ensures maximum clarity, acceptance and sustainability of the developed indicators. PMID:24172311
BACKGROUND: Structured care is proposed as a lever for improving care for patients with chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of structured care characteristics, derived from the Chronic Care Model, with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and optimal clinical management in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients in primary care, as well as the association
Marije Bosch; Trudy van der Weijden; Richard Grol; Henk Schers; Reinier Akkermans; Louis Niessen; Michel Wensing
Competency System-Based Practice Sub Domain Health Care Quality Improvement Learning Objective 1 principles* (1) Â· Explains the value of interdisciplinary health care teams in improving patient care of an interdisciplinary health care team to ensure that care is continuous and reliable (3) Â· Describes strategies
Leistikow, Bruce N.
Interurban road crashes often result in severe Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Prehospital emergency care on interurban roads was rarely evaluated in the low- and middle-income countries. The study highlighted the availability and quality of prehospital care facilities on interurban roads in Pakistan, a low-income country. The study setting was a 592-km-long National highway in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Using the questionnaires adapted from the World Health Organization prehospital care guidelines [Sasser et al., 2005], managers and ambulance staff at the stations along highways were interviewed regarding the process of care, supplies in ambulances, and their experience of trauma care. Ambulance stations were either managed by the police or the Edhi Foundation (EF), a philanthropic organization. All highway stations were managed by the EF; the median distance between highway stations was 38 km (Interquartile Range [IQR]=27–46). We visited 14 stations, ten on the highway section, and four in cities, including two managed by the police. Most highway stations (n=13) received one RTI call per day. Half of stations (n=5) were inside highway towns, usually near primary or secondary-level healthcare facilities. Travel time to the nearest tertiary healthcare facility ranged from 31 to 70 minutes (median=48 minutes; IQR=30–60). Other shortcomings noted for stations were not triaging RTI cases (86%), informing hospitals (64%), or recording response times (57%). All ambulances (n=12) had stretchers, but only 58% had oxygen cylinders. The median schooling of ambulance staff (n=13) was 8 years (IQR=3–10), and the median paramedic training was 3 days (IQR=2–3). Observed shortcomings in prehospital care could be improved by public-private partnerships focusing on paramedic training, making available essential medical supplies, and linking ambulance stations with designated healthcare facilities for appropriate RTI triage. PMID:24406963
Bhatti, Junaid A.; Waseem, Hunniya; Razzak, Junaid A.; Shiekh, Naeem-ul-lah; Khoso, Ajmal Khan; Salmi, L.-Rachid
Interurban road crashes often result in severe Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Prehospital emergency care on interurban roads was rarely evaluated in the low- and middle-income countries. The study highlighted the availability and quality of prehospital care facilities on interurban roads in Pakistan, a low-income country. The study setting was a 592-km-long National highway in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Using the questionnaires adapted from the World Health Organization prehospital care guidelines [Sasser et al., 2005], managers and ambulance staff at the stations along highways were interviewed regarding the process of care, supplies in ambulances, and their experience of trauma care. Ambulance stations were either managed by the police or the Edhi Foundation (EF), a philanthropic organization. All highway stations were managed by the EF; the median distance between highway stations was 38 km (Interquartile Range [IQR]=27-46). We visited 14 stations, ten on the highway section, and four in cities, including two managed by the police. Most highway stations (n=13) received one RTI call per day. Half of stations (n=5) were inside highway towns, usually near primary or secondary-level healthcare facilities. Travel time to the nearest tertiary healthcare facility ranged from 31 to 70 minutes (median=48 minutes; IQR=30-60). Other shortcomings noted for stations were not triaging RTI cases (86%), informing hospitals (64%), or recording response times (57%). All ambulances (n=12) had stretchers, but only 58% had oxygen cylinders. The median schooling of ambulance staff (n=13) was 8 years (IQR=3-10), and the median paramedic training was 3 days (IQR=2-3). Observed shortcomings in prehospital care could be improved by public-private partnerships focusing on paramedic training, making available essential medical supplies, and linking ambulance stations with designated healthcare facilities for appropriate RTI triage. PMID:24406963
Bhatti, Junaid A; Waseem, Hunniya; Razzak, Junaid A; Shiekh, Naeem-Ul-Lah; Khoso, Ajmal Khan; Salmi, L-Rachid
The present study was designed to find whether evaluations of maternal competence are linked to mothers' employment status and the quality of maternal care. Participants rated videotaped vignettes, depicting either high-quality or low-quality mother-infant interactions, on various dimensions of care quality. The videotaped mothers were described…
Shpancer, Noam; Melick, Katherine M.; Sayre, Pamela S.; Spivey, Aria T.
Purpose – The purpose of this article to review the literature relating to improving paramedic care in an Australian context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents changes and challenges that have occurred in the ambulance services in terms of improving care and measuring performance, exploring the literature on quality improvement initiatives and their application to pre-hospital care. Findings – While hospitals
Russell Linwood; Gary Day; Gerrard FitzGerald; Brian Oldenburg
Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang
Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have attracted interest from many policy makers and clinical leaders because of their potential to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. Federal ACO programs for Medicare beneficiaries are now up and running, but little information is available about the baseline characteristics of early entrants. In this descriptive study we present data on the structural and market characteristics of these early ACOs and compare ACOs' patient populations, costs, and quality with those of their non-ACO counterparts at baseline. We found that ACO patients were more likely than non-ACO patients to be older than age eighty and had higher incomes. ACO patients were less likely than non-ACO patients to be black, covered by Medicaid, or disabled. The cost of care for ACO patients was slightly lower than that for non-ACO patients. Slightly fewer than half of the ACOs had a participating hospital. Hospitals that were in ACOs were more likely than non-ACO hospitals to be large, teaching, and not-for-profit, although there was little difference in their performance on quality metrics. Our findings can be useful in interpreting the early results from the federal ACO programs and in establishing a baseline to assess the programs' development. PMID:24395940
Epstein, Arnold M; Jha, Ashish K; Orav, E John; Liebman, Daniel L; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Zezza, Mark A; Guterman, Stuart
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in inpatient quality of care are well known. However, whether men and women receive equivalent ambulatory\\u000a care is less well understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To study gender differences in quality of care for patients receiving primary care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care\\u000a System.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional samples of VA enrollees during fiscal years 1999 to 2000.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Samples
Ashish K. Jha; Jonathan B. Perlin; Michael A. Steinman; John W. Peabody; John Z. Ayanian
...Disclosure of QIO interpretations on the quality of health care. 480.141 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS ACQUISITION, PROTECTION, AND DISCLOSURE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW...
...Disclosure of QIO interpretations on the quality of health care. 480.141 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS ACQUISITION, PROTECTION, AND DISCLOSURE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW...
As health care systems seek to provide patient-centered care as a cornerstone of quality, how to measure this aspect of quality has become a concern. Previous development of quality indicators for treating individual chronic disease has rarely included patient perspectives on quality of care. Using epilepsy as an exemplar, the authors sought to develop an approach to measuring patient-centered quality of care. They conducted six focus groups with adults with epilepsy. Using qualitative methods, the authors initially identified 10 patient-generated quality indicators, 5 of which were subsequently rated, along with literature-based quality indicators, by an expert panel using a modified RAND appropriateness methodology. The authors discuss similarities and differences in aspects of care patients and providers value as essential for good quality. The process presented in this article may serve as a model for incorporating patient perceptions of quality into the future development of quality indicators for chronic diseases. PMID:19074307
Bokhour, Barbara G; Pugh, Mary Jo; Rao, Jaya K; Avetisyan, Ruzan; Berlowitz, Dan R; Kazis, Lewis E
Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3%) fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress. PMID:23237601
Objective To promote evidence-based decision making regarding hospital staffing, the authors examined the characteristics of supplemental nurses, as well as the relationship of supplemental staff to nurse outcomes and adverse events. Background The use of supplemental nurses to bolster permanent nursing staff in hospitals is widespread but controversial. Quality concerns have been raised regarding the use of supplemental staff. Methods Data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses were used to determine whether the qualifications of supplemental nurses working in hospitals differed from permanent staff nurses. Data from Pennsylvania nurse surveys were analyzed to examine whether nurse outcomes and adverse events differed in hospitals with varying proportions of nonpermanent nurses. Results Temporary nurses have qualifications similar to permanent staff nurses. Deficits in patient care environments in hospitals employing more temporary nurses explain the association between poorer quality and temporary nurses. Conclusion Negative perceptions of temporary nurses may be unfounded. PMID:17939464
Aiken, Linda H.; Xue, Ying; Clarke, Sean P.; Sloane, Douglas M.
Objectives To assess existing advance care planning (ACP) practices in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Victoria, Australia before a systematic intervention; to assess RACF staff experience, understanding of and attitudes towards ACP. Design Surveys of participating organisations concerning ACP-related policies and procedures, review of existing ACP-related documentation, and pre-intervention survey of RACF staff covering their role, experiences and attitudes towards ACP-related procedures. Setting 19 selected RACFs in Victoria. Participants 12 aged care organisations (representing 19 RACFs) who provided existing ACP-related documentation for review, 12 RACFs who completed an organisational survey and 45 staff (from 19 RACFs) who completed a pre-intervention survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results Findings suggested that some ACP-related practices were already occurring in RACFs; however, these activities were inconsistent and variable in quality. Six of the 12 responding RACFs had written policies and procedures for ACP; however, none of the ACP-related documents submitted covered all information required to meet ACP best practice. Surveyed staff had limited experience of ACP, and discrepancies between self reported comfort, and levels of knowledge and confidence to undertake ACP-related activities, indicated a need for training and ongoing organisational support. Conclusions Surveyed organisations â policies and procedures related to ACP were limited and the quality of existing documentation was poor. RACF staff had relatively limited experience in developing advance care plans with facility residents, although attitudes were positive. A systematic approach to the implementation of ACP in residential aged care settings is required to ensure best practice is implemented and sustained. PMID:24644755
Silvester, William; Fullam, Rachael S; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Gilchrist, Jane
This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…
Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn
At the heart of the Institute of Medicine's re- port Crossing the Quality Chasm was the need to address the improvement of quality of care through major changes in how health care is organized. 1 The Institute of Medicine's central tenet was that only through significant, sus- tained, and innovative efforts to reorganize the health care system were substantive gains
Elizabeth M. Yano; Barbara F. Simon; Andrew B. Lanto; Lisa V. Rubenstein
Nursing home medical-record documentation of daily-care occurrence may be inaccurate, and information is not documented about important quality-of-life domains. The inadequacy of medical record data creates a barrier to improving care quality, because it supports an illusion of care consistent with regulations, which reduces the motivation and…
Schnelle, John F.; Osterweil, Dan; Simmons, Sandra F.
Rural health services are difficult to maintain because of low patient volumes, limited numbers of providers, and unfavorable economies of scale. Rural patients may perceive poor quality in local health care, directly impacting the sustainability of local health care services. This study examines perceptions of local health care quality in 7…
Nesbitt, Thomas S.; Marcin, James P.; Daschbach, Martha M.; Cole, Stacey L.
Background: National health care quality measures suggest that racial and ethnic minority populations receive inferior quality of care compared to whites across many health services. As the largest insurer of low-income and minority populations in the United States, Medicaid has an important opportunity to identify and address health care disparities. Methods: Using 2006 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS)
C. Annette DuBard; Angie Yow; Susan Bostrom; Emad Attiah; Brad Griffith; William Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Reports of higher quality care by higher-volume secondary care providers have fuelled a shift of services from smaller provider units to larger hospitals and units. In the United Kingdom, most patients are managed in primary care. Hence if larger practices provide better quality of care; this would have important implications for the future organization of primary care services. We
Sonia Saxena; Josip Car; Darren Eldred; Michael Soljak; Azeem Majeed
Abstract Background Most young children are in child care. Previous studies suggest that children may receive insufficient vegetables, and foods and beverages with added sugars, fats, and sodium in these settings. None have compared the nutritional quality of meals to snacks. Methods Directors from 258 full-day child-care centers in two urban counties of southwestern Ohio were surveyed via telephone in the fall of 2009 about their nutrition practices, and asked to provide a current menu. Lunch and afternoon snack menus were categorized according to average weekly frequency for fruits, vegetables, lean meats, juice (100%), and sweet or salty foods served. Frequencies were compared by meal occasion (lunch vs. snack) using the Fisher exact test. Results Most (60%) directors reported serving 2% milk to children ?3 years; 31% served whole milk. Menu analysis demonstrated the composition of lunches differed from snacks (p<0.0001) in all food categories. A total of 87% centers rarely (<1 time per week) listed nonstarchy vegetables for snacks, but 67% of centers included them at lunch ?3 times per week. Juice (100%) was on snack menus >2 times per week in 37% centers, but in only 1 center as a regular component of lunch. Similarly, 87% centers listed sweet and salty foods at snack ?3 times per week, but rarely at lunch. Conclusions Despite efforts to improve children's diets in child care, meals—and particularly snacks—still lack whole fruits and nonstarchy vegetables and contain added sugars and fats. Snacks represent a missed opportunity to improve the nutritional quality of foods served in childcare. PMID:23635311
Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Howald, Angela E.; Wosje, Karen S.
The Canadian Child Day Care Federation's National Statement on Quality Child Care suggests separate principles of quality care for center-based and family-based child care. The principles of quality center-based care are divided into seven areas, each with a statement of general philosophy. The philosophical principles are then defined in more…
Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).
Context. The benefits of continuity of pediatric care remain controversial. Objective. To determine whether there is an associa- tion between having a continuous relationship with a primary care pediatric provider and improved quality of care by parental report. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting and Population. Seven hundred fifty-nine pa- tients presenting to a primary care clinic completed sur- veys, which included
Frederick A. Connell; Dimitri A. Christakis; Jeffrey A. Wright; Frederick J. Zimmerman; Alta L. Bassett
Blue Shield ensures uninterrupted access to quality medical care after Palm Drive Hospital ceases emergency care and in-patient care at Palm Drive. We are working with our members to ensure a smooth of California member in the Sonoma County area seeking emergency medical services or inpatient care, please
Abstract This paper discusses the economic,rationale for alternative business models in private sector health care delivery. “Social franchising” and other business models of health care delivery secure cooperation between providers, and coordinating agencies in order to improve quality, access, and efficiency of primary health care (PHC) in the private sector. The paper develops a simple economic,theory of health care production
The aging of the nation in the coming decades will contribute to an increased demand for long-term care. Given this trend, it is becoming increasingly important to understand utilization of services along the continuum of care and to determine factors that influence the provision of quality care. These insights are needed to reduce national expenditures on long-term care and to
Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…
Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael
The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) is changing the direction of its quality assessment and improvement program from one that tries to identify and cull "bad apples" to one that tries to improve the mainstream of care. This strategy change is known as the "Health Care Quality Improvement Program." An important aspect of this strategy change is to develop a partnership with providers that will ensure the provision of quality improvement information that is valid and useful to them. The Health Care Quality Improvement Program consists of both quality improvement projects and a series of quality indicators. The Medicare Quality Indicator System will develop a small number of indicators or appropriateness criteria for each major medical condition that affects Medicare beneficiaries. This national monitoring system has three primary goals: (1) to track trends in the quality of care over time and in variations in the quality of care across regions; (2) to provide the basis for making decisions on where it would be appropriate to carry out quality-of-care improvement projects; and (3) to support the execution of these projects. Quality improvement projects are cooperative efforts designed to improve a specific aspect of care. The Cooperative Cardiovascular Project is an early quality improvement project focusing initially on acute myocardial infarction; it will later focus on coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary artery angioplasty. PMID:7979782
Jencks, S F
Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary
BACKGROUND: We examined the quality of adult epilepsy care using the Quality Indicators in Epilepsy Treatment (QUIET) measure, and variations in quality based on the source of epilepsy care. METHODS: We identified 311 individuals with epilepsy diagnosis between 2004 and 2007 in a tertiary medical center in New England. We abstracted medical charts to identify the extent to which participants
Mary Jo Pugh; Dan R Berlowitz; Jaya K Rao; Gabriel Shapiro; Ruzan Avetisyan; Amresh Hanchate; Kelli Jarrett; Jeffrey Tabares; Lewis E Kazis
Growing healthcare costs have caused home-care providers to look for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Task shifting is suggested as a strategy to reduce the costs of delivering home-care services. Task shifting refers to the delegation or transfer of tasks from regulated healthcare professionals to home-care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care provided to older adults from the perspectives of home healthcare workers. This qualitative study was completed in collaboration with a large home and community care organisation in Ontario, Canada, in 2010-2011. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 home healthcare workers including HCWs, home-care worker supervisors, nurses and therapists. Study participants reported that the most common skills transferred or delegated to HCWs were transfers, simple wound care, exercises, catheterisation, colostomies, compression stockings, G-tube feeding and continence care. A thematic analysis of the data revealed mixed opinions on the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care. HCWs and their supervisors, more often than nurses and therapists, felt that task shifting improved the quality of care through the provision of more consistent care; the development of trust-based relationships with clients; and because task shifting reduced the number of care providers entering the client's home. Nurses followed by therapists, as well as some supervisors and HCWs, expressed concerns that task shifting might compromise the quality of care because HCWs lacked the knowledge, training and education necessary for more complex tasks, and that scheduling problems might leave clients with inconsistent care once tasks are delegated or transferred. Policy implications for regulating bodies, employers, unions and educators are discussed. PMID:25471361
Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Zeytinoglu, Isik; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Barken, Rachel
...2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM...
...2011-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM...
...2012-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM...
Objective To describe the quality of care for chronic diseases among older people in care homes (nursing and residential) compared with the community in a pay for performance system.Design Retrospective analysis of The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large primary care database.Setting 326 English and Welsh general practices, 2008-9.Participants 10 387 residents of care homes and 403 259 residents in
Sunil M Shah; Iain M Carey; Tess Harris; Stephen DeWilde; Derek G Cook
The health care quality chasm is better described as a gulf for certain segments of the population, such as racial and ethnic minority groups, given the gap between actual care received and ideal or best care quality. The landmark Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century challenges all health care organizations to pursue six major aims of health care improvement: safety, timeliness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and patient-centeredness. “Equity” aims to ensure that quality care is available to all and that the quality of care provided does not differ by race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics unrelated to a patient's reason for seeking care. Baylor Health Care System is in the unique position of being able to examine the current state of equity in a typical health care delivery system and to lead the way in health equity research. Its organizational vision, “culture of quality,” and involved leadership bode well for achieving equitable best care. However, inequities in access, use, and outcomes of health care must be scrutinized; the moral, ethical, and economic issues they raise and the critical injustice they create must be remedied if this goal is to be achieved. Eliminating any observed inequities in health care must be synergistically integrated with quality improvement. Quality performance indicators currently collected and evaluated indicate that Baylor Health Care System often performs better than the national average. However, there are significant variations in care by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that indicate the many remaining challenges in achieving “best care” for all. PMID:16609733
Nicewander, David A.; Qin, Huanying; Ballard, David J.
We explore and compare the importance of various quality dimensions for health care and e-commerce web sites. The results show that the importance of various quality attributes for all except four of ten quality dimensions studied differ between health care and e-commerce web sites. These results can help health care managers to improve and/or to guide the design of their web sites. PMID:18998907
Le Rouge, Cynthia; De Leo, Gianluca
A study was undertaken to explore whether critical care nurses perceive that they have been adequately prepared during basic nursing education to care for the dying and their loved ones and to identify if there is a relation between their perceptions of preparedness and ability to provide end of life care and professional quality of life (PQOL). Findings indicate that there is a relationship between critical care nurse perceptions of preparedness and ability to care for the dying and their PQOL, with higher compassion satisfaction scores, lower compassion fatigue scores, and lower burnout scores for those who perceive themselves more prepared and better able to provide end of life care (N = 473). Thus, pedagogic interventions to enhance perceptions of preparedness and ability to care for the dying can potentially improved PQOL for nurses working in critical care areas, possibly diminishing the incidence of compassion fatigue and burnout. PMID:23759913
Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…
Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.
Background Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) populations have disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal\\u000a outcomes relative to other Australians. Poorer access to good quality maternal health care is a key driver of this disparity.\\u000a The aim of this study was to describe patterns of delivery of maternity care and service gaps in primary care services in\\u000a Australian Indigenous communities.
Alice R Rumbold; Ross S Bailie; Damin Si; Michelle C Dowden; Catherine M Kennedy; Rhonda J Cox; Lynette O’Donoghue; Helen E Liddle; Ru K Kwedza; Sandra C Thompson; Hugh P Burke; Alex DH Brown; Tarun Weeramanthri; Christine M Connors
Objective: To describe adherence to a number of quality indicators and clinical outcomes for asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart dis- ease, atrial fibrillation, and cerebrovascular disease in the primary care practices of the Practice Partner Research Network (PPRNet). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic design. Patients and Methods: PPRNet is a national research network of ambulatory, mostly primary care practices that
Steven M. Ornstein; Ruth G. Jenkins
We present a methodology for using health insurance claims data to monitor quality of care. The method uses a statistical model trained on the quality ratings of a medical expert. In a pilot study, the expert rated the ...
Bertsimas, Dimitris J.
Public disclosure of information about the quality of health plans, hospitals, and doctors continues to be controversial. The US experience of the past decade suggests that sophisticated quality measures and reporting systems that disclose information on quality have improved the process and outcomes of care in limited ways in some settings, but these efforts have not led to the "consumer choice" market envisaged. Important reasons for this failure include limited salience of objective measures to consumers, the complexity of the task of interpretation, and insufficient use of quality results by organised purchasers and insurers to inform contracting and pricing decisions. Nevertheless, public disclosure may motivate quality managers and providers to undertake changes that improve the delivery of care. Efforts to measure and report information about quality should remain public, but may be most effective if they are targeted to the needs of institutional and individual providers of care. Key Words: public disclosure; quality of health care; quality improvement PMID:11389318
Schneider, E; Lieberman, T
A major effect of today's emphasis on cost-cutting in health care has been reductions in the numbers and mix of registered nurses (RNs). RNs have increased concerns over patient and practitioner safety and patient care quality. The American Nurses Association (ANA) has a major, multi-phase project addressing these concerns, called Nursing's Safety and Quality Initiative. This initiative encompasses: nursing-sensitive quality indicators, educating staff nurses, researching the impact of skill mix on patient outcomes, political activities, a national database of nursing quality indicators, and liaisons and coalitions. These activities reflects ANA's commitment to patient and nurse safety and the quality of patient care. PMID:9529792
Rowell, P A; Milholland, D K
A significant step towards improving care of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was the creation of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) national guidelines and the quality standard. A BTS bronchiectasis audit was conducted between 1 October and 30 November 2012, in adult patients with bronchiectasis attending secondary care, against the BTS quality standard. Ninety-eight institutions took part, submitting a total of 3147 patient records. The audit highlighted the variable adoption of the quality standard. It will allow the host institutions to benchmark against UK figures and drive quality improvement programmes to promote the quality standard and improve patient care. PMID:23878159
Hill, Adam T; Routh, Chris; Welham, Sally
Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we recruited individuals from the local community to serve as undercover patients and trained them to present consistent symptoms of two common illnesses (dysentery and angina). Based on 82 covert interactions between the standardized patients and local clinicians, we find that the quality of care is low as measured by adherence to clinical checklists and the rates of correct diagnoses and treatments. Further analysis suggests that quality is most strongly correlated with provider qualifications. Our results highlight the need for policy action to address the low quality of care delivered by grassroots providers. PMID:24653216
Sylvia, Sean; Shi, Yaojiang; Xue, Hao; Tian, Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingmei; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott
Infrastructure for facility-based neonatal care has rapidly grown in India over last few years. Experience from developed countries indicates that different health facilities have varying clinical outcomes despite accounting for differences in illness severity of admitted neonates and random variation. Variation in quality of care provided at different neonatal units may account for variable clinical outcomes. Monitoring quality of care, comparing outcomes across different centers and conducting collaborative quality improvement projects can improve outcome of neonates in health facilities. Top priority should be given to establishing quality monitoring and improvement procedures at special care neonatal units and neonatal intensive care units of the country. This article presents an overview of methods of quality improvement. Literature reports of successful collaborative quality improvement projects in neonatal health are also reviewed. PMID:24705935
Chawla, Deepak; Suresh, Gautham K
This study identified training needs for Pennsylvania child care providers and assessed the impact of training, classroom/caregiver dynamics, and staff characteristics on child care quality. Participating were 29 family child care providers, 30 group homes, and 60 child care centers, stratified by type of site and geographic region. Quality of…
Iutcovich, Joyce; Fiene, Richard; Johnson, James; Koppel, Ross; Langan, Francine
The process of radiotherapy (RT) is complex and involves understanding of the principles of medical physics, radiobiology, radiation safety, dosimetry, radiation treatment planning, simulation and interaction of radiation with other treatment modalities. Each step in the integrated process of RT needs quality control and quality assurance (QA) to prevent errors and to give high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. Recent advances in RT, including intensity-modulated and image-guided RT, focus on the need for a systematic RTQA program that balances patient safety and quality with available resources. It is necessary to develop more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods, such as failure mode and effect analysis, to focus available QA resources optimally on process components. External audit programs are also effective. The International Atomic Energy Agency has operated both an on-site and off-site postal dosimetry audit to improve practice and to assure the dose from RT equipment. Several countries have adopted a similar approach for national clinical auditing. In addition, clinical trial QA has a significant role in enhancing the quality of care. The Advanced Technology Consortium has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials, including credentialing and individual case review. These activities have an impact not only on the treatment received by patients enrolled in clinical trials, but also on the quality of treatment administered to all patients treated in each institution, and have been adopted globally; by the USA, Europe and Japan also. PMID:18952706
BACKGROUND: The descriptive information now available for primary care in the UK is unique in international terms. Under the 'Quality and Outcomes Framework' (QOF), data for 147 performance indicators are available for each general practice. We aimed to determine the relationship between the quality of primary care, as judged by the total QOF score, social deprivation and practice characteristics. METHODS:
Mark Ashworth; David Armstrong
This study shows how practice factors, particularly payment type, affect quality and accessibility of primary care for adults with disabilities. The study consisted of: (a) a survey of practice characteristics, including accessibility, accommodations for disabled patients, and payment type; and, (b) a retrospective chart audit for quality of care indicators. The sample consisted of 513 patients within 73 doctors within
Mary Ann H. McColl; Sam Shortt; Duncan Hunter; John Dorland; Marshall Godwin; Walter Rosser; Ralph Shaw
This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…
Child Trends, 2010
Twenty-one million Americans are limited in English proficiency (LEP), but little is known about the effect of medical interpreter services on health care quality. A systematic literature review was conducted on the impact of interpreter services on quality of care. Five database searches yielded 2,640 citations and a final database of 36 articles, after applying exclusion criteria. Multiple studies document
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Attribution for quality of care and cost measures. 414.1240 Section 414.1240...Fee Schedule § 414.1240 Attribution for quality of care and cost measures. Beneficiaries are attributed to...
Quality is increasingly important to all stakeholders of the U.S. health care system. Endeavors to measure and improve quality have moved forward in cardiovascular disease , diabetes care , and surgical wound infections . However, in urology, such efforts have lagged. As a specialty, we are now faced with pressures, exerted primarily by payors, to roll out performance measures, or
Seth A. Strope; J. Stuart Wolf Jr.; Khaled S. Hafez; Rodney L. Dunn; John M. Hollingsworth; Scott M. Gilbert; Brent K. Hollenbeck
Using a cross-sectional design of 400 primary care patients with diabetes, the authors evaluated demographics, health status, subjective health and mental health, health behaviors, health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes treatment, satisfaction with medical care, and quality of medical care as potential predictors of QoL and QoL in the hypothetical…
Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony; Porter, Boaz
This report discusses efforts to ensure and promote quality child care through enforcement of state standards and other activities. The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 authorized the dispersing of funds to states for child care services through the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These funds are used…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.
A recent survey of 430 parents in southeastern Wisconsin finds the majority are satisfied with the quality of their child care arrangements and their options for child care. Most say they would not change anything about their child care arrangement if they had the chance, and nearly two-thirds report a willingness to pay more for their current…
Public Policy Forum, 2008
HIC 2001 Realising Quality Health Care * Paper reviewed according to DETYA standard 1999 Austin, D , et al. ISBN 0 9585370 8 9 Understanding community health care: Implications for technology design case study of a community health care setting. The intention of this study was to better understand
First Children's Finance is a national nonprofit organization located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, whose work strives to break the cycle of poverty, starting with those who care for and educate the nation's youngest citizens--child care businesses. First Children's Finance asks the question: How do Americans talk about providing quality child care…
Schlueter, Heidi H.
This study tests whether an outreach educational program tailored to institutional specific patient care practices would improve the quality of care delivered to mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients in rural hospitals. The study was conducted as a randomized control trial using 20 rural Iowa hospitals as the unit of analysis. Twelve randomly selected hospitals received an outreach educational
MICHAEL S. HENDRYX; JOHN F. FIESELMANN; M. JEANNE BOCK; DOUGLAS S. WAKEFIELD; CHARLES M. HELMS; SUZANNE E. BENTLER
Improving quality and safety of hospital care is now firmly on the health-care agenda. Various agencies within different levels of government are pursuing initiatives targeting hospitals and health professionals that aim to identify, quantify and lessen medical error and suboptimal care. Although not denying the value of such 'top-down' initiatives, more attention may be needed towards 'bottom-up' reform led by practising physicians. This article discusses factors integral to delivery of safe, high-quality care grouped under six themes: clinical workforce, teamwork, patient participation in care decisions, indications for health-care interventions, clinical governance and information systems. Following this discussion, a 20-point action plan is proposed as an agenda for future reform capable of being led by physicians, together with some cautionary notes about relying too heavily on information technology, use of non-clinical quality personnel and quantitative evaluative approaches as primary strategies in improving quality. PMID:18190414
Scott, I A; Poole, P J; Jayathissa, S
The authors assessed the quality of child care in a representative national sample of 42 child-care centers in the Netherlands and compared it with the quality of care that researchers have found using similar samples in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L. W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. J. M. Stams, M. J. E. Verhoeven, & E. J. Reiling, 1998) and 2001 (M. J. J.…
Vermeer, Harriet J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; de Kruif, Renee E. L.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Zeijl, Jantien
Background Physician job satisfaction is reportedly associated with interpersonal quality of care, such as patient satisfaction, but\\u000a its association with technical quality of care, as determined by whether patients are offered recommended services, is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective We explored whether the job satisfaction of hospital-employed physicians in Japan is associated with the technical quality\\u000a of care, with an emphasis on process qualities as
Makiko Utsugi-Ozaki; Seiji Bito; Shinji Matsumura; Yasuaki Hayashino; Shunichi Fukuhara
Introduction Receiving quality cancer follow-up care influences survivorship outcomes. Among Latinas, breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death; yet Latinas do not receive adequate follow-up care. This study examined quality of cancer follow-up care among Latina breast cancer survivors (BCS) and whether it differs by participant language and healthcare system variables (provider specialty, and medical setting). Methods Two hundred thirty-two (95 English-speaking Latina and 137 Spanish-speaking) Latina BCS were recruited from the California Cancer Registry, hospital cancer registries, and community agencies. Results English-speaking Latina BCS were more likely to report receiving cancer follow-up care at a doctor’s office (p<0.001). BCS without a regular place for cancer follow-up care were more likely to report not seeing a primary care provider (p<0.05) or cancer specialist (p<0.001) in the past 12 months. English-speaking Latina BCS (p<0.001), BCS who saw a cancer specialist in the past 12 months (p<0.001), and received follow-up care at a doctor’s office (p<0.05) reported higher quality of care. Speaking English, having seen a cancer specialist, and receiving follow-up care at a doctor’s office were independently associated with higher quality of care, explaining 44 % of the variance. Conclusions Our study findings suggest that examining the influence of ethnic and linguistic factors on quality of cancer follow-up care is necessary to address health disparities. Improved access to cancer follow-up care for Spanish-speaking Latina BCS is of particular concern. Implication of Cancer Survivors Identifying follow-up care needs of Latina BCS may contribute to providing high-quality care and improved survivorship outcomes. PMID:24563169
Ashing, Kimlin; Napoles, Anna
This study examined the increase in salivary cortisol from midmorning to midafternoon in 151 children (3.0-4.5 years) in full-time home-based day care. Compared to cortisol levels at home, increases were noted in the majority of children (63%) at day care, with 40% classified as a stress response. Observations at day care revealed that intrusive, overcontrolling care was associated with the cortisol rise. For girls, the cortisol rise was associated with anxious, vigilant behavior, while for boys the rise was associated with angry, aggressive behavior. Child behavior did not mediate or moderate relations between care quality and the cortisol rise, except for evidence that boys scoring low on angry, aggressive behavior were more sensitive to variations in warm, supportive care than boys scoring high on this behavior. PMID:20573109
Gunnar, Megan R; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Phillips, Deborah A
Objective: To find out the quality of ANC in the Upazila Health Complexes (PHC centres) of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was done in purposively selected three upazilas among the clients receiving antenatal care (ANC). Data were collected with questionnaire cum checklist in the context of two aspects of quality issues, namely assessment of physical arrangements for ANC (input) and services rendered by the providers (process). Results: The mean age of respondents was 24.6±4.5 years. Majority of the respondents were with primary level education (60.3%). About half (52.8%) of the families had monthly income ranging from 3000-5000 taka (38-64 US$). Nearly half (48.9%) had no child, little more than one third (42.3%) were primigravida and 528 (57.7%) were multigravida. Out of 528 multigravid respondents 360 (68.2%) took ANC in their previous pregnancy whereas 168 (31.8%) did not take ANC Pregnancy outcome was found to be associated with receiving ANC (?2=73.599; p=0.000). Respondents receiving ANC had more good pregnancy outcome. The mean waiting time for receiving ANC was 0.77±.49 hours. Out of the 13 centers, only 3 (23.1%) have sufficient instruments to render ANC services. Findings showed that where the modes of ANC service delivery in the ANC centers are fairly satisfactory. Though some of the points of standard operation procedures (SOPs) on ANC are not covered by some ANC centers, those were not considered necessary. But, regarding the physical facilities available for rendering ANC services, it is seen that facilities are not quite satisfactory. Number of doctors and nurses are not very satisfactory. One of the centers under this study has no doctor, where ANC services are given by nurses. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ANC services at the primary health care level is not adequate in Bangladesh. To ensure further improvement of the quality of ANC services, instruments used in logistics and supplies should be enhanced.
Mansur, Ahmed M. S. A.; Rezaul, Karim M.; Mahmudul, Hoque. M.; S, Chowdhury
PURPOSE Efforts to better understand the impact of clinic member relationships on care quality in primary care clinics have been limited by the absence of a validated instrument to assess these relationships. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale assessing relationships within primary care clinics. METHODS The Work Relationships Scale (WRS) was developed and administered as part of a survey of learning and relationships among 17 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics. A Rasch partial-credit model and principal components analysis were used to evaluate item performance, select the final items for inclusion, and establish unidimensionality for the WRS. The WRS was then validated against semistructured clinic member interviews and VA Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP) data. RESULTS Four hundred fifty-seven clinicians and staff completed the clinic survey, and 247 participated in semistructured interviews. WRS scores were significantly associated with clinic-level reporting for 2 SHEP variables: overall rating of personal doctor/nurse (r2 =0.43, P <.01) and overall rating of health care (r2= 0.25, P <.05). Interview data describing relationship characteristics were consistent with variability in WRS scores across low-scoring and high-scoring clinics. CONCLUSIONS The WRS shows promising validity as a measure assessing the quality of relationships in primary care settings; moreover, primary care clinics with lower WRS scores received poorer patient quality ratings for both individual clinicians and overall health care. Relationships play an important role in shaping care delivery and should be assessed as part of efforts to improve patient care within primary care settings. PMID:24218378
Finley, Erin P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Lanham, Holly Jordan; Leykum, Luci K.; Cornell, John; Veerapaneni, Poornachand; Parchman, Michael L.
Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care education,\\u000a self-care practices, and perceived self-care barriers, burdens, and benefits. We also explored the associations among self-care\\u000a education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors with known lymphedema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A cross-sectional design was used to obtain data about lymphedema self-care education, self-care
Sheila H. Ridner; Mary S. Dietrich; Nancy Kidd
Background Primary care services are often the main healthcare service for people with dementia; as such, good-quality care at this level is important. Aim To measure the quality of care provided to people with dementia in general practice using routinely collected data, and to explore associated patient and practice factors. Design and setting Observational, cross-sectional review of medical records from general practices (n = 52) in five primary care trusts. Method A total of 994 people with dementia were identified from dementia registers. An unweighted quality-of-care score was constructed using information collected in the annual dementia review, together with pharmacological management of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Multilevel modelling was carried out to identify factors associated with quality-of-care scores. Results In total, 599 out of 745 (80%) patients with dementia had received an annual dementia review; however, a social care review or discussion with carers was evident in just 305 (51%) and 367 (61%) of those 599 cases, respectively. Despite high prevalence of vascular disease, over a quarter (n = 259, 26%) of all patients with dementia were prescribed antipsychotics; only 57% (n = 148) of these had undergone medication review in the previous 6 months. Those with vascular dementia who were registered with single-handed practices received poorer quality of care than those registered with practices that had more than one GP. Conclusion Although the number of people with dementia with a record of an annual dementia review is high, the quality of these reviews is suboptimal. The quality score developed in this study could be used as one source of data to identify weaknesses in practice activity that need to be corrected, and so would be of value to commissioners and regulators, as well as practices themselves. PMID:22520775
Connolly, Amanda; Iliffe, Steve; Gaehl, Ella; Campbell, Stephen; Drake, Richard; Morris, Julie; Martin, Helen; Purandare, Nitin
This report of the Quality 2000 Initiative documents the quality crisis in early care and education in the United States, discussing the reasons for this crisis and suggesting a plan for improvement. Part 1 of the report: describes the mediocre quality of care cited in the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study, the erosion of quality since 1980,…
Kagan, Sharon L.; Cohen, Nancy E.
This study assesses the impact of competition on quality and price in the English care/nursing homes market. Considering the key institutional features, we use a theoretical model to assess the conditions under which further competition could increase or reduce quality. A dataset comprising the population of 10,000 care homes was used. We constructed distance/travel-time weighted competition measures. Instrumental variable estimations, used to account for the endogeneity of competition, showed quality and price were reduced by greater competition. Further analyses suggested that the negative quality effect worked through the effect on price – higher competition reduces revenue which pushes down quality. PMID:24487075
Forder, Julien; Allan, Stephen
A concrete and useful way to create an action plan for improving the quality of maternity care in the United States is to start with a view of the desired result, a common definition and a shared vision for a high-quality, high-value maternity care system. In this paper, we present a long-term vision for the future of maternity care in the United States. We present overarching values and principles and specific attributes of a high-performing maternity care system. We put forth the "2020 Vision for a High-Quality, High-Value Maternity Care System" to serve as a positive starting place for a fruitful collaborative process to develop specific action steps for broad-based maternity care system improvement. PMID:20123185
Carter, Martha Cook; Corry, Maureen; Delbanco, Suzanne; Foster, Tina Clark-Samazan; Friedland, Robert; Gabel, Robyn; Gipson, Teresa; Jolivet, R Rima; Main, Elliott; Sakala, Carol; Simkin, Penny; Simpson, Kathleen Rice
Background Antenatal care is a very important component of maternal health services. It provides the opportunity to learn about risks associated with pregnancy and guides to plan the place of deliveries thereby preventing maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. In ‘Pakistan’ antenatal services to rural population are being provided through a network of primary health care facilities designated as 'Basic Health Units and Rural Health Centers. Pakistan is a developing country, consisting of four provinces and federally administered areas. Each province is administratively subdivided in to ‘Divisions’ and ‘Districts’. By population ‘Punjab’ is the largest province of Pakistan having 36 districts. This study was conducted to assess the coverage and quality antenatal care in the primary health care facilities in ‘Punjab’ province of ‘Pakistan’. Methods Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used to collect data. Using multistage sampling technique nine out of thirty six districts were selected and 19 primary health care facilities of public sector (seventeen Basic Health Units and two Rural Health Centers were randomly selected from each district. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with clients, providers and health managers. Results The overall enrollment for antenatal checkup was 55.9% and drop out was 32.9% in subsequent visits. The quality of services regarding assessment, treatment and counseling was extremely poor. The reasons for low coverage and quality were the distant location of facilities, deficiency of facility resources, indifferent attitude and non availability of the staff. Moreover, lack of client awareness about importance of antenatal care and self empowerment for decision making to seek care were also responsible for low coverage. Conclusion The coverage and quality of the antenatal care services in ‘Punjab’ are extremely compromised. Only half of the expected pregnancies are enrolled and out of those 1/3 drop out in follow-up visits. PMID:25409502
Majrooh, Muhammad Ashraf; Hasnain, Seema; Akram, Javaid; Siddiqui, Arif; Memon, Zahid Ali
In an era of heightened accountability, remarkably little is known empirically about the quality of social work services. This article applies insights from health services research to propose a research agenda on the quality of care in the social services. The agenda calls for studies that address the definition of quality service, variations in…
McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Megivern, Deborah; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.; Dickey, Barbara
The paper focuses on the relationship between competition, quality, and voluntary disclosure of quality information by hospitals. So far, empirical evidence on this subject comes mostly from the US, which has a relatively long history of systematic data collection efforts creating harmonized datasets of quality indicators in health care. However, several European countries recently reforming their healthcare sectors have also
Ali Aouragh; Michiel Bijlsma; Pierre Koning; Victoria Shestalova
Background Care for falls and urinary incontinence (UI) among older patients is inadequate. One possible explanation is that physicians provide less recommended care to patients who are not as concerned about their falls and UI. Objective To test whether patient-reported severity for two geriatric conditions, falls and UI, is associated with quality of care. Research Design Prospective cohort study of elders with falls and/or fear of falling (n=384) and UI (n=163). Subjects Participants in the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders-2 Study (2002–3), which evaluated an intervention to improve the care for falls and UI among older (age ?75) ambulatory care patients with falls/fear of falling or UI. Measures Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Incontinence Quality of Life (IQOL) surveys measured at baseline, quality of care measured by a 13-month medical record abstraction. Results There was a small difference in falls quality scores across the range of FES, with greater patient-perceived falls severity associated with better odds of passing falls quality indicators (OR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02–1.21) per 10-point increment in FES). Greater patient-perceived UI severity (IQOL score) was not associated with better quality of UI care. Conclusions Although older persons with greater patient-perceived falls severity receive modestly better quality of care, those with more distressing incontinence do not. For both conditions, however, even the most symptomatic patients received less than half of recommended care. Low patient-perceived severity of condition is not the basis of poor care for falls and UI. PMID:21079526
Min, Lillian C.; Reuben, David B.; Keeler, Emmett; Ganz, David A.; Fung, Constance H.; Shekelle, Paul; Roth, Carol P.; Wenger, Neil S.
Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving health care quality. A number of integrated health care delivery systems use advanced information systems and integrated decision support to carry out quality assurance activities, but none as large as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The VHA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is a large-scale, multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative designed to ensure excellence in all areas where VHA provides health care services, including inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings. In this paper, we describe the role of information systems in the VHA QUERI process, highlight the major information systems critical to this quality improvement process, and discuss issues associated with the use of these systems. PMID:15187063
Hynes, Denise M.; Perrin, Ruth A.; Rappaport, Steven; Stevens, Joanne M.; Demakis, John G.
Background: Our aim was to determine the service quality of delivered care for people with Caesarean Section and Normal Delivery. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 people who had caesarean section and normal delivery in Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital in Tabriz, north western Iran. Service quality was calculated using: Service Quality = 10 – (Importance × Performance) based on importance and performance of service quality aspects from the postpartum women’s perspective.A hierarchical regression analysis was applied in two steps using the enter method to examine the associations between demographics and SQ scores. Data were analysed using the SPSS-17 software. Results: “Confidentiality”, “autonomy”, “choice of care provider” and “communication” achieved scores at the highest level of quality; and “support group”, “prompt attention”, “prevention and early detection”, “continuity of care”, “dignity”, “safety”, “accessibility and “basic amenities” got service quality score less than eight. Statistically significant relationship was found between service quality score and continuity of care (P=0.008). Conclusion: A notable gap between the participants? expectations and what they have actually received in most aspects of provided care. So, there is an opportunityto improve the quality of delivered care. PMID:25650105
Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Askari, Samira; Fardiazar, Zahra; Koshavar, Hossein; Gholipour, Kamal
Different professional reports set out recommendations for the delivery of high-quality services in cancer centers, units and primary health care. The explicit recommendations of the reports emphasized the need for cancer service to take account of the views and preferences of patients as well as of their families and careers. The assessment of the compliance with those recommendations is a base for the professional audit, measurement of the actual quality of care given, as well as the accreditation of cancer centers and units. Therefore, ensuring high quality in all areas of health care system is of great importance. PMID:12898839
Krasuska, Ma?gorzata E; Stanis?awek, Andrzej; Kurylcio, Lucjan; Daniluk, Jadwiga
Purpose: Literature on institutionalization of patients with dementia has not considered the role of caregivers' quality of care, which encompasses caregivers' exemplary care (EC) behaviors and caregivers' potentially harmful behaviors (PHBs) toward care recipients. This study sought to understand the role of quality of care in mediating between…
Sun, Fei; Durkin, Daniel W.; Hilgeman, Michelle M.; Harris, Grant; Gaugler, Joseph E.; Wardian, Jana; Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.
Purpose This study explores the short-term value of integrated care for the frail elderly by evaluating the effects of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care after three months. Intervention Frailty was preventively detected in elderly living at home with the Groningen Frailty Indicator. Geriatric nurse practitioners and secondary care geriatric nursing specialists were assigned as case managers and co-ordinated the care agreed upon in a multidisciplinary meeting. The general practitioner practice functions as a single entry point and supervises the co-ordination of care. The intervention encompasses task reassignment between nurses and doctors and consultations between primary, secondary and tertiary care providers. The entire process was supported by multidisciplinary protocols and web-based patient files. Methods The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In this study, 205 frail elderly patients of three general practitioner practices that implemented the integrated care model were compared with 212 frail elderly patients of five general practitioner practices that provided usual care. The outcomes were assessed using questionnaires. Baseline measures were compared with a three-month follow-up by chi-square tests, t-tests and regression analysis. Results and conclusion In the short term, the integrated care model had a significant effect on the attachment aspect of quality of life. The frail elderly patients were better able to obtain the love and friendship they desire. The use of care did not differ despite the preventive element and the need for assessments followed up with case management in the integrated care model. In the short term, there were no significant changes in health. As frailty is a progressive state, it is assumed that three months are too short to influence changes in health with integrated care models. A more longitudinal approach is required to study the value of integrated care on changes in health and the preservation of the positive effects on quality of life and health care use. PMID:25489294
Looman, Wilhelmina Mijntje; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina; Huijsman, Robbert
Pre-hospital critical care is considered to be a complex intervention with a weak evidence base. In quality improvement literature, the value equation has been used to depict the inevitable relationship between resources expenditure and quality. Increased value of pre-hospital critical care involves moving a system from quality assurance to quality improvement. Agreed quality indicators can be integrated in existing quality improvement and complex intervention methodology. A QI system for pre-hospital critical care includes leadership involvement, multi-disciplinary buy-in, data collection infrastructure and long-term commitment. Further, integrating process control with governance systems allows evidence-based change of practice and publishing of results. PMID:24887186
Pre-hospital critical care is considered to be a complex intervention with a weak evidence base. In quality improvement literature, the value equation has been used to depict the inevitable relationship between resources expenditure and quality. Increased value of pre-hospital critical care involves moving a system from quality assurance to quality improvement. Agreed quality indicators can be integrated in existing quality improvement and complex intervention methodology. A QI system for pre-hospital critical care includes leadership involvement, multi-disciplinary buy-in, data collection infrastructure and long-term commitment. Further, integrating process control with governance systems allows evidence-based change of practice and publishing of results. PMID:24887186
Rehn, Marius; Krüger, Andreas J
School Age Care (SAC) services have existed in Australia for over 100 years but they have tended to take a back seat when compared with provision for school-aged children and those under school age using early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. Many SAC services are housed in shared premises and many children attending preparatory or…
Cartmel, Jennifer; Grieshaber, Susan
Background In recent years, most Dutch general practitioners started working under the umbrella of diabetes care groups, responsible for the organisation and coordination of diabetes care. The quality management of these new organisations receives growing interest, although its association with quality of diabetes care is yet unclear. The best way to measure quality management is unknown and it has not yet been studied at the level of outpatient clinics or care groups. We aimed to assess quality management of type 2 diabetes care in care groups and outpatient clinics. Results Quality management was measured with online questionnaires, containing six domains (see below). They were divided into 28 subdomains, with 59 (care groups) and 57 (outpatient clinics) questions respectively. The mean score of the domains reflects the overall score (0-100%) of an organisation. Two quality managers of all Dutch care groups and outpatient clinics were invited to fill out the questionnaire. Sixty care groups (response rate 61.9%) showed a mean score of 59.6% (CI 57.1-62.1%). The average score in 52 outpatient clinics (response rate 50.0%) was 61.9% (CI 57.5-66.8%). Mean scores on the six domains for care groups and outpatient clinics respectively were: ‘organisation of care’ 71.9% (CI 68.8-74.9%), 76.8% (CI 72.8-80.7%); ‘multidisciplinary teamwork’ 67.1% (CI 62.4-71.9%), 71.5% (CI 65.3-77.8%); ‘patient centeredness’ 46.7% (CI 42.6-50.7%), 62.5% (CI 57.7-67.2%); ‘performance management’ 63.3% (CI 61.2-65.3%), 50.9% (CI 44.2-57.5%); ‘quality improvement policy’ 52.6% (CI 49.2-56.1%), 50.9% (CI 44.6-57.3%); and ‘management strategies’ 56.0% (CI 51.4-60.7%), 59.0% (CI 52.8-65.2%). On subdomains, care groups scored highest on ‘care program’ (83.3%) and ‘measured outcomes’ (98.3%) and lowest on ‘patient safety’ (15.1%) and ‘patient involvement’ (17.7%). Outpatient clinics scored high on the presence of a ‘diabetic foot team’ (81.6%) and the support in ‘self-management’ (81.0%) and low on ‘patient involvement’ (26.8%) and ‘inspection of medical file’ (28.0%). Conclusions This nationwide assessment reveals that the level of quality management in diabetes care varies between several subdomains in both diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics. PMID:25099641
In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…
Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Background In The Netherlands, mainly inexperienced physicians work in the ED on all shifts, including the evening and night shifts, when no direct supervision is available. In 2004 a report of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate revealed that quality of care at Emergency Departments (EDs) was highly variable. Based on this report and international studies showing significant potential for quality improvement, stakeholders felt the need to improve the quality of EM care. Based on the literature, a baseline measurement and a panel of experts, The Netherlands recently developed a nationwide quality requirement framework (QRF) for EM. This article describes the content of and path to this QRF. Methods To conduct a baseline measurement, the panel needed to identify measurable entities related to EM care at EDs. This was done by formulating both qualitative and partly quantitative questions related to the following competence areas: triage system, training of personnel (physicians and nurses), facilities and supervision of physicians. 27 out of 104 Dutch EDs were sampled via a cross-sectional study design, using an online survey and standardized follow-up interview in which the answers of the survey were reviewed. Results In the QRF, EM care is divided into a basic level of EM care and six competence certification areas (CCAs): (acute) abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute coronary syndrome, acute psychiatric behavioral disorder, cerebral vascular accident, pediatric critical care and infants with low birth weight. For the basic level of EM care and for every CCA minimum prerequisites for medical devices and training of personnel are established. The factors selected for the QRF can be regarded as minimum quality standards for EM care. A major finding of this study was that in The Netherlands, none of the 27 sampled EDs demonstrated compliance with these factors. Conclusion Our study shows that Dutch EDs fall short of what the expert consensus panelists considered minimum prerequisites for adequate EM care. The process of systematic enquiry allowed this information to come to light for the first time, which resulted in the implementation of a QRF for Dutch ED personnel, that is intended improve quality of EM care over time. This is an important development for the worldwide EM community as the QRF shows a way to generate interim standards to improve the chances of appropriate delivery of EM care when the gold standard of providing fully qualified EPs is not initially achievable. PMID:22621681
Objective To evaluate quality of routine and emergency intrapartum and postnatal care using a health facility assessment, and to estimate “effective coverage” of skilled attendance in Brong Ahafo, Ghana. Methods We conducted an assessment of all 86 health facilities in seven districts in Brong Ahafo. Using performance of key signal functions and the availability of relevant drugs, equipment and trained health professionals, we created composite quality categories in four dimensions: routine delivery care, emergency obstetric care (EmOC), emergency newborn care (EmNC) and non-medical quality. Linking the health facility assessment to surveillance data we estimated “effective coverage” of skilled attendance as the proportion of births in facilities of high quality. Findings Delivery care was offered in 64/86 facilities; only 3-13% fulfilled our requirements for the highest quality category in any dimension. Quality was lowest in the emergency care dimensions, with 63% and 58% of facilities categorized as “low” or “substandard” for EmOC and EmNC, respectively. This implies performing less than four EmOC or three EmNC signal functions, and/or employing less than two skilled health professionals, and/or that no health professionals were present during our visit. Routine delivery care was “low” or “substandard” in 39% of facilities, meaning 25/64 facilities performed less than six routine signal functions and/or had less than two skilled health professionals and/or less than one midwife. While 68% of births were in health facilities, only 18% were in facilities with “high” or “highest” quality in all dimensions. Conclusion Our comprehensive facility assessment showed that quality of routine and emergency intrapartum and postnatal care was generally low in the study region. While coverage with facility delivery was 68%, we estimated “effective coverage” of skilled attendance at 18%, thus revealing a large “quality gap.” Effective coverage could be a meaningful indicator of progress towards reducing maternal and newborn mortality. PMID:24312265
Nesbitt, Robin C.; Lohela, Terhi J.; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Edmond, Karen; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R.; Gabrysch, Sabine
This paper compares the cost and quality incentive effects of cost reimbursement and prospective payment systems in the health industry. When a provider cannot refuse patients who require high treatment costs or discriminate patients by qualities, optimally designed prospective payments can implement the efficient quality and cost reduction efforts, but cost reimbursement cannot induce any cost incentive. When the provider
Ching-to Albert Ma
Prepared as part of an effort to attain minimum quality standards for Brazilian day care centers, this document focuses on day-to-day provision of day care services for children from birth to 6 years old as well as broader day care administrative concerns. The first version of this document was prepared as part of a training project for day care…
Campos, Maria Malta; Rosemberg, Fulvia
A plethora of research links professional nurses' qualifications to patient outcomes. Also, research has shown that reports by nurses on the quality of care correspond with process or outcome measures of quality in a hospital. New to the debate is whether professional nurses' qualifications impact on their perceptions of patient safety and quality of care. This research aims to investigate professional nurses' perceptions of patient safety and quality of care in South Africa, and the relationship between these perceptions and professional nurses' qualifications. A cross-sectional survey of 1117 professional nurses from medical and surgical units of 55 private and 7 public hospitals was conducted. Significant problems with regard to nurse-perceived patient safety and quality of care were identified, while adverse incidents in patients and professional nurses were underreported. Qualifications had no correlation with perceptions of patient safety and quality of care, although perceptions may serve as a valid indicator of patient outcomes. Creating an organizational culture that is committed to patient safety and encourages the sharing of adverse incidents will contribute to patient safety and quality of care in hospitals. PMID:24102916
Blignaut, Alwiena J; Coetzee, Siedine K; Klopper, Hester C
The portion of the American population 65 years and older is growing rapidly, and the group 85 years and older is the largest growing segment of our population. The country's largest health maintenance organization, Kaiser Permanente, in Fontana, California, experienced a 9% growth in its membership between 1996 and 1997. Following the Kaiser national Model of Care recommendations, Fontana's Kaiser Permanente created their department of Extended Care Services and implemented programs that coordinated patient care across the continuum to meet the needs of its members who were 65 years and older. The programs included new member screening and orientation, telephonic care coordination, and a volunteer-based care call program. They also developed a medical management model that included a consultative geriatric assessment clinic and a primary care clinic as well as provision of team-based care to members residing in skilled nursing facilities. PMID:9856064
Bailey, M L
Abstract Objective. Randomized trials showed that changes in healthcare organization improved diabetes care. This study aimed to identify which organizational determinants were associated with patient outcomes in routine diabetes care. Design. Observational study, in which multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the impact of 12 organizational determinants on diabetes care as separate measures and as a composite score. Setting. Primary care practices in the Netherlands. Subjects. 11,751 patients with diabetes in 354 practices. Main outcome measures. Patients’ recorded glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels. Results. A higher score on the composite measure of organizational determinants was associated with better control of systolic blood pressure (p = 0.017). No effects on HbA1C or cholesterol levels were found. Exploration of specific organizational factors found significant impact of use of an electronic patient registry on HbA1c (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.12–2.88), availability of patient leaflets on systolic blood pressure control (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.06–6.35), and number of hours’ nurse education on cholesterol control (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.02–6.15). Conclusion. In routine primary care, it was found that favorable healthcare organization was associated with a number of intermediate outcomes in diabetes care. This finding lends support to the findings of trials on organizational changes in diabetes care. Notably, the composite measure of organizational determinants had most impact. PMID:25264939
Braspenning, Jozé C. C.; Wolters, René J.; Bouma, Margriet; de Grauw, Wim J. C.; Wensing, Michel
Background The incentivization of UK primary care through the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) has released an unprecedented supply of data that in theory could aid health equity audit and reduce health inequalities. The current system allows for 'exception reporting' whereby patients can be excluded from calculation of payment for reasons such as failure to attend review. We speculated that
L. A. Sigfrid; C. Turner; D. Crook; S. Ray
In this thesis, we describe the use of medical insurance claims data in three important areas of medicine. First, we develop expert- trained statistical models of quality of care based on variables derived from insurance ...
Czerwinski, David (David E.)
42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 423.2430 Section 423.2430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 422.2430 Section 422.2430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
Objective The authors examined the validity of documentation produced during paediatric emergency care to determine if a patient-driven health information technology called ParentLink produced higher-quality data than ...
Porter, Stephen Calder
ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to determine whether emergency department (ED) visit volume is associated with ED quality of care in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Chu-Lin Tsai; Brian H. Rowe; Rita K. Cydulka; Carlos A. Camargo Jr
We applied instrumental variable analysis to a sample of 388,690 Medicare beneficiaries predicted to be high-cost cases to estimate the effects of medical care use on the relative odds of death or experiencing an avoidable hospitalization in 2006. Contrary to conclusions from the observational geographic variations literature, the results suggest that greater medical care use is associated with statistically significant and quantitatively meaningful health improvements: a 10% increase in medical care use is associated with a 8.4% decrease in the mortality rate and a 3.8% decrease in the rate of avoidable hospitalizations. PMID:22399369
Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D
?? Chronic conditions are increasingly the primary concern of healthcare systems throughout the world. In response to this challenge, the World Health Organization has joined with the MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation to adapt the Chronic Care Model (CCM) from a global perspective. The resultant effort is the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) framework which expands community and policy aspects of improving health care for chronic conditions and includes components at the micro (patient and family), meso (healthcare organisation and community), and macro (policy) levels. The framework provides a flexible but comprehensive base on which to build or redesign health systems in accordance with local resources and demands. PMID:15289634
Epping-Jordan, J; Pruitt, S; Bengoa, R; Wagner, E
Background With increasing incidence of traumatic fractures, the use of orthopedic intervention such as traction has increased. Inappropriate traction care may cause substantial morbidity and delay the patient rehabilitation. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of care for patients with traction in the orthopedic unit of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods This observational study was conducted on 100 patients with traumatic fractures of hip and femur bones who were admitted to Kashan Shahid-Beheshti Hospital during the first 6 months of 2012, and for whom skeletal or skin traction was performed. Data were collected using a checklist including questions about the personal characteristics and 23 items related to care for patients with tractions. These items were in three domains including caring while establishing traction, recording care and patient’s education. Descriptive statistics were calculated and data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The mean age of patients was 51.16 ± 23.28 years and 66% of them were male. In total, 47% of the patients were treated by skin traction and 53% by skeletal traction. The overall mean score of quality of care was 10.20 ± 2.64. Quality of establishing traction was good in 55% of patients, but the quality of care was poor in the domains of recording care (88%) and patient education (96%). Total mean of quality of care was significantly different between male and female patients (P < 0.02). Conclusions The quality of care of patients with traction was not optimal. Therefore it is necessary to improve measures in this area. PMID:24396800
Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh
Efforts to improve community-based children’s mental health care should be based on valid information about effective practices and current routine practices. Emerging research on routine care practices and outcomes has identified discrepancies between evidence-based practices and “usual care.” These discrepancies highlight potentially potent quality improvement interventions. This article reviews existing research on routine or “usual care” practice, identifies strengths and weaknesses in routine psychotherapeutic care, as well as gaps in knowledge, and proposes quality improvement recommendations based on existing data to improve the effectiveness of children’s mental health care. The two broad recommendations for bridging the research-practice gap are to implement valid, feasible measurement feedback systems and clinician training in common elements of evidence-based practice. PMID:20177769
Bickman, Leonard; Chorpita, Bruce F.
In 2004, the National Quality Forum (NQF) endorsed a set of voluntary consensus standards for nursing-sensitive care that quantifies nursing's contribution to patient safety, health care outcomes, and a professional work environment. Since endorsement, these consensus standards have been the basis for research, quality improvement, and policy setting. This article provides a summary of NQF's consensus development process and various efforts that have cascaded from the endorsement of these consensus standards. PMID:17470769
Kurtzman, Ellen T; Corrigan, Janet M
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Reporting of sentinel events. (1) Definition...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when a nutritional deficiency is identified. (j)...
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Reporting of Sentinel Events —(1) Definition...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when a nutritional deficiency is identified. (k)...
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Reporting of Sentinel Events —(1) Definition...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when a nutritional deficiency is identified. (k)...
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Reporting of sentinel events. (1) Definition...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when a nutritional deficiency is identified. (j)...
...10N1-22), Assistant Deputy Under Secretary for Health (10N), and Chief Consultant, Geriatrics and Extended Care Strategic Healthcare Group (114), within 24 hours of identification and/or notification by the State home. (4) The program...
...of jurisdiction must report sentinel events by calling VA Network Director (10N 1-22) and Chief Consultant, Office of Geriatrics and Extended Care (114) within 24 hours of notification. (4) The facility management must establish a...
...of jurisdiction must report sentinel events by calling VA Network Director (10N 1-22) and Chief Consultant, Office of Geriatrics and Extended Care (114) within 24 hours of notification. (4) The facility management must establish a...
Objective: To examine the effects of nurse staffing and organizational support for nursing care on nurses' dissatisfaction with their jobs, nurse burnout, and nurse reports of quality of patient care in an international sample of hospitals. Design: Multisite cross-sectional survey Setting: Adult acute-care hospitals in the U.S. (Pennsylvania), Canada (Ontario and British Columbia), England and Scotland. Study Participants: 10319 nurses
Linda H. Aiken; Sean P. Clarke; Douglas M. Sloane
Objective. To evaluate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and study its determinants in adult patients discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU). Design. Cohort study. Setting. Intensive care unit (ICU), tertiary care hospital, Oporto, Portugal. Patients. Of all the patients discharged over a 2year period, 355 were considered eligible and 275 completed the study. Measurements and results. Patients were interviewed
Cristina Granja; Armando Teixeira-Pinto; Altamiro Costa-Pereira
Optimizing patient experiences with care is especially important in cancer because cancer care is often complex and involves communication with and coordination across providers of multiple specialties and across multiple institutional settings. Unsatisfactory interactions with the health care system pose an additional burden on patients when they are already ill and vulnerable. More importantly, less-than-optimal patient experiences can have a significant negative impact on patients’ health-related quality of life.
Research Findings: With a substantial number of young children receiving care in family child care settings, an examination of the characteristics, both structural and attitudinal, that predict program quality is warranted. The current study examines gaps in the research by examining both structural characteristics and provider beliefs that…
Hughes-Belding, Kere; Hegland, Susan; Stein, Amanda; Sideris, John; Bryant, Donna
During a number of years Swedish municipalities have work with improvement of competence and long-term quality in elderly care. The overall aim of the present study was to compare different learning activities (workplace improvement and/or courses), and to relate these activities to learning climate, learning strategies, and perception of care…
Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan
Background: No state peer review organization has at- tempted to identify processes of care related to pressure ulcer prediction and prevention in US hospitals. Objective: To profile and evaluate the processes of care for Medicare patients hospitalized at risk for pressure ul- cer development by means of the Medicare Quality In- dicator System pressure ulcer prediction and preven- tion module.
Courtney H. Lyder; Jeanette Preston; Jacqueline N. Grady; Jeanne Scinto; Richard Allman; Nancy Bergstrom; George Rodeheaver
background We have little systematic information about the extent to which standard processes in- volved in health care — a key element of quality — are delivered in the United States. methods We telephoned a random sample of adults living in 12 metropolitan areas in the United States and asked them about selected health care experiences. We also received written
Elizabeth A. McGlynn; Steven M. Asch; John Adams; Joan Keesey; Jennifer Hicks; Alison DeCristofaro; Eve A. Kerr
Much of child care research has focused on the effects of the quality of care in early childhood settings on children's school readiness skills. Although researchers increased the statistical rigor of their approaches over the past 15 years, researchers' ability to draw causal inferences has been limited because the studies are based on…
Auger, Anamarie; Farkas, George; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
There is an increasing number of studies showing that patients often do not receive necessary care or receive care that is not needed, inefficient or even damaging. There is no lack of ideas and approaches on how to improve practice. In the last decades we have seen the rise of fascinating models for quality improvement, for instance Evidence Based Medicine,
Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are preva- lent and cause substantial morbidity. While effective treat- ments exist, little is known about the quality of care for these disorders nationally. We estimated the rate of ap- propriate treatment among the US population with these disorders, and the effect of insurance, provider type, and individual characteristics on receipt of appropriate care. Methods:
Alexander S. Young; Ruth Klap; Cathy D. Sherbourne; Kenneth B. Wells
Describes characteristics of a high-quality school-age care program: resourceful, caring staff; recognition of the importance of peers; opportunities for mixed- and same-age grouping; children's selection of activities and experiences; guidance for children's social and emotional development; and environments that encourage a wide variety of…
Compared palliative care staff with staff from burn and neonatal units and with mature age general nursing trainees at end of training. Found that palliative care staff expressed better quality of life, in terms of significantly less anxiety and depression, as well as more good feelings than other staff groups. (Author/NB)
Viney, Linda L.; And Others
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
A survey of 414 child care providers in southeastern Wisconsin reveals that cost as well as low wages and lack of benefits for workers can constrain providers from pursuing improvements to child-care quality. Of survey respondents, approximately half of whom are home-based and half center-based, 13% have at least three of five structural factors…
Public Policy Forum, 2008
Family day-care (FDC) educators work autonomously to provide care and education for children of mixed ages, backgrounds and abilities. To meet the demands and opportunities of their work and regulatory requirements, educators need access to context-relevant and high quality information. No previous research has examined how and where these workers…
Corr, L.; Davis, E.; Cook, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Sims, M.; Herrman, H.
The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Background Compared with younger people, older people have a higher risk of adverse health outcomes when presenting to emergency departments. As the population ages, older people will make up an increasing proportion of the emergency department population. Therefore it is timely that consideration be given to the quality of care received by older persons in emergency departments, and to consideration of those older people with special needs. Particular attention will be focused on important groups of older people, such as patients with cognitive impairment, residents of long term care and patients with palliative care needs. This project will develop a suite of quality indicators focused on the care of older persons in the emergency department. Methods/design Following input from an expert panel, an initial set of structural, process, and outcome indicators will be developed based on thorough systematic search in the scientific literature. All initial indicators will be tested in eight emergency departments for their validity and feasibility. Results of the data from the field studies will be presented to the expert panel at a second meeting. A suite of Quality Indicators for the older emergency department population will be finalised following a formal voting process. Discussion The predicted burgeoning in the number of older persons presenting to emergency departments combined with the recognised quality deficiencies in emergency department care delivery to this population, highlight the need for a quality framework for the care of older persons in emergency departments. Additionally, high quality of care is associated with improved survival & health outcomes of elderly patients. The development of well-selected, validated and economical quality indicators will allow appropriate targeting of resources (financial, education or quality management) to improve quality in areas with maximum potential for improvement. PMID:24314126
Background Despite significant investments and reforms, health care remains poor for many in Africa. To design an intervention to improve access and quality of health care at health facilities in eastern Uganda, we aimed to understand local priorities for qualities in health care, and factors that enable or prevent these qualities from being enacted. Methods In 2009 to 2010, we carried out 69 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with 65 health workers at 17 health facilities, and 10 focus group discussions with 113 community members in Tororo District, Uganda. Results Health-care workers and seekers valued technical, interpersonal and resource qualities in their aspirations for health care. However, such qualities were frequently not enacted, and our analysis suggests that meeting aspirations required social and financial resources to negotiate various power structures. Conclusions We argue that achieving aspirations for qualities valued in health care will require a genuine reorientation of focus by health workers and their managers toward patients, through renewed respect and support for these providers as professionals. PMID:23521859
... 2010-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...
... 2011-10-01 false Review of the quality of care of risk-basis health maintenance...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review...
Objective Family caregivers often accompany patients to medical visits; however, it is unclear whether caregivers rate the quality of patients' care similarly to patients. This study aimed to (1) quantify the level of agreement between patients' and caregivers' reports on the quality of patients' care and (2) determine how the level of agreement varies by caregiver and patient characteristics. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Participants Multimorbid older (aged 65 and above) adults and their family caregivers (n = 247). Methods Quality of care was rated separately by patients and their caregivers using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) instrument. The level of agreement was examined using a weighted kappa statistic (Kw). Results Agreement of caregivers' and patients' PACIC scores was low (Kw = 0.15). Patients taking ten or more medications per day showed less agreement with their caregivers about the quality of care than patients taking five or fewer medications (Kw = 0.03 and 0.34, respectively, P < 0.05). Caregivers who reported greater difficulty assisting patients with health care tasks had less agreement with patients about the quality of care being provided when compared with caregivers who reported no difficulty (Kw = ?0.05 and 0.31, respectively, P < .05). Patient–caregiver dyads had greater agreement on objective questions than on subjective questions (Kw = 0.25 and 0.15, respectively, P > 0.05). Conclusion Patient–caregiver dyads following a more complex treatment plan (i.e. taking many medications) or having more difficulty following a treatment plan (i.e. having difficulty with health care tasks) had less agreement. Future qualitative research is needed to elucidate the underlying reasons patients and caregivers rate the quality of care differently. PMID:23980119
Giovannetti, Erin R.; Reider, Lisa; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Frick, Kevin D.; Boult, Chad; Steinwachs, Don; Boyd, Cynthia M.
Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25120917
Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A
OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ? 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days) for assistance, and waiting time (in hours) in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services.
Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Thumé, Elaine; Tomasi, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
Background Postnatal care is an important link in the continuum of care for maternal and child health. However, coverage and quality of postnatal care are poor in low- and middle-income countries. In 2009, the Chinese government set a policy providing free postnatal care services to all mothers and their newborns in China. Our study aimed at exploring coverage, quality of care, reasons for not receiving and barriers to providing postnatal care after introduction of this new policy. Methods We carried out a mixed method study in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China from July to August 2011. To quantify the coverage, quality of care and reasons for not using postnatal care, we conducted a household survey with 1601 caregivers of children younger than two years of age. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 township maternal and child healthcare workers to evaluate their views on workload, in-service training and barriers to postnatal home visits. Results Of 1442 (90% of surveyed caregivers) women who completed the postnatal care survey module, 8% received a timely postnatal home visit (within one week after delivery) and 24% of women received postnatal care within 42 days after delivery. Among women who received postnatal care, 37% received counseling or guidance on infant feeding and 32% on cord care. 24% of women reported that the service provider checked jaundice of their newborns and 18% were consulted on danger signs and thermal care of their newborns. Of 991 mothers who did not seek postnatal care within 42 days after birth, 65% of them said that they did not knew about postnatal care and 24% of them thought it was unnecessary. Qualitative findings revealed that staff shortages and inconvenient transportation limited maternal and child healthcare workers in reaching out to women at home. In addition, maternal and child healthcare workers said that in-service training was inadequate and more training on postnatal care, hands-on practice, and supervision were needed. Conclusions Coverage and quality of postnatal care were low in rural Hebei Province and far below the targets set by Chinese government. We identified barriers both from the supply and demand side. PMID:24438644
As a growing specialty, telephone nursing practice requires definition, standardization, and identification of quality indicators and nursing-sensitive outcomes. An informal study was conducted to explore the relationship between telephone nursing quality indicators-assessment, critical thinking, use of protocols, and continuity of care-found in documentation and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Findings provide insight into the telephone process of care and application of critical thinking reflected in documentation and greater understanding of the complexity of telephone nursing practice and integration of care and outcomes. PMID:11263064
Larson-Dahn, M L
In an empirical study of the quality of care at a free clinic, criteria for optimal care for female first visits for birth control were established and 100 charts were reviewed, 50 in April 1974 and 50 in April 1975 with an interval in between of in-service training accompanied by new medical forms and procedures. An encouraging improvement in record keeping was observed. The authors feel it is important that free clinics concentrate on quality as well as quantity and accessibility of care. PMID:970516
Grover, M; Greenberg, T
Background In Canada, healthcare aides (also referred to as nurse aides, personal support workers, nursing assistants) are unregulated personnel who provide 70-80% of direct care to residents living in nursing homes. Although they are an integral part of the care team their contributions to the resident care planning process are not always acknowledged in the organization. The purpose of the Safer Care for Older Persons [in residential] Environments (SCOPE) project was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging front line staff (primarily healthcare aides) to use quality improvement methods to integrate best practices into resident care. This paper describes the process used by teams participating in the SCOPE project to select clinical improvement areas. Methods The study employed a collaborative approach to identify clinical areas and through consensus, teams selected one of three areas. To select the clinical areas we recruited two nursing homes not involved in the SCOPE project and sampled healthcare providers and decision-makers within them. A vote counting method was used to determine the top five ranked clinical areas for improvement. Results Responses received from stakeholder groups included gerontology experts, decision-makers, registered nurses, managers, and healthcare aides. The top ranked areas from highest to lowest were pain/discomfort management, behaviour management, depression, skin integrity, and assistance with eating. Conclusions Involving staff in selecting areas that they perceive as needing improvement may facilitate staff engagement in the quality improvement process. PMID:23009173
Purpose: This study examined whether providing outcomes information to 120 nursing homes facilitated improvements in quality over a 12-month period, as compared with 1,171 facilities not receiving this information. The outcomes information provided consisted of a report mailed to administrators that examined six measures of care quality. These…
Castle, Nicholas G.
This study uses a nationally representative sample of nursing homes and nursing home residents to examine the effect of Medicaid reimbursement on quality of care. The analysis shows that both reimbursement approach and level affect nursing home quality, as measured by case-mix adjusted staff to resident ratios. The analysis also shows that staffing ratios have a significant impact on resident
Joel W. Cohen; William D. Spector
Background: In spite of the introduction of free maternal healthcare in Ghana, utilization of supervised delivery services continues to be low due partly to poor quality of antenatal care (ANC). Aim: The study sought to identify the determinants of perceived quality of ANC and uptake of skilled delivery services. Subjects and Methods: A total of 363 expectant mothers were randomly selected in urban health facilities for interview. Logistic regression models were computed to examine the relative odds of reporting quality of antenatal as good and the intention to receive skilled delivery care. Results: The odds of reporting ANC quality as good was high for women aged between 30 and 34 years. Perceived quality of ANC increases with increasing access to education but more likely to be higher for women attaining senior high education. Distance to the health facility influences quality perception, but the odds of reporting quality of care as good attenuated with proximity to the health facility. Finally, uptake of supervised delivery services was high for women aged between 35 and 39 years, women with at least junior high education; living close to the health facility and in their second and third trimester. Conclusion: Study's findings demonstrate the need to improve the quality of maternal health services in public health facilities to encourage women to deliver under skilled care providers. PMID:25364600
Atinga, RA; Baku, AA; Adongo, PB
IntroductionDiabetes mellitus patients need a multidisciplinary management and rigorous follow up. Quality indicators are important to assess and improve the quality of the health-care delivery. Less straightforward, however, is choosing which indicators to use for the assessment of the disease management.
Johan Wens; Kristien Dirven; Chantal Mathieu; Dominique Paulus; Paul Van Royen
BACKGROUND: Guidelines have set goals for risk factor management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. These goals are often not met. In this analysis, we set out to assess the quality of risk factor management in CKD and to identify factors that determine the quality of care (QoC). For that purpose, baseline data of the MASTERPLAN (Multifactorial Approach and Superior
A. D. van Zuilen; P. J. Blankestijn; M. van Buren; M. A. G. J. ten Dam; K. A. H. Kaasjager; G. Ligtenberg; Y. W. J. Sijpkens; H. E. Sluiter; P. J. G. van de Ven; G. M. M. Vervoort; L. J. Vleming; M. L. Bots; J. F. M. Wetzels
The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years ("n" = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending…
Cote, Sylvana M.; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Seguin, Jean R.; Tremblay, Richard E.
Although early care and education have gained some momentum in recent years, shortfalls in quality are still pervasive. This book defines the elements of a high-quality system and suggests strategies for improvement. Frontmatter includes a preface, editors' and contributors' biographies, and an introduction entitled "The Changing Context of…
Kagan, Sharon L., Ed.; Cohen, Nancy E., Ed.
This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…
Child Trends, 2010
This article qualitatively explores women's experiences of choosing quality long day care in a regional community. The study complements recent quantitative research on the quality implications of increased for-profit childcare provision. It also adds to our understanding of current childcare policy by focusing on the experiences of women in a…
This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…
Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth
Purpose: This study investigated whether the use of restraining devices and related measures of care quality are different in nursing homes that score in the upper and lower quartiles on the Minimum Data Set (MDS) "prevalence of restraint" quality indicator, which assesses daily use of restraining devices when residents are out of bed. Design and…
Schnelle, John F.; Bates-Jensen, Barbara M.; Levy-Storms, Lene; Grbic, Valena; Yoshii, June; Cadogan, Mary; Simmons, Sandra F.
Background: Comprehensive quality Post Abortion Care (PAC) is one of the important strategies to save lives where access to safe abortion is restricted by Law and services are inaccessible. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the status of quality of PAC in health facilities of Amhara and Oromiya regional states. Methods: The study was cross-sectional by design
Solomon Kumbi; Yilma Melkamu; Hailu Yeneneh
Questions on the gap between the price parents pay and the "true cost" of quality care were the catalyst for the True Cost of Quality (TCOQ) project launched in the spring of 2001 by the City of Seattle's Northwest Finance Circle. The mission of the Northwest Finance Circle, a community collaboration, was to improve and expand the financing of…
The recent rise of specialty hospitals – typically for-profit firms that are at least partially owned by physicians – has led to substantial debate about their effects on the cost and quality of care. Advocates of specialty hospitals claim they improve quality and lower cost; critics contend they concentrate on providing profitable procedures and attracting relatively healthy patients, leaving (predominantly
Jason R. Barro; Robert S. Huckman; Daniel P. Kessler
This paper will present some of the findings of a qualitative study that utilised grounded theory to discover nurses perceptions of quality and factors that affect quality nursing care provided to Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) patients in a large Queensland Metropolitan Hospital. The study used focus group interviews, participant observation, in-depth interviews and published literature to gather data. Fifteen
Sonja Cleary; Sansnee Jirojwong; Sandra Walker
Objective To understand the extent to which hospitalized patients participate in their care, and the association of patient participation with quality of care and patient safety. Design Random sample telephone survey and medical record review. Setting US acute care hospitals in 2003. Participants A total of 2025 recently hospitalized adults. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalized patients reported participation in their own care, assessments of overall quality of care and the presence of adverse events (AEs) in telephone interviews. Physician reviewers rated the severity and preventability of AEs identified by interview and chart review among 788 surveyed patients who also consented to medical record review. Results Of the 2025 patients surveyed, 99.9% of patients reported positive responses to at least one of seven measures of participation. High participation (use of >4 activities) was strongly associated with patients’ favorable ratings of the hospital quality of care (adjusted OR: 5.46, 95% CI: 4.15–7.19). Among the 788 patients with both patient survey and chart review data, there was an inverse relationship between participation and adverse events. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, patients with high participation were half as likely to have at least one adverse event during the admission (adjusted OR = 0.49, 0.31–0.78). Conclusions Most hospitalized patients participated in some aspects of their care. Participation was strongly associated with favorable judgments about hospital quality and reduced the risk of experiencing an adverse event. PMID:21307118
Weingart, Saul N.; Zhu, Junya; Chiappetta, Laurel; Stuver, Sherri O.; Schneider, Eric C.; Epstein, Arnold M.; David-Kasdan, Jo Ann; Annas, Catherine L.; Fowler, Floyd J.; Weissman, Joel S.
In 2009, a group of experts convened by the Institute of Medicine estimated that 30% of health care costs amounted to waste, including a substantial share from nonbeneficial and often harmful services. Professional organizations and medical ethicists subsequently called on specialty groups to generate "top five" lists of expensive tests or treatments without known benefits. Responding to this call, the American Board of Internal Medicine launched its Choosing Wisely campaign, with the top-five Choosing Wisely lists for pulmonary medicine and critical care released in 2014. In order for the critical care list to have an impact on costs and quality, two things must occur: providers whose practice is discordant with the list must adhere to the list when making decisions, and those decisions must lead to improvements in the quality of care at lower costs. Although the campaign addresses some limitations of past efforts to improve quality and reduce waste, we believe it will do little to change provider behavior. Even if the top-five list for critical care were to change the behavior of providers, its ultimate impact on costs and quality will be lower than anticipated. Here we suggest several strategies for stakeholders to increase the impact of the critical care top-five list, and further discuss that despite limitations of the campaign it is still imperative for advancing best practice in critical care. PMID:24762102
Admon, Andrew J; Cooke, Colin R
This study assessed the perceived quality of care by consumers with severe mental disorders. A questionnaire investigating service quality was developed by a consumer focus group and filled by 204 consumers. In five areas the negative evaluations exceeded or closely approximated the positive ones: choice of professionals, waiting times, information about illness and medications. All five do not refer to the outcomes of care, but to the concept of responsiveness. The results confirmed that people with severe mental disorders can give value judgments on various aspects of care. However, even in a service strongly oriented towards community care, the consumers' needs in sensitive areas concerning choices, respect and autonomy are not met. The application of the concept of responsiveness to quality improvement may help services to meet consumers' expectations. PMID:24318768
Barbato, Angelo; Bajoni, Alessia; Rapisarda, Filippo; D'Anza, Vito; De Luca, Luigi Fabrizio; Inglese, Cristiana; Iapichino, Sonia; Mauriello, Fabrizio; D'Avanzo, Barbara
The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…
Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan
Introduction Elderly people aged over 75 years with multifaceted care needs are often in need of hospital treatment. Transfer across care levels for this patient group increases the risk of adverse events. The aim of this paper is to establish knowledge of quality in transitional care of the elderly in two Norwegian hospital regions by identifying issues affecting the quality of transitional care and based on these issues suggest improvement measures. Methodology Included in the study were elderly patients (75+) receiving health care in the municipality admitted to hospital emergency department or discharged to community health care with hip fracture or with a general medical diagnosis. Participant observations of admission and discharge transitions (n = 41) were carried out by two researchers. Results Six main challenges with belonging descriptions have been identified: (1) next of kin (bridging providers, advocacy, support, information brokering), (2) patient characteristics (level of satisfaction, level of insecurity, complex clinical conditions), (3) health care personnel's competence (professional, system, awareness of others’ roles), (4) information exchange (oral, written, electronic), (5) context (stability, variability, change incentives, number of patient handovers) and (6) patient assessment (complex clinical picture, patient description, clinical assessment). Conclusion Related to the six main challenges, several measures have been suggested to improve quality in transitional care, e.g. information to and involvement of patients and next of kin, staff training, standardisation of routines and inter-organisational staff meetings. PMID:24868196
Storm, Marianne; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.; Laugaland, Kristin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn Nåden; Aase, Karina
Prioritizing personalized, proactive, patient-driven health care is among the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) transformational initiatives. As one of the largest integrated healthcare systems, the VHA sets standards for performance measures and outcomes achieved in quality of care. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a hallmark in oncology nursing care. EBP can be linked to positive outcomes and improving quality that can be influenced directly by nursing interventions. VHA oncology nurses had the opportunity to partner with the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), ONS Foundation, and the Joint Commission in the multiyear development of a comprehensive approach to quality cancer care. Building on a platform of existing measures and refining measurement sets culminated in testing evidence-based, nursing-sensitive quality measures for reliability through the ONS Foundation-supported Breast Cancer Care (BCC) Quality Measures Set. The BCC Measures afforded the VHA to have its many sites collectively assess documentation of the symptoms of patients with breast cancer, the use of colony-stimulating factors, and education about neutropenia precautions provided. Parallel paths of the groups, seeking evidence-based measures, led to the perfect partnership in the VHA's journey in pilot testing the BCC Measures in veterans with breast cancer. This generated further quality assessments and continuous improvement projects for spread and sustainability throughout the VHA. PMID:25252994
Hogg, Lori Hoffman
Adequate nutrition of patients remaining at an intensive care unit (ICU) is of great importance since both over- and undernutrition can lead to serious morbidity and even mortality. The aim of our study was to examine whether patients at an ICU are adequately fed. A prospective follow-up was performed in 39 surgical and medical mechanically ventilated patients who were at
M. M. P. M. Jansen; F. Heymer; J. A. Leusink; A. de Boer
Research Findings: Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this article relates neighborhood characteristics to the type of child care used in families with toddlers and preschoolers (N = 1,121; representative of children in Chicago in 1996-1998). Neighborhood structural disadvantage was assessed via U.S. Census…
Burchinal, Margaret; Nelson, Lauren; Carlson, Mary; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Activities of daily living. Based on the...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when there is a nutritional problem. (j) Hydration....
...well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. (a) Activities of daily living. Based on the...that this is not possible; and (2) Receives a therapeutic diet when there is a nutritional problem. (j) Hydration....
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has become a policy priority in many countries. A growing body of research recognises that it provides a wide range of benefits, including social and economic benefits, better child well-being and learning outcomes as a foundation for lifelong learning, more equitable outcomes and reduction of poverty, and…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
...events to the VA Network Director (10N1-22), Assistant Deputy Under Secretary for Health (10N), and Chief Consultant, Geriatrics and Extended Care Strategic Healthcare Group (114), within 24 hours of identification and/or notification by the...
In the last decades many different policy changes have been initiated in the Dutch hospital sector to optimise health care delivery: national agenda-setting, increased competition and transparency, a new system of hospital reimbursement based on diagnosis-treatment-combinations, intensified monitoring of quality, and a multi-layered organisational development programme based on quality improvement collaboratives – the multi-level quality collaborative (MQC). The focus of
M. L. A Dückers
The American Society of Clinical Oncology's Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) is an oncologist-led, practice-based quality improvement initiative. Its goal is to promote excellence in cancer care by helping practices create a culture of self-examination and improvement. QOPI includes a set of quality measures, a specified chart selection strategy, a secure system for data entry, automated data analysis and reporting, and a network of resources for improvement. Currently, more than 250 oncology practices are registered for QOPI.
Director of nursing turnover is linked to staff turnover and poor quality of care in nursing homes; however the mechanisms of these relationships are unknown. Using a complexity science framework, we examined how nurse management turnover impacts system capacity to produce high quality care. This study is a longitudinal case analysis of a nursing home (n = 97 staff) with 400% director of nursing turnover during the study time period. Data included 100 interviews, observations and documents collected over 9 months and were analyzed using immersion and content analysis. Turnover events at all staff levels were nonlinear, socially mediated and contributed to dramatic care deficits. Federal mandated, quality assurance mechanisms failed to ensure resident safety. High multilevel turnover should be elevated to a sentinel event for regulators. Suggestions to magnify positive emergence in extreme conditions and to improve quality are provided. PMID:24652943
Hunt, Selina R.; Corazzini, Kirsten; Anderson, Ruth A.
Teaching clinics are an important source of care for urban, minority, underserved communities and face great challenges to improve quality of care for diabetics. This study examined the impact of continuity with the same primary care provider on health care process and outcome measures for patients with diabetes treated at an urban, family medicine resident teaching practice. The Modified Modified Continuity of Care Index was used to measure care continuity. The diabetes care quality measures were based on the NCQA HEDIS and Diabetes Recognition Program. Low levels of care continuity were associated with poor HbA1c control and higher levels of care continuity were associated with good LDL control. These findings suggest that improving care continuity should be considered in a systems-based approach to address disparities in diabetes care. Additional research is needed to include the patient's perspective in measuring care continuity and patient outcomes. PMID:23698670
Younge, Richard; Jani, Beena; Rosenthal, David; Lin, Susan X
This guide is designed for training teachers in the use of the "Innovations" curricula for infants and for toddlers. The "Innovations" program is based on the view that curricula for young children should involve thinking and planning for everything that can contribute to child development as well as the teacher's relationship with the child and…
Miller, Linda G.; Albrecht, Kay
... competitively selected demonstration sites that includes training; TA; sustainability planning and more. Read More ... & Nutrition Impact of Trauma Mental Health Screening & Assessment Military ...
For use in conjunction with training videotapes illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide aims to help caregivers set up environments for infants and toddlers that promote young children's health, safety, and comfort, meet their developmental needs, and provide caregivers a comfortable and convenient place to work. Section 1…
Lally, J. Ronald; Stewart, Jay
A great deal of research during the past four decades has explored the effects of media use on children, but remarkably little work has explored the factors that determine how much time a child spends interacting with various media. This article does so with a focus on very young children, ages 6 months to 6 years, and on demographic predictors
Sowmya Anand; Jon A. Krosnick
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic neurological disorder of the elderly. Despite the fact that a comprehensive review of general health care in the United States showed that the quality of care delivered to patients usually falls below professional standards, there is limited data on the quality of care for patients with PD. METHODS: Using the
Kari Swarztrauber; Eric Graf; Eric Cheng
...Medicaid Program: Initial Core Set of Health Care Quality Measures for Medicaid-Eligible...announces the initial core set of health care quality measures for Medicaid-eligible...required by section 2701 of the Affordable Care Act, for voluntary use by State...
BACKGROUND: Against a backdrop of rising healthcare costs, variability in care provision and an increased emphasis on patient satisfaction, the need for effective interventions to improve quality of care has come to the fore. This is the first ten year (2000--2010) systematic review of interventions which sought to improve quality of care in a hospital setting. This review moves beyond
Mary C Conry; Niamh Humphries; Karen Morgan; Yvonne McGowan; Anthony Montgomery; Kavita Vedhara; Efharis Panagopoulou; Hannah McGee
BACKGROUND: Although performance measurement for assessing care quality is an emerging area, a system for measuring the quality of cancer care at the hospital level has not been well developed. The purpose of this study was to develop organization-based core measures for colorectal cancer patient care and apply these measures to compare hospital performance. METHODS: The development of core measures
Kuo-Piao Chung; Yun-Jau Chang; Mei-Shu Lai; Raymond Nien-Chen Kuo; Skye H Cheng; Li-Tzong Chen; Reiping Tang; Tsang-Wu Liu; Ming-Jium Shieh
It is difficult to evaluate the promise of primary care quality-improvement interventions for depression because published studies have evaluated diverse interventions by using different research designs in dissimilar populations. Preplanned meta-analysis provides an alternative to derive more precise and generalizable estimates of intervention effects; however, this approach requires the resolution of analytic challenges resulting from design differences that threaten internal
Kathryn M Rost; Naihua Duan; Lisa V Rubenstein; Daniel E Ford; Cathy D Sherbourne; Lisa S Meredith; Kenneth B Wells
Background Meta-analyses show collaborative care models (CCMs) with nurse care management are effective for improving primary care for depression. This study aimed to develop CCM approaches that could be sustained and spread within Veterans Affairs (VA). Evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) uses QI approaches within a research/clinical partnership to redesign care. The study used EBQI methods for CCM redesign, tested the effectiveness of the locally adapted model as implemented, and assessed the contextual factors shaping intervention effectiveness. Methods The study intervention is EBQI as applied to CCM implementation. The study uses a cluster randomized design as a formative evaluation tool to test and improve the effectiveness of the redesign process, with seven intervention and three non-intervention VA primary care practices in five different states. The primary study outcome is patient antidepressant use. The context evaluation is descriptive and uses subgroup analysis. The primary context evaluation measure is naturalistic primary care clinician (PCC) predilection to adopt CCM. For the randomized evaluation, trained telephone research interviewers enrolled consecutive primary care patients with major depression in the evaluation, referred enrolled patients in intervention practices to the implemented CCM, and re-surveyed at seven months. Results Interviewers enrolled 288 CCM site and 258 non-CCM site patients. Enrolled intervention site patients were more likely to receive appropriate antidepressant care (66% versus 43%, p = 0.01), but showed no significant difference in symptom improvement compared to usual care. In terms of context, only 40% of enrolled patients received complete care management per protocol. PCC predilection to adopt CCM had substantial effects on patient participation, with patients belonging to early adopter clinicians completing adequate care manager follow-up significantly more often than patients of clinicians with low predilection to adopt CCM (74% versus 48%%, p = 0.003). Conclusions Depression CCM designed and implemented by primary care practices using EBQI improved antidepressant initiation. Combining QI methods with a randomized evaluation proved challenging, but enabled new insights into the process of translating research-based CCM into practice. Future research on the effects of PCC attitudes and skills on CCM results, as well as on enhancing the link between improved antidepressant use and symptom outcomes, is needed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00105820 PMID:22032247
Health care expenditures in European countries are increasing. Many cost containment mechanisms have been developed, one of which is the introduction of clinical practice guidelines in binding legislation. In developing recent patients' rights laws, many legislators refer to practice guidelines when specifying the right to quality in health care. The courts often follow this example. Initially, practice guidelines were used to improve the quality of care. Recently, their potential to reduce costs is being discovered by policy makers and compliance with the cost-controlling guidelines is mandatory and subject to financial sanctions. This article will question the impact of the 'new generation' guidelines aimed at reducing health care costs and their impact on the quality of care, in particular. The authors will analyse whether a physician, in case of a conflict with a patient, who claims that his right to quality care has been violated, can defend himself in court by stating that he complied with 'financially' inspired guidelines, especially now that non-compliance with these guidelines is sanctioned. PMID:16740337
Callens, Stefaan; Volbragt, Ilse; Nys, Herman
Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…
Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine
PURPOSE We wanted to examine whether a collaborative to improve asthma care influences process and outcomes of care in asthmatic adults. METHOD We undertook a preintervention-postintervention evaluation of 185 patients in 6 intervention clinics and 3 matched control sites that participated in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series (BTS) Collaborative for asthma care. The intervention consisted of 3, 2-day educational sessions for teams dispatched by participating sites, which were followed by 3 action periods during the course of a year. RESULTS Overall process of asthma care improved significantly in the intervention compared with the control group (change of 10% vs 1%, P = .003). Patients in the intervention group were more likely to attend educational sessions (20% vs 5%, P = .03). Having a written action plan, setting goals, monitoring peak flow rates, and using long-term asthma medications increased between 2% and 19% (not significant), but asthma-related knowledge was unchanged for the 2 groups. Patients in the BTS Collaborative were significantly more likely to be satisfied with clinician and lay educator communication (62% vs 39%, P = .02). Health-related quality of life, asthma-specific quality of life, number of bed days caused by asthma-related illness, and acute care service use were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS The intervention was associated with improved process-of-care measures that have been linked with better outcomes. Patients benefited through increased satisfaction with communication. Follow-up of patients who participated in the intervention may have been too brief to be able to detect significant improvement in health-related outcomes. PMID:15928222
Schonlau, Matthias; Mangione-Smith, Rita; Chan, Kitty S.; Keesey, Joan; Rosen, Mayde; Louis, Thomas A.; Wu, Shin-Yi; Keeler, Emmett
Multimorbidity--the presence of multiple chronic conditions in a patient--has a profound impact on health, health care utilization, and associated costs. Definitions of multimorbidity in clinical care and research have evolved over time, initially focusing on a patient's number of comorbidities and the associated magnitude of required care processes, and later recognizing the potential influence of comorbidity characteristics on patient care and outcomes. In this article, we review the relationship between multimorbidity and quality of care, and discuss how this relationship may be mediated by the degree to which conditions interact with one another to generate clinical complexity (comorbidity interrelatedness). Drawing on established theoretical frameworks from cognitive engineering and biomedical informatics, we describe how interactions among conditions result in clinical complexity and may affect quality of care. We discuss how this comorbidity interrelatedness influences the value of existing quality guidelines and performance metrics, and describe opportunities to quantify this construct using data widely available through electronic health records. Incorporating comorbidity interrelatedness into conceptualizations of multimorbidity has the potential to enhance clinical and research efforts that aim to improve care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:24081443
Zulman, Donna M; Asch, Steven M; Martins, Susana B; Kerr, Eve A; Hoffman, Brian B; Goldstein, Mary K
Background: The Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) comprehensive set of quality assessment tools for ill older persons is a standard designed to measure overall care delivered to vulnerable elders (ie, those aged ?65 years) at the level of a health care system or plan.Objective: The goal of this research was to quantify the pretest and posttest results of medical
Samantha P. Jellinek; Victor Cohen; Marcia Nelson; Antonios Likourezos; William Goldman; Barbara Paris
Although acute inpatient psychiatric care has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, little is known about how these changes have affected the quality of care, psychiatric nurse staffing, or patient outcomes. The purpose of this report is to explore the quality of care, quality of the practice environment, and adverse events as assessed by psychiatric nurses in the general hospital setting. The study sample consisted of 456 registered nurses permanently assigned to psychiatric units, compared with a larger sample of 11 071 registered nurses who work permanently on medical, surgical, or medical-surgical units. Compared with nonpsychiatric nurses, psychiatric nurse characteristics reveal an older, more experienced workforce, with a higher proportion of male nurses. Nurses rated quality of patient care lower in the psychiatric specialty than in the medical-surgical specialty. Furthermore, psychiatric nurses reported significant concern about the readiness of patients for discharge and higher incidence of adverse events. They also experienced more verbal abuse, physical injuries, and complaints from patients and families. Collectively, the results from this study underscore the organizational problems and quality-of-care issues that cause psychiatric nurses in general hospital settings to evaluate their work environments negatively. PMID:18641503
Aiken, Linda H.
In today's standards-focused environment, a real key to student achievement is often overlooked: teachers' personal qualities. In this collection, respected educators give their views on what it takes to be an outstanding teacher. The essays speak on a personal level, providing novice and experienced teachers with guidance about what it takes to…
Sandel, Lenore, Ed.
Background Residents and fellows perform a large portion of the hands-on patient care in tertiary referral centers. As frontline providers, they are well suited to identify quality and patient safety issues. As payment reform shifts hospitals to a fee-for-value–type system with reimbursement contingent on quality outcomes, preventive health, and patient satisfaction, house staff must be intimately involved in identifying and solving care delivery problems related to quality, outcomes, and patient safety. Many challenges exist in integrating house staff into the quality improvement infrastructure; these challenges may ideally be managed by the development of a house staff quality council (HSQC). Methods Residents and fellows at Scott & White Memorial Hospital interested in participating in a quality council submitted an application, curriculum vitae, and letter of support from their program director. Twelve residents and fellows were selected based on their prior quality improvement experience and/or their interest in quality and safety initiatives. Results In only 1 year, our HSQC, an Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative III project, initiated 3 quality projects and began development of a fourth project. Conclusion Academic medical centers should consider establishing HSQCs to align institutional quality goals with residency training and medical education. PMID:24052771
Dixon, Jennifer L.; Papaconstantinou, Harry T.; Erwin, John P.; McAllister, Russell Keith; Berry, Tiffany; Wehbe-Janek, Hania
In order to improve the quality of patient care, while at the same time keeping up with the pace of increased needs of the population for healthcare services that directly impacts on the cost of care delivery processes, the Republic of Croatia, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, has formed a strategy and campaign for national public healthcare system reform. The strategy is very comprehensive and addresses all niches of care delivery processes; it is founded on the enterprise information systems that will aim to support end-to-end business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: (1) to provide efficient healthcare-related data management in support of decision-making processes; (2) to support a continuous process of healthcare resource spending optimisation. The first project is the Integrated Healthcare Information System (IHCIS) on the primary care level; this encompasses the integration of all primary point-of-care facilities and subjects with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Croatian National Institute of Public Health. In years to come, IHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of health care (that is, hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories) into a single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of Croatian public healthcare system strategy aims and goals, and focuses on properties and characteristics of the primary care project implementation that started in 2003; it achieved a major milestone in early 2007 - the official grand opening of the project with 350 GPs already fully connected to the integrated healthcare information infrastructure based on the IHCIS solution. PMID:18005567
Gvozdanovi?, Darko; Koncar, Miroslav; Kojundzi?, Vinko; Jezidzi?, Hrvoje
This research examined longitudinal associations between caregiving stressors, caregiver depression, and quality of care. Informal caregivers of elderly care recipients were interviewed at baseline (N = 310) and again one year later (N = 213). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that increases in caregiving stressors (i.e., caregiver physical health symptoms, caregiver activity restriction, and care recipient controlling and manipulative behavior) were related to increased caregiver depression. In turn, increased caregiver depression and decreased caregiver respectful behavior predicted increases in potentially harmful behavior. These results extend previous cross-sectional findings and indicate that changes in caregiving stressors, caregiver depression, and caregiver respect over time may signal that intervention is warranted in order to forestall or prevent poor quality of care. PMID:21417536
Smith, G. Rush; Williamson, Gail M.; Miller, L. Stephen; Schulz, Richard
The fourth column on Evidence-Based Behavioral Medicine presents a synopsis of the systematic review by Trivedi et al. (2011) comparing the quality of medical care in veterans affairs (VA) and non-VA settings. Thirty-six studies were included in the synthesis. Each article was given a grade of A, B, or C based on the six elements of high-quality studies. Most studies assessing adherence to recommended processes of care showed that the VA performed better that non-VA sites. Similar rates were found for both groups in studies that assessed risk-adjusted mortality. This implies that a greater adherence to evidence-based processes (e.g., preventive care, medication prescription, and referral) did not result in decreased morbidity and mortality. It is established that engaging in evidence-based practices and processes improves short-term intermediate endpoints (e.g., patient satisfaction). Future research is needed to test whether short-term benefits of evidence-based care processes connect to mortality outcomes. PMID:24073072
Ferguson, Molly Jean; Spring, Bonnie
This paper presents the results of a longitudinal intervention study carried out in the Davao del Norte province of the Philippines. The intervention, tested through a quasi-experimental design, consisted of training of family planning service providers in information exchange and training of their supervisors in facilitative supervision. The training intervention significantly improved providers' knowledge and quality of care received by clients. Moreover, good quality care received by clients at the time of initiating contraception use increased the likelihood of contraceptive continuation and decreased the likelihood of both having an unintended pregnancy and an unwanted birth. However, comparison of women in the experimental group with those in the control group did not show any significant effect of provider-level training intervention on these client-level outcomes. The reasons for this conundrum and the implications for quality of care are discussed. PMID:21933467
Jain, Anrudh K; Ramarao, Saumya; Kim, Jacqueline; Costello, Marilou
CanCORS has prospectively studied the quality of care and health outcomes of approximately 5,000 lung cancer patients and approximately 5,000 colorectal cancer patients. The study design, which blends patient, provider, and caregiver surveys with detailed clinical data from medical records, provides a rich and comprehensive data resource, allowing the investigators to examine care processes and outcomes during initial treatment as well as long-term survivorship in greater detail than previously possible.
The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of pressure ulcer prediction and prevention in home health care. Randomly selected Medicare-certified home care agencies in four midwestern states were surveyed. The overall response rate was 44% (n = 128). Approximately half (57.8%) of the responding agencies assessed all patients for pressure ulcer risk upon admission; another 4.7% assessed
As policymakers in Madison redesign the state's child care subsidy program--known as Wisconsin Shares--it is important to understand the original vision for the program. This report investigates the development and implementation of Wisconsin Shares and its linkages to the state's landmark W-2 welfare reform initiative. In particular, the authors…
Dickman, Anneliese; Kovach, Melissa; Smith, Annemarie; Henken, Rob
Objective To evaluate the role of quality indicators and adverse events registering in the quality assessment of intensive care physiotherapy and to evaluate the impact of implementing protocolized care and professional training in the quality improvement process. Methods A prospective before-after study was designed to assess 15 indicators of the quality of care. Baseline compliance and adverse events were collected before and after the implementation of treatment protocols and staff training. Results Eighty-nine patients admitted, being 48 in the pre-intervention period and 41 in the post-intervention period with a total of 1246 and 1191 observations respectively. Among the indicators related to the global population, there was a significant improvement in chest x-ray control, multidisciplinary rounds and shift changes as well as in compliance with these decisions. Indicators related to the population under mechanical ventilation, obtained by direct observation at bedside, showed a significant improvement in the compliance with the tidal volume of 6-8mL/Kg, plateau pressure <30cmH2O, adequate mechanical ventilation alarm setting, mechanical ventilation humidification control, adequate humidification line exchange and orotracheal tube position. Among the mechanical ventilation indicators collected through the physiotherapy records, there was significantly improved compliance with the predicted tidal volume registry and cuff pressure registry. There was a significant reduction in the number of adverse events. There was no impact on intensive care unit mortality, length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and ventilator-free days. Conclusion It is possible to measure the quality of physiotherapy care using indicators of quality control. The implementation of care protocols and training of the professionals can improve team performance. PMID:24770683
Pinto, Walkyria Araújo Macedo; Rossetti, Heloisa Baccaro; Araújo, Abigail; Spósito Júnior, José Jonas; Salomão, Hellen; Mattos, Simone Siqueira; Rabelo, Melina Vieira; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro
Background In the period 2004–2009, national and regional initiatives were developed in Sweden to improve the quality of sickness certificates. Parameters for assessing the quality of sickness certificates in primary health care have been proposed. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of sickness certification in primary health care by means of assessing sickness certificates issued between 2004 and 2009 in Stockholm. Methods This was a retrospective study using data retrieved from sickness certificates contained in the electronic patient records of 21 primary health care centres in Stockholm County covering six consecutive years. A total number of 236 441 certificates were used in the current study. Seven quality parameters were chosen as outcome measures. Descriptive statistics and regression models with time, sex and age group as explanatory variables were used. Results During the study period, the quality of the sickness certification practice improved as the number of days on first certification decreased and the proportion of duly completely and acceptable certificates increased. Assessment of need for vocational rehabilitation and giving a prognosis for return to work were not significantly improved during the same period. Time was the most influential variable. Conclusions The quality of sickness certification practice improved for most of the parameters, although additional efforts to improve the quality of sickness certificates are needed. Measures, such as reminders, compulsory certificate fields and structured guidance, could be useful tools to achieve this objective. PMID:23586694
Background Children make up about 20% of the UK population and caring for them is an important part of a general practitioner’s (GP’s) workload. However, the UK Quality Outcomes Framework (pay-for-performance system) largely ignores children – less than 3% of the quality markers relate to them. As no previous research has investigated whether GPs would support or oppose the introduction of child-specific quality markers, we sought their views on this important question. Methods Qualitative interview study with 20 GPs from four primary care trusts in Thames Valley, England. Semi-structured interviews explored GPs’ viewpoints on quality markers and childhood conditions that could be developed into markers in general practice. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was thematic and used constant comparative method to look for anticipated and emergent themes as the analysis progressed. Results All the GPs interviewed supported the development of ‘benchmarks’ or ‘standards’ to measure and improve quality of care for children. However no consensus was expressed about the clinical conditions for which quality markers should be developed. Many participants reflected on their concerns about unmet health care needs and felt there may be opportunities to improve proactive care in ‘at risk’ groups. Some expressed feelings of powerlessness that important child-relevant outcomes such as emergency department visits and emergency admissions were out of their control and more directly related to public health, school and parents/carers. The importance of access was a recurrent theme; access to urgent general practice appointments for children and GP access to specialists when needed. Conclusion The GPs expressed support for the development of quality markers for the care of children in UK general practice. However, they flagged up a number of important challenges which need to be addressed if markers are to be developed that are measureable, targeted and within the direct control of primary care. Easy access to primary and secondary care appointments may be an important benchmark for commissioners of care. PMID:22978779
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) of the US Department of Health and Human Services seeks to optimize health outcomes by leading clinical quality improvement and health system transformation through a variety of activities, including quality measure alignment, prioritization, and implementation. CMS manages more than 20 federal quality measurement and public reporting programs that cover the gamut of health care providers and facilities, including both hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and individual emergency physicians. With more than 130 million annual visits, and as the primary portal of hospital admission, US hospital-based EDs deliver a substantial portion of acute care to Medicare beneficiaries. Given the position of emergency care across clinical conditions and between multiple settings of care, the ED plays a critical role in fulfilling all 6 priorities of the National Quality Strategy. We outline current CMS initiatives and future opportunities for emergency physicians and EDs to effect each of these priorities and help CMS achieve the triple aim of better health, better health care, and lower costs. PMID:25128008
Venkatesh, Arjun K; Goodrich, Kate
BackgroundDepression is a major cause of morbidity and cost in primary care patient populations. Successful depression improvement models, however, are complex. Based on organizational readiness theory, a practice¿s commitment to change and its capability to carry out the change are both important predictors of initiating improvement. We empirically explored the links between relative commitment (i.e., the intention to move forward within the following year) and implementation capability.MethodsThe DIAMOND initiative administered organizational surveys to medical and quality improvement leaders from each of 83 primary care practices in Minnesota. Surveys preceded initiation of activities directed at implementation of a collaborative care model for improving depression care. To assess implementation capability, we developed composites of survey items for five types of organizational factors postulated to be collaborative care barriers and facilitators. To assess relative commitment for each practice, we averaged leader ratings on an identical survey question assessing practice priorities. We used multivariable regression analyses to assess the extent to which implementation capability predicted relative commitment. We explored whether relative commitment or implementation capability measures were associated with earlier initiation of DIAMOND improvements.ResultsAll five implementation capability measures independently predicted practice leaders¿ relative commitment to improving depression care in the following year. These included the following: quality improvement culture and attitudes (p =0.003), depression culture and attitudes (p <0.001), prior depression quality improvement activities (p <0.001), advanced access and tracking capabilities (p =0.03), and depression collaborative care features in place (p¿=¿0.03). Higher relative commitment (p¿=¿0.002) and prior depression quality improvement activities appeared to be associated with earlier participation in the DIAMOND initiative.ConclusionsThe study supports the concept of organizational readiness to improve quality of care and the use of practice leader surveys to assess it. Practice leaders¿ relative commitment to depression care improvement may be a useful measure of the likelihood that a practice is ready to initiate evidence-based depression care changes. A comprehensive organizational assessment of implementation capability for depression care improvement may identify specific barriers or facilitators to readiness that requires targeted attention from implementers. PMID:25443652
Rubenstein, Lisa V; Danz, Marjorie S; Crain, A; Glasgow, Russell E; Whitebird, Robin R; Solberg, Leif I
?? Quality of care in Singapore has seen a paradigm shift from a traditional focus on structural approaches to a broader multidimensional concept which includes the monitoring of clinical indicators and medical errors. Strong political commitment and institutional capacities have been important factors for making the transition. What is still lacking, however, is a culture of rigorous programme evaluation, public involvement, and patient empowerment. Despite these imperfections, Singapore has made considerable strides and its experience may hold lessons for other small developing countries in the common quest for quality care and patient safety. PMID:14757804
Overutilization of antibiotics and emergence of resistant bacteria are important problems, particularly in intensive care units. To date, reproducible interventions to improve antibiotic utilization in hospitals have not been proven to be effective or safe. Evidence-based medicine, clinical practice guidelines, and health information technology are frequently promoted as means to cross the “quality chasm” described by the Institute of Medicine. This article outlines how these approaches intersect in a strategy for quality improvement research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines designed to improve antibiotic use in neonatal intensive care units. PMID:16200185
Older persons are occasionally acutely ill and their hospitalizations frequently end up with complications and adverse outcomes. Medicare from U.S. federal government’s payment resource for older persons is facing financial strain. Medicare highlights both cost-saving and high quality of care while older persons are hospitalized. Several health policy changes were initiated to achieve Medicare’s goals. In response to Medicare’s health policy changes, U.S. hospital environments have been changed and these resulted in hospital quality measurements’ improvement. American seniors are facing the challenges during and around their hospital care. Several innovative measures are suggested to overcome these challenges. PMID:24490116
Yoo, Ji Won; Kim, Sun Jung; Geng, Yan; Shin, Hyun Phil; Nakagawa, Shunichi
Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of maternal care in childhood is associated with brain structure and functional responses to salient infant stimuli among human mothers in the first postpartum month. Mothers who reported higher maternal care in childhood showed larger grey matter volumes in the superior and middle frontal gyri, orbital gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. In response to infant cries, these mothers exhibited higher activations in the middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, whereas mothers reporting lower maternal care showed increased hippocampal activations. These findings suggest that maternal care in childhood may be associated with anatomy and functions in brain regions implicated in appropriate responsivity to infant stimuli in human mothers. PMID:20590729
Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.
Objectives. We evaluated primary care accessibility and quality for Ontario’s aboriginal population. Methods. We compared a defined aboriginal cohort with nonaboriginal populations with analogous geographic isolation and low socioeconomic status. We determined rates of hospitalization for the following indicators of adequacy of primary care: ambulatory care–sensitive (ACS) conditions and utilization of referral care–sensitive (RCS) procedures from administrative databases. Results. ACS hospitalization rates, relative to the general population, were 2.54, 1.50, and 1.14 for the aboriginal population, the geographic control populations, and the socioeconomic control populations, respectively. The relative RCS procedure utilization rates were 0.64, 0.91, and 1.00, respectively. Conclusions. The increased ACS hospitalization rate and reduced RCS procedure utilization rate suggest that northern Ontario’s aboriginal residents have insufficient or ineffective primary care. PMID:12721147
Shah, Baiju R.; Gunraj, Nadia; Hux, Janet E.
Objective To study the impact of minimum direct care staffing (MDCS) requirements on nurse staffing levels, nurse skill mix, and quality. Data Sources U.S. nursing home facility data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with MDCS requirements. Study Design Facility-level outcomes of nurse staffing levels, nurse skill mix, and quality measures are regressed on the level of nurse staffing required by MDCS requirements in the prior year and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. Quality measures are care practices, resident outcomes, and regulatory deficiencies. Data Extraction Method Analysis used all OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004, resulting in 17,552 unique facilities with a total of 94,371 survey observations. Principle Findings The effect of MDCS requirements varied with reliance of the nursing home on Medicaid. Higher MDCS requirements increase nurse staffing levels, while their effect on nurse skill mix depends on the reliance of the nursing home on Medicaid. MDCS have mixed effects on care practices but are generally associated with improved resident outcomes and meeting regulatory standards. Conclusions MDCS requirements change staffing levels and skill mix, improve certain aspects of quality, but can also lead to use of care practices associated with lower quality. PMID:21609329
Bowblis, John R
The delivery of quality health care depends on the successful interactions of practitioners, teams, and systems of care comprising culture. Designing educational programs to improve these interactions is a major goal of continuing professional development, and one approach for educational planners to effect desired changes is simulation-based education. Because simulation-based education affords an opportunity for educators to train health care professionals in environments that resemble clinical practice, this instructional method allows planners to integrate overarching priorities for improvement in health care practice with the training goals of individuals. Educational planners should consider how to structure scenarios to meet training objectives based on the complicated interactions within the health care system. To optimize the benefit of simulation-based experiences, evidence and insights from industrial and organizational psychology, as well as from human factors studies, provide guidance to the planning process, and interdisciplinary studies of complex health care systems can help produce educational programs that improve the quality of health care delivery. PMID:23280525
Dow, Alan W; Salas, Eduardo; Mazmanian, Paul E
When carefully constructed, performance management systems can help health care organizations direct their efforts toward strategic goals, high performance, and continuous improvement needed to ensure high-quality patient care and cost control. The effective management of performance is an integral component in hospital and health care systems that are recognized for excellence by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in Health Care. Using the framework in the 2011-2012 Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence, this article identifies the best practices in performance management demonstrated by 15 Baldrige recipients. The results show that all of the recipients base their performance management systems on strategic goals, outcomes, or competencies that cascade from the organizational to the individual level. At the individual level, each hospital or health system reinforces the strategic direction with performance evaluations of leaders and employees, including the governing board, based on key outcomes and competencies. Leader evaluations consistently include feedback from internal and external stakeholders, creating a culture of information sharing and performance improvement. The hospitals or health care systems also align their reward systems to promote high performance by emphasizing merit and recognition for contributions. Best practices can provide a guide for leaders in other health systems in developing high-performance work systems. PMID:24168871
Duarte, Neville T; Goodson, Jane R; Arnold, Edwin W
The purpose of this paper is to delineate the barriers to mental health quality measurement, and identify strategies to enhance the development and use of quality measures by mental health providers, programs, payers, and other stakeholders in the service of improving outcomes for individuals with mental health and substance use disorders. Key reasons for the lag in mental health performance measurement include lack of sufficient evidence regarding appropriate mental health care, poorly defined quality measures, limited descriptions of mental health services from existing clinical data, and lack of linked electronic health information. We discuss strategies for overcoming these barriers that are being implemented in several countries, including the need to have quality improvement as part of standard clinical training curricula, refinement of technologies to promote adequate data capture of mental health services, use of incentives to promote provider accountability for improving care, and the need for mental health researchers to improve the evidence base for mental health treatment. PMID:20840802
Kilbourne, Amy M.; Keyser, Donna; Pincus, Harold Alan
OBJECTIVE Develop an index to evaluate the maternal and neonatal hospital care of the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This descriptive cross-sectional study of national scope was based on the structure-process-outcome framework proposed by Donabedian and on comprehensive health care. Data from the Hospital Information System and the National Registry of Health Establishments were used. The maternal and neonatal network of Brazilian Unified Health System consisted of 3,400 hospitals that performed at least 12 deliveries in 2009 or whose number of deliveries represented 10.0% or more of the total admissions in 2009. Relevance and reliability were defined as criteria for the selection of variables. Simple and composite indicators and the index of completeness were constructed and evaluated, and the distribution of maternal and neonatal hospital care was assessed in different regions of the country. RESULTS A total of 40 variables were selected, from which 27 single indicators, five composite indicators, and the index of completeness of care were built. Composite indicators were constructed by grouping simple indicators and included the following variables: hospital size, level of complexity, delivery care practice, recommended hospital practice, and epidemiological practice. The index of completeness of care grouped the five variables and classified them in ascending order, thereby yielding five levels of completeness of maternal and neonatal hospital care: very low, low, intermediate, high, and very high. The hospital network was predominantly of small size and low complexity, with inadequate child delivery care and poor development of recommended and epidemiological practices. The index showed that more than 80.0% hospitals had a low index of completeness of care and that most qualified heath care services were concentrated in the more developed regions of the country. CONCLUSIONS The index of completeness proved to be of great value for monitoring the maternal and neonatal hospital care of Brazilian Unified Health System and indicated that the quality of health care was unsatisfactory. However, its application does not replace specific evaluations. PMID:25210827
da Silva, Ana Lúcia Andrade; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Miranda, Gabriella Morais Duarte; de Sá, Domicio Aurélio; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Lyra, Tereza Maciel
A recent paper has drawn attention to the paucity of widely accepted quality indicators for trauma care. At the same time,\\u000a several studies have measured whether mortality of trauma patients changes between normal working time and other parts of\\u000a the day\\/week, i.e. the so-called 'off-hour' or 'weekend' effect. This measure has the characteristics to become an accepted\\u000a quality indicator because
Stefano Di Bartolomeo
Improving the quality of care is a national priority in the United States; how- ever, it is not clear how to accelerate progress for mental health care. We recommend ad- vances in three capacities: (1) developing quality improvement resources applicable to a di- verse set of mental health disorders, clients, and service settings; (2) improving the infrastructure for providing evidence-based
Kavita K. Patel; Brittany Butler; Kenneth B. Wells
The Haifa Study of Early Child Care recruited a large-scale sample (N = 758) that represented the full SES spectrum in Israel, to examine the unique contribution of various child-care-related correlates to infant attachment. After controlling for other potential contributing variables--including mother characteristics, mother-child interaction, mother-father relationship, infant characteristics and development, and the environment--this study found that center-care, in and of itself, adversely increased the likelihood of infants developing insecure attachment to their mothers as compared with infants who were either in maternal care, individual nonparental care with a relative, individual nonparental care with a paid caregiver, or family day-care. The results suggest that it is the poor quality of center-care and the high infant-caregiver ratio that accounted for this increased level of attachment insecurity among center-care infants. PMID:12146741
Sagi, Abraham; Koren-Karie, Nina; Gini, Motti; Ziv, Yair; Joels, Tirtsa
Tele-emergency services provide immediate and synchronous audio/video connections, most commonly between rural low-volume hospitals and an urban "hub" emergency department. We performed a systematic literature review to identify tele-emergency models and outcomes. We then studied a large tele-emergency service in the upper Midwest. We sent a user survey to all seventy-one hospitals that used the service and received 292 replies. We also conducted telephone interviews and site visits with ninety clinicians and administrators at twenty-nine of these hospitals. Participants reported that tele-emergency improves clinical quality, expands the care team, increases resources during critical events, shortens time to care, improves care coordination, promotes patient-centered care, improves the recruitment of family physicians, and stabilizes the rural hospital patient base. However, inconsistent reimbursement policy, cross-state licensing barriers, and other regulations hinder tele-emergency implementation. New value-based payment systems have the potential to reduce these barriers and accelerate tele-emergency expansion. PMID:24493765
Mueller, Keith J; Potter, Andrew J; MacKinney, A Clinton; Ward, Marcia M
Over half of the toddlers in the U.S. experience routine nonparental care, but much less is known about early care than about preschool care. This study analyzed 2-year-old child care and child outcome data from the nationally representative ECLS-B sample of children born in 2001. At two-years of age, 51% of children experienced exclusive parental care, 18% relative care, 15% family child care, and 16% center care. More children in nonparental care were in medium quality care (61%) than in high quality (26%) or low quality (13%) care. Low-income children were more likely than non-low income children to be cared for by their parents and, when in care, were more often in lower quality care. The impact of toddler care quality on cognitive skills was estimated using propensity score adjustments to account for potential selection confounds due to family and child characteristics. Children’s cognitive scores were higher in high or medium quality care than in low quality care, but no evidence emerged suggesting that poverty moderated the quality effects. Nevertheless, this suggests that increasing the proportion of low-income children in high quality care could reduce the achievement gap because low-income children are very unlikely to experience high quality care. PMID:24347815
Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.
CONTEXT Previous studies testing continuous quality improvement (CQI) for depression showed no effects. Methods for practices to self-improve depression care performance are needed. We assessed the impacts of evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI), a modification of CQI, as carried out by 2 different health care systems, and collected qualitative data on the design and implementation process. OBJECTIVE Evaluate impacts of EBQI on practice-wide depression care and outcomes. DESIGN Practice-level randomized experiment comparing EBQI with usual care. SETTING Six Kaiser Permanente of Northern California and 3 Veterans Administration primary care practices randomly assigned to EBQI teams (6 practices) or usual care (3 practices). Practices included 245 primary care clinicians and 250,000 patients. INTERVENTION Researchers assisted system senior leaders to identify priorities for EBQI teams; initiated the manual-based EBQI process; and provided references and tools. EVALUATION PARTICIPANTS Five hundred and sixty-seven representative patients with major depression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Appropriate treatment, depression, functional status, and satisfaction. RESULTS Depressed patients in EBQI practices showed a trend toward more appropriate treatment compared with those in usual care (46.0% vs 39.9% at 6 months, P = .07), but no significant improvement in 12-month depression symptom outcomes (27.0% vs 36.1% poor depression outcome, P = .18). Social functioning improved significantly (mean score 65.0 vs 56.8 at 12 months, P = .02); physical functioning did not. CONCLUSION Evidence-based quality improvement had perceptible, but modest, effects on practice performance for patients with depression. The modest improvements, along with qualitative data, identify potential future directions for improving CQI research and practice. PMID:16836631
Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa S; Parker, Louise E; Gordon, Nancy P; Hickey, Scot C; Oken, Carole; Lee, Martin L
Workload Management System for Nursing (WMSN) is a core Army Medical Department business system that has provided near real-time, comprehensive nursing workload and manpower data for decision making at all levels for over 25 years. The Army Manpower Requirements and Documentation Agency populates data from WMSN into the Manpower Staffing Standards System (Inpatient module within Automated Staffing Assessment Model). The current system, Workload Management System for Nursing Internet (WMSNi), is an interim solution that requires additional functionalities for modernization and integration at the enterprise level. The expanding missions and approved requirements for WMSNi support strategic initiatives on the Army Medical Command balanced scorecard and require continued sustainment for multiple personnel and manpower business processes for both inpatient and outpatient nursing care. This system is currently being leveraged by the TRICARE Management Activity as an interim multiservice solution, and is being used at 24 Army medical treatment facilities. The evidenced-based information provided to Army decision makers through the methods used in the WMSNi will be essential across the Army Medical Command throughout the system's life cycle. PMID:22124876
Wolgast, Kelly A; Taylor, Katherine; Garcia, Dawn; Watkins, Miko
Objective: To report the experiences of 66 surgical specialists from 15 different hospitals who performed 43 CPT-based procedures more than 16,000 times. Summary Background Data: Surgeons are under increasing pressure to demonstrate patient safety data as quantitated by objective and subjective outcomes that meet or exceed the standards of benchmark institutions or databases. Methods: Data from 66 surgical specialists on 43 CPT-based procedures were accessioned over a 4-year period. The hospitals vary from a small 30-bed hospital to large teaching hospitals. All reported deaths and complications were verified from hospital and office records and compared with benchmarks. Results: Over a 4-year inclusive period (1999–2002), 16,028 elective operations were accessioned. There was a total 1.4% complication rate and 0.05% death rate. A system has been developed for tracking outcomes. A wide range of improvements have been identified. These include the following: 1) improved classification of indications for systemic prophylactic antibiotic use and reduction in the variety of drugs used, 2) shortened length of stay for standard procedures in different surgical specialties, 3) adherence to strict indicators for selected operative procedures, 4) less use of costly diagnostic procedures, 5) decreased use of expensive home health services, 6) decreased use of very expensive drugs, 7) identification of the unnecessary expense of disposable laparoscopic devices, 8) development of a method to compare a one-surgeon hospital with his peers, and 9) development of unique protocols for interaction of anesthesia and surgery. The system also provides a very good basis for confirmation of patient safety and improvement therein. Conclusions: Since 1998, Quality Surgical Solutions, PLLC, has developed simple physician-authored protocols for delivering high-quality and cost-effective surgery that measure up to benchmark institutions. We have discovered wide areas for improvements in surgery by adherence to simple protocols, minimizing death and complications and clarifying cost issues. PMID:15166954
Shively, Eugene H.; Heine, Michael J.; Schell, Robert H.; Sharpe, J Neal; Garrison, R Neal; Vallance, Steven R.; DeSimone, Kenneth J.S.; Polk, Hiram C.
CONTEXT: Medicare has a legislative mandate for quality assurance, but the effectiveness of its population-based quality improvement programs has been difficult to establish.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To improve the quality of care for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction.\\u000aDESIGN: Quality improvement project with baseline measurement, feedback, remeasurement, and comparison samples.\\u000aSETTING: All acute care hospitals in the United States.\\u000aPATIENTS: Preintervention
Thomas A. Marciniak; Edward F. Ellerbeck; Martha J. Radford; Timothy F. Kresowik; Jay A. Gold; Harlan M. Krumholz; Catarina I. Kiefe; Richard M. Allman; Robert A. Vogel; Stephen F. Jencks
Background Prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is a major health issue worldwide. Primary care plays an important role in cardiovascular risk management (CVRM). Guidelines and quality of care measures to assess CVRM in primary care practices are available. In this study, we assessed the relationship between structural and organisational practice characteristics and the quality of care provided in individuals at high risk for developing CVD in European primary care. Methods An observational study was conducted in 267 general practices from 9 European countries. Previously developed quality indicators were abstracted from medical records of randomly sampled patients to create a composite quality measure. Practice characteristics were collected by a practice questionnaire and face to face interviews. Data were aggregated using factor analysis to four practice scores representing structural and organisational practice features. A hierarchical multilevel analysis was performed to examine the impact of practice characteristics on quality of CVRM. Results The final sample included 4223 individuals at high risk for developing CVD (28% female) with a mean age of 66.5 years (SD 9.1). Mean indicator achievement was 59.9% with a greater variation between practices than between countries. Predictors at the patient level (age, gender) had no influence on the outcome. At the practice level, the score ‘Preventive Services’ (13 items) was positively associated with clinical performance (r?=?1.92; p?=?0.0058). Sensitivity analyses resulted in a 5-item score (PrevServ_5) that was also positively associated with the outcome (r?=?4.28; p?0.0001). Conclusions There was a positive association between the quality of CVRM in individuals at high risk for developing CVD and the availability of preventive services related to risk assessment and lifestyle management supported by information technology. PMID:23510482
The study objectives are to describe child care type and quality experienced by developmentally at-risk children, examine quality differences between Head Start and non-Head Start settings, and identify factors associated with receiving higher-quality child care. Data are analyzed from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Birth Cohort, a prospective study of a nationally representative sample of US children born in 2001. The sample consisted of 7,500 children who were assessed at 48 months of age. The outcome of interest is child care quality, measured by the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (center care) and the Family Day Care Rating Scale (family day care). Results of descriptive and multivariate regression analyses are presented. Less than one-third of poor children were in Head Start. Child care quality was higher in Head Start centers than other centers, particularly among poor children (4.75 vs. 4.28, p < 0.001), Hispanics (4.90 vs. 4.45, p < 0.001), and whites (4.89 vs. 4.51, p < 0.001). African Americans experienced the lowest quality care in both Head Start and non-Head Start centers. Quality disadvantage was associated with Head Start family care settings, especially for low birthweight children (2.04 in Head Start vs. 3.58 in non-Head Start, p < 0.001). Lower family day care quality was associated with less maternal education and African American and Hispanic ethnicity. Center-based Head Start provides higher quality child care for at-risk children, and expansion of these services will likely facilitate school readiness in these populations. Quality disadvantages in Head Start family day care settings are worrisome and warrant investigation. PMID:22392601
Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steven A.
Objectives assess the quality of nursing care, the patients' satisfaction and the correlation between both. Method cross-sectional study, involving 275 patients hospitalized at a teaching hospital in the Central-West of Brazil. The data were collected through the simultaneous application of three instruments. Next, they were included in an electronic database and analyzed in function of the positivity, median value and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results among the nursing care assessed, only two were considered safe - hygiene and physical comfort; nutrition and hydration - while the remainder were classified as poor. Nevertheless, the patients were satisfied with the care received in the domains assessed: technical-professional, confidence and educational. This can be justified by the weak to moderate correlation that was observed among these variables. Conclusion Despite the quality deficit, the patients' satisfaction level with the nursing care received was high. These results indicate that the institution needs to center its objectives on a continuing evaluation system of the care quality, aiming to attend to the patients' expectations. PMID:25029057
de Freitas, Juliana Santana; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Minamisava, Ruth; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz; de Sousa, Maiana Regina Gomes
Objectives To describe the engagement of health service boards with quality-of-care issues and to identify factors that influence boards’ activities in this area. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 board members and executives from 13 public health services in Victoria, Australia. Interviews focused on the role currently played by boards in overseeing quality of care. We also elicited interviewees’ perceptions of factors that have influenced their current approach to governance in this area. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from interview transcripts. Results Virtually all interviewees believed boards had substantial opportunities to influence the quality of care delivered within the service, chiefly through setting priorities, monitoring progress, holding staff to account and shaping culture. Perceived barriers to leveraging this influence included insufficient resources, gaps in skills and experience among board members, inadequate information on performance and regulatory requirements that miss the mark. Interviewees converged on four enablers of more effective quality governance: stronger regional collaborations; more tailored board training on quality issues; smarter use of reporting and accreditation requirements; and better access to data that was reliable, longitudinal and allowed for benchmarking against peer organisations. Conclusions Although health service boards are eager to establish quality of care as a governance priority, several obstacles are blocking progress. The result is a gap between the rhetoric of quality governance and the reality of month-to-month activities at the board level. The imperative for effective board-level engagement in this area cannot be met until these barriers are addressed. PMID:24327735
Bismark, Marie M; Studdert, David M
In the Practice Change Model, physicians act as key stakeholders, people who have both an investment in the practice and the capacity to influence how the practice performs. This leadership role is critical to the development and change of the practice. Leadership roles and effectiveness are an important factor in quality improvement in primary care practices.^ The study conducted involved
Jennifer Suarez Quackenbush
Research objectives: This dissertation examines the state of development of each of the eight core electronic health record (EHR) functionalities as described by the IOM and describes how the current state of these functionalities limit quality improvement efforts in ambulatory care settings. There is a great deal of literature describing both the…
West, Christopher E.
Transformation Education, an organizational philosophy and operating system, is designed to increase service quality and effectiveness of group care through aligning its organizational structure with its purpose. This alignment is achieved through creating a culture designed to dispense transformation rather than treatment. The author presents how…
Ross, Andrew L.
The focus on providing essential medical and social care for frail older people often leaves them feeling unable to contribute. But building in reciprocation could help preserve social inclusion and foster autonomy, dignity, and quality of life, say Myrra Vernooij-Dassen, Sheila Leatherman, and Marcel Olde Rikkert
Myrra Vernooij-Dassen; Sheila Leatherman; Marcel Olde Rikkert
Purpose: Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) supports provider-initiated projects aimed at improving care quality and efficiency. PIPP moves beyond conventional pay for performance. It seeks to promote implementation of evidence-based practices, encourage innovation and risk taking, foster collaboration…
Cooke, Valerie; Arling, Greg; Lewis, Teresa; Abrahamson, Kathleen A.; Mueller, Christine; Edstrom, Lisa
We conducted a global review on the use of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to assess health care services, health behaviors, and disease burden. Publications and reports on LQAS surveys were sought from Medline and five other electronic databases; the World Health Organization; the World Bank; governments, nongovernmental organizations, and individual scientists. We identified a total of 805 LQAS surveys
Susan E. Robertson; Joseph J. Valadez
Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…
Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.
Purpose: To examine the relationship between registered nurse (RN) staffing mix and quality of nursing home care measured by regulatory violations. Design and Methods: A retrospective panel data study (1999-2003) of 2 groups of California freestanding nursing homes. One group was 201 nursing homes that consistently met the state's minimum standard…
Kim, Hongsoo; Harrington, Charlene; Greene, William H.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Nursing Home Administrator (NHA) leadership style and Director of Nursing (DON) leadership style with quality of care. Design and Methods: Leaders were categorized into 4 groups: consensus managers, consultative autocrats, shareholder managers, or autocrats. This leadership style…
Castle, Nicholas G.; Decker, Frederic H.
A model in which perceived overload and burnout mediated the relations of workload and autonomy with physicians' quality of care to their patients was examined. The study was based on data from 890 specialists representing six medical specialties. Including global burnout as well as its three first-order facets of physical fatigue, cognitive weariness, and emotional exhaustion improved the fit between
Arie Shirom; Nurit Nirel; Amiram D. Vinokur
Explored hypothesis that the quality of care received by the elderly in a residential facility is related to the ownership of the facility. Evaluated 300 facilities using the Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure (MEAP). Results indicated that nonprofit facilities (n=44) provided a more comfortable setting, higher resident control and…
Lemke, Sonne; Moo, Rudolf H.
COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…
Background: This study investigated parental decision making about non-parental child care programs based on the technological and quality components of the program, both child-focused and parent-focused. Child-focused variables related to children's access to technology such as computers, educational television programming, and the internet.…
Rose, Katherine K.; Vittrup, Brigitte; Leveridge, Tinney
ONE APPLICATION, ONE ONLINE PAYMENT UW-Madison's campus child care system offers high quality early or many programs, the ability to pay the application fee online, and a personal account to update your contact our office for referral assistance. 1 ONLINE APPLICATION OPENS FEBRUARY 1, 2014 FOR ALL CAMPUS
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…
Khan, Arshia A.
Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. High quality early care and education can play a critical role in promoting young children's early learning and success in life, while also supporting families' economic security. Young…
Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor
Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…
Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.
Background Improving and sustaining the quality of care in hospitals is an intractable and persistent challenge. The patients’ experience of the quality of hospital care can provide insightful feedback to enable clinical teams to direct quality improvement efforts in areas where they are most needed. Yet, patient experience is often marginalised in favour of aspects of care that are easier to quantify (for example, waiting time). Attempts to measure patient experience have been hindered by a proliferation of instruments using various outcome measures with varying degrees of psychometric development and testing. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review and utility critique of instruments used to measure patient experience of health care quality in hospitals. The databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychological Information (Psych Info) and Web of Knowledge will be searched from inception until end November 2013. Search strategies will include the key words; patient, adult, hospital, secondary care, questionnaires, instruments, health care surveys, experience, satisfaction and patient opinion in various combinations. We will contact experts in the field of measuring patient experience and scrutinise all secondary references. A reviewer will apply an inclusion criteria scale to all titles and abstracts. A second reviewer will apply the inclusion criteria scale to a random 10% selection. Two reviewers will independently evaluate the methodological rigour of the testing of the instruments using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus. Instruments will be critiqued and grouped using van der Vleuten’s utility index. We will present a narrative synthesis on the utility of all instruments and make recommendations for instrument selection in practice. Discussion This systematic review of the utility of instruments to measure patient experience of hospital quality care will aid clinicians, managers and policy makers to select an instrument fit for purpose. Importantly, appropriate instrument selection will provide a mechanism for patients’ voices to be heard on the quality of care they receive in hospitals. PROSPERO registration CRD42013006754. PMID:24387141
This provocative question was addressed in a report from the Institute of Medicine ([IOM], 2013), Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. An interdisciplinary committee synthesized many of the changes that are occurring in our society and health care that will challenge our existing cancer care system. These changes are familiar to many of us: an aging population along with the resulting increase in the number of cancer survivors, an inadequate number of and increased demand for trained healthcare providers, and rising healthcare costs. The IOM report recommended a framework of six interconnected components for improving the quality of cancer care (see Figures 1 and 2). Each of these components is worthy of an editorial and more. I would like to focus, however, on one of them: an adequately staffed, trained, and coordinated workforce. And, for good reason, as I want to retire someday and know that others will be taking my place in caring for cancer survivors across the care continuum. So let's explore this one component in more detail. PMID:25095288
Mayer, Deborah K
The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement. PMID:23138580
Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A
The Tualatin is the first watershed in Oregon to implement the Total Maximum Daily Load provisions of the Clean Water Act to deal with nonpoint source pollution. Local officials cite residential yard care practices as potential contributors to nonpoint source pollution in the basin. Qualitative and quantitative methods, including observation of yard maintenance styles, suggest behaviors potentially harmful to water quality and conservation. Yard maintenance is influenced by the importance of neighborhood appearance and concern for aesthetics. These concerns stimulate residents to water, fertilize, and apply weed control at more frequent intervals than yard care experts recommend. Better understanding of the effects that relations with neighbors and yard maintenance knowledge have on residential yard care practices can help improve water quality.
Nielson, Lisa; Smith, Courtland L.
A health insurer in Michigan, through its Physician Group Incentive Program, engaged providers across the state in a collection of financially incentivized initiatives to transform primary care and improve quality. We investigated physicians' and other program stakeholders' perceptions of the program through semistructured interviews with more than 80 individuals. We found that activities across five areas contributed to successful provider engagement: (1) developing a vision of improving primary care, (2) deliberately fostering practice-practice partnerships, (3) using existing infrastructure, (4) leveraging resources and market share, and (5) managing program trade-offs. Our research highlights effective strategies for engaging primary care physicians in program design and implementation processes and creating learning communities to support quality improvement and practice change. PMID:24400458
Lemak, Christy Harris; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie
In telepulmonology a general practitioner (GP) digitally consults a local pulmonologist. This study assessed the effect of telepulmonology on quality and efficiency of care. Efficiency of care was measured as the percentage of prevented physical referrals. Quality of care was measured using 5 indicators. Thirty-one percent of the TelePulmonology Consultations (TPCs) were sent to prevent a physical referral, the other TPCs were sent to ask for advice of the pulmonologist. Sixty-eight percent of the TPCs sent to prevent a physical referral indeed prevented a physical referral. Eighteen percent of the TPCs sent for advice resulted in a physical referral on advice of the pulmonologist. These patients would not have been referred without telepulmonology. PMID:23920861
Thijssing, Leonie; van der Heijden, Job P; Chavannes, Niels H; Melissant, Christian F; Jaspers, Monique W M; Witkamp, Leonard
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the years 2003, 2005 and 2006, to assess client satisfaction in a nursing home in Piedmont (Italy). A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate three dimensions of care: interpersonal relationships, clinical care received and room comfort. Six-hundred eighty-four patients participated in the study. Of these, 33.6% were surgical patients, 33.6% were rehabilitation patients and 32.8% were medical patients. Overall, quality of care was reported as being "excellent" by 85% of patients in 2003, 85.3% of patients in 2005 and 66.1% in 2006. The study has made it possible to give a general description of client satisfaction regarding quality of services provided in a nursing home, and to identify the major critical areas. These should be analyzed in more detail, in order to identify which factors are most relevant to the patient and to implement corrective actions. PMID:23369995
Fidanza, Katia; Salerno, Christian; Barbieri, Antonietta; Leigheb, Fabrizio; Panella, Massimiliano
Objectives This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of implementing transition programmes in improving the quality of chronic care delivery and (2) identify the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery over time. Settings This longitudinal study was undertaken with professionals working in hospitals and rehabilitation units that participated in the transition programme ‘On Your Own Feet Ahead!’ in the Netherlands. Participantss A total of 145/180 respondents (80.6%) filled in the questionnaire at the beginning of the programme (T1), and 101/173 respondents (58.4%) did so 1?year later at the end of the programme (T2). A total of 90 (52%) respondents filled in the questionnaire at both time points. Two-tailed, paired t tests were used to investigate improvements over time and multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery. Interventions Transition programme. Primary outcome measures Quality of chronic care delivery measured with the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Short version (ACIC-S). Results The overall ACIC-S score at T1 was 5.90, indicating basic or intermediate support for chronic care delivery. The mean ACIC-S score at T2 significantly improved to 6.70, indicating advanced support for chronic care. After adjusting for the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 and significant respondents’ characteristics, multilevel regression analyses showed that team climate at T1 (p<0.01) and changes in team climate (p<0.001) predicted the quality of chronic care delivery at T2. Conclusions The implementation of transition programmes requires a supportive and stimulating team climate to enhance the quality of chronic care delivery to chronically ill adolescents. PMID:24852302
Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P
Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children’s mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components. PMID:23709287
Olin, S. Serene; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J.; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.
A theory-based instrument for measuring the quality of decisions made using any form of decision technology, including both decision-aided and unaided clinical consultations is required to enable person- and patient-centred care and to respond positively to individual heterogeneity in the value aspects of decision making. Current instruments using the term ‘decision quality’ have adopted a decision- and thus condition-specific approach. We argue that patient-centred care requires decision quality to be regarded as both preference-sensitive across multiple relevant criteria and generic across all conditions and decisions. MyDecisionQuality is grounded in prescriptive multi criteria decision analysis and employs a simple expected value algorithm to calculate a score for the quality of a decision that combines, in the clinical case, the patient’s individual preferences for eight quality criteria (expressed as importance weights) and their ratings of the decision just taken on each of these criteria (expressed as performance rates). It thus provides an index of decision quality that encompasses both these aspects. It also provides patients with help in prioritizing quality criteria for future decision making by calculating, for each criterion, the Incremental Value of Perfect Rating, that is, the increase in their decision quality score that would result if their performance rating on the criterion had been 100%, weightings unchanged. MyDecisionQuality, which is a web-based generic and preference-sensitive instrument, can constitute a key patient-reported measure of the quality of the decision-making process. It can provide the basis for future decision improvement, especially when the clinician (or other stakeholders) completes the equivalent instrument and the extent and nature of concordance and discordance can be established. Apart from its role in decision preparation and evaluation, it can also provide real time and relevant documentation for the patient’s record. PMID:24335587
Kaltoft, Mette; Cunich, Michelle; Salkeld, Glenn; Dowie, Jack
Quality in early childhood development was barely mentioned in government policy four decades ago. But this has changed. Using discourses and gazes as analytical tools, and by examining the recent past (1972-2009), this article traces how and why "quality" has become a key component of the current Council of Australian Governments' agenda. We…
Logan, Helen; Press, Frances; Sumsion, Jennifer
Quality measurement efforts have not historically focused on patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), despite them comprising one quarter of the population and two thirds of health care spending. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) creates several mechanisms for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to transform quality measurement into an organized enterprise designed to support clinicians caring for this vulnerable population. This article highlights 3 emerging policy opportunities for CMS to guide public and private quality measurement efforts for patients with MCCs. First, it discusses infusing an MCC framework into measure development to promote patient-centered, as opposed to single-disease-specific, performance measurement. Second, it describes the importance of using common performance measures for individual clinicians, hospitals, and communities to accelerate meaningful improvement in the prevention and management of chronic conditions across local populations. Finally, the need for longitudinal measurement as a foundation for sustained quality improvement is presented. The ACA's expansion of insurance access and portability necessitates collaborative alignment of chronic condition quality measurement efforts between public and private programs to develop a high-value lifelong health system. PMID:25402407
Venkatesh, Arjun; Goodrich, Kate; Conway, Patrick H
The urgent need to optimise treatment strategies for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) was recognised by the participants at the 1998 European Charcot Foundation (ECF) symposium in Nice. The 'Nice Declaration' led to the formation of a Task Force Essentials Group charged with developing measures of the quality of MS care in Europe. Algorithms for nine critical domains (disability, spasticity, ataxia, pain, cognition, mood, fatigue, bladder function and sexual activity) and 'educated guesses' have been developed to measure interventions and outcomes which reflect the quality of clinical decision-making processes. A generic model called a 'quality network', consisting of a group of clinics connected to a central server, has been successfully applied to the care of diabetes across Europe. This model will now be developed and applied to MS management, to provide clinicians with longitudinal epidemiological data and, to evolve treatment algorithms and further quality measures. The ECF will next validate the system in a 1-year pilot study using a net of 10 clinics. Finally, an extended European network working in a learning environment will continuously assess, update and improve the quality of care of MS patients. Multiple Sclerosis (2000) 6 231 - 236 PMID:10962543
Blumhardt, L D; Vermeij, B J; Amato, M; Andersen, O; Edan, G; Fernandez, O; Filippi, M; Haas, J; Hommes, O R; Rieckmann, P
?? Measuring the quality of health care has become a major concern for funders and providers of health services in recent decades. One of the ways in which quality of care is currently assessed is by taking routinely collected data and analysing them quantitatively. The use of routine data has many advantages but there are also some important pitfalls. Collating numerical data in this way means that comparisons can be made—whether over time, with benchmarks, or with other healthcare providers (at individual or institutional levels of aggregation). Inevitably, such comparisons reveal variations. The natural inclination is then to assume that such variations imply rankings: that the measures reflect quality and that variations in the measures reflect variations in quality. This paper identifies reasons why these assumptions need to be applied with care, and illustrates the pitfalls with examples from recent empirical work. It is intended to guide not only those who wish to interpret comparative quality data, but also those who wish to develop systems for such analyses themselves. PMID:12679509
Powell, A; Davies, H; Thomson, R
Background: Transformation of health care is underway from sellers’ market to consumers’ market, where the satisfaction of the patients’ need is a primary concern while defining the service quality. Hence, commitment to provide a high-quality service and achieving patients’ satisfaction becomes an important issue for dental health care provider. The aim of this research is to investigate the quality of dental health care service based on empathy and responsiveness aspects. Methods: A total of 90 questionnaires were completed by the dental patients