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1

Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

McClelland, Nina I.

2

Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

2012-01-01

3

Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental\\u000a health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors\\u000a of a disaster examines whether chronically ill survivors had a different course of HRQL and mental health problems compared\\u000a to survivors without

Bellis van den Berg; Peter G. van der Velden; C. Joris Yzermans; Rebecca K. Stellato; Linda Grievink

2006-01-01

4

Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, J.

1998-01-01

5

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

6

[Water and health-related problems, local perception and quality of water sources in a Toba (qom) community in the Impenetrable (Chaco, Argentina)].  

PubMed

We present a transdisciplinary study centering on aspects of environmental health of the Toba (qom) communities that relate to water and health problems of the Impenetrable Chaco region. Information was obtained through the methods and tools of participatory research, household participant observation, and ethnobotanical documentation of species related to water management and use. Vernacular terms referring to the suitability and taste of the water, as well as representations, attitudes and practices related to water collection and purification were recorded. In addition, a microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the water was performed and compared with the perceptual categories. It was observed that perceptual aspects were in tension with the hygienic quality of water. We documented phreatophyte plants, indicative of the presence of water, as well as plants that store water, act as flocculants, refresh the water or improve taste. The results of this research are discussed from an ecosystem approach and its relationship to the development of proposals for intervention. PMID:25237802

Martínez, Gustavo J; Beccaglia, Ana M; Llinares, Analía

2014-08-01

7

Global Problems in Mathematical Relativity  

E-print Network

____ 25 Global Problems in Mathematical Relativity Now, in contrast to Special Relativity, there are very definitely mathematical problems in General Relativity awaiting solution, and that was the topic of this programme. There are two approaches here: one may ask how this geometrically-based subject relates to other

8

Software Quality Assurance Problem frames  

E-print Network

@mtu.edu #12;Information problem frame (Jackson, 2000) real world information system information requesters sends report... causing appropriate change in display state." #12;Information problem real world: may (predictable queries) or active (unpredictable) common variation: machine-real world connection domain ·real

Wallace, Charles

9

Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.

2015-01-01

10

A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems  

PubMed Central

Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines of clinical governance that ensure adherence to evidence-based guidelines and attention should be paid to service users' physical health through regular screening. PMID:19735562

Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

2009-01-01

11

Problem to Address: Local Air Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses the problem of local air quality as it is affected by modern aircraft engine exhaust and the objective of this workshop. It begins with a discussion on the nature and sources of particulates and aerosols. The problems, and the technical considerations of how to regulate the aircraft emissions, are reviewed. There is no local (i.e., state or county) regulations of the aircraft operations. Amongst the conclusions are: (1) there is an inadequate database of information regarding the emittants from aircrafts. (2) That data which does exist represents older engines and aircraft, it is not representative of the advanced and future fleet.

Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

1999-01-01

12

"They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic emplotment that incorporates patients and parents' contributions in recognizing SPs and related sequelae in designing appropriate treatment and care. PMID:23305724

Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

2013-02-01

13

Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

Cunningham, Denise D.

2010-01-01

14

Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

1988-01-01

15

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia in the formation of tomato fruit quality. This approach has provided new insights that help in understanding and controlling some of the major variables of fruit quality. Variations in the concentration of dry matter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

An Investigation Into HPLC Data Quality Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the analyses and results produced by a five-member investigative team of Government, university, and industry experts, established by NASA HQ. The team examined data quality problems associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of pigment concentrations in seawater samples produced by the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS). This report shows CHORS did not validate the methods used before placing them into service to analyze field samples for NASA principal investigators (PIs), even though the HPLC literature contained easily accessible method validation procedures, and the importance of implementing them, more than a decade ago. In addition, there were so many sources of significant variance in the CHORS methodologies, that the HPLC system rarely operated within performance criteria capable of producing the requisite data quality. It is the recommendation of the investigative team to a) not correct the data, b) make all the data that was temporarily sequestered available for scientific use, and c) label the affected data with an appropriate warning, e.g., "These data are not validated and should not be used as the sole basis for a scientific result, conclusion, or hypothesis--independent corroborating evidence is required."

Hooker, Stanford B.; VanHeukelem, Laurie

2011-01-01

17

Teaching mathematical word problem solving: the quality of evidence for strategy instruction priming the problem structure.  

PubMed

This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et al. and 10 single case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by Horner et al. and the What Works Clearinghouse. Results indicated that 14 group design studies met the criteria for high-quality or acceptable research, whereas SCD studies did not meet the standards for an evidence-based practice. Based on these findings, strategy instruction priming the mathematics problem structure is considered an evidence-based practice using only group design methodological criteria. Implications for future research and for practice are discussed. PMID:23686999

Jitendra, Asha K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E; Zaslofsky, Anne F; Kunkel, Amy K; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M

2015-01-01

18

Detached shock problem and related topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite difference method for solving the Cauchy or initial value problem for elliptic partial differential equations as introduced in (1) and further developed in (2) will be the principal topic discussed here. Involved in this discussion, also, will be certain basic notions related to the (analytic) stability of such problems as developed in (2) and (3). Contributions to the

H. M. Lieberstein

1959-01-01

19

Depression and Related Problems in University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

2012-01-01

20

Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

2014-01-01

21

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

22

Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

1999-01-01

23

Alcohol Related Problems and the Hispanic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Hispanic women report high rates of abstinence, more Hispanic men report alcohol related problems than Anglos, Blacks, or Asians and report more heavy drinking. Yet little has been done to develop or fund culturally specific alcoholism prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programs for the Hispanics. (NQ)

Garcia, Louis S.

1977-01-01

24

Improvement of Key Problems of Software Testing in Quality Assurance  

E-print Network

Quality assurance makes sure the project will be completed based on the previously approved specifications, standards and functionality. It is required without defects and possible problems. It monitors and tries to progress the development process from the start of the project. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is the combination of the entire software development process, which includes software design, coding, source code control, code review, change management, configuration management and release management. In this paper we describe the solution for the key problems of software testing in quality assurance. The existing software practices have some problems such as testing practices, attitude of users and culture of organizations. All these tree problems have some combined problems such as shortcuts in testing, reduction in testing time, poor documentation etc. In this paper we are recommending strategies to provide solution of the said problems mentioned above.

Iqbal, Nayyar

2012-01-01

25

Evaluating Institutional Quality: Some Ways and Some Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General directions in evaluating U.S. colleges and universities and problems that might be encountered in evaluating institutional quality are discussed. Eight guidelines for assessing institutional quality are also offered. Appendices consider the following five institutional evaluation approaches: educational audits, external consultant reviews,…

Miller, Richard I.

26

Longitudinal effects of sibling relationship quality on adolescent problem behavior: a cross-ethnic comparison.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are comparable for Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. Five annual waves of questionnaire data on sibling support and conflict as well as externalizing problems, anxiety and depression were collected from 159 ethnic Moroccan adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years) and from 159 ethnic Dutch adolescents (Mage = 13.0 years). Our findings demonstrated significant mean level differences between the Moroccan and Dutch sample in sibling relationship quality, externalizing problems, and depression, with Moroccan adolescents reporting higher sibling relationship quality and less problem behavior. However, effects of sibling relationship quality on externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression were similar for the Moroccan and Dutch samples. Sibling support was not related to level of externalizing problems, nor to changes in externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, more sibling conflict was related to a higher starting level of and faster decreases in problem behaviors. Our results support the ethnic equivalence model, which holds that the influence of family relationships is similar for different ethnic groups. Moreover, sibling support and conflict affect both the level and the fluctuations in problem behavior over time in specific ethnic groups similarly. Implications for future studies and interventions are subsequently discussed. PMID:23978197

Buist, Kirsten L; Paalman, Carmen H; Branje, Susan J T; Dekovi?, Maja; Reitz, Ellen; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Meeus, Wim H J; Koot, Hans M; Hale, William W

2014-04-01

27

Aging and decision making: driving-related problem solving.  

PubMed

We examined age-related effects on decision making in a task environment familiar to most younger and older adults. Participants made route-selection decisions in real time. Participants received information about traffic density and expected speed limits of main and alternative routes, from which they determined the optimality of their present route versus alternative routes. The experiment evaluated the effects of information type, amount of congestion, alternative route speed limit, and age on speed and quality of decision making. Measures of optimal route selection revealed main effects of alternative route speed limit, congestion level, and message type, but there was not a main effect of age, and age did not interact with any variable. In terms of decision speed (but not quality of decision making), older participants were slower, and age interacted with alternative route speed and with message type. The data are interpreted in relation to previous data examining everyday problem solving and aging. PMID:9394636

Walker, N; Fain, W B; Fisk, A D; McGuire, C L

1997-09-01

28

Continuous quality improvement and school nurses' problem solving methods.  

PubMed

The concept of continuous quality improvement is already well known in industry. It is, however, potentially applicable to any organization that provides products or services (health care and education) to customers (students and their families, teachers, etc.). In the present situation of increasingly complex health care needs of many students, continuous quality improvement--which involves problem solving and management techniques to effect services--is a relevant concept in the school setting. PMID:7626928

Adams, C E; Synoground, G

1995-04-01

29

On Problems Related to Primes: Some Ideas  

E-print Network

We present some new ideas on important problems related to primes. The topics of our discussion are: simple formulae for primes, twin primes, Sophie Germain primes, prime tuples less than or equal to a predefined number, and their infinitude; establishment of a kind of similarity between natural numbers and numbers that appear in an arithmetic progression, similar formulae for primes and the so called generalized twin primes in an arithmetic progression and their infinitude; generalization of Bertrand postulate and a Bertrand like postulate for twin primes; some elementary implications of a simple primality test, the use of Chinese remainder theorem in a possible proof of the Goldbach conjecture; Schinzel Sierpinski conjecture; and lastly the Mersenne primes and composites, Fermat primes, and their infinitude.

Dhananjay P. Mehendale

2014-08-18

30

ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

31

INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS AND ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Provide cosponsorship for the Indoor Air Quality Problems and Engineering Solutions Symposium to be held in Research Triangle Park on July 21-23, 2003. This is an international symposium that is held every 2 or 3 years. IEMB and AWMA (Air and Waste Management Association) have...

32

RELATE real-world problem index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of mechanics problems provide real-world examples of applications of physics. Each problem contains a description of an event or experiment with data. Students are asked questions to explore and explain the situation. Each of the problems in the collection are described by their topic, concept, and difficulty.

Pritchard, David E.; Belcher, John; Pawl, Andrew

2009-09-02

33

Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy analyst are often referred to as the toolbox or toolkit of

T. E. Van der Lei

2009-01-01

34

Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

2009-01-01

35

Misdiagnosing the Teacher Quality Problem. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-49  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs summarizes the findings on issues related to teacher quality in the chapter by the author in the book, "The State of Education Policy Research" (Cohen, Fuhrman, Mosher, Eds., 2007). This report also draws on discussions that took place during a summer, 2006, policy briefing on teacher labor-market issues held in…

Ingersoll, Richard M.

2007-01-01

36

Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol-Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is a period of remarkable change and challenge. Development during this period can be characterized by growth within four major domains of functioning: biological, socioemotional, cognitive and behavioral. Changes within and across these domains provide a framework from which the complex interactions of adolescent alcohol problems and normal development can be understood. Variations in functioning in these domains can

Sandra A. Brown; Kristen G. Anderson; Danielle E. Ramo; Kristin L. Tomlinson

37

Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

2009-01-01

38

Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).  

PubMed

Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information. PMID:23605062

E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

1998-06-01

39

Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.  

PubMed

In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (? = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (? = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life. PMID:24431407

McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

2014-02-01

40

GENOTYPE-RELATED FIBER QUALITY VARIABILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The interaction of genotype with environment is important in genotype selection. The objective of this study was to assess fiber quality variability in four early maturity genotypes having different boll distribution patterns. Four cultivars (DP388, FM 958, PSE 355, and ST 474) which were part of...

41

Methods and problems in measuring quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US health-care transition demands increased accountability for medical care. This has contributed to increased interest in documenting valued medical outcomes including improvements in health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction. These data can only be obtained validly by asking patients directly about their current health state, perception of well-being, and satisfaction with care. A core set of well-validated instruments

David F. Cella

1995-01-01

42

Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.  

PubMed

In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution. PMID:11132353

Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

2000-07-01

43

DNA Archives and Our Nearest Relative: The Trichotomy Problem Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Thomas H. Huxley correctly identified the chimpanzee and the gorilla as the two closest relatives of the human, the problem of the relationship among the three species (“the trichotomy problem”) has remained unresolved. Comparative morphology and other classical methods of biological investigation have failed to answer definitively whether the chimpanzee or the gorilla is the closest relative of

Yoko Satta; Jan Klein; Naoyuki Takahata

2000-01-01

44

Differentiation of attention-related problems in childhood absence epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the specific types of attention-related problems children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) experience and the role of disease factors in the development of attention-related problems. Thirty-eight subjects with CAE and 46 healthy controls, aged 6 to 16, participated in the study. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) was completed by parents, and the Attention Problems

Clemente Vega; Matthew Vestal; Matthew DeSalvo; Rachel Berman; MiHae Chung; Hal Blumenfeld; Marisa N. Spann

2010-01-01

45

Management of Amiodarone-Related Thyroid Problems  

PubMed Central

Amiodarone is a highly effective and well-established antiarrrhythmic drug. It can be used to treat supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias and has the added advantage of being well tolerated in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function with a low incidence of arrhythmic events, such as torsades de pointes. However, owing to its marked lipid affinity, it is highly concentrated in tissues and is linked to a number of adverse effects, including thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone can lead to both hypothyroidism (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and less commonly hyperthyroidism (amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis) and relates to high iodine content within the molecule as well as to several unique intrinsic properties of amiodarone. Dronedarone is a recently approved antiarrhythmic drug. It is structurally very similar to amiodarone, however the iodine moiety, present with amiodarone has been removed and replaced with a methylsulfonamide group to reduce fat solubility and adverse effects. We present an overview of the effects of amiodarone on thyroid function and the treatment options available, as well as a brief insight into dronedarone and its potential as an alternative to amiodarone. PMID:23148177

Narayana, Shashithej K.; Woods, David R.; Boos, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

46

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual primarily provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the prevention and control of analytical procedures which arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. The sections dealing with inter- and intra-laboratory quality control, the evaluati...

47

Quality analysis of the solution produced by dissection algorithms applied to the traveling salesman problem  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to analyze experimentally the quality of the solution obtained with dissection algorithms applied to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem. Starting from Karp`s results. We apply a divide and conquer strategy, first dividing the plane into subregions where we calculate optimal subtours and then merging these subtours to obtain the final tour. The analysis is restricted to problem instances where points are uniformly distributed in the unit square. For relatively small sets of cities we analyze the quality of the solution by calculating the length of the optimal tour and by comparing it with our approximate solution. When the problem instance is too large we perform an asymptotical analysis estimating the length of the optimal tour. We apply the same dissection strategy also to classical heuristics by calculating approximate subtours and by comparing the results with the average quality of the heuristic. Our main result is the estimate of the rate of convergence of the approximate solution to the optimal solution as a function of the number of dissection steps, of the criterion used for the plane division and of the quality of the subtours. We have implemented our programs on MUSIC (MUlti Signal processor system with Intelligent Communication), a Single-Program-Multiple-Data parallel computer with distributed memory developed at the ETH Zurich.

Cesari, G.

1994-12-31

48

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

49

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

50

A Gallery of Visualization DEMOS for Related Rate Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos for visualizing common related rate situations. These animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background relating to the steps for solving related problems. Two file formats, gif and mov are available.

Roberts, Lila F.

2003-01-02

51

INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

52

An entropy maximization problem related to optical communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In relation to a problem in optical communication, the paper considers the general problem of maximizing the entropy of a stationary radom process that is subject to an average transition cost constraint. By using a recent result of Justesen and Hoholdt, an exact solution to the problem is presented and a class of finite state encoders that give a good approximation to the exact solution is suggested.

Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Swanson, L.

1986-01-01

53

Inductive Influence of Related Quantitative and Conceptual Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education research shows that conceptual understanding is not necessary for students to do well on standard quantitative problems in introductory physics. This study addresses a related question: is conceptual understanding sufficient or helpful for students to do well in quantitative problems?

Dukes, Philip; Pritchard, David E.

2006-12-06

54

Health-related quality of life profiles among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aims to determine and compare health-related quality of life profiles of schizophrenia family caregivers on the basis of their sociodemographic characteristics. Thirty outpatient family caregivers completed the generic 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (male = 53.5%; mean age = 51 years; married = 76.7%). The highest mean score was reported for social functioning while role limitation-emotional was rated the worst. Significantly better health-related quality of life profiles were demonstrated by caregivers who were male, younger than 50 years, adequately educated, employed, and without health problems and were receiving monthly income. Understanding of on health-related quality of life matters for family caregivers is crucial to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:21881420

Lua, Pei Lin; Bakar, Zanariah Abu

2011-01-01

55

Quality Literature as a Springboard to Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to use a well-known book, "Caps for Sale", with children as a springboard for mathematical problem solving. Presents patterning problems, problems created by the student, problems with a known total and unknown parts, and problems with known parts and an unknown total. (KHR)

Ducolon, Colin K.

2000-01-01

56

Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

2008-01-01

57

Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

2010-01-01

58

Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the (summary) scale scores were adequate representations of the information obtained by the individual items. The DIF analyses identified a number of cases of DIF, which, among other things, contributed to detection of possible problems in the HAD Scale. It was concluded that DIF analyses are relevant when important analyses based on multi-item scales are made. A new way to evaluate the validity of questionnaires was developed. The results from questionnaires completed by patients were compared against results from open ended interviews with the same patients rated by observers. The idea was that if results were similar, the patients had then probably understood and completed the questionnaire items as intended. On the other hand, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires and interviews was excellent, indicating very good validity. The median weighted kappa for the EORTC QLQ-C30 was 0.85 (range 0.49-1.00); it was 0.79 (range 0.65-0.95) for the HAD Scale, and 0.92 (range 0.51-1.00) for the DBCG 89 Questionnaire. However, the study identified a mechanism called selective reporting, which may affect results from most HRQL questionnaires: in order to provide correct and useful answers some patients do not report symptoms they believe are irrelevant to the study, e.g., symptoms unrelated to cancer. This mechanism may lead to bias if results from patients are compared to results from populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conduc

Groenvold, Mogens

2010-09-01

59

Quality Circles: Involvement, Problem-Solving, and Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The media production department of Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) began quality circle meetings in January 1981 after studying the process of quality circles and obtaining the understanding and support of the college administration. A quality circle is a small group of people doing similar work who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to…

Moretz, H. Lynn

1983-01-01

60

Hospital bed occupancy due to drug-related problems1  

PubMed Central

The number of patients admitted for drug-related problems and the duration of inpatient treatment required primarily for drug reactions and/or related problems during the period 1 October to 31 December 1979 were studied in one of the three general medical units of a district general hospital. 93% of all patients were admitted as emergencies either through the casualty department or at the their own general practitioner's request. Acute self-poisoning (9.9%) and other drug-related problems (8.8%) were, respectively, the third and fifth most common causes of hospital admission. These two conditions jointly (all drug-related problems) appeared to be the second most common cause and accounted for 18.7% of hospital admissions. The mean duration of hospitalization in patients with drug-related problems, excluding self-poisoning, was approximately 8 days. This was almost identical to hospital bed occupancy due to bronchopulmonary diseases (8.3 days) and complications of diabetes mellitus (8.4 days). PMID:7452645

Ghose, Karabi

1980-01-01

61

GEE-WIS Anchored Problem Solving Using Real-Time Authentic Water Quality Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEE-WIS scientific problem solving consists of observing, hypothesizing, synthesis, argument building and reasoning, in the context of analysis, representation, modeling and sense-making of real-time authentic water quality data. Geoscience Environmental Education - Web-accessible Instrumented Systems, or GEE-WIS, an NSF Geoscience Education grant, has established a set of companion websites that stream real-time data from two campus retention ponds for research and use in secondary and undergraduate water quality lessons. We have targeted scientific problem solving skills because of the nature of the GEE-WIS environment, but further because they are central to state and federal efforts to establish science education curriculum standards and are at the core of performance-based testing. We have used a design experiment process to create and test two Anchored Instruction scenario problems. Customization such as that done through a design process, is acknowledged to be a fundamental component of educational research from an ecological psychology perspective. Our efforts have shared core design elements with other NSF water quality projects. Our method involves the analysis of student written scenario responses for level of scientific problem solving using a qualitative scoring rubric designed from participation in a related NSF project, SCALE (Synergy Communities: Aggregating Learning about Education). Student solutions of GEE-WIS anchor problems from Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 will be summarized. Implications are drawn for those interested in making secondary and high education geoscience more realistic and more motivating for students through the use of real-time authentic data via Internet.

Young, M.; Wlodarczyk, M. S.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

2002-05-01

62

Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

Krause, Kerri-Lee

2012-01-01

63

Coping Styles and Psychosomatic Problems: Are They Related?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have shown avoidant coping to be related with diverse types of somatic and mental pathology. In order to investigate the relevance of coping for both psychological and somatic problems in delinquent subjects, 185 boys from juvenile correction and 96 boys from secondary schools in Arkhangelsk, Northern Russia, were assessed by means of the Coping Scale

Vladislav V. Ruchkin; Martin Eisemann; Bruno Hägglöf

2000-01-01

64

Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal  

E-print Network

Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal Department of Applied Physics of Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 E-mail: tzhou@math.washington.edu Abstract. Thermo-acoustic in tissues with the good resolution properties of ultrasounds. Thermo-acoustic imaging may be decomposed

Bal, Guillaume

65

Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal  

E-print Network

Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal Department of Applied Physics of Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 E-mail: tzhou@math.washington.edu Abstract. Thermo-acoustic in tissues with the good resolution properties of ultrasound. Thermo-acoustic imaging may be decomposed

Ren, Kui

66

Relative Extrema Word Problems Finding a Maximum Profit  

E-print Network

Relative Extrema Word Problems Finding a Maximum Profit A company makes two products whose demand are $0.75 and $0.50 per unit, respectively. #12;Solution - (Maximum Profit) We use a cost function C = 0 equation R = p1x1 + p2x2 and again substitute the unknowns in to the equation. Then the profit is given

Thomases, Becca

67

Asymmetry in Keratoconus and Vision-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relation of increased ocular asymmetry over time on vision-related quality of life in keratoconus. Methods Subjects were in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study and had complete data on a least one scale of the NEI VFQ and examination data at baseline and at least one follow-up visit. Three measures of disease asymmetry (visual acuity, corneal curvature, and refractive error) and better eye status were assessed. Multilevel models were fit to the data. Results Analyses were completed using 961 subjects. Six scales on the NEI VFQ had adequate variability to model (distance activity, driving, mental health, near activity, ocular pain, and role difficulties). Refractive error changes were not associated with statistically significant quality of life differences. Except for ocular pain, statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences were found for visual acuity changes and corneal curvature changes. For a 0.1-unit logMAR visual acuity change, the quality of life scales decreased between 0.20 and 0.99 units. For a 1.00-D steepening of corneal curvature these decreases were on the order of 0.20 to 0.59 units. Changes related to asymmetry were small as well: decreases on the order of 0.20 to 0.38 units. Conclusions Increasing ocular asymmetry and decreases in visual acuity and corneal steepening in the better eye were associated with decreasing vision-related quality of life, though the magnitudes of the changes were not clinically meaningful. Of these two disease status indicators, the vision in the better eye had greater effect on vision-related quality of life. PMID:22825402

Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Walline, Jeffrey J.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Kymes, Steven M.; Zadnik, Karla

2012-01-01

68

The impact of the metabolic syndrome on health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMetabolic syndrome [MetS] is a chronic, progressive and multi-complex health problem that can trigger physical, emotional and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between MetS and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as well as depressive and anxiety disorders.

Dimitrios Tziallas; Catherine Kastanioti; Michael S. Kostapanos; Petros Skapinakis; Moses S. Elisaf; Venetsanos Mavreas

69

Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

2013-01-01

70

Health-related quality of life and cancer clinical trials  

PubMed Central

The measurement of patient-reported outcomes, including health-related quality of life, is a new initiative which has emerged and grown over the past four decades. Following the development of reliable and valid self-report questionnaires, health-related quality of life has been assessed in tens of thousands of patients and a wide variety of cancers. This review is based on a selection of data published in the last decade and is intended primarily for healthcare professionals. The assessments in clinical trials have been particularly useful for elucidating the effects of various cancers and their treatments on patients’ lives and have provided additional information that enhances the usual clinical endpoints used for determining the benefits and toxicity of treatment. With growing experience the quality of the health-related quality of studies has improved and, in general, recent studies are more likely to be methodologically robust than those that were performed in earlier decades. Health-related quality of life has become a more accurate predictor of survival than some other clinical parameters, such as performance status. The overall outlook for the routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials is assured and, eventually, it is likely to become a standard part of clinical practice. However, there is still a need for a clear method for determining the clinical meaningfulness of changes in scores. The answer will probably come from the greater use of patient-reported outcomes and the consequent growth of experience that is necessary to make such judgements. PMID:21789156

Osoba, David

2011-01-01

71

Quality Control and Flux Sampling Problems for Tower and Aircraft Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of automated tests is developed for tower and aircraft time series to identify instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and physically plausible but unusual situations. The automated procedures serve as a safety net for quality controlling data. A number of special flags are developed representing a variety of potential problems such as inconsistencies between different tower levels and the

Dean Vickers; L. Mahrt

1997-01-01

72

Undiagnosed malnutrition and nutrition-related problems in geriatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims  Malnutrition is common in geriatric patients and associated with poor outcome. If recognised, effective treatment is possible.\\u000a In recent years, low nutritional awareness among health care professionals (HCPs) has been deplored with respect to the general\\u000a hospital population. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess to which extent malnutrition and nutrition-related\\u000a problems are documented by

Dorothee Volkert; C. Saeglitz; H. Gueldenzoph; C. C. Sieber; P. Stehle

73

Undiagnosed malnutrition and nutrition-related problems in geriatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims  Malnutrition is common in geriatric patients and associated with poor outcome. If recognised, effective treatment is possible.\\u000a In recent years, low nutritional awareness among health care professionals (HCPs) has been deplored with respect to the general\\u000a hospital population. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess to which extent malnutrition and nutrition-related\\u000a problems are documented by

Dorothee Volkert; C. Saeglitz; H. Gueldenzoph; C. C. Sieber; P. Stehle

2010-01-01

74

Sleep-related problems in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attention has been given to presence of sleep related problems (SRPs) in children with psychiatric conditions, little has been reported on SRPs in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-six children and adolescents with OCD were administered the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist

Eric A. Storch; Tanya K. Murphy; Caleb W. Lack; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

75

Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

Hughes, Tonda

2012-01-01

76

The quality of water: problems, identification, and improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next two or three decades, water problems in the United States, particularly in the western region, may well constitute a greater crisis than does energy today.' The major difference between the water and energy crises is that there are no known physical substitutes for water in satisfying direct demands by people, but there are many known substitutes for

John F. Timmons

1979-01-01

77

Quality Assessment in Smaller Countries: Problems and Lithuanian Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines problems in external university evaluation associated with a small country, such as Lithuania, including lack of resources, lack of competition, language of instruction, and program condensation as part of the transition from communist rule. Perceived needs include specific international academic standards, performance indicators, and…

Cizas, Algirdas

1997-01-01

78

Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

1972-01-01

79

Relationships between Undergraduates' Argumentation Skills, Conceptual Quality of Problem Solutions, and Problem Solving Strategies in Introductory Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…

Rebello, Carina M.

2012-01-01

80

Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants’ knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

2014-01-01

81

Problems of Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between funding, management, and quality assurance in engineering education in developing countries. Presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries such as India and the Philippines, and also in very small developing countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji,…

Bordia, Surek

2001-01-01

82

Temperament in Context: Infant Temperament Moderates the Relationship between Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were…

Colder, Craig R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Fite, Paula J.; Mott, Joshua A.; Bush, Nicole R.

2006-01-01

83

Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.…

Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

2011-01-01

84

Internalizing problems among cyberbullying victims and moderator effects of friendship quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 463 middle and high school students in Texas

Ikuko Aoyama; Terrill F. Saxon; Danielle D. Fearon

2011-01-01

85

PROSPECTS FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT TO ADDRESS WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Black Sea is one of the world's most polluted bodies of water. Many years of unsustainablei PROSPECTS FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT TO ADDRESS WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS PROJECT TITLE: Prospects for Institutional Change in the Black Sea Catchment to Address Water Quality

86

Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

87

Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). Overall composite score was 75.2?±?17.2 in the keratoconus group and 93.2?±?5.6 in the control group (P = 0.00). Contact lens wearers had higher best corrected visual acuity in comparison with noncontact lens wearers (P = 0.028). Patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455

Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris

2014-01-01

88

Vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus.  

PubMed

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). Overall composite score was 75.2?±?17.2 in the keratoconus group and 93.2?±?5.6 in the control group (P = 0.00). Contact lens wearers had higher best corrected visual acuity in comparison with noncontact lens wearers (P = 0.028). Patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455

Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris

2014-01-01

89

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

90

Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for…

Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

91

Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

2007-01-01

92

AN ADAPTIVE GRID MODEL FOR URBAN TO REGIONAL SCALE AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

interfaces, which may introduce numerical problems due to the discontinuity of grid scales. The adaptive gridAN ADAPTIVE GRID MODEL FOR URBAN TO REGIONAL SCALE AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS M. Talat Odman and Maudood Dodd Way, 30332-0512, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. ABSTRACT An adaptive grid, urban-to-regional scale air

Odman, M. Talat

93

Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age ranged from less

Leslie Rescorla; Thomas M. Achenbach; Masha Y. Ivanova; Levent Dumenci; Fredrik Almqvist; Niels Bilenberg; Hector Bird; Anders Broberg; Anca Dobrean; Manfred Döpfner; Nese Erol; Maria Forns; Helga Hannesdottir; Yasuko Kanbayashi; Michael C. Lambert; Patrick Leung; Asghar Minaei; Mesfin S. Mulatu; Torunn S. Novik; Kyung-Ja Oh; Alexandra Roussos; Michael Sawyer; Zeynep Simsek; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Sheila Weintraub; Christa Winkler Metzke; Tomasz Wolanczyk; Nelly Zilber; Rita Zukauskiene; Frank Verhulst

2007-01-01

94

[Quality of life and problems posed by hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus during oral hypoglycemic therapy].  

PubMed

Quality of life characteristics, hypoglycemic episodes and patients' attitude toward them were estimated in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the modern recommendations for the patient-oriented treatment with metformin in combination with sulfonylurea derivatives (M+S) therapy, traditional approach, n = 83) and metformin in combination with vildagliptin (M+V therapy, innovative approach, n = 111). M+V therapy ensured a higher quality of life than M+S therapy based on all SF-36 scales. Quality of life parameters corresponded to population norms in most patients given M+V therapy and only in 52% of those treated with M+S. The frequency of hypoglycemic episodes, related concerns, and other problems associated with this condition were less apparent in case of M+V therapy. Transition from M+S to M+V therapy resulted in the improvement of quality of life and reduction in the frequency of hypoglycemia. Quality of life did not change after transition to M+S therapy while the frequency of hypoglycemia and the number of related problems increased. HbA1c levels were similar in both groups (0.8% difference). According to patients' reports M+V therapy is more efficient than M+S; these data allow to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of therapy and monitor the health state of diabetic patients in the course of treatment. PMID:24437153

Ionova, T I; Odin, V I; Nikitina, T P; Kurbatova, K A; Shablovskaia, N E

2013-01-01

95

Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

Rebello, Carina M.

96

Health-related Quality of Life Assessment & Application  

Cancer.gov

One of the main objectives of the Outcomes Research Branch (ORB) is to enhance the conceptualization and measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to increase the application of HRQOL data for decision-making in research, practice, and policy. While there are many definitions of HRQOL, within the context of cancer outcomes research HRQOL can be understood as including physical and psychosocial well-being that are affected by cancer and its treatments as perceived by individuals throughout the cancer care continuum.

97

The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2011-01-01

98

Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or…

Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

2010-01-01

99

Health-related quality of life in women after cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Cancer survivorship is the term used to represent the state or process of living with cancer or living after diagnosis of cancer. Living with cancer or living after cancer--are conditions characteristic to an increasing number of long-term survivors ("society of remission"); health-related quality of life in these individuals is an important indicator of successful treatment and patient's satisfaction. Health-related quality of life in oncological patients has remained one of the main topic of research. The present paper reviews psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer (female disease) and gender-related differences in health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors. Breast cancer diagnosis is usually associated with several expected psychosocial consequences like psychosocial distress. Specific psychological variables like body image, fear, satisfaction with treatment and cosmetic evaluation may improve general will to live. Women who perceive support from family and friends have better coping and psychological adjustment, while lack of social support is a risk factor for anxiety and depression. Colon cancer remains an important medical and social problem in Poland; polish data showed the following gender-related differences: in patients with stoma, women reported lower level of psychological well-being than men, reported increasing level of stress and loss of control over emotions and behaviours. PMID:22768416

Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata

2012-01-01

100

Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects  

PubMed Central

The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological status, and disability. Methods. 95 obese subjects were recruited from June 2012 to February 2013 and underwent physical examination and measures for the assessment of quality of life, sexual life, psychological status, and disability. Results. In obese subjects sexual life was related to gender, age, psychological status, disability, and quality of life. Conclusion. As obesity is a multifactorial disease, and is accompanied by multiple comorbidities, it is difficult to identify a single causative factor responsible for the impairment of sexual life in obese subjects; thus, a thorough, multidimensional evaluation including sexual function assessment should be performed in obese people. PMID:24707290

Di Lazzaro, Luca; Pinto, Alessandro; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M.

2014-01-01

101

A radiation detector design mitigating problems related to sawed edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In pixelated silicon radiation detectors that are utilized for the detection of UV, visible, and in particular Near Infra-Red (NIR) light it is desirable to utilize a relatively thick fully depleted Back-Side Illuminated (BSI) detector design providing 100% Fill Factor (FF), low Cross-Talk (CT), and high Quantum Efficiency (QE). The optimal thickness of such detectors is typically less than 300?m and above 40?m and thus it is more or less mandatory to thin the detector wafer from the backside after the front side of the detector has been processed and before a conductive layer is formed on the backside. A TAIKO thinning process is optimal for such a thickness range since neither a support substrate on the front side nor lithographic steps on the backside are required. The conductive backside layer should, however, be homogenous throughout the wafer and it should be biased from the front side of the detector. In order to provide good QE for blue and UV light the conductive backside layer should be of opposite doping type than the substrate. The problem with a homogeneous backside layer being of opposite doping type than the substrate is that a lot of leakage current is typically generated at the sawed chip edges, which may increase the dark noise and the power consumption. These problems are substantially mitigated with a proposed detector edge arrangement which 2D simulation results are presented in this paper.

Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

2014-12-01

102

Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people. PMID:23579935

Hingson, Ralph W.

2010-01-01

103

Relating Software Requirements and Architectures Using Problem Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem frames provide a means of analyzing and de- composing problems. They emphasise the world outside of the computer, helping the developer to focus on the problem domain, instead of drifting into inventing solutions. However, even modestly complex problems can force us into detailed consideration of the architecture of the solu- tion. This is counter to the intention of the

Jon G. Hall; Michael Jackson; Robin C. Laney; Bashar Nuseibeh; Lucia Rapanotti

2002-01-01

104

Missing quality of life data in cancer clinical trials: serious problems and challenges.  

PubMed

Measurement of quality of life (QOL) in cancer clinical trials has increased in recent years as more groups realize the importance of such endpoints. A key problem has been missing data. Some QOL data may unavoidably be missing, as for example when patients are too ill to complete forms. Other important sources are potentially avoidable and can broadly be divided into three categories: (i) methodological factors; (ii) logistic and administrative factors; (iii) patient-related factors. Logistic and administrative factors, for example, staff oversights, have proven to be most important. Since most QOL measurements require patient self-report, it is usually not possible to rectify the failure to collect baseline data or any follow-up assessments. There is strong evidence that such data are not 'missing at random', and cannot be ignored without introducing bias. Although several approaches to the analysis of partly missing data have been described, none is entirely satisfactory. Prevention of avoidable missing data is better than attempted cure. In July 1996, an international conference on missing QOL data in cancer clinical trials reported the experience of most major groups involved. This paper will serve as an introduction to the problem and provide an estimation of its magnitude, and approaches to its prevention and solution. PMID:9549801

Bernhard, J; Cella, D F; Coates, A S; Fallowfield, L; Ganz, P A; Moinpour, C M; Mosconi, P; Osoba, D; Simes, J; Hürny, C

105

Hereditary influences in relation to the problem of child adoption*  

PubMed Central

There is little exact information on the hereditary influences which are of greatest interest from the social and educational points of view. Many genes are involved in the origins of socially significant traits and there are usually many steps in the causal chain linking gene to trait. The value of genetical judgements is thus limited; they cannot be substituted for facts ascertained about the physical and mental state of the child itself at the time of adoption. Information on the family occurrence of recessive autosomal or sex-linked traits may be used for predicting the likelihood of the onset of diseases later on in life. The knowledge that a rare dominant abnormality is present in a close relative is especially important if the close relative is the subject's own parent. But most genetical problems in adoption cases concern graded characters, and here prediction can only be very tentative. A definite degree of likeness obtains within families for graded characters, but the genetical divergence may be considerable, and it can be accentuated by environment. PMID:13106706

Penrose, L. S.

1953-01-01

106

Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems  

PubMed Central

Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality (parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and positive emotional intensity [EI]), and mother-rated internalizing were examined in panel models. In some cases, shyness predicted emotionality two years later (teacher-rated anger, parent-rated sadness, teacher-rated positive EI) and emotionality sometimes predicted shyness two years later (teacher-rated sadness, parent-rated positive EI, teacher-rated positive EI). Parent-rated shyness and/or emotionality (parent-rated anger and parent-rated sadness) predicted internalizing at T3. Results shed light on developmental relations between emotionality and shyness, as well as processes of risk for, or protection against, the development of internalizing problems. PMID:22383862

Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Michalik, Nicole M.; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie

2011-01-01

107

PROSTATE CANCER AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY With the established effectiveness of diverse treatments for prostate cancer, identification of the physical and psychosocial consequences of the disease and various treatments becomes critical. We review the literature on the effects of prostate cancer and its treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Studies show that prostate cancer and its treatment affect both disease-specific HRQoL (i.e. urinary, sexual, and bowel function) as well as general HRQoL (i.e. energy/vitality, performance in physical and social roles). Yet, these effects appear to differ across stage of disease and type of treatment. We outline evidence from three sources: (1) studies that compare men with the disease with an age-matched sample of men without the disease, (2) studies that assess men with the disease across time, and (3) cross-sectional studies that highlight predictors of HRQoL. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:12203744

ETON, DAVID T.; LEPORE, STEPHEN J.

2008-01-01

108

Relation of health-related quality of life to metabolic syndrome, obesity, depression and comorbid illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Metabolic syndrome has been associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in several studies. Many studies used only one HRQoL measure and failed to adjust for important confounding variables, including obesity, depression and comorbid conditions.Objective:To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and HRQoL using multiple measures. We also sought to determine whether increasing body mass index or diabetes status

M L Vetter; T A Wadden; J Lavenberg; R H Moore; S Volger; J L Perez; D B Sarwer; A G Tsai

2011-01-01

109

Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

2010-01-01

110

Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events,

Dean M. Amadio

2006-01-01

111

Urostomy and health-related quality of life in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective.Urinary diversion may be an option in patients with disabling lower urinary tract dysfunction (DLUTD), refractory to conservative and minor invasive treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether urostomy improves quality of life and cost of surgery, in terms of complications, loss of kidney function and hospital stay, in these patients. Material and methods. This prospective study included 52 consecutive patients (nine men and 43 women) with various benign disorders. Twenty-six patients received an ileal conduit and 26 a continent cutaneous diversion. The patients completed the general health-related quality of life instrument WHOQOL-BREF and a urinary problem-specific quality of life instrument preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Length of hospital stay and complications were registered. Intravenous urography and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were performed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. Results.Disease-specific and health-related quality of life improved significantly (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.05) in all domains except for social relationship, from preoperative to 12 months after surgery. There was no difference in improvement between patients with continent and those with incontinent diversion. Mean hospital stay was 14 days. Early and late complications required open surgery in 12 patients (23%). GFR was unchanged postoperatively. Conclusions.Urinary diversion improves health-related and disease-specific quality of life in patients with DLUTD refractory to conservative and minor invasive treatments. The burden of surgery is acceptable. Urinary diversion could be recommended more often in such patients. PMID:25370732

Schultz, Alexander; Boye, Birgitte; Jonsson, Olof; Thind, Peter; Månsson, Wiking

2015-02-01

112

Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas apply to both new construction and existing buildings. Nearly all of the recommended priority R&D project areas include tasks intended to facilitate the communication and implementation of the research results. In addition, the priority agenda includes several projects specifically designed to facilitate or stimulate the use of existing energy-efficient technologies and practices for improving IEQ. To assure that the research program continues to meet the needs of stakeholders and to facilitate the coordination of research among sponsors, the core team recommends an annual meeting attended by sponsors, a balanced group of stakeholders, and a selection of researchers implementing the agenda.

Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

2002-08-01

113

Assessment of drug-related problems in depressive patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug-related problems (DRPs) frequently occur in modern medical practice, increasing the morbidity and mortality as well as increasing cost of care. Objective: The study is to evaluate the incidence of DRPs in patients admitted to a psychiatric department. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 4 months at Baliga psychiatric hospital. All prescriptions of the study population were screened for DRPs such as adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) by using computerized database system. Results: Out of 120 patients, 19 patients had observed 26 DRPs. Out of 33 patients, 19 patients had observed 26 ADRs and 14 patients had observed 24 pDDIs. The overall incidence of DRPs was 15.83%. Female patients outnumbered the male patients, in which 12 women constitute 10% followed by men 7 (5.83%). The common ADRs observed were hyponatremia and headache. Considering the outcomes, 20 (76.9%) cases recovered from ADRs and 20 (76.9%) of the ADRs were definitely preventable. Majority of ADRs were probable and were found to be mild to moderately severe. Conclusions: Age, female gender and polypharmacy were the risk factors for the developing DRPs.

Mateti, Uday Venkat; Lalwani, Tarachand; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Bhandary, P. V.; Verupaksha, D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

2015-01-01

114

Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Cognition, and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide a rigorous and critical review of studies in which formal neuropsychological (NP) testing and measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQL) were conducted pre- and post-parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These data contribute to the discussion on the utility of surgical intervention for nonclassic PHPT. Summary Background Data: PHPT is a complex endocrinopathy involving calcium metabolism and a potent hormone made by the parathyroid glands. Approximately 1.5% of Americans age 65 years and older, representing more than 3.9 million people, have PHPT, and the prevalence in postmenopausal women is estimated at 3.4%. Current National Institutes of Health guidelines for curative, surgical intervention of PHPT exclude 80% of patients with hyperparathyroid disease who have subjective neurobehavioral and physical symptoms that affect the quality of their lives. Methods: An electronic search was conducted of prospective studies in which cognitive functioning was measured with formal NP tests and HRQL was measured with valid and reliable instruments before and following parathyroidectomy for PHPT. Results: In studies conducted pre- and post-parathyroidectomy for PHPT, 6 small studies of cognitive functioning report inconsistent findings; however, 7 well-designed studies of HRQL report improvement across multiple domains following surgery. Conclusions: Surgical treatment of PHPT is a viable option for patients with laboratory diagnosed, “nonclassic” PHPT. Formal NP testing and evaluation of HRQL are useful tools that may assist physicians in choosing whom to refer for parathyroidectomy. Further longitudinal study of NP functioning and HRQL in patients with laboratory diagnosed PHPT is warranted. PMID:16244536

Coker, Laura H.; Rorie, Kashemi; Cantley, Larry; Kirkland, Kimberly; Stump, David; Burbank, Nicole; Tembreull, Terry; Williamson, Jeff; Perrier, Nancy

2005-01-01

115

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

2013-01-01

116

Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

2014-01-01

117

On-line Detection of Quality Problems in Continuous Casting of Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality problems in continuous casting of steel can be identified as they occur by monitoring mold signals (level sensor, thermocouples in the mold walls, friction etc.) and taking appropriate action (such as slowing casting speed, changing taper, changing a clogged nozzle, or later visual inspection of the surface for possible downgrading. Surface depressions and groups of deep oscillation marks form

Brian G. Thomas

2003-01-01

118

Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

1981-01-01

119

Father residence and father-child relationship quality: Peer relationships and externalizing behavioral problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, we examined links between early fathers’ residence and father-child relationship quality and children's social development. Participants were 508 ethnically diverse children and their fathers and mothers in low-income families. Fathers reported on their residence during early childhood (age 2- pre K); mothers reported on children's externalizing behavioral problems

Natasha J. Cabrera; Gina A. Cook; Karen E. McFadden; Robert H. Bradley

2012-01-01

120

Father residence and father-child relationship quality: Peer relationships and externalizing behavioral problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, we examined links between early fathers' residence and father-child relationship quality and children's social development. Participants were 508 ethnically diverse children and their fathers and mothers in low-income families. Fathers reported on their residence during early childhood (age 2- pre K); mothers reported on children's externalizing behavioral problems

Natasha J. Cabrera; Gina A. Cook; Karen E. McFadden; Robert H. Bradley

2011-01-01

121

Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions, Relationship Quality and Socio-Emotional Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, sibling relationship quality, and children's socio-emotional problem solving were examined in 40 grade 5-6 children (M age = 11.5 years) from middle class, Caucasian, Canadian families using a multi-method approach (i.e. interviews, self-report questionnaires, daily diary…

Karos, Leigh Karavasilis; Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin

2007-01-01

122

Lifestyle and health-related quality of life in Asian patients with total hip arthroplasties.  

PubMed

Total hip arthroplasty reduces pain and restores physical function in patients with hip joint problems. This study examined lifestyle and health-related quality of life before and after total hip arthroplasty in Japanese and Chinese patients. Two hospitals in China recruited 120 patients and 120 Japanese patients matched by age and operative status were drawn from a prospective cohort database. Oxford Hip Score, EuroQol, and characteristics of Asian lifestyle and attitudes toward the operation were assessed. There were no differences between patients from the two countries in quality-of-life-scale scores: postoperative patients had significantly better quality-of-life scores than preoperative patients in both countries. In China, patients who reported that living at home was inconvenient had significantly worse Oxford Hip Scores than those who did not. Mean scores for anxiety items concerning possible dislocation and durability of the implant were significantly higher in Japanese than in Chinese subjects. Our findings suggest that providing information about housing conditions and lifestyles would result in improved quality of life and reduced anxiety in patients with implanted joints. PMID:24845456

Fujita, Kimie; Xia, Zhenlan; Liu, Xueqin; Mawatari, Masaaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko

2014-09-01

123

CORRELATES OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN STROKE CAREGIVERS  

PubMed Central

Objective Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Family caregivers are susceptible to negative outcomes as a result of their caregiving role. A stress process model was utilized to identify characteristics of stroke caregivers who are at risk for poor physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL). Research Method Individuals who experienced an incident stroke event within the previous year were identified from a larger epidemiologic study of stroke incidence. These stroke survivors were enrolled in the Caring for Adults Recovering from the Effects of Stroke (CARES) study along with their primary family caregivers (N=146 dyads). Caregivers completed a baseline telephone interview that assessed physical and mental health-related QOL, problems their family members were experiencing, appraisals of those problems, and caregiver resources. Results Objective stressors, appraisals, and caregiver resources were related to caregiver physical and mental health-related QOL, p’s <.05. Objective stressors were found to have a stronger association with caregiver mental health than physical health. Hierarchical regression models showed the relative importance of each category of predictors. In the final models, older age and receiving more support were associated with worse physical health-related QOL while African American race and fewer stroke survivor problems were associated with better mental health. Implications The correlates of health-related QOL identified in this national sample of caregivers can help identify stroke caregivers who are at-risk for poor adjustment to the caregiving role and aid in identifying areas that can potentially be intervened upon for these caregivers. PMID:23437997

Clay, Olivio J.; Grant, Joan S.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Perkins, Martinique M.; Haley, William E.; Roth, David L.

2013-01-01

124

Oral health-related quality of life in patients with removable dentures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine factors that affected oral health-related quality of life (Oral Health Related Quality of Life = OHRQoL) in patients with removable dentures (RD). Quality of life was evaluated by using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). We analysed data of 250 patients aged 63 ± 11.6 years. After excluding patients lacking relevant analysis data, 243 patients remained in the study, including 129 males and 114 females. Relevant parameters for good OHRQoL were: patient satisfaction with their RD (r = -0.317), higher age (r = 0.222), greater number of remaining teeth (r = 0.357), higher income (r = 0.175), higher frequency of dental visits (r = -0.212), tobacco abstinence (r = -0.181), and residence in a rural area (r = -0.420). Also, marital status had an impact on OHRQoL. Widowed and married patients showed the highest values and unmarried patients the lowest. Frequently mentioned problem areas considered within the survey were: the patient's fear of further tooth loss, concerns about functional aspects such as the decrease in chewing efficiency and dissatisfaction with the aesthetics of the dental prostheses. The results showed that the OHRQoL is apparently not only influenced by dental factors, but also by psychosocial and economic factors, the relevance of which would have to be shown in further studies. PMID:24420442

Pistorius, Jutta; Horn, Jan G; Pistorius, Alexander; Kraft, Joachim

2013-01-01

125

Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

Freund, Roland

1989-01-01

126

Inductive Influence of Related Quantitative and Conceptual Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, the authors' assert that physics education research shows that conceptual understanding is not necessary for students to do well on standard quantitative problems in introductory physics. The specific question the research asks is "Is conceptual understanding sufficient or helpful for students to do well in quantitative problems?"

Dukes, Phillip; Pritchard, David E.

2010-08-04

127

Health-related quality of life among Canadians with migraine.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the impact of migraine on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Canadians. Analysis was based on the public use microdata set of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), limited to those aged > or = 15 residing in Manitoba. HRQOL was measured using the SF-36 survey, which covers 8 health concepts. Multivariate linear regression was used to model each SF-36 scale against age, gender, education, income, migraine status and presence of mood or anxiety disorders. Of the 7236 CCHS respondents, 9.7% reported a diagnosis of migraine. Reported migraine predicted statistically significant (p<0.0001) lower HRQOL in all SF-36 domains with profound impairment of physical role, bodily pain and general health. Those reporting a mood disorder scored significantly lower in all domains with pronounced effects on emotional role, social functioning and general health. Reported anxiety disorder was associated with lower HRQOL in 6/8 domains. Canadians with migraine report significant impairment in HRQOL compared to the general population, independent of psychiatric morbidity. PMID:17361382

Brna, Paula; Gordon, Kevin; Dooley, Joseph

2007-02-01

128

Systematic review of health-related quality of life models  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

2012-01-01

129

Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

Herd, Denise

2010-01-01

130

Free Boundary Problems in Shock Reflection/Diffraction and Related Transonic Flow Problems  

E-print Network

Shock waves are steep wave fronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several longstanding shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches, and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection-diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws.

Gui-Qiang G. Chen; Mikhail Feldman

2014-12-03

131

Health-related quality of life and estimates of utility in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life and estimates of utility in chronic kidney disease.BackgroundHealth-related quality of life and estimates of utility have been carefully evaluated in persons with end-stage renal disease. Fewer studies have examined these parameters in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD).MethodsTo determine the relations among kidney function, health-related quality of life, and estimates of utility, we administered the Kidney

IRINA GORODETSKAYA; STEFANOS ZENIOS; Charles E. McCulloch; ALAN BOSTROM; CHI-YUAN HSU; Andrew B. Bindman; Alan S. Go; Glenn M. Chertow

2005-01-01

132

Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

133

Bobcat Home Range Size Relative to Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range is generally considered to be a function of habitat quality, but there have been few published studies that explicitly address this idea. We used empirically developed bobcat habitat models to predict habitat quality within bobcat home ranges on 2 study areas in central Mississippi. We then assessed the relationship between home range size and habitat

L. Mike Conner; Joseph W. Jones; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold

2001-01-01

134

NUMERICAL MODELING OF WATER QUALITY AND SEDIMENT RELATED PROCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-dimensional water quality model was developed for simulating temporal and spatial variations of water quality with respect to phytoplankton, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. Four major interacting systems were simulated, including phytoplankton dynamics, the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, a...

135

Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11]?=??0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11]?=??0.68, p?=?0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2?=?0.79, F [1, 10]?=?33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2?=?0.19, F [1, 10]?=?2.09, p?=?0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored. PMID:25010719

Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

2014-01-01

136

Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, ?-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as ?-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands were not present in all samples of alpaca seminal plasma. There were no significant changes in the concentration of any protein fractions during the four periods. Moreover, the protein fraction of the 60-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 60-kDa, TP3) band was the most prevalent in all periods. These results demonstrate that there are marked changes in semen quality, as well as some parameters related to the composition of alpaca seminal plasma, that are dependent on diet, which may indicate the need for specific diet formulation to improve reproductive performance. We hypothesise that, in alpacas, the mechanisms underlying the changes in some reproductive traits in response to feeding regimens could be related to changes in the endocrine-gonadal system. PMID:22951252

Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

2013-01-01

137

Poor health-related quality of life and abnormal psychosocial adjustment in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL), social competence, and behavioral problems in children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Brescia. We evaluated HRQL, social competence, and behavioral problems in 27 HIV-infected children compared with age and sex-matched control subjects using the Pediatric Quality

Monica Bomba; Renata Nacinovich; Silvia Oggiano; Morena Cassani; Liliana Baushi; Cristina Bertulli; Daniela Longhi; Simonetta Coppini; Giovanni Parrinello; Alessandro Plebani; Raffaele Badolato

2010-01-01

138

Proxy Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Proxy assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be sought to substitute for, or to complement, patient self-assessment. The viewpoint from which the proxy is asked to assess the patient is a subtle yet important aspect of proxy assessment. Proxy assessments can be elicited by asking a proxy to assess the patient as they think the patient would respond (ie, proxy-patient perspective) or for the proxy to provide their own perspective on the patient’s HRQL (ie, proxy-proxy perspective). In this article, we introduce a framework for differentiating between and understanding HRQL assessments according to rater viewpoint. The difference between patient self-assessment and the proxy-patient perspective is defined as the inter-rater gap, whereas the difference between the proxy-patient and proxy-proxy perspective is described as the intra-proxy gap. The inter-rater gap represents the difference between patient self-assessed HRQL and the proxy ability to comprehend the patient view. The extent to which the proxy-proxy perspective is informative will depend upon the proxy’s ability to provide reinforcing or complementary information, ie, represented by the intra-proxy gap, on the HRQL of the patient. We refer to the framework to emphasize the importance of delineating between proxy perspectives in study design and HRQL measurement and to guide inquiries into the validity and interpretation of the meaningfulness of the proxy HRQL assessments from each viewpoint. Future research and use of proxy raters of HRQL in clinical trials, population health monitoring, resource allocation, and clinical management can be informed by explicit consideration of the suggested framework. PMID:15838415

Pickard, A. Simon; Knight, Sara J.

2005-01-01

139

Health-related quality of life for chronically ill children.  

PubMed

Approximately 43% of children in the United States (32 million) are currently living with at least 1 of 20 common chronic childhood illnesses. The most common chronic childhood illnesses are asthma, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, obesity, malnutrition, developmental disabilities, cerebral palsy, consequences of low birthweight, and mental illness. For all chronically ill pediatric populations, the outcome of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is particularly important because many of these children have not and will not be cured, and will continue to manage their chronic illness into adulthood. Advances in biomedical science and technology continue to improve efficacy of treatments and care for chronically ill children, adolescents, and their families, which highlight the importance measurement of HRQOL as a treatment and health status outcome. The construct of HRQOL is subjective, multidimensional, dynamic, and unique to each individual. It includes aspects of physical, psychological, social function, and goal attainment. Outcomes of HRQOL now include the financial implications for these children and their families, as well as financial and organizational consequences for healthcare planning and delivery of services.This article reviews the importance of HRQOL as a health outcome for chronically ill children. A historical overview and synthesis of the conceptualization and measurement of HRQOL for the chronically ill pediatric population is provided. Current research investigations that have measured health outcomes using individual scales tailored to children's specific symptoms health outcomes, such as PROMIS®-Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-are reviewed. The clinical applications of HRQOL outcomes research include facilitation of patient-healthcare provider communication, improved patient satisfaction, identification of hidden morbidities, a positive impact on clinical decision making, and improvement of patient outcomes over time. PMID:25285426

Cantrell, Mary Ann; Kelly, Michelle M

2015-01-01

140

Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures. Methods A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group. Results The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n?=?117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis. Conclusion The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely tested and several versions are available. COHIP employed a rigorous development strategy but has been tested in fewer populations. C-OIDP is shorter and has been used successfully in epidemiological studies. Further testing using modern psychometric techniques such as item response theory is recommended. Future developments should also focus on the development of measures which can evaluate longitudinal change. PMID:24758535

2014-01-01

141

Risk minimization in water quality control problems of a river system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies are presented for minimization of risk in a river water quality management problem. A risk minimization model is developed to minimize the risk of low water quality along a river in the face of conflict among various stake holders. The model consists of three parts: a water quality simulation model, a risk evaluation model with uncertainty analysis and an optimization model. Sensitivity analysis, First Order Reliability Analysis (FORA) and Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the fuzzy risk of low water quality. Fuzzy multiobjective programming is used to formulate the multiobjective model. Probabilistic Global Search Laussane (PGSL), a global search algorithm developed recently, is used for solving the resulting non-linear optimization problem. The algorithm is based on the assumption that better sets of points are more likely to be found in the neighborhood of good sets of points, therefore intensifying the search in the regions that contain good solutions. Another model is developed for risk minimization, which deals with only the moments of the generated probability density functions of the water quality indicators. Suitable skewness values of water quality indicators, which lead to low fuzzy risk are identified. Results of the models are compared with the results of a deterministic fuzzy waste load allocation model (FWLAM), when methodologies are applied to the case study of Tunga-Bhadra river system in southern India, with a steady state BOD-DO model. The fractional removal levels resulting from the risk minimization model are slightly higher, but result in a significant reduction in risk of low water quality.

Ghosh, Subimal; Mujumdar, P. P.

2006-03-01

142

The evolving role of physician organizations in quality related activities  

PubMed Central

As the fields of quality assessment and improvement become integral parts of medical practice, the roles of National Medical Associations, and other physician organizations in these endeavors have undergone major changes in scope and intensity as well. The survey based report in this journal by Levi et al. suggests some major overall trends but also notes wide variation from country to country. In this commentary, we touch on some likely reasons for the variation seen in the focus of physician organization participation in quality activities, and offer some suggestions for why expanded involvement by physician organizations may be critical to quality efforts going forward. PMID:24959345

2014-01-01

143

Intelligence-policy relations and the problem of politicization  

E-print Network

A growing literature in international relations theory explores how domestic institutions filter and mediate international signals. The study of intelligence-policy relations fits naturally into this mold, because intelligence ...

Rovner, Joshua Randall

2008-01-01

144

Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

1988-01-01

145

Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…

Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

2006-01-01

146

Defining, Assessing, and Treating Adolescent Insomnia and Related Sleep Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As parents, teachers, coaches, health care providers, and teenagers themselves know, adolescence is filled with significant\\u000a physical, cognitive, emotional, and social change. Sleep is a crucial and often ignored aspect of adolescents’ lives as it\\u000a changes and influences factors in their overall development, as well as in their daily lives. The quality and quantity of\\u000a adolescents’ sleep significantly influences their

Amy R. Wolfson; Alison Quinn; Anna Vannucci

147

RELATING BLACK WALNUT PLANTING STOCK QUALITY TO FIELD PERFORMANCE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

k, Abstract.--Planting stock quality and field performance of seedlings stored totally enclosed in poly-lined Kraft bags or roots only enclosed with or without moist peat were similar to those of spring-lifted seedlings. Seedlings heeled-in overwinter or cold-stored without packaging were of lesser quality. Correlations of 27 measured variables of planting stock at planting time with i0 measured field response variables

W. J. Rietveld; J. W. Van Sambeek

148

Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

2012-01-01

149

A comparison of optimization software for mesh shape-quality improvement problems.  

SciTech Connect

Simplicial mesh shape-quality can be improved by optimizing an objective function based on tetrahedral shape measures. If the objective function is formulated in terms of all elements in a given mesh rather than a local patch, one is confronted with a large-scale, nonlinear, constrained numerical optimization problem. We investigate the use of six general-purpose state-of-the-art solvers and two custom-developed methods to solve the resulting large-scale problem. The performance of each method is evaluated in terms of robustness, time to solution, convergence properties, and scalability on several two- and three-dimensional test cases.

Freitag, L.; Knupp, P.; Munson, T.; Shontz, S.

2002-08-19

150

Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

Kuzu, Abdullah

2009-01-01

151

FISHES IN THEIR RELATION TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM By William P. Seal  

E-print Network

FISHES IN THEIR RELATION TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM oJ'- By William P. Seal .:I- Paper presentedbefore page retained for pagination #12;FISHES IN THEIR RELAT~ON TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM. .:A By WILLIAM P. SEAL· .:A Some phases of the mosquito problem are extremely simple and easy of solution

152

The relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis was utilized to examine longitudinal relations among these constructs, with results supporting an indirect effect

Christopher J. Trentacosta; Luke W. Hyde; Daniel S. Shaw; Thomas J. Dishion; Frances Gardner; Melvin Wilson

2008-01-01

153

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life Among Minority Elders in Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described health-related quality of life and examined the relationship of factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 105 community-dwelling minority elders in Southwest China. The participants reported poor physical health-related quality of life. Depression, chronic diseases, and body mass index were predictors

Dan Luo; Jie Hu

2011-01-01

154

Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

2015-01-01

155

Comparison of perceptions of oral health-related quality of life in adolescents affected with ectodermal dysplasias relative to caregivers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of adolescents affected with one of the ectodermal dysplasias (EDs). Data were collected from 2003 to 2007 in a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of individuals affected by ED (n=35) using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire(CPQ11–14)for children and the Parent-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) for their caregivers. The main findings of this study were that individuals who were affected with ED in the older age group (15–19 years old) perceived more functional problems than younger individuals (11–14 years old) (p=0.04). Females with ED (n= 13) perceived more emotional problems than males (n=22; p=0.01). Although caregivers tended to report slightly higher OHQoL scores (indicating worse OHQoL), no significant differences were observed between children’s and parents’ total OHQoL and individual domains’ median scores (p>0.05). Thus, the perceptions of oral health and well-being may vary by age and gender for children who have ED. Caution is warranted concerning using parents as proxies for their children when assessing the child’s OHQoL. PMID:21592162

Kohli, Richie; Levy, Steven; Kummet, Colleen M.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Stanford, Clark M.

2011-01-01

156

Optimal boundary control problems related to high-lift configurations  

E-print Network

functions belonging to L2 ( ) under an integral state constraint. We de- rive optimality conditions. Here, a linear- quadratic integral functional expressing the lift is to be maximized under an integral, 11, 12, 13, 14, 32, 34]. Optimal flow control problems with state constraints were studied in [10, 24

Tröltzsch, Fredi

157

Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

Cushing, Steven

158

Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Vandalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin provides suggestions for the components of a comprehensive approach to reducing student vandalism on college and university campuses. Numerous facets of the problem are addressed, including: the association of binge drinking with vandalism and school policies that tolerate or even facilitate binge drinking; a school's drinking…

Epstein, Joel; Finn, Peter

159

Postadmission sepsis as a screen for quality problems: a case-control study.  

PubMed

The present on admission (POA) indicator used with diagnosis codes listed in hospital discharge abstracts makes it possible to screen for possible in-hospital complications, which may in turn point to quality of care problems. A case-control study was performed among 382 patients from 30 New York State hospitals to see if lapses in quality were associated with the development of postadmission sepsis. Cases with hospital-acquired sepsis (labeled not POA) were compared with matched controls without sepsis. The authors found that central venous catheters and emergently inserted peripheral intravenous catheters were associated with subsequent development of sepsis. Urethral catheters were associated with sepsis for medical patients but not for surgical patients. Adherence to several process of care guidelines was incomplete but none occurred statistically significantly more frequently among sepsis cases than controls. Using discharge abstract diagnosis codes to determine the presence of postadmission complications shows promise for identifying areas for quality improvement. PMID:24226649

Hughes, John S; Eisenhandler, Jon; Goldfield, Norbert; Weinberg, Patti G; Averill, Richard

2014-01-01

160

The Erd?s-Hajnal problem of hypergraph colouring, its generalizations, and related problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremal problems concerned with hypergraph colouring first arose in connection with classical investigations in the 1920-30s which gave rise to Ramsey theory. Since then, this area has assumed a central position in extremal combinatorics. This survey is devoted to one well-known problem of hypergraph colouring, the Erd?s-Hajnal problem, initially posed in 1961. It opened a line of research in hypergraph theory whose methods and results are widely used in various domains of discrete mathematics. Bibliography: 109 titles.

Raigorodskii, Andrei M.; Shabanov, Dmitrii A.

2011-10-01

161

Effect of Postthrombotic Syndrome on Health-Related Quality of Life After Deep Venous Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a fre- quent chronic complication of deep venous thrombosis, yet its impact on health-related quality of life has not been well characterized. We compared generic and venous dis- ease-specific quality of life in patients with and without PTS, and assessed whether quality of life correlated with severity of PTS. Methods: Subjects with previous deep venous

Susan R. Kahn; Andrew Hirsch; Ian Shrier

2002-01-01

162

Some Related Problems from Network Flows, Game Theory and Integer Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider several important problems for which no polynomially time bounded algorithm is known. These problems are shown to be related in that a polynomial algorithm for one implies a polynomial algorithm for the others.

Sartaj Sahni

1972-01-01

163

Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

Labour Education, 1986

1986-01-01

164

The Problem of Colliding Networks and its Relation to Cancer  

E-print Network

Complex systems, ranging from living cells to human societies, can be represented as attractor networks, whose basic property is to exist in one of allowed states, or attractors. We noted that merging two systems that are in distinct attractors creates uncertainty, as the hybrid system cannot assume two attractors at once. As a prototype of this problem, we explore cell fusion, whose ability to combine distinct cells into hybrids was proposed to cause cancer. By simulating cell types as attractors, we find that hybrids are prone to assume spurious attractors, which are emergent and sporadic states of networks, and propose that cell fusion can make a cell cancerous by placing it into normally inaccessible spurious states. We define basic features of hybrid networks and suggest that the problem of colliding networks has general significance in processes represented by attractor networks, including biological, social, and political phenomena.

Alexei A. Koulakov; Yuri Lazebnik

2012-01-13

165

Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

Dana A. Knoll

2009-08-01

166

Health-related quality of life and income-related social mobility in young adults  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the association of income-related social mobility between the age of 13 and 30 years on health-related quality of life among young adults. Methods In 1988-89 n?=?7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n?=?4,604 children (60.0%) and n?=?4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06 n?=?632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% of those traced and living in Adelaide). Results Multivariate regressions adjusting for sex, tooth brushing and smoking status at age 30 showed that compared to upwardly mobile persons social disadvantage was associated (p?related socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more oral health impact, and lower health state and life satisfaction, while being downwardly mobile was associated with lower life satisfaction at age 30 years. Persons who were upwardly mobile were similar in health outcomes to stable advantaged persons. PMID:24735954

2014-01-01

167

Mental Health Problems among Adolescents with Early-Onset and Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Quality of Life: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate mental health problems and associations between mental health problems and health-related quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison with the general population. Method A total of 629 11- to 17-year-olds with early-onset and long-lasting type 1 diabetes and their parents completed comprehensive questionnaires. Mental health was assessed using the parent- and self-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The Revised Children's Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL-R) was used to measure quality of life. The comparison group (n?=?6,813) was a representative sample from the German KiGGS study. Results The proportion of youths with mental health problems (defined as abnormal SDQ total difficulties score) was, based on self-reports, 4.4% in the patient group and 2.9% in the general population (adjusted OR?=?1.61, p?=?0.044); and based on proxy reports, 7.9% in the patient group and 7.2% in the general population (OR?=?1.05, p?=?0.788). Youths with type 1 diabetes and self-reported mental health problems scored worse in the KINDL-R subscales of physical well-being (adjusted average difference ??=??16.74, p<0.001) and family (??=??11.09, p?=?0.017), and in the KINDL-R total score (??=??8.09, p<0.001), than peers with self-reported mental health problems. The quality of life of diabetic adolescents and proxy-reported mental health problems did not differ from peers with proxy-reported mental health problems adjusted for confounders. Conclusions Compared with the general population with mental health problems, the quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes who report mental health problems is more severely impaired. This observation calls for early prevention and intervention as part of pediatric diabetes long-term care. PMID:24637957

Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Lange, Karin; Bächle, Christina; Castillo, Katty; Holl, Reinhard W.; Rosenbauer, Joachim

2014-01-01

168

Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

2014-01-01

169

Re-engineering quality related processes and activities  

SciTech Connect

Given both desire and opportunity, improvements to program quality hinge upon a thorough understanding of what processes are currently performed, which are necessary to support the product or service, and what ideal processes should look like. Thorough understanding derives from process analysis, process mapping, and the use of other quality tools. Despite the level of knowledge any process team claims, there is likely to be at least one area that was hidden before the process was deeply analyzed. Finding that hidden element may mean the difference between evolving an improvement versus a breakthrough.

Preisser, T.E. [CER Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01

170

Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

2013-01-01

171

Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

2014-09-01

172

Symmetric Relative Equilibria in the Four-Vortex Problem with Three Equal Vorticities  

E-print Network

We examine in detail the relative equilibria of the 4-vortex problem when three vortices have equal strength, that is, $\\Gamma_{1} = \\Gamma_{2} = \\Gamma_{3} = 1$, and $\\Gamma_{4}$ is a real parameter. We give the exact number of relative equilibria and bifurcation values. We also study the relative equilibria in the vortex rhombus problem.

Ernesto Perez-Chavela; Manuele Santoprete; Claudia Tamayo

2014-07-26

173

Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

1976-01-01

174

Relative fitness of aphids: effects of plant quality and ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the response of four species of aphids (Metopeurum fuscoviride, Brachycaudus cardui, Aphis fabae, and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria) on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) to plant quality and attendance by an ant, Lasius niger. The aphids experienced one of four different environments for two consecutive generations. Ant-attendance significantly affected the time needed to reach maximum fecundity only in Me. fuscoviride and plant

B. Stadler; A. F. G. Dixon; Pavel Kindlmann

2002-01-01

175

Oral health-related quality-of-life and mental health in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. To investigate the association between oral health, oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) and mental health-related quality-of-life (QoL) in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with respect to demographic, social and clinical oral health variables. Materials and methods. One hundred participants were included in a cross-sectional study at a hospital in Norway. Data were collected via the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), the SF-36v2 Health Survey Mental Component (MCS), other self-reported factors, an interview and a clinical examination. Multiple regression analyses were performed. The Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics approved the study. Results. Higher education (p < 0.01), being a smoker (p < 0.05) and experience of oral health problems (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL). Furthermore, those with feelings of dry mouth (p < 0.05) and impaired OHRQoL (p < 0.001) experienced more mental health problems. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that oral health and personal factors are related to mental health-related QoL and OHRQoL in individuals with COPD. This finding shows the need to focus on oral care. PMID:25373517

Saltnes, Solfrid Sørgjerd; Storhaug, Kari; Borge, Christine Råheim; Enmarker, Ingela; Willumsen, Tiril

2015-01-01

176

Inverse spin glass and related maximum entropy problems.  

PubMed

If we have a system of binary variables and we measure the pairwise correlations among these variables, then the least structured or maximum entropy model for their joint distribution is an Ising model with pairwise interactions among the spins. Here we consider inhomogeneous systems in which we constrain, for example, not the full matrix of correlations, but only the distribution from which these correlations are drawn. In this sense, what we have constructed is an inverse spin glass: rather than choosing coupling constants at random from a distribution and calculating correlations, we choose the correlations from a distribution and infer the coupling constants. We argue that such models generate a block structure in the space of couplings, which provides an explicit solution of the inverse problem. This allows us to generate a phase diagram in the space of (measurable) moments of the distribution of correlations. We expect that these ideas will be most useful in building models for systems that are nonequilibrium statistical mechanics problems, such as networks of real neurons. PMID:25260004

Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William

2014-09-12

177

The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument: a psychometric measure of Health-Related Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes constructing the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument; designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to be the descriptive system for a multi-attribute utility instrument. Unlike previous utility instruments' descriptive systems, the AQoL's has been developed using state-of-the-art psychometric procedures. The result is a descriptive system which emphasizes five different facets of HRQoL and

Graeme Hawthorne; Jeff Richardson; Richard Osborne

1999-01-01

178

Rationality Problems of the Principles of Equivalence and General Relativity  

E-print Network

It is pointed out that at present we only prove that inertial static mass and gravitational static mass are equivalent. We have not proved that inertial moving mass and gravitational moving mass are also equivalent. It is proved by the dynamic effect of special relativity that inertial moving mass and gravitational moving mass are not equivalent. Besides, it can be proved that the principle of general relativity is untenable. It is only an apparent felling of mankind actually. Therefore, there exists serious defect in the foundation of the Einsteins theory of gravitation. We need to renovate our basic idea of space-time and gravity.

Mei Xiaochun

2006-09-06

179

Prejudices and elderly patients’ personality – the problem of quality of care and quality of life in geriatric medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The article discusses the position of elderly patients in the context of medical intervention. The phenomenon of a “greying” population has changed the attitude towards the elderly but common observations prove that the quality of geriatric care is still unsatisfactory. This is a comparative study of personality among people at different ages, designed to improve specialists’ understanding of ageing. The results are discussed in relation to the elderly patient-centered paradigm to counterbalance ageist practices. Material/Methods This study involved 164 persons in early and late adulthood. Among the old, there were the young old (ages 65–74) and the older old (ages 75+). All participants were asked to fill-out the NEO-FFI [11]. Results The results demonstrate age-related differences in personality. In late adulthood, in comparison to early adulthood, there is decreased openness to new experiences. Two traits – agreeableness and conscientiousness – increase significantly. Age did not differentiate significantly the level of neuroticism or extraversion. The results of cluster analyses show differences in taxonomies of personality traits at different periods of life. Conclusions The results challenge the stereotypes that present older people as neurotic and aggressive. Age did not significantly influence the level of neuroticism or extraversion. In general, the obtained results prove that the ageist assumption that geriatric patients are troublesome is false. This article builds support for effective change in geriatric professional practices and improvement in elderly patients’ quality of life. PMID:23949099

B?achnio, Aleksandra; Buli?ski, Leszek

2013-01-01

180

A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE LOCATION OF VOLTAGE SAG SOURCE FOR POWER QUALITY DIAGNOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event source locating is very important to improve the power quality level. And it is a helpful way to find the location of the power quality event source to determine the direction of event at each monitor. This paper presents a method to determine the relative location of the source of voltage sag. For this, the relative location of the

Seon-Ju Ahn; Dong-Jun Won; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

181

Linking Perceived Service Quality to Relational Outcomes in a Chinese Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a model that integrates perceived service quality, satisfaction, trust, and relational outcomes in the context of health care. The model was tested based on data collected from 348 respondents in Hong Kong. Using structural equation modeling, this study shows that perceived service quality is positively associated with satisfaction, which in turn is positively related to

Jackie L. M. Tam

2012-01-01

182

Firework-related childhood injuries in Greece: a national problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 5-year period, out of 110066 children with injuries recorded in the Greek Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS), 91 had firework-related injuries. Descriptive analyses and the Barrell matrix were used to determine risk factors and extrapolated national firework childhood injury figures were calculated. The estimated annual incidence of childhood firework injuries treated in the emergency departments of hospitals

Konte Vassilia; Petridou Eleni; Trichopoulos Dimitrios

2004-01-01

183

Teaching About Energy: Problems Related to Energy Choices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student activity is designed to explore the potential difficulties related with different power sources. Difficulties such as nuclear waste, pollution, and the environmental impact of hydroelectric dams are presented. Students are also provided with links to other information on this topic. Included are notes for instructors wishing to use this material. This activity is part of a PTRA manual on Energy.

Roeder, John

2006-01-17

184

China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

Cannon, M. (Price Waterhouse L.L.P., Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

1994-11-28

185

How to interpret the magnitude of change in health-related quality of life? A study on the use of Cohen's thresholds for effect size estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper aims to identify problems ,in the ,evaluation of the ,magnitude ,of treatment-related change, or responsiveness of health status or health-related quality of life instruments, which are induced by standardizingchange over time with the standard deviation of the difference score. This effect size is widely used and is represented as the Standardised Response Mean (SRM), and interpretation is

Berrie Middel; Eric van Sonderen

186

[Quality and shortages of patient safety--how big is the problem?].  

PubMed

Patient safety is essential to quality health care, to ensure patients are not harmed, but also to ensure that resources are not wasted. More research evidence is becoming available about deficiencies in health care quality and safety. This evidence is reviewed in three consecutive articles in Läkartidningen. Research has discovered high rates of "adverse events" in health care services. The actual rate varies depending on definition, methods of measurement, and type of service. Rates as high as 46% of patients admitted to hospital have been reported. Sometimes high reported rates indicate that a service is serious about collecting data, rather than being an unsafe service. Generally, half of the events can be classified as "avoidable", and a significant proportion as "serious" causing death, disability or a longer hospital stay. Adverse drug events account for a high proportion and are probably the most well studied of patient safety problems. Although most of the current research has been done in the US, there is some evidence which suggests that problems within Swedish health care are of a similar magnitude and type. This article summarises the main studies and focuses on evidence of the economic consequences of deficiencies in patient safety and quality. PMID:15707107

Ovretveit, John; Sachs, Magna Andreen

187

University and Industry Collaboration to Solve Welding Quality Problem Using Design of Experiments (DOE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A local automotive seat supplier experienced a major quality problem in the fabrication of the metal seat frame used in the manufacture of the front bucket seats of automobiles. This quality concern was failure of the seat cushion weld nuts to adhere to the metal seat frame during random quality torque testing at the lower specification limit. A company executive contacted Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) and requested a six-sigma study to determine the root causes of the problem and to work with his engineering and operations personnel to implement countermeasures. The six-sigma project team was setup by the company Project Champion and was led by the university Project Leader. The team consisted of the company welding engineer, three operations personnel, the MTSU professor, a graduate student, and three undergraduates. This paper focuses on the Design-of-Experiments portion of this project that required close collaboration between the industry and the university personnel. Note: This paper to be presented at the CIEC 2006 Conference.

Gore, David; Langston, Donald; Langston, P. E.

2009-07-30

188

Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

189

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

2012-01-01

190

Cauchy problems for the conformal vacuum field equations in general relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cauchy problems for Einstein's conformal vacuum field equations are reduced to Cauchy problems for first order quasilinear symmetric hyperbolic systems. The “hyperboloidal initial value” problem, where Cauchy data are given on a spacelike hypersurface which intersects past null infinity at a spacelike two-surface, is discussed and translated into the conformally related picture. It is shown that for conformal hyperboloidal initial

Helmut Friedrich; Hochschule der Bundeswehr Hamburg

1983-01-01

191

The Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relation of different types of negative emotion and regulation and control to 55- to 97-month-olds' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Found that children with externalizing problems, compared to children with internalizing problems and nondisordered children, were more prone to anger, impulsivity, and low regulation.…

Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Reiser, Mark; Murphy, Bridget C.; LoSaga, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

2001-01-01

192

Functional assessment of geriatric patients in regard to health-related quality of life (HRQoL)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The main aim of our research was to evaluate general health, functioning, and performance parameters, as well as care problems of Geriatric Clinic inpatients in relation to deficits in fulfilling needs. The assessment of health-related quality of life was also performed. Patients and methods The research subjects were patients attending the Clinic of Geriatrics: 149 women and 78 men; 227 persons in total. The research was carried out using a diagnostic poll method, with the application of the Activities of Daily Living questionnaire of assessment of daily efficiency on the basis of the Katz index, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire, the Care Dependency Scale used to measure the level of care dependency and human needs, and the Nottingham Health Profile scale. Results The results showed that the majority of respondents achieved high and medium levels of functional capability. The main problems associated with the fulfillment of needs were difficulties with the adoption of appropriate body posture, movement restrictions, and problems related to participating in unassisted leisure activities outside the home. The general deficit in fulfilling the needs of the patients was low. The most significant problems were related to sleep disorders, restrictions in freedom of movement, loss of vital energy, and ailments resulting in the observable presence of pain. Conclusion Good daily functioning of elderly patients significantly depended on their intellectual and mental efficiency. Elderly patients require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. PMID:25565788

Muszalik, Marta; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Zieli?ska-Wi?czkowska, Halina; K?dziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Dijkstra, Ate

2015-01-01

193

Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

Evans, Gerald W.

1995-01-01

194

Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

195

Weight, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Maintaining weight is important for better prognosis of breast cancer survivors. The associations between weight and cancer-related symptoms are not known. We examined associations among weight, weight change, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors. Participants were recruited on average 6 months (2–12 months) after diagnosis. Height, weight, and c-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at approximately 30 months post-diagnosis; cancer-related symptoms (chest wall and arm symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, urinary incontinence, vaginal symptoms, cognition/mood problems, sleep, sexual interest/function), and HRQOL (SF-36) were assessed at approximately 40 months post-diagnosis. Weight was measured at baseline in a subset. Data on 661 participants were evaluable for body mass index (BMI); 483 were evaluable for weight change. We assessed associations between BMI (<25.0, 25.0–29.9, ?30.0 kg/m2), post-diagnosis weight change (lost ?5%, weight change <5%, gained ?5%), and CRP (tertile) with cancer-related symptoms and HRQOL using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Higher symptoms scores indicate more frequent or severe symptoms. Higher HRQOL scores indicate better HRQOL. Compared with those with BMI<25kg/m2, women with BMI ?30 kg/m2 had scores that were: increased for arm symptoms (+25.0%), urinary incontinence (+40.0%), tendency to nap (+18.9%) and poorer physical functioning (?15.6%, all p<0.05). Obese women had lower scores in trouble falling asleep (?9.9%; p<0.05). Compared with weight change <5%, participants with ?5% weight gain had lower scores in physical functioning (?7.2%), role-physical (?15.5%) and vitality (?11.2%), and those with weight loss ?5% had lower chest wall (?33.0%) and arm symptom scores (?35.5%, all p<0.05). Increasing CRP tertile was associated with worse scores for chest wall symptoms, urinary incontinence, physical functioning, role-physical, vitality and physical component summary scores (all Ptrend<0.05). Future studies should examine whether interventions to maintain a healthy weight and reduce inflammation could alleviate cancer-related symptoms and improve HRQOL. PMID:23797178

Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; George, Stephanie M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

2013-01-01

196

Inferring the Relative Quality of Reanalysis Data from a Historical Reforecast Using a Vorticity Equation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improvement of numerical weather prediction models in recent decades has led to a measurable decrease in forecast error, for instance as quantified by the 500-hPa geopotential height anomaly correlation. This improvement can be attributed in part to the refinements in the numerical architecture and the representation of physical processes in the model. It is more difficult to attribute the reduction in forecast error to improvements in the accuracy of the models' initial conditions, not least because of the complexity of the data assimilation process. As a contribution to this problem that will also be pedagogically useful, a reforecast experiment was conducted using a simple regional vorticity equation model for the 500-hPa flow over North America. This model is comparable in complexity to the Charney-Fjörtoft-von Neumann model used for the first numerical weather prediction experiment in 1949. Six-hourly predictions are made out to 36 hours for the period from 1948-2010, using the NCEP Reanalysis dataset for the initial conditions. Because initialization is trivial for this "filtered" model, one can clearly attribute the change in forecast skill to the changing quality of the initial state. The choice of the 500 hPa level is relevant since it will reflect the effect of the significant change in the density of upper-air observations from the mid- to late 20th Century. As an important byproduct of this exercise, a trend of improved forecast over time will imply an improved relative quality of the reanalysis data for the mid-troposphere. Therefore, the experiment serves two purposes of studying the forecast error and checking the quality of the reanalysis. An analysis of selected cases indicates that the predictions made for the 21st century have smaller errors compared to those made for the 1950s. A comprehensive analysis for the whole set of forecast is underway and the outcome will be discussed.

Ballesteros, C. A.; Herrmann, M.; Huang, H.

2011-12-01

197

Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical and Demographic Related Factors in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to investigate the Health Related Quality of Life and related clinical variables (HRQoL) of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We included 102 children with ASD (46 with autism, 38 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 18 with Asperger's syndrome (AS)) and 39 typically developing children…

Kose, Sezen; Erermis, Serpil; Ozturk, Onder; Ozbaran, Burcu; Demiral, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Aydin, Cahide

2013-01-01

198

HON Label and DISCERN as Content Quality Indicators of Health-Related Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related\\u000a on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular\\u000a content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data

Yasser Khazaal; Anne Chatton; Daniele Zullino; Riaz Khan

199

Health-Related Quality of Life in Female Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of women who survive treat- ment for colorectal cancer is growing, little is known about the quality of life of long-term survivors. The purpose of analyses presented in this paper is to describe the overall health-related quality of life of female long-term colorectal cancer survivors and the factors that may modify their levels of quality of life.

A. Trentham-Dietz; P. L. REMINGTON; C. M. MOINPOUR; J. M. HAMPTON

2003-01-01

200

78 FR 2394 - Release of Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9769-6] Release of Draft Document Related...National Ambient Air Quality Standards...National Ambient Air Quality Standards, External Review Draft (PA). This document...National Ambient Air Quality Standards.\\1\\ The draft PA document...

2013-01-11

201

PALEOENVIRONMENT OF COAL AND ITS RELATION TO DRAINAGE QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The acid production potential of a coal was related to its paleoenvironment (environment of deposition) as interpreted from the overlying strata. Within the Appalachian coal field of eastern Kentucky, coals and associated strata were characterized as either back-barrier, lower de...

202

Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p < .001) or their parents (p < .001), although disagreement (intra-class coefficient = -.075) between children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. PMID:24212259

Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

2015-01-01

203

Correlates of gambling-related problems among older adults in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the literature suggests that gambling among older adults is influenced by unique age-related factors, there is little information on the factors associated with the experience of gambling-related problems among older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify the sociodemographic health determinants and mental health-related problems, including alcohol and drug dependence, that are associated with the experience of

John McCready; Robert E. Mann; Jinhui Zhao; Robert Eves

2008-01-01

204

Web-Based Student Evaluations of Professors: The Relations between Perceived Quality, Easiness and Sexiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students critique their professors' teaching at RateMyProfessors.com, a web page where students anonymously rate their professors on Quality, Easiness, and Sexiness. Using the self-selected data from this public forum, we examine the relations between quality, easiness, and sexiness for 3190 professors at 25 universities. For faculty with…

Felton, James; Mitchell, John; Stinson, Michael

2004-01-01

205

Rural-Urban Analyses of Health-Related Quality of Life among People with Multiple Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional construct including aspects of life quality or function that are affected by physical health and symptoms, psychosocial factors, and psychiatric conditions. HRQOL gives a broader measure of the burden of disease than physical impairment or disability levels. Purpose: To…

Buchanan, Robert J.; Zhu, Li; Schiffer, Randolph; Radin, Dagmar; James, Wesley

2008-01-01

206

Health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) profoundly affects the quality of patients’ lives. A systematic review was performed to evaluate critically the published literature and to examine what is known about health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with IPF.Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to 1 April 2004. Abstracts and bibliographies of

J J Swigris; W G Kuschner; S S Jacobs; S R Wilson; M K Gould

2005-01-01

207

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases  

E-print Network

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

Hebert, Daniel N.

208

A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

2007-01-01

209

A systematic review of health-related quality of life in cutaneous melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoma can be considered an emerging chronic disease that may considerably affect patients' lives. The authors systematically reviewed the available literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and melanoma. Of reviews and the selected studies, reference lists were hand-searched. The quality of the eligible studies was appraised based on 14 previously published criteria. Of the 158 abstracts, 44 articles were

D. Cornish; C. Holterhues; L. V. van de Poll-Franse; J. W. W. Coebergh; T. E. C. Nijsten

2009-01-01

210

Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

2011-01-01

211

Genetic Loci Related to Kernal Quality Differences Between a Soft and a Hard Wheat Cultivar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hybridizations between hard and soft wheat types could be a source of novel variation for wheat quality improvement. This study was conducted to identify genomic regions related to differences in milling and baking quality between a soft and a hard cultivar of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)...

212

The Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL): a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Hocaoglu MB, Gaffan EA, Ho AK. The Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire: a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life. Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, and yet there is no disease-specific patient-reported health-related quality of life outcome measure for patients. Our aim was to develop and validate such an instrument, i.e. the Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL), to capture the true impact of living with this disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the full spectrum of people living with HD, to form a pool of items, which were then examined in a larger sample prior to data-driven item reduction. We provide the statistical basis for the extraction of three different sets of scales from the HDQoL, and present validation and psychometric data on these scales using a sample of 152 participants living with HD. These new patient-derived scales provide promising patient-reported outcome measures for HD. Section Editor: Aad Tibben, email: a.tibben@lumc.nl PMID:22151007

Hocaoglu, MB; Gaffan, EA; Ho, AK

2012-01-01

213

Problem Solving in the Presence of Others: How Rank and Relationship Quality Impact Resource Acquisition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.

2014-01-01

214

Learning to relate qualitative and quantitative problem representations in a model-based setting for collaborative problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an experimental study, we investigated how 10th graders acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. The study was made up of 2 main phases. In the 1st phase, students were taught either qualitative or quantitative aspects of classical mechanics by means of 2 different instructional units. In both units, concept maps were used for the presentation of information. In the 2nd phase, dyads were formed with students who worked on different instructional units and thus possessed systematically different knowledge. The 2 students collaboratively worked on problems that were beyond the competence of each of them and demanded the coordinated useof knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects. Before and after the instruction as well as after the collaborative problem solving, students had to work on multicomponent tests. In addition, during the collaborative problem solving, protocols were taken of the students' mutual exchange of information An analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative as well as quantitative knowledge can successfully be taught by means of concept maps. Students who initially were taught qualitative aspects of physics gained significantly more from the information provided by their quantitatively instructed partners during the collaborative problem solving than the other way around. An analysis of individual problem-solving attempts uncovered that students learned to construct increasingly more complete qualitative and quantitative problem representations. An explorative protocol analysis of the students' dialogues further indicated that the students gradually shifted their focus from quantitative to qualitative problem representations during collaborative problem solving.

Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

2005-11-22

215

Presentation of problem-specific, text-based medical knowledge: XML and related technologies.  

PubMed Central

Systematic reviews of the impact of clinical decision support systems on provider behavior and patient outcome have shown evidence of benefit. Knowledge-based functions for decision support or monitoring that are integrated in clinical information systems are a potentially effective way. But these concepts are restricted by the efforts required for development and maintenance of the information systems and the limited number of implemented medical rules. Physicians are familiar to get their information from text-based sources. It seems to be straight-forward to rely on a document-based solution in order to present problem-specific information at the point of care. We have developed a concept for context-sensitive retrieving and presentation of text-based medical knowledge (textbook of internal medicine) using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and related technologies. This concept can facilitate the electronic query and presentation of this resource. XML may replace narrative text as a storage format and allows to structure the data in a stepwise fashion. On the basis of structured data we are able to improve the search quality for clinical information and its presentation which forms a crucial pre-requisite for the use of the information and the implementation of evidence-based care in the clinical routine. PMID:11825191

Hoelzer, S.; Boettcher, H.; Schweiger, R. K.; Konetschny, J.; Dudeck, J.

2001-01-01

216

Modelling and visualisation to support decision-making in air quality-related transport planning.  

E-print Network

??This thesis introduces three main elements to support decision-making in air quality-related transport planning. The first are novel automatic collection and processing algorithms for traffic… (more)

Zahran, El-Said Mamdouh Mahmoud

2010-01-01

217

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS, VOLUMES I-III, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below.. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volu...

218

Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This first external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released in January 2005 for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean A...

219

Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.  

PubMed

Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

1992-10-01

220

Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

2013-01-01

221

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

222

Does understanding relational terminology mediate effects of intervention on compare word problems?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N=31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared with the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology, and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for one subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for the other two subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F; Fuchs, Lynn S

2012-04-01

223

Stressors, Quality of the Child–Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver–child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 340 children ages 7–16 and their surviving parent\\/current caregiver; the longitudinal

Sharlene A. Wolchik; Jenn-Yun Tein; Irwin N. Sandler; Tim S. Ayers

2006-01-01

224

Quantifying the harmful effect of psoriasis on health-related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psoriasis affects 7 million people in the United States, causing substantial cost, social stigma, and disability. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health effects of skin disease by comparing psoriasis to other primary medical disorders using 3 different scales of health-related quality of life. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 3 health-related quality of life

Stefan C. Weiss; Alexa B. Kimball; David J. Liewehr; Andrew Blauvelt; Maria L. Turner; Ezekiel J. Emanuel

2002-01-01

225

Costs and quality of life associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective observational data collection study assessed the cost and quality of life related to hip, vertebral and wrist\\u000a fracture 1 year after the fracture, based on a patient sample consisting of 635 male and female patients surviving a year\\u000a after fracture. Data regarding resource use and quality of life related to fractures was collected by questionnaires at baseline,\\u000a 4

Fredrik Borgström; Niklas Zethraeus; Olof Johnell; Lars Lidgren; Sari Ponzer; Olle Svensson; Peter Abdon; Ewald Ornstein; Karl Lunsjö; Karl Göran Thorngren; Ingemar Sernbo; Clas Rehnberg; Bengt Jönsson

2006-01-01

226

Activity-related quality of life in rehabilitation and traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnston MV, Miklos CS. Activity-related quality of life in rehabilitation and traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83 Suppl 2:S26-38. Objectives: To review approaches to assessment of quality of life (QOL) outcomes in rehabilitation, focusing particularly on traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to introduce the concept of activity-related QOL. Data Sources: A conceptual review, based on extensive searches of

Mark V. Johnston; Carol S. Miklos

2002-01-01

227

Working Memory and Impulsivity Predict Marijuana-Related Problems Among Frequent Users  

PubMed Central

Background Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, only a small portion of users go on to develop dependence, suggesting that there are substantial individual differences in vulnerability to marijuana-related problems among users. Deficits in working memory and high trait impulsivity are two factors that may place marijuana users at increased risk for experiencing related problems. Methods Using baseline data from an experimental study that recruited 104 frequent marijuana users (M=71.86% of prior 60 days, SD=22%), we examined the associations of working memory and trait impulsivity with marijuana-related problems. Results Lower working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test B, but not short-term memory capacity, predicted more marijuana-related problems. Higher trait impulsivity scores were independently associated with greater number of problems. Conclusions Results suggest that marijuana users with reduced executive cognitive ability are more susceptible to developing problems related to their use. Trait impulsivity and executive working memory appear to be independent risk factors for experiencing marijuana-related problems. PMID:23312340

Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Kahler, Christopher W.

2012-01-01

228

[Major drug related problems leading to hospital admission in the elderly].  

PubMed

Drug related problems represent an important problem in geriatric patients, and contribute to hospitalization in 15 to 30% of the admissions. In most cases this concerns adverse drug reactions (normal dose and overdose) but also drug therapy failures (e.g. undertreatment) are common. The main pharmacological classes involved are cardiovascular drugs and drugs for the central nervous system. Drug related problems can be prevented by regular medication review to decide if all drugs have to be continued, and to check for adverse drug reactions. Clinical pharmacists in hospitals can detect drug related problems (over-, under- and misuse using a systematic approach) and recommend changes to improve pharmacotherapy. The community pharmacist can help by elaborating drug schemes, by screening for medication interactions, and by resolving practical problems. PMID:25055454

Somers, A; Petrovic, M

2014-06-01

229

Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality.

Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

2015-01-01

230

Callous-unemotional behaviors in young girls: shared and unique effects relative to conduct problems.  

PubMed

Among girls, little is known about the shared and unique associations that callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors and conduct problems have with aspects of emotional and behavioral dysregulation and with parenting practices. This study examined these associations using a large community-based sample of young girls (N = 990). The findings revealed that hyperactivity-impulsivity and negative emotionality were positively and uniquely associated with conduct problems, but not with CU behaviors, after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. Conduct problems were also positively associated with both generalized anxiety and panic/somatic anxiety. In contrast, CU behaviors were negatively related to generalized anxiety problems after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. The results also indicated that conduct problems were more closely associated with harsh punishment and low parental warmth among girls with low versus high CU behaviors. PMID:17658975

Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Sembower, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

2007-01-01

231

A Domain Decomposition Method for the Helmholtz Equation and Related Optimal Control Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an iterative domain decomposition method to solve the Helmholtz equation and related optimal control problems. The proof of convergence of this method relies on energy techniques. This method leads to efficient algorithms for the numerical resolution of harmonic wave propagation problems in homogeneous and heterogeneous media.

Jean-David Benamou; Bruno Desprès

1997-01-01

232

Numerical Computation of Crystalline Microstructure and Related Numerical Analysis of Nonconvex Variational Problems  

E-print Network

Numerical Computation of Crystalline Microstructure and Related Numerical Analysis of Nonconvex), 395{415. 9. Michel Chipot, Numerical analysis of oscillations in nonconvex problems, Numer. Math., 59 (1991), 747{767. 10. Michel Chipot, Numerical analysis of oscillations in two well problems, in Progress

Li, Bo

233

An eddy current problem related to electromagnetic Alfredo Bermudez, Rafael Mu~noz, Pilar Salgado  

E-print Network

An eddy current problem related to electromagnetic forming Alfredo Berm´udez, Rafael Mu~noz, Pilar is to analyze a numerical method to solve a transient axisymmetric eddy current problem arising from currents in the workpiece. The magnetic field, together with the eddy currents, originate the Lorentz

Rodríguez, Rodolfo

234

Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who…

Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

2014-01-01

235

Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

Ji, Un Cig [Department of Mathematics, Research Institute of Mathematical Finance, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Obata, Nobuaki [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2010-12-15

236

Relational Discriminant Analysis and Its Large Sample Size Problem Robert P.W. Duin  

E-print Network

Relational Discriminant Analysis and Its Large Sample Size Problem Robert P.W. Duin Pattern. This technique has a large sample size problem as the size of the similarity matrix equals the square suffers from a feature size - sample size dilemma. Better, more complete object representations, yield

Duin, Robert P.W.

237

The Relation Between Types and Frequency of Gambling Activities and Problem Gambling Among Women in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Canada experienced large-scale growth of the gambling industry during the 1990s. Clinical data have indicated that substantial proportions of people seeking help for gambling problems in Canada are women. A population health model was used to understand the relation between types and frequency of gambling activities and problem gambling among women in Canada. Method: Data used for the analysis

Tracie O Afifi; Brian J Cox; Patricia J Martens; Jitender Sareen; Murray W Enns

2010-01-01

238

Effects of qigong training on health-related quality of life, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Louisa M Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Joanne W Y

2014-01-01

239

Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

2014-01-01

240

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

241

Assessment of groundwater quality of the Tatlicay aquifer and relation to the adjacent evaporitic formations (Cankiri, Turkey).  

PubMed

One of the most important hydrogeologic problems in and adjacent areas of evaporitic formations is severe quality degradation of groundwaters. These kinds of groundwaters contain high content of dissolved solids and generally have some limitations for use. Tatlicay basin (north-central Turkey) is an example to effects of the evaporites on groundwater quality in the adjacent alluvium aquifer. Gypsum and anhydrites in the two evaporite formations (Bayindir and Bozkir) effect of the groundwater quality in the alluvium adversely, by dissolution of the evaporites by surface drainage and infiltration into the alluvium aquifer (widespread effect) and by infiltration of low quality gypsum springs (local effect) into the aquifer. Evaporitic formations significantly increased EC, TDS, Ca and SO(4) parameters in the alluvium aquifer in the central and downstream regions. EC has increased roughly from 500-800 to 1,700-2,000 ?S/cm, Ca has roughly increased from 3-4 to 10 meq/l, SO(4) has increased 0.5-1 to 11-12 meq/l. Consequently, three clusters were distinguished in the basin; (1) nonevaporitic waters in low TDS, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO(4), (2) diluted waters in high TDS and relatively high Cl, moderate-relatively high Na, Ca, Mg, SO(4), (3) gypsum springs in highest TDS, Ca, SO(4), but moderate Mg and low Na, Cl. PMID:21573710

Apayd?n, Ahmet; Akta?, Sibel Demirci

2012-04-01

242

Comparison of Discriminative Properties Among Disease-Specific Questionnaires for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires have been introduced to assess patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Breathing Problems Questionnaire (BPQ), and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). The purpose of the present study was to make comparisons between the SGRQ , the BPQ , and the CRQ in their

TAKASHI HAJIRO; KOICHI NISHIMURA; MITSUHIRO TSUKINO; AKIHIKO IKEDA; HIROSHI KOYAMA; TAKATERU IZUMI

1999-01-01

243

Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies. Methods Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed. Results Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p?

2012-01-01

244

Delay to celiac disease diagnosis and its implications for health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background To determine how the delay in diagnosing celiac disease (CD) has developed during recent decades and how this affects the burden of disease in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and also to consider differences with respect to sex and age. Methods In collaboration with the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, a questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members, divided in equal-sized age- and sex strata, and 1,031 (66%) responded. HRQoL was measured with the EQ-5D descriptive system and was then translated to quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scores. A general population survey was used as comparison. Results The mean delay to diagnosis from the first symptoms was 9.7 years, and from the first doctor visit it was 5.8 years. The delay has been reduced over time for some age groups, but is still quite long. The mean QALY score during the year prior to initiated treatment was 0.66; it improved after diagnosis and treatment to 0.86, and was then better than that of a general population (0.79). Conclusions The delay from first symptoms to CD diagnosis is unacceptably long for many persons. Untreated CD results in poor HRQoL, which improves to the level of the general population if diagnosed and treated. By shortening the diagnostic delay it is possible to reduce this unnecessary burden of disease. Increased awareness of CD as a common health problem is needed, and active case finding should be intensified. Mass screening for CD might be an option in the future. PMID:22060243

2011-01-01

245

Funding Source and Research Report Quality in Nutrition Practice-Related Research  

PubMed Central

Background The source of funding is one of many possible causes of bias in scientific research. One method of detecting potential for bias is to evaluate the quality of research reports. Research exploring the relationship between funding source and nutrition-related research report quality is limited and in other disciplines the findings are mixed. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether types of funding sources of nutrition research are associated with differences in research report quality. Design A retrospective study of research reporting quality, research design and funding source was conducted on 2539 peer reviewed research articles from the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library® database. Results Quality rating frequency distributions indicate 43.3% of research reports were rated as positive, 50.1% neutral, and 6.6% as negative. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that while both funding source and type of research design are significant predictors of quality ratings (?2?=?118.99, p<0.001), the model's usefulness in predicting overall research report quality is little better than chance. Compared to research reports with government funding, those not acknowledging any funding sources, followed by studies with University/hospital funding were more likely to receive neutral vs positive quality ratings, OR?=?1.85, P <0.001 and OR?=?1.54, P<0.001, respectively and those that did not report funding were more likely to receive negative quality ratings (OR?=?4.97, P<0.001). After controlling for research design, industry funded research reports were no more likely to receive a neutral or negative quality rating than those funded by government sources. Conclusion Research report quality cannot be accurately predicted from the funding source after controlling for research design. Continued vigilance to evaluate the quality of all research regardless of the funding source and to further understand other factors that affect quality ratings are warranted. PMID:22163017

Myers, Esther F.; Parrott, J. Scott; Cummins, Deborah S.; Splett, Patricia

2011-01-01

246

Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems  

SciTech Connect

Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

King, J.M. Jr.

1996-03-01

247

Canadian adolescents with migraine: impaired health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of migraine headaches on health-related quality of life among Canadian adolescents. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) collects information related to health status, health care utilization, and health determinants for the Canadian population. Analysis was limited to those adolescents 12-19 years of age residing in Manitoba. Respondents reported whether they had migraine and mood/anxiety disorders. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short Form-36 survey, which covers 8 health concepts related to functional status, well-being, and overall health. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to model each Short Form-36 scale against age (12-14 years vs 15-19 years), gender, migraine, and the presence of a mood or anxiety disorder. The CCHS was completed by 994 respondents; 9.3% (95% confidence interval, 7.3%-11.5%) reported a diagnosis of migraine. Reported migraine predicted both statistically (P < .0001) and clinically significantly lower health-related quality of life in all Short Form-36 domains except vitality and general health perceptions. Adolescents reporting a mood disorder (2.1%) scored significantly lower in 6 of 8 health-related quality of life domains, most pronounced for emotional role, general mental health, and social functioning. Canadian adolescents with migraine report clinically and statistically significant impairment in health-related quality of life compared to their peers, independent of psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:18079320

Brna, Paula; Gordon, Kevin; Dooley, Joseph

2008-01-01

248

PHYTOPLANKTON WATER-QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS IN U.S. LAKES. PART VIII: ALGAE ASSOCIATED WITH OR RESPONSIBLE FOR WATER-QUALITY PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental data are presented for 117 species and 24 genera of freshwater algae that have been associated with or are responsible for water quality problems. The environmental data are based upon algal occurrence records from 250 lakes sampled in Eastern and Southeastern State...

249

On relative periodic solutions of the planar general three-body problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe two relatively simple reductions to order 6 for the planar general three-body problem. We also show that this reduction leads to the distinction between two types of periodic solutions: absolute or relative periodic solutions. An algorithm for obtaining relative periodic solutions using heliocentric coordinates is then described. It is concluded from the periodicity conditions that relative periodic solutions must form families with a single parameter. Finally, two such families have been obtained numerically and are described in some detail.

Broucke, R.

1975-01-01

250

A Kind of Nonlinear Programming Problem Based on Mixed Fuzzy Relation Equations Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a kind of nonlinear programming problem with non-differential objective function and under the constraints expressed by a system of mixed fuzzy relation equations is investigated. First, some properties of this kind of optimization problem are obtained. Then, a polynomial-time algorithm for this kind of optimization problem is proposed based on these properties. Furthermore, we show that this algorithm is optimal for the considered optimization problem in this paper. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate our algorithms.

Li, Jinquan; Feng, Shuang; Mi, Honghai

251

Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

Bacci, Geoff

2002-01-01

252

On categorical approach to derived preference relations in some decision making problems  

E-print Network

A structure called a decision making problem is considered. The set of outcomes (consequences) is partially ordered according to the decision maker's preferences. The problem is how these preferences affect a decision maker to prefer one of his strategies (or acts) to another, i.e. it is to describe so called derived preference relations. This problem is formalized by using category theory approach and reduced to a pure algebraical question. An effective method is suggested to build all reasonable derived preferences relations and to compare them with each other.

Victor V. Rozen; Grigori Zhitomirski

2005-03-08

253

Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. Methods and Materials: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive after Jan 2006 were identified through the cancer registry. Generic HRQoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, EQ-5D), cervical cancer-specific HRQoL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module), and anxiety (6-item State Trait Anxiety Inventory) were assessed and compared with a reference population (n = 349). Data for tumor characteristics at diagnosis and disease progression were available. Results: A total of 291 women responded (69%), with a mean age of 53 {+-} 13 (SD) years (range, 31-88 years). Treatment had consisted of surgery (n = 195) or a combination of therapies (n = 75); one woman had not been treated. Of all women, 85% were clinically disease free, 2% had a recurrence/metastasis, and in 13%, this was unknown. After controlling for background characteristics (age, education, job and marital status, having children, and country of birth), generic HRQoL scale scores were similar to the reference population, except for worse mental health in survivors. The most frequent symptoms were crampy pain in the abdomen or belly (17%), urinary leakage (15%), menopausal symptoms (18%), and problems with sexual activity. Compared with the 6-10-year survivors, more sexual worry and worse body image were reported by the 2-5-year survivors. Compared with surgery only, especially primary radiotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of treatment-related side effects, also after controlling for age and disease stage at diagnosis and follow-up. Conclusions: Most cervical cancer survivors were coping well, although their mental health was worse than in the reference population. Even after 2-10 years, radiotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of treatment-related side effects.

Korfage, Ida J. [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: i.korfage@erasmusmc.nl; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Social Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mols, Floortje; Poll-Franse, Lonneke van de [Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South, Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kruitwagen, Roy [Department of Gynecology, TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Academic Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ballegooijen, Marjolein van [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2009-04-01

254

Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

2009-01-01

255

The Relations of Problem Behavior Status to Children's Negative Emotionality, Effortful Control, and Impulsivity: Concurrent Relations and Prediction of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations of children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors to their concurrent regulation, impulsivity (reactive undercontrol), anger, sadness, and fearfulness and these aspects of functioning 2 years prior were examined. Parents and teachers completed measures of children's (N = 185; ages 6 through 9 years) adjustment, negative…

Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Valiente, Carlos; Reiser, Mark; Cumberland, Amanda; Shepard, Stephanie A.

2005-01-01

256

Long Term Health-Related Quality of Life in Survivors of Sepsis in South West Wales: An Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Survivors of sepsis report persistent problems that can last years after hospital discharge. The main aim of this study was to investigate long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of SIRS and sepsis compared with Welsh normative data, controlling for age, length of stay and pre-existing conditions. The second aim was to investigate any differences in long-term health-related quality of life specifically with the patients categorised into three groups; SIRS, uncomplicated sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods A prospective study design was used in order to investigate all sepsis patients either presenting to the Emergency Department or admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a regional trauma centre. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and surviving patients were sent a SF-12v2 survey at between six months to two years post-hospital discharge. Results Quality of life was significantly reduced in all patients when compared to local normative data (all p<0.0001). Reductions in the physical components of health-related quality of life were more pronounced in severe sepsis/septic shock patients when compared to uncomplicated sepsis and SIRS patients, when controlling for age, pre-existing conditions, hospital and ICU length of stay. Conclusions This is the first observational study to specifically focus on the different groups of SIRS and sepsis patients to assess long-term quality of life. Local population norms were used for comparison, rather than UK-wide norms that fail to reflect the intricacies of a country’s population. PMID:25549097

Battle, Ceri E.; Davies, Gareth; Evans, Phillip A.

2014-01-01

257

Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students: A Prospective Examination of Mediating Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. Methods The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1,539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Results Structural Equation Modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. Conclusions This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. PMID:21145669

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

2010-01-01

258

Alcohol use and alcohol consumption-related problems in rural Vietnam: an epidemiological survey using AUDIT.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess alcohol use and alcohol consumption-related problems in different sociodemographic groups in a rural district in Vietnam. Interviews were completed between March 2004 and July 2004. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to interview 3423 people, who were randomly selected in a rural district (1695 men and 1728 women). People who had an AUDIT score greater than 7 (in men) or greater than 5 (in women) were identified as having alcohol consumption-related problems. Prevalences and adjusted odds ratios of alcohol use and alcohol consumption-related problems were estimated for different subgroups of the population. Weekly and daily "binge drinking" among men were 5.7 and 3.6%, while binge drinking in women was virtually nonexistent. The prevalence of alcohol consumption-related problems was 25.5% among men and 0.7% among women. The differences between sociodemographic groups were not strong, but women who were separated, divorced, or widowed as well as those with higher education had significantly higher rates of alcohol consumption-related problems than married women and those with lower education. This study indicates an urgent need for alcohol intervention programs focused on men. However, further monitoring of alcohol use and problems among women is important to follow-up changes in consumption pattern. The study's limitations are discussed. PMID:18365945

Giang, Kim Bao; Allebeck, Peter; Spak, Fredrik; Van Minh, Hoang; Dzung, Truong Viet

2008-01-01

259

Responsive parenting is associated with improved type 1 diabetes-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Improved quality of life is an important treatment goal for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. While previous research supports a relationship between family environment and quality of life, little research has addressed the relationship of parenting style constructs to quality of life in children with chronic disease. The present investigation assesses the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness with diabetes-related quality of life among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods Baseline and 12-month follow-up self-report assessments were collected on a sample of 81 children with type 1 diabetes participating in an efficacy trial of a behavioral intervention to enhance adherence. The sample had a mean age of 13.3 years (SD = 1.7) and duration of diabetes of 7.7 years (SD = 3.7). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness to diabetes-related quality of life at each time point. Results After adjusting for demographic and diabetes characteristics, as well as diabetes-specific parent-child behaviors, parent responsiveness was significantly associated with baseline diabetes-related quality of life (B=.23; p=.04). This relationship was sustained at 12-month follow-up (B=.22; p=.04) after adjusting for baseline quality of life and treatment group assignment, suggesting that parent responsiveness is associated with improved quality of life. Conclusions Findings indicate the importance of a supportive and emotionally warm parenting style in promoting improved quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes. Appropriate parenting skills should be an element of diabetes family management health care. PMID:18796059

Botello-Harbaum, Maria; Nansel, Tonja; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2008-01-01

260

Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

Johnson, L. Syd M.

2012-01-01

261

Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

Ito, Jun-ichi

2006-01-01

262

Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

2007-01-01

263

The Problem of the Particular and its Relation to the General in Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the didactics of mathematics has shown the importance of the problem of the particular and its relation to the general in teaching and learning mathematics as well as the complexity of factors related to them. In particular, one of the central open questions is the nature and diversity of objects that carry out the role of particular…

Font, Vicenc; Contreras, Angel

2008-01-01

264

Predictors of Alcohol-Related Problems Among Depressed and Non-Depressed Women  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and alcohol-related problems are often comorbid in women, but not all depressed women have comorbid alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated intrapersonal (drinking expectancies), interpersonal (interpersonal pressure to drink), and familial (mother’s and father’s drinking history) predictors of alcohol-related problems among women with and without a major depressive episode in the past year. Method Participants were 853 women ages 21–90 from a U.S. national probability sample. Depression diagnosis was determined via interviewer administration of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) depression module. Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol-related problems and intrapersonal, interpersonal, and familial predictors of drinking. Results Regression analyses indicated that an episode of depression in the past year, more positive drinking expectancies, greater interpersonal pressure to drink, and higher levels of maternal (but not paternal) drinking predicted alcohol-related problems; moreover, the relationships between alcohol-related problems and maternal drinking, paternal drinking, and interpersonal pressure to drink were significantly stronger among women with an episode of major depression in the past year than among women without an episode. Limitations Study data was cross-sectional and obtained through self-report, thus limiting causal explanations of results. Conclusions Findings suggest that depression may enhance the impact of interpersonal and familial risk factors on women’s alcohol misuse. Implications of findings for transdiagnostic models of psychopathology and for prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems in women presenting with depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:23742828

Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Desrosiers, Alethea; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

2013-01-01

265

A health-related quality of life measure for multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for clinical effectiveness research and for quality of care research, particularly for chronic diseases, is increasingly recognized. We assessed a measure of HRQOL for people with multiple sclerosis, a chronic neurological condition. We used the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (aka SF-36) as a generic core measure, to enable comparisons

B. G. Vickrey; R. D. Hays; R. Harooni; L. W. Myers; G. W. Ellison

1995-01-01

266

Health-related quality of life in glioma patients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been increasingly emphasized in cancer patients. There are no reports comparing baseline HRQOL of different subgroups of glioma patients prior to surgery. METHODS: HRQOL assessments by the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0), the Mini-Mental State

Jin-xiang Cheng; Bo-lin Liu; Xiang Zhang; Wei Lin; Yong-qiang Zhang; Wei-ping Liu; Jian-ning Zhang; Hong Lin; Rui Wang; Hong Yin

2010-01-01

267

Interrelationships between Physical Environment Quality, Personal Interaction Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions in Relation to Customer Loyalty: The Case of Kinmen's Bed and Breakfast Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was aimed at exploring an empirical understanding of interrelationships between service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the bed and breakfast (B&B) market, using Kinmen Island as an example. Better understanding of B&B customer perceptions of physical environment quality, personal interaction quality and the effects of these perceptions on behavioural intentions relating to customer loyalty and customer

Chien Min Chen; Sheu Hua Chen; Hong Tau Lee

2012-01-01

268

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother’s emotional support, behavioral control\\/monitoring, family organization\\u000a and psychological control with adolescent’s internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged,\\u000a African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother’s psychological control were positively associated\\u000a with adolescent’s internalizing problems. Demanding kin relations also moderated the association of control\\/monitoring, family\\u000a organization, and psychological

Ronald D. Taylor; Elizabeth I. Lopez; Mia Budescu; Rebecca Kang McGill

269

Quantity and quality of obesity-related research in Arab countries: assessment and comparative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a serious worldwide medical condition, considered by some researchers as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. The main objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of obesity-related research from Arab countries and compare it with that from non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published by Arab countries about obesity up until 2011 were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, journals names, citations, top 10 active institutions, and the contribution of each Arab country to obesity research. Results The total number of original and review research articles published globally about obesity was 110,167. The leading country in obesity research was United States of America (42.47%). Turkey, Israel, and Iran were in the top 30 countries while Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Egypt, and Kuwait ranked 39th, 43rd, and 47th, respectively. A total of 1,121 documents about “obesity” were published by Arab countries, representing 1.0% of the global research output, with 13,343 citations (average citation of 11.9 per document) and an h-index of 44. The Arab countries’ research output was very low until the mid-1990s and then increased steadily. Of the 1,121 documents, 107 (9.55%) were published in the Saudi Medical Journal. KSA, with a total of 318 publications ranked first among Arab countries in research quantity while Kuwait ranked first after adjustment based on population size. King Saud University in KSA was the most productive institution with a total of 140 documents. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, the research productivity from Arab countries was lower than that from Turkey, higher than that from Iran, and close to that from Israel. However, the h-index of documents about obesity published from Arab countries was lower than that of Turkey and Israel, but slightly higher than that from Iran. Conclusions The present data reveals a good contribution by some Arab countries, particularly Arab gulf countries, to obesity research. More efforts are needed by other Arab countries to bridge the gap in this topic and to improve the quality of obesity-related research originating from Arab countries. PMID:25005130

2014-01-01

270

Problems and solutions in calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).  

PubMed

The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a measure of the value of health outcomes. Since health is a function of length of life and quality of life, the QALY was developed as an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY calculation is simple: the change in utility value induced by the treatment is multiplied by the duration of the treatment effect to provide the number of QALYs gained. QALYs can then be incorporated with medical costs to arrive at a final common denominator of cost/QALY. This parameter can be used to compare the cost-effectiveness of any treatment. Nevertheless, QALYs have been criticised on technical and ethical grounds. A salient problem relies on the numerical nature of its constituent parts. The appropriateness of the QALY arithmetical operation is compromised by the essence of the utility scale: while life-years are expressed in a ratio scale with a true zero, the utility is an interval scale where 0 is an arbitrary value for death. In order to be able to obtain coherent results, both scales would have to be expressed in the same units of measurement. The different nature of these two factors jeopardises the meaning and interpretation of QALYs. A simple general linear transformation of the utility scale suffices to demonstrate that the results of the multiplication are not invariant. Mathematically, the solution to these limitations happens through an alternative calculation of QALYs by means of operations with complex numbers rooted in the well known Pythagorean theorem. Through a series of examples, the new calculation arithmetic is introduced and discussed. PMID:14687421

Prieto, Luis; Sacristán, José A

2003-01-01

271

Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ?65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

2012-01-01

272

Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate vision-related quality of life in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods: The interviewer-administered National Eye Institute visual function questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was used in 30 adult consecutive patients with chronic CSCR patients. The controls were 30 gender- and age-matched people with normal visual function who came from the same socioeconomic and educational background as the participants. Results: Patients with CSCR had statistically significant lower scores than controls for all the subscales, except for general health. In the study group, all subscale scores of vision-related quality of life, except general health, showed statistically significant negative correlations with the visual acuity. Conclusions: People with CSCR have worse vision-related quality of life than people without the condition. PMID:24164250

Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Bez, Yasin; Yüksel, Harun; Cinar, Yasin; Kür?at Cingü, Abdullah; Caça, Ihsan

2013-10-28

273

[Indicators for quality of care. Severe problems with methods of observation].  

PubMed

Recently, there has been increasing concern about indicators for quality of care systems. Much energy has been devoted to the development of these indicators, but after a couple of years many professionals in the care organizations are complaining that the validity is extremely doubtful. In this editorial a fundamental problem is discussed, namely the reliability of the observations. In all scientific fields many precautions are necessary, for example in meteorology measuring the temperature in open air. In the manuals about the indicators of care two methods of observation are mentioned. In the first one patients are interviewed. The results seem very unreliable, because of socially desirable answers. For example, in nursing homes the patients are extremely dependent on the care-giver and it is likely they avoid complaints. The second method is used for gathering data about the frequency of falls, decubitus and so on. This is carried out by the care professionals. It goes without saying that the resulting data are vulnerable to manipulation, because of the great interests of the professionals and of the organizations involved. This problem was already described by the sociologist Blau 50 years ago. It is suggested to make a new start on a small scale with only a few indicators. It is necessary to work with unobtrusive measures-e.g. undercover observations- for observing behaviour instead of asking questions. And in the second case data should be gathered by separate organizations that are completely independent. Patients deserve that the representation of their situation should be guaranteed by scientific standards. PMID:22250366

Braam, Geert

2011-12-01

274

Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.  

PubMed

To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence. PMID:22420125

Sumi, Katsunori

2011-12-01

275

Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal\\u000a pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings\\u000a by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the\\u000a experience of back

Clare S Rees; Anne J Smith; Peter B O’Sullivan; Garth E Kendall; Leon M Straker

2011-01-01

276

Association of Oral Health Indicators with Quality-of-Life Related to Oral Health among Iranian Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Background: There has been an increase in the development and use of oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) measures in the past two decades. This study aimed to assess the association between OHRQoL and clinical oral health measures, among mid-level school children in Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random cluster sample of 11-13 year-old student population. Consented participants interviewed for OHRQoL measurements using Persian version of child-oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP). Oral examination was done by a trained dentist using WHO oral health assessment form, version 2011. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 using Mann–Whitney and correlation tests. Results: A total of 400 school children participated. The overall mean of decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.76 ± 2.4. A total of 82% of the school children presented the impact of oral problems in at least one of the eight daily performances. As DMFT increased, the OIDP score tended to increase or quality-of-life of children tended to be worse (r = 0.397, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a positive relation between some oral health status and quality-of-life score.

Bakhtiar, Maryam; Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

277

Spacer-related problems in two-stage revision knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Although articulated cement spacers are frequently used in a staged approach of an infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA), no data are available on the incidence and type of spacer-related problems in these patients. A retrospective analysis of 154 patients who underwent a two-stage revision procedure for an infected TKA was performed. All patients received an articulating cement spacer at the implant removal procedure; their radiographs were analyzed for spacer-related issues such as spacer dislocation, fracture, tilting or translation, and knee subluxation. In 43% of the patients, the spacer was considered as optimal. The main finding of this study is the large incidence (57%) of spacer-specific problems in two-stage revision knee arthroplasty for infected TKA. Spacer tilting and mediolateral translation were found to be the most frequent spacer-specific problems, in 24% and 21% of the cases respectively. These were considered as minor problems. Major problems were seen in 12 % : in 3% of the knees the spacer had dislocated, in 5% the spacer fractured and in 4%, although the spacer seemed to be adequately positioned relative to the femoral and tibial bone, frank knee subluxation could be noted. The impact of spacer-specific problems with articulating cement spacers on final outcome in two-stage revision knee surgery will be further investigated. PMID:24205773

Struelens, Bernard; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan

2013-08-01

278

Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal EEG asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred and nine infants’ anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4 months of age. Infants’ approach behaviors during play with an unpredictable toy and baseline frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry were assessed at 9 months of age. Inhibitory control during a Go/No-Go task and parent-report of behavior problems were evaluated at 4 years of age. High anger-prone infants with left, but not right, frontal EEG asymmetry showed significantly more approach behaviors and less inhibitory control relative to less anger-prone infants. Although a link between anger proneness in infancy and behavior problems in early childhood was not found, a combination of low approach behaviors and poor inhibitory control was predictive of internalizing behaviors.

He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

2015-01-01

279

Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

Not Available

1994-06-01

280

Health-related quality of life and influencing factors among rural left-behind wives in Liuyang, China  

PubMed Central

Background In China, the number of left-behind wives in rural areas has reached 47 million. Left-behind wives might have more psychological stress and lower life quality. This study was to examine the health-related quality of life and influencing social and cognitive factors in a sample of left-behind wives in rural areas of China. Methods The demographic data questionnaire, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale were completed by a sample of 1,893 left-behind wives and 969 non-left-behind wives. Results Left-behind wives had lower scores on physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS) , and all the eight subscales of the SF-36 than non-left-behind wives (P?problems (RE) and on MCS. Compared to non-left-behind wives, left-behind wives scored higher in depression, stress, and passive coping styles, and scored significantly lower in social support and active coping styles. Logistic regression analysis showed that the status of being left behind, age, education years, monthly income, employment, physical health status, active coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the PCS of rural women, whereas the status of being left behind, monthly income, physical health status, sense of marriage security, stress, social support, passive coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the MCS of rural women. Conclusions Left-behind wives scored lower on health-related quality of life than non-left-behind wives. Low health-related quality of life was associated with left behind status, older age, less education, low monthly income, unemployment, bad physical health status, passive coping styles, low social support, high level of stress, and high depression. PMID:24886024

2014-01-01

281

A test of vegetation-related indicators of wetland quality in the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was part of an effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantitatively assess the environmental quality or 'health' of wetland resources on regional and national scales. During a two-year pilot study, we tested selected indicators of wetland quality in the U.S. portion of the prairie pothole region (PPR). We assumed that the amount of cropland versus non-cropland (mostly grassland) in the plots containing these basins was a proxy for their quality. We then tested indicators by their ability to discriminate between wetlands at the extremes of that proxy. Amounts of standing dead vegetation were greater in zones of greater water permanence. Depth of litter was greater in zones of greater water permanence and in zones of basins in poor-quality watersheds. Amounts of unvegetated bottom were greater in basins in poor-quality watersheds; lesser amounts occurred in all wetlands during a wetter year. Greater amounts of open water occurred during a wetter year and in zones of greater water permanence. When unadjusted for areas (ha) of communities, plant taxon richness was higher in wet-meadow and shallow-marsh zones in good-quality watersheds than in similar zones in poor-quality watersheds. Wet-meadow zones in good-quality watersheds had greater numbers of native perennials than those in poor-quality watersheds. This relation held when we eliminated all communities in good-quality watersheds larger than the largest communities in poor-quality watersheds from the data set. We conclude that although amounts of unvegetated bottom and plant taxon richness in wet-meadow zones were useful indicators of wetland quality during our study, the search for additional such indicators should continue. The value of these indicators may change with the notoriously unstable hydrological conditions in the PPR. Most valuable would be indicators that could be photographed or otherwise remotely sensed and would remain relatively stable under various hydrological conditions. An ideal set of indicators could detect the absence of stressors, as well as the presence of structures or functions, of known value to major groups of organisms.

Kantrud, H.A.; Newton, W.E.

1996-01-01

282

Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

283

Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality

Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

2012-01-01

284

Quality of Work Life: Theoretical and Methodological Problems, and Presentation of a New Model and Measuring Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Ever since the concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) was first used over 30 years ago, a range of definitions and theoretical constructs have succeeded each other with the aim of mitigating the many problems facing the concept. A historical overview of the concept of QWL is presented here. Given the lack of consensus concerning the…

Martel, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis, Gilles

2006-01-01

285

The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study  

PubMed Central

This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ? 10) and large problem size (sum > 10) and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1, and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties. PMID:25309405

Van Beek, Leen; Ghesquièr, Pol; De Smedt, Bert; Lagae, Lieven

2014-01-01

286

Individuals' perception of oral health and its impact on the health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

This research divides oral health status into two parts: clinical disease and patients' subjective perceptions, and then discusses what impact these two items have on the health-related quality of life. A total of 1600 elderly persons, over 65 years old, were sampled as the research target. The overall response rate was 71.62%. SF-36 was used to measure the health-related quality of life, Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) was used to measure individuals' subjective perception of their oral health status, and the number of natural teeth was considered as the clinical issue. There are 12 items which affect quality of life in the physical aspect, namely: OHIP score; age; gender; weekly frequency of social activities and interactions; financial status; physician visits per month on a regular basis; hospitalization during the last 6 months; arthritis, rheumatism, cardiovascular disease or diabetes; abnormal IADL patients; and the satisfaction level of current lifestyle. Factors affecting quality of life (i.e. mental aspects), are few, including: OHIP score, gender, education level, weekly frequency of social activities and interactions and satisfaction level of current lifestyle. The results indicate that individuals' subjective perceptions of their oral health status had a greater impact, than did the clinical issue, on their health-related quality of life. The outcomes and findings derived from this research may provide alternative perspectives for professionals, so that they may be more careful concerning individuals' subjective perceptions. PMID:17244229

Lee, I-C; Shieh, T-Y; Yang, Y-H; Tsai, C-C; Wang, K-H

2007-02-01

287

Associations between demographic, disease related, and treatment pathway related variables and health related quality of life in primary care patients with coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Coronory heart disease (CHD) is a common medical problem worldwide that demands shared care of general practitioners and cardiologists for concerned patients. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists and to optimize evidence-based care, a treatment pathway for patients with CHD was developed and evaluated in a feasibility study according to the recommendation for the development and evaluation of complex interventions of the British Medical Research Council (MRC). In the context of this feasibility study the objective of the present research was to investigate the contributions of different disease related (e.g. prior myocardial infarction), pathway related (e.g. basic medication) and demographic variables on patients` perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) as a relevant and widely used outcome measure in cardiac populations. Methods Data assessing demographic, disease and pathway related variables of CHD patients included in the study were collected in a quasi-experimental design with three study arms (pathway developers, users, control group) via case record forms and questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 (intervention groups), and 9?months (control group), respectively after the initial implementation on GP level. Additionally, at the same measuring points the CHD patients participating in the study were interviewed by phone regarding their perceived HRQoL, measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D as an index-based health questionnaire. Due to the hierarchical structure of the data, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models to investigate the impact of disease related, pathway related and demographic variables on patients` perceived HRQoL. Results Of 334 initially recruited patients with CHD, a total of 290 were included in our analysis. This was an average 13.2% dropout rate from baseline assessment to the 12-month follow-up. At all assessment points, patients` HRQoL was associated with a variety of sociodemographic variables (e.g. gender, employment, education) in each study group, but there was no association with pathway related variables. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses highest HRQoL values in patients were reported in the physician group that had developed the pathway. In the longitudinal analyses there were no significant changes in the reported HRQoL values of the three groups over time. Conclusions The found associations between sociodemographic variables and the perceived HRQoL of patients with CHD are in line with other research. As there are no associations of HRQoL with pathway related variables like the basic medication, possible weaknesses in the study design or the choice of outcome have to be considered before planning and conducting an evaluation study according to the MRC recommendations. Additionally, as patients in the developer group reported the highest HRQoL values over time, a higher commitment of the GPs in the developer group can be assumed and should be considered in further research. PMID:22776102

2012-01-01

288

Decreased Alcohol Consumption in Outpatient Drinkers Is Associated with Improved Quality of Life and Fewer Alcohol-related Consequences  

PubMed Central

This study's objective was to determine whether changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in quality of life and alcohol-related consequences in an outpatient sample of drinkers. Two hundred thirteen subjects completed the Short Form 36-item (SF-36) Health Survey and the Short Inventory of Problems at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Subjects who sustained a 30% or greater decrease in drinks per month reported improvement in SF-36 Physical Component Summary (P = .058) and Mental Component Summary (P = .037) scores and had fewer alcohol-related consequences (P < .001) when compared to those with a <30% decrease. These findings suggest another benefit of alcohol screening and intervention in the primary care setting. PMID:12047737

Kraemer, Kevin L; Maisto, Stephen A; Conigliaro, Joseph; McNeil, Melissa; Gordon, Adam J; Kelley, Mary E

2002-01-01

289

Recent Injury and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a global concept that takes into account the physical, psychological, and social domains of health. Determining the extent to which injury affects HRQOL is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice, enabling comparisons of clinical outcomes across different conditions in diverse patient groups. Objective: To examine the extent to which a self-reported recent injury affected HRQOL in adolescent athletes using 2 generic patient self-report scales. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school classrooms and athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of uninjured (n ?=? 160) and injured (n ?=? 45) adolescent athletes. Intervention(s): The independent variable was injury status: uninjured versus injured. All participants completed a self-administered brief health status questionnaire and the Short Form–36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in a counterbalanced manner. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables included 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI. Group differences were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test (P ? .05) and reported as median and interquartile range. Results: On the SF-36, the injured group demonstrated lower scores (P < .008) for physical functioning, limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social functioning, and the physical composite. On the PODCI, the injured group reported lower scores (P < .01) on the pain and comfort subscale and the global score. Conclusions: Adolescent athletes with self-reported injuries demonstrated lower HRQOL than their uninjured peers. As expected, recent injury affected physical functioning and pain. Social functioning (on the SF-36) and global HRQOL (on the PODCI) also decreased, suggesting that injuries affected areas beyond the expected physical component of health. Clinicians need to recognize the full spectrum of negative influences that injuries may have on HRQOL in adolescent athletes. PMID:19911086

Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Parsons, John T.; Sauers, Eric L.; Snyder, Alison R.

2009-01-01

290

Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and

V. L. Goel; H. M. Behl

1996-01-01

291

BMI and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults 65 Years and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine relationships of BMI with health-related quality of life in adults 65 years and older.Research Methods and Procedures: In 1996, a health survey was mailed to all surviving participants ? 65 years old from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study (1967 to 1973). The response rate was 60%, and the sample included 3981 male and

Lijing L. Yan; Martha L. Daviglus; Kiang Liu; Amber Pirzada; Daniel B. Garside; Linda Schiffer; Alan R. Dyer; Philip Greenland

2004-01-01

292

Quality of Life, Disability, and Body Mass Index Are Related in Obese Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between health-related quality of life (QoL), disability, and degree of obesity. Adult obese patients (BMI greater than 30) were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II) and the short version of the impact of weight…

Sirtori, Anna; Brunani, Amelia; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Villa, Valentina; Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto

2011-01-01

293

Impact of hepatitis C on health related quality of life: A systematic review and quantitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) diminishes health related quality of life (HRQOL), and it is now common to measure HRQOL in clinical trials. We sought to summarize the HRQOL data in HCV, and to establish the minimally clinically important difference (MCID) in HRQOL scores in HCV. We performed a systematic review to identify relevant studies, and converted HRQOL data from each

Brennan M. R. Spiegel; Zobair M. Younossi; Ron D. Hays; Dennis Revicki; Sean Robbins; Fasiha Kanwal

2005-01-01

294

Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, in Crete, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to assess HRQoL in a population of 135 Greek patients with IBD. METHODS: A cohort of 135 patients with IBD, 81 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 54 with Crohn's disease (CD) were enrolled in our study. Demographic

Athanasios G Pallis; Ioannis G Vlachonikolis; Ioannis A Mouzas

2002-01-01

295

The physiology and toxicology of salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to collate physiological knowledge on salmonid eggs and larvae in relation to water quality criteria. Salmonid genera reviewed include Coregonus, Thymallus, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus spp. When physiological data for salmonids are lacking, the zebrafish and medaka models are included. The primary focus is on the underlying mechanisms involved in the hydro-mineral, thermal, and

Roderick Nigel Finn

2007-01-01

296

Health-Related Quality of Life in the Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…

Chen, Yangkun

2010-01-01

297

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

2013-01-01

298

Impact of Arts-Related Activities on the Perceived Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived or experienced quality of life. In the fall of 2006 a questionnaire was mailed out to a random selection of 2000 households in each of five British Columbia communities, and 1027 were returned completed. The total and individual community samples…

Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

2008-01-01

299

Rural-Urban Disparities in Health-Related Quality of Life within Disease Categories of Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Compared to their urban counterparts, rural veterans have been found to have lower health-related quality of life. Purpose: To determine whether these disparities persist when examining disease categories of rural and urban veterans. Methods: We obtained survey data on 748,216 veterans who were current or anticipated Veterans Health…

Weeks, William B.; Wallace, Amy E.; Wang, Stanley; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E.

2006-01-01

300

Structured chronic primary care and health-related quality of life in chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Structured care is proposed as a lever for improving care for patients with chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of structured care characteristics, derived from the Chronic Care Model, with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and optimal clinical management in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients in primary care, as well as the association

Marije Bosch; Trudy van der Weijden; Richard Grol; Henk Schers; Reinier Akkermans; Louis Niessen; Michel Wensing

2009-01-01

301

Translating Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Measures: Are There Alternative Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translating existing sociodental indicators to another language involves a rigorous methodology, which can be costly. Free-of-charge online translator tools are available, but have not been evaluated in the context of research involving quality of life measures. To explore the value of using online translator tools to develop oral health-related

Brondani, Mario; He, Sarah

2013-01-01

302

English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

2007-01-01

303

Physical activity levels and Health-related quality of life in young Italian population.  

PubMed

Significant levels of physical activity (PA) have benefit in reducing chronic diseases in the general adults, but little is known on the association between health--related quality of life (HRQoL) and PA levels among young population. PMID:25359129

Massidda, M; Cugusi, L; Mathieu, A

2014-10-30

304

An Analysis of Quality of Work Life (QWL) and Career Related Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the level and relationship between qualities of work life (QWL) with career-related variables. The sample consists of 475 executives from the electrical and electronics industry in the free trade zones in Malaysia for both the multinational corporations (MNCs) and the small-medium industries (SMIs). The selection of respondents using stratified random sampling technique

Raduan Che Rose; LooSee Beh; Jegak Uli; Khairuddin Idris

2006-01-01

305

Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life (SxQOL) Steering Committee (SC) was established in April 2006. The core committee membership includes representatives from the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Research Bases, R01 investigators, community oncologists, biostatisticians, patient advocates, and NCI Staff.

306

Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This second external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volumes I-III (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) r...

307

Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

2009-01-01

308

Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

2012-01-01

309

Health-related quality of life with coronary heart disease prevention and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating the net benefits of dyslipidemia treatment is limited by the lack of comprehensive and standardized information on the preference for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. In a hospital-based study, we measured the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of healthy participants without dyslipidemia (n = 307) and with dyslipidemia (n = 251) and patients with coronary heart disease (n =

Lyne Lalonde; Ann E. Clarke; Lawrence Joseph; Todd Mackenzie; Steven A. Grover

2001-01-01

310

Health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a prospective longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine the change over time in health related quality of life (HRQL) in a community based cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease.METHODSOne hundred and eleven patients were evaluated for HRQL in 1993 and then again in a follow up study 4 years later. The patients included in the study in 1993 were derived from a prevalence study of patients

Karen H Karlsen; Elise Tandberg; Dag ?rsland; Jan P Larsen

2000-01-01

311

Health Related Quality of Life Instruments for Glaucoma: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health related quality of life (HRQOL) outcome is becoming important and of interest for clinicians and patients alike. HRQOL can be affected immediately after the initial diagnosis of the disease through anxiety of blindness. Further impairment in various aspects of HRQOL is expected over time as the disease progresses, reducing daily activities. Without a gold standard for HRQOL construct in

Shutimaporn Tripop; Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Somkiat Asawaphureekorn

312

A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

2010-01-01

313

Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents Following Traumatic Injury: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper comprehensively reviews the published literature investigating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following general traumatic injury in individuals between birth and 18 years. Studies were not considered if they primarily compared medical treatment options, evaluated physical function but not other aspects of HRQOL, or focused on…

Martin-Herz, Susanne P.; Zatzick, Douglas F.; McMahon, Robert J.

2012-01-01

314

Self-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Myelomeningocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…

Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.

2008-01-01

315

Health Related Quality of Life Significance of Single Pad Urinary Incontinence Following Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeContinence outcomes after radical prostatectomy are frequently reported as the proportion of men using 1 urinary pad or less daily. We postulated that under appreciated health related quality of life (HRQOL) differences may exist between patients requiring 1 pad daily and those who do not require pads.

MATTHEW R. COOPERBERG; VIRAJ A. MASTER; PETER R. CARROLL

2003-01-01

316

Health-Related Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents After Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Relatively little is known about the longer-term impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on children’s daily functioning, especially the broader outcome domain referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL). The objective of the present study was to examine the nature and predictors of HRQL out- comes in children with moderate to severe TBI an aver- age of

Terry Stancin; Dennis Drotar; H. Gerry Taylor; Keith Owen Yeates; Shari L. Wade; Nori Mercuri Minich

317

Oral Health-related Quality of Life: What, Why, How, and Future Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications

L. Sischo; H. L. Broder

2011-01-01

318

RETURN TO WORK AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER BURN INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although severe burn injury is associated with long-term rehabilitation and disability, research on returning to work in burn patients is limited. The aims of this study were: (i) to explore injury- and personality-related predictors of returning to work, and (ii) to compare health-related quality of life and health outcome in working versus non-working individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-eight

Johan Dyster-Aas; Morten Kildal; Mimmie Willebrand

2007-01-01

319

Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems & Indoor Air Quality - Exhaust Fan Mitigation.  

SciTech Connect

Overall, the findings show that exhaust fans basically provide small amounts of ventilation compensation. By monitoring the common indoor air pollutants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor), it was found that the quality of the indoor air was not adversely affected by the use of exhaust fans. Nor did their use provide any measurable or significant benefits since no improvement in air quality was ascertained. While exhaust fans of this small size did not increase radon, which is the contaminant of most concern, the researchers caution that operation of a larger fan or installation in a very tight home could result in higher levels because depressurization is greater. The daily energy consumption for use of these appliances during the heating season was calculated to be 1.5 kilowatt hours or approximately 3% of the energy consumption in the study homes. The information collected in this collaborative field study indicates that the use of these particular ventilation systems has no significant effect on indoor air quality.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1987-07-01

320

PTSD and Substance-Related Problems: The Mediating Roles of Disconstraint and Negative Emotionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined competing hypotheses regarding the role of 2 personality dimensions, disconstraint and negative emotionality, in mediating the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and substance-related problems. Data were drawn from a large sample of male Vietnam veterans. The best-fitting structural model included significant indirect paths from PTSD to both alcohol- and drug-related outcomes through disconstraint, and a

Mark W. Miller; Dawne S. Vogt; Susannah L. Mozley; Danny G. Kaloupek; Terence M. Keane

2006-01-01

321

Detection of medication-related problems in hospital practice: a review  

PubMed Central

This review examines the effectiveness of detection methods in terms of their ability to identify and accurately determine medication-related problems in hospitals. A search was conducted of databases from inception to June 2012. The following keywords were used in combination: medication error or adverse drug event or adverse drug reaction, comparison, detection, hospital and method. Seven detection methods were considered: chart review, claims data review, computer monitoring, direct care observation, interviews, prospective data collection and incident reporting. Forty relevant studies were located. Detection methods that were better able to identify medication-related problems compared with other methods tested in the same study included chart review, computer monitoring, direct care observation and prospective data collection. However, only small numbers of studies were involved in comparisons with direct care observation (n = 5) and prospective data collection (n = 6). There was little focus on detecting medication-related problems during various stages of the medication process, and comparisons associated with the seriousness of medication-related problems were examined in 19 studies. Only 17 studies involved appropriate comparisons with a gold standard, which provided details about sensitivities and specificities. In view of the relatively low identification of medication-related problems with incident reporting, use of this method in tracking trends over time should be met with some scepticism. Greater attention should be placed on combining methods, such as chart review and computer monitoring in examining trends. More research is needed on the use of claims data, direct care observation, interviews and prospective data collection as detection methods. PMID:23194349

Manias, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

322

Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.  

PubMed

Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2015-01-01

323

Young Children's Emotionally-Charged Moral Narratives: Relations with Attachment and Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined affectively-charged moral narratives and attachment-related narratives of preschoolers. Found that, after controlling for child age, gender, SES, and expressive language ability, children with more externalizing problems were more likely to describe aggressive themes, and less likely to mention adult aid or taking responsibility for…

Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Arsenio, William F.

2001-01-01

324

The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

2008-01-01

325

Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2006-01-01

326

Hierarchical Structure of Learner Abilities in Verbal Computation Problem-Solving Related to Strength of Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 266 eleventh-grade students were used in this research project. The findings imply that particular emphasis should be placed on practice in formula derivation. Other activities related to verbal computational problem-solving ability should be reserved for home assignment. (MP)

Sagiv, Abraham

1978-01-01

327

Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

2010-01-01

328

Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences Global Problems in Mathematical Relativity  

E-print Network

Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences Global Problems in Mathematical Relativity 8 significant figures, classically in the solar system, particularly in the observation of planetary orbits at the Newton Institute will be devoted to. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory produced this composite X-ray (blue

329

Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

2011-01-01

330

Skills needed for reading comprehension of physics texts and their relation to problem-solving ability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigated skills needed for critical reading of physics texts, their separability and hierarchical ranking, and relation to problem solving ability. Reports that skills required to comprehend texts in continuous format and discriminate unreported statements are respectively of higher level than and separable from those required to comprehend a separated list of statements and make other discriminations. (20 references)

Koch, Adina; Eckstein, Shulamith G.

2006-06-19

331

The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

2006-01-01

332

When is a conclusion worth deriving? A relevance-based analysis of indeterminate relational problems*  

E-print Network

problems* Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst (Institut Jean Nicod, Paris and University of Leuven) Dan Sperber (Institut Jean Nicod, Paris) Guy Politzer (C. N. R. S., Saint-Denis) Correspondance : Jean-Baptiste Van der investigated by researchers on reasoning are relational inferences (Burt, 1919; Piaget, 1921; Hunter, 1957; De

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

333

Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

Johnston, Charlotte

2011-01-01

334

Awareness of Gambling-Related Problems, Policies and Educational Programs Among High School and College Administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief report summarizes a survey of high school and college representatives and their awareness toward gambling-related problems. The Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling developed a survey instrument to review the policies and training programs of 20 high schools and 10 colleges that were located within the catchment areas of Massachusetts Department of Public Health state-sponsored gambling treatment programs. The

Howard J. Shaffer; Dana P. Forman; Kathleen M. Scanlan; Francis Smith

2000-01-01

335

Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

2011-01-01

336

Some problems related to surface temperature measurement of synchronous generator excitation winding in rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some of the problems related to direct temperature measurement of synchronous generator excitation winding in rotation. Excitation winding temperature is used for determining the dynamic limit in a PQ diagram. The paper also addresses procedures of improving the accuracy of surface temperature measurement using the DS18B20 digital temperature probes. The paper also provides experimental results of direct

Z. Hanic?; M. Vraz?ic?; S. Stipetic?

2010-01-01

337

Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

2012-01-01

338

Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

2011-01-01

339

Epistemic Profiles and Self-Regulated Learning: Examining Relations in the Context of Mathematics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations were examined between epistemic profiles, regulation of cognition, and mathematics problem solving. Two hundred sixty-eight students were sampled from undergraduate mathematics and statistics courses. Students completed inventories reflecting their epistemic profiles and learning strategies, and were profiled as rational, empirical, or…

Muis, Krista R.

2008-01-01

340

Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL. PMID:21959113

Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N; Hill, Erin M

2011-01-01

341

How number line estimation skills relate to neural activations in single digit subtraction problems.  

PubMed

The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated with differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved in numerical magnitude and spatial processes. PMID:25497398

Berteletti, I; Man, G; Booth, J R

2015-02-15

342

Which tinnitus-related aspects are relevant for quality of life and depression: results from a large international multicentre sample  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to investigate, which aspects of tinnitus are most relevant for impairment of quality of life. For this purpose we analysed how responses to the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and to the question “How much of a problem is your tinnitus at present” correlate with the different aspects of quality of life and depression. Methods 1274 patients of the Tinnitus Research Initiative database were eligible for analysis. The Tinnitus Research Initiative database is composed of eight study centres from five countries. We assessed to which extent the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and its subscales and single items as well as the tinnitus severity correlate with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score and different domains of the short version of the WHO-Quality of Life questionnaire (WHO-QoL Bref) by means of simple and multiple linear regression models. Results The THI explained considerable portions of the variance of the WHO-QoL Physical Health (R2?=?0.39) and Psychological Health (R2?=?0.40) and the BDI (R2?=?0.46). Furthermore, multiple linear regression models which included each THI item separately explained an additional 5% of the variance compared to the THI total score. The items feeling confused from tinnitus, the trouble of falling asleep at night, the interference with job or household responsibilities, getting upset from tinnitus, and the feeling of being depressed were those with the highest influence on quality of life and depression. The single question with regard to tinnitus severity explained 18%, 16%, and 20% of the variance of Physical Health, Psychological Health, and BDI respectively. Conclusions In the context of a cross-sectional correlation analysis, our findings confirmed the strong and consistent relationships between self-reported tinnitus burden and both quality of life, and depression. The single question “How much of a problem is your tinnitus” reflects tinnitus-related impairment in quality of life and can thus be recommended for use in clinical routine. PMID:24422941

2014-01-01

343

Determinants of health-related quality of life in elderly in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background As Iran started to experience population ageing, it is important to consider and address the elderly people's needs and concerns, which might have direct impacts on their well-being and quality of life. There have been only a few researches into different aspects of life of the elderly population in Iran including their health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of elderly Iranians and to identify its some determinant factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of community residents of Tehran aged 65 years old and over. HRQoL was measured using the Short From Health Survey (SF-36). The study participants were interviewed at their homes. Uni-variate analysis was performed for group comparison and logistic regression analysis conducted to predict quality of life determinants. Results In all, 400 elderly Iranian were interviewed. The majority of the participants were men (56.5%) and almost half of the participants were illiterate (n = 199, 49.8%). Eighty-five percent of the elderly were living with their family or relatives and about 70% were married. Only 12% of participants evaluated their economic status as being good and most of people had moderate or poor economic status. The mean scores for the SF-36 subscales ranged from 70.0 (SD = 25.9) for physical functioning to 53.5 (SD = 29.1) for bodily pain and in general, the respondents significantly showed better condition on mental component of the SF-36 than its physical component (mean scores 63.8 versus 55.0). Performing uni-variate analysis we found that women reported significantly poorer HRQoL. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that for the physical component summary score of the SF-36, age, gender, education and economic status were significant determinants of poorer physical health-related quality of life; while for the mental component summary score only gender and economic status were significant determinants of poorer mental health-related quality of life. The analysis suggested that the elderly people's economic status was the most significant predictor of their HRQoL. Conclusion The study findings, although with a small number of participants, indicate that elderly people living in Tehran, Iran suffer from relatively poor HRQoL; particularly elderly women and those with lower education. Indeed to improve quality of life among elderly Iranians much more attention should be paid to all aspects of their life including their health, and economic status. PMID:18808675

Tajvar, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali

2008-01-01

344

Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults.  

PubMed

Most literature on the relationship between video gaming and sleep disturbances has looked at children and adolescents. There is little research on such a relationship in adult samples. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of video game volume with sleep quality in adults via face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Adults (n = 844, 56.2% women), aged 18-94 years old, participated in the study. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and gaming volume was assessed by asking the hours of gaming on a regular weekday (Mon-Thurs), Friday and weekend day (Sat-Sun). Adjusting for gender, age, educational level, exercise and perceived stress, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video gaming volume was a significant predictor of sleep quality (? = 0.145), fatigue (? = 0.109), insomnia (? = 0.120), bedtime (? = 0.100) and rise time (? = 0.168). Each additional hour of video gaming per day delayed bedtime by 6.9 min (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.9 min) and rise time by 13.8 min (95% confidence interval 7.8-19.7 min). Attributable risk for having poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5) due to gaming >1 h day was 30%. When examining the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using multinomial regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals), gaming volume significantly predicted sleep latency, sleep efficiency and use of sleep medication. In general, findings support the conclusion that gaming volume is negatively related to the overall sleep quality of adults, which might be due to underlying mechanisms of screen exposure and arousal. PMID:25358428

Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

2014-10-31

345

[Intercultural nursing: analysis of changes in the perception of relational problems with foreign patients].  

PubMed

Today's society is highly impacted by immigration, as well as healthcare system. It is becoming increasingly common and frequent to establish relationships with patients with different cultural backgrounds. The aim of this study is analyzing Italian nurses' perception of the relational dynamics with foreign patients, to determine its evolution, and to identify the variables which can affect the quality of care. The study is both qualitative and quantitative with descriptive aim, using a questionnaire that assesses the theoretical-practical level of preparation, both perceptive and effective, of nurses when assisting foreign patients. To evaluate the emotional and experiential impact of the relationship with foreign patients, the difficulties encountered while establishing such relationship, and the resolution strategies - both effective and potential. The sample, composed of 101 Italian nurses employed at SanRaffaele Hospital in 6 specific Operational Units, resulted in a total of 91 returned questionnaires during the period May-June 2011. The data was analyzed through statistical instruments and compared to the results of a similar study done in 2004. The experience of intercultural nursing is seen by the sample as interesting and rewarding. The vast majority of nurses have positive responses. The more frequent issues are those connected with communication with foreign patients, and those connected with the increase workload due the presence of foreign patients. Nurses responded to difficulties more with human skills than with specific abilities, and tend to delegate the problem to the Cultural Mediation service. This new issue has a very high impact on nurses. The emerged difficulties have not decreased over time, this due to the lack of a proper policy within health care facilities in recent years, with the exception of a little improvement on the academic education. However the current academic education does not provide solutions useful in the everyday routing. This study, despite the small sample and a rather narrow degree of analysis, likes to draw attention on the topic both of nurses and on health care facilities managerial team in order to develop a effective startegie to deal with the emerged issues. PMID:24083494

Manara, Duilio F; Isernia, Ilaria; Buzzetti, Serena

2013-01-01

346

The Longitudinal Relation Between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood Method Participants were 221 children (120 boys, 101 girls) who participated in a longitudinal study from age 3 to 6 Results A reciprocal relation (Model 3) was observed only between inattention and academic achievement; this relation remained controlling for SES and family stress. The relation between inattention and cognitive ability was consistent with Model 1 (cognitive skills predicting later inattention) with controls. For hyperactivity and aggression, there was some support for Model 2 (early behavior predicting later academic/cognitive ability), but this model was no longer supported when controlling for family functioning. Conclusion These results suggest that the relation between academic achievement/cognitive ability and externalizing problems may be driven primarily by inattention. These results also suggest that this relation is evident early in development, highlighting the need for early assessment and intervention. PMID:24039280

Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

2013-01-01

347

Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: subjective well being.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to build a model, which includes personal and social factors, that helps to highlight factors that promote health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) in children and in adolescents. A sample of 3195 children and adolescents was acquired from 5th and 7th graders from all five Portuguese regions. In this study three independent latent variables were specified--Physical, Psychological and Social and two dependent latent variables were measured: Health behavior and Quality of Life. The integrative model was composed by different components: (1) health-related quality of life, integrated by 8 dimensions from KIDSCREEN-52; (2) health behavior, (3) variables related to physical health; (4) variables related to social health; (5) variables related to psychological health. As results were found strong correlation between psychological dimensions and self-esteem and other factors and a structural equation model was developed. The model presented a RMSEA index of .08. Similarly, adjustment levels for the CFI, NFI and IFI vary above or around .90, which suggests a good adjustment for the hypothesized model. The model presented significant qui-square. This study showed that in all the samples studied, the psychological variables were those that contributed at a superior level to HRQoL. PMID:22379708

Gaspar, Tania; Ribeiro, José Pais; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Leal, Isabel; Ferreira, Aristides

2012-03-01

348

Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

2013-01-01

349

Early childhood externalising behaviour problems: child, parenting, and family-related predictors over time.  

PubMed

This study examined the dynamic relationships between child, parenting, and family-related predictor variables and early childhood externalising behaviour problems. A community sample of 395 Australian children was followed longitudinally, and assessed at 4 and 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and standard measures of parenting, temperament, and familial adversity. Variables based on the average scores across the two assessments and the change in scores between assessments were utilised as predictors of parent-reported and teacher-reported externalising behaviour problems at age 6. It was hypothesised that both higher average scores and more detrimental changes in scores, would independently predict externalising problems at age 6. Multivariable analyses found that the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems in six-year-olds were predicted by: (i) the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems at age 4, (ii) higher average "teacher-reported child externalising behaviour," "inflexible temperament," "non-persistent temperament," and "over-reactive parenting," and (iii) an increased "inflexible temperament" score between age 4 and age 6. The presence of teacher-reported child externalising problems at age 6 was predicted by higher average "parent-reported child externalising behaviour," and "over-reactive parenting." The results provide further evidence of the adverse impact of continuing high levels of temperament difficulties and over-reactive parenting on externalising behaviour in early childhood. However, contrary to expectations, the contribution of including the dynamic change scores was limited. PMID:17103309

Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Prior, Margot R; Clark, Jennifer J; Arney, Fiona M; Carbone, Josephine A

2006-12-01

350

Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both formulations are solved as initial value problems. As such, no Kutta condition is required at the trailing edge of the airfoil.

Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

1995-01-01

351

Health-related quality of life in primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by a deficient production of glucocorticoids with or without associated mineral corticoid and/or adrenal androgen deficiencies. Despite the low prevalence of AI, its impact on the affected patient is very high, and can be life-threatening disease if not adequately treated. Several glucocorticoid treatment regimens are available, but none is capable of perfectly imitating the cortisol circadian rhythm. Cortisol rhythmicity and treatment of other possible concomitant conditions often associated (e.g., autoimmune disorders and panhypopituitarism) are essential to improve outcome of AI. Morbidity often present in treated AI include an unhealthy metabolic profile, bad quality of sleep, infertility, sexual dysfunction and worse health-related quality of life. This review focuses on psychological morbidity and impaired quality of life in patients with primary or secondary AI of any origin, including a special section devoted to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:25252879

Aulinas, Anna; Webb, Susan M

2014-12-01

352

Potential problems relative to TDRS/IUS tilt table elevation with failed VRCS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational concerns and preliminary solution alternatives related to elevating the inertial upper stage/tracking and data relay satellite (IUS/TDRS) with a failed orbiter vernier reaction control system (VRCS) are presented. Problems arise from the combination of TDRS thermal constraints and tilt table constraints (the primary reaction control system (PRCS) cannot be used to hold attitude while the tilt table is being elevated), and the problems are compounded by the minimum PRCS attitude deadband. The potential solution options are affected by the launch window, flight profile, crew procedures, vehicle capability and constraints, and flight rules.

Bell, J.

1980-01-01

353

Handling qualities related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the handling qualities which influence the high angle of attack (AOA) behavior of supersonic fighter aircraft in order to obtain a clearer understanding of the causes of stall/spin accidents. The results show that, because modern fighters suffer more serious consequences when control is lost, good handling qualities are essential for safe operation at high AOA. Relaxed static stability used on some fighter aircraft can result in control problems at high AOA owing to inertia coupling and the difficulty of a recovery from a deep stall. Indications are that the use of departure/spin resistance and an automatic spin prevention system will greatly improve the safety record for modern supersonic fighters.

Anderson, S. B.

1984-01-01

354

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

355

Job-related burnout and the relationship to quality of life among chinese medical college staff.  

PubMed

Although staffs in medical colleges have traditionally been characterized as a stressed group of people, there are no specific studies assessing burnout and the relationship to quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate job-related burnout and the relationship to QOL among medical college staff in mainland China. Some 360 medical college staffs from 15 schools and departments were enrolled in the study. The Chinese Teachers' Burnout Inventory (TBI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief Chinese version were used. Data on sociodemographic, work-related, and health-related factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the 3 domain scores of the TBI. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the correlation between job-related burnout and QOL. The most significant and common predictors of burnout prevention were a love of the teaching profession and work acknowledgment from a direct supervisor. Job-related burnout had a direct negative effect on QOL. Corresponding health policies and suggestions could be developed to prevent job-related burnout and improve QOL. PMID:24456543

Yao, Shang-Man; Yu, Hong-Mei; Ai, Yong-Mei; Song, Ping-Ping; Meng, Su-Yan; Li, Wei

2015-01-01

356

Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

2011-01-01

357

Problems and solutions in calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a measure of the value of health outcomes. Since health is a function of length of life and quality of life, the QALY was developed as an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY calculation is simple: the change in utility value induced by the treatment is

Luis Prieto; José A Sacristán

2003-01-01

358

Job strain and health-related quality of life in a national sample.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Studies of the health effects of job strain have focused on morbidity and mortality as outcomes. This is the first study to examine the relationship of job strain to more comprehensive health status measures that encompass health-related quality of life. METHODS. In a national cross-sectional survey, 1319 working men and women, aged 18 through 64 years, completed a modified version of the Job Content Questionnaire that classified workers' jobs into four categories: high strain, passive, low strain, and active. Subjects also completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey and a health distress scale. Logistic regression analyses were employed that controlled for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and education. Both work and nonwork variables were included. RESULTS. Job strain was significantly associated with five of nine components of health-related quality of life: physical functioning, role functioning related to physical health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. Job strain made a modest yet statistically significant contribution beyond the effects of chronic illness and psychosocial variables. CONCLUSIONS. The results provide justification for further investigating the role of job strain as an independent risk factor for health-related quality of life. PMID:7943474

Lerner, D J; Levine, S; Malspeis, S; D'Agostino, R B

1994-01-01

359

Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

2010-01-01

360

Health-related quality of life and voice following radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer - a comparison between glottic and supraglottic tumours.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. To provide further information about short-term effects on voice quality and health-related quality of life (HRQL) following radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer, comparing glottic and supraglottic tumours. Material and methods. Sixty-seven male patients who received radiotherapy for glottic and supraglottic tumours were included. Voice recordings were performed and patient reported outcome questionnaires filled in before radiotherapy and one-month post-completion. Acoustic and temporal measures were produced from the recordings and compared to an age-matched, vocally healthy control group (n = 23). Results. Deterioration of HRQL post-radiotherapy was noted for both the glottic and supraglottic cohort. Pre- radiotherapy the glottic cohort demonstrated acoustic and temporal measures that were statistically different from healthy controls, with improvements post-radiotherapy where several measures showed no statistically significant differences compared to healthy controls. The supraglottic cohort revealed voice measures comparable to the healthy controls but demonstrated statistically significant impairments in HRQL compared to the glottic cohort following radiotherapy. Conclusion. Patients with supraglottic tumours may experience more eating and swallowing related problems prior to radiotherapy compared to glottic tumours and demonstrate a more significant reduction in HRQL following treatment. However, in terms of voice measurements, subjective measures correlate poorly with objective acoustic parameters, thereby emphasising the importance of patient-reported outcomes as part of treatment evaluation. PMID:24914482

Tuomi, Lisa; Karlsson, Therese; Johansson, Mia; Finizia, Caterina

2015-01-01

361

Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.  

PubMed

Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526

Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

2015-02-01

362

Differences in Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Adults with Allergies and Asthma and Their Healthy Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study examined the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants: Participants were 501 undergraduate students with allergies (167), asthma + allergies (167), or with no history of a chronic illness (167) completed study measures from August 2011 to April 2012. Methods: The…

Molzon, Elizabeth S.; Bonner, Margaret S.; Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Ramsey, Rachelle R.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

2013-01-01

363

Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.  

PubMed

Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events, listserves, and friendship networks. Females completed the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale [Szymanski, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2001). The internalized homophobia scale for lesbians: A rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 37-52.]; males completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory [Mayfield, W. (2001). The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 53-76.]. Items from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings 1998. Rockville, MD: Author.] measured alcohol consumption. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test [Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: the quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89-94.] and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences [Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The drinker inventory of consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse test manual. National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism project match monograph series volume 4. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.] measured alcohol-related problems. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists was partially supported for lesbians, but generally not supported for males. PMID:16183207

Amadio, Dean M

2006-07-01

364

Readability and quality assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Background Patients are increasingly using the Internet to access health-related information. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and quality of laryngeal cancer-related websites. Methods Patient education materials were identified by performing an Internet search using three search engines. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The DISCERN instrument was utilised to assess quality of health information. A total of 54 websites were included in the analysis. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 48.2 (95% CI 44.8 - 51.6); FKGL, 10.9 (95% CI 10.3 - 11.5); GFI 13.8 (95% CI 11.3 - 16.3). These scores suggest that, on average, online laryngeal cancer patient information is written at an advanced level. The mean DISCERN score was 49.8 (95% CI 45.4 - 54.2), suggesting that online information is of variable quality. Conclusion Our study suggests much of the laryngeal cancer information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average adult to read comfortably. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25491544

Narwani, Vishal; Nalamada, Keerthana; Lee, Michael; Kothari, Prasad; Lakhani, Raj

2014-12-01

365

Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.  

PubMed

Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

2009-08-01

366

Assessing organizational readiness for depression care quality improvement: relative commitment and implementation capability.  

PubMed

BackgroundDepression is a major cause of morbidity and cost in primary care patient populations. Successful depression improvement models, however, are complex. Based on organizational readiness theory, a practice¿s commitment to change and its capability to carry out the change are both important predictors of initiating improvement. We empirically explored the links between relative commitment (i.e., the intention to move forward within the following year) and implementation capability.MethodsThe DIAMOND initiative administered organizational surveys to medical and quality improvement leaders from each of 83 primary care practices in Minnesota. Surveys preceded initiation of activities directed at implementation of a collaborative care model for improving depression care. To assess implementation capability, we developed composites of survey items for five types of organizational factors postulated to be collaborative care barriers and facilitators. To assess relative commitment for each practice, we averaged leader ratings on an identical survey question assessing practice priorities. We used multivariable regression analyses to assess the extent to which implementation capability predicted relative commitment. We explored whether relative commitment or implementation capability measures were associated with earlier initiation of DIAMOND improvements.ResultsAll five implementation capability measures independently predicted practice leaders¿ relative commitment to improving depression care in the following year. These included the following: quality improvement culture and attitudes (p =0.003), depression culture and attitudes (p <0.001), prior depression quality improvement activities (p <0.001), advanced access and tracking capabilities (p =0.03), and depression collaborative care features in place (p¿=¿0.03). Higher relative commitment (p¿=¿0.002) and prior depression quality improvement activities appeared to be associated with earlier participation in the DIAMOND initiative.ConclusionsThe study supports the concept of organizational readiness to improve quality of care and the use of practice leader surveys to assess it. Practice leaders¿ relative commitment to depression care improvement may be a useful measure of the likelihood that a practice is ready to initiate evidence-based depression care changes. A comprehensive organizational assessment of implementation capability for depression care improvement may identify specific barriers or facilitators to readiness that requires targeted attention from implementers. PMID:25443652

Rubenstein, Lisa V; Danz, Marjorie S; Crain, A; Glasgow, Russell E; Whitebird, Robin R; Solberg, Leif I

2014-12-01

367

[Quality of relations between gay couples and high-risk sexual behavior].  

PubMed

This study examines the hypotheses by which quality relationships among gay couples is closely related to the adoption of low-risk sexual behaviours, in monogamous and non-monogamous situations. Data was collected from 29 homosexual couples (58 men) of the Montréal area. The survey, which graded sexual conduct as well as adjustments made within the relationship, confirmed the author's hypothesis. Indeed, the distribution of couples according to a multifactorial risk index does in fact establish a connection between the couple's happiness and the level of risk during sexual relations within and outside the couple. These conclusions are discussed in light of existing data pertaining to the link between health and the quality of a relationship among heterosexual couples. PMID:1515524

Julien, D; Pizzamiglio, M T; Brault, M; Léveillé, S

1992-01-01

368

Uptake of Quality-Related Event Standards of Practice by Community Pharmacies.  

PubMed

Quality-related events (QREs), including medication errors and near misses, are an inevitable part of community pharmacy practice. As QREs have significant implications for patient safety, pharmacy regulatory authorities across North America are increasing their expectations regarding QRE reporting and learning. Such expectations, commonly encapsulated as standards of practice (SoP), vary greatly between pharmacy jurisdictions and may range from the simple requirement to document QREs occurring within the pharmacy, all the way to requiring that quality improvement plans have been put in place. This research explores the uptake of QRE reporting and learning SoP and how this uptake varies based on pharmacy characteristics including location, prescription volume, and pharmacy type. Secondary data analysis of 91 community pharmacy assessments in Nova Scotia, Canada, was used to explore uptake of QRE standards. Overall, pharmacies are performing relatively well on reporting QREs. However, despite initial success with basic QRE reporting, community pharmacy uptake of QRE learning activities is lagging. PMID:24532822

Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Overmars, Craig; Macmaster, Kaleigh; Mahaffey, Thomas; Zwicker, Bev; Mackinnon, Neil J

2014-02-14

369

Water quality changes at three reclaimed mine sites related to the injection of coal combustion residues  

SciTech Connect

Surface and groundwater pollution is a common problem associated with post-surface mining operations. The US Bureau of Mines (BOM) participated in the testing of subsurface injections of coal combustion residues (CCR) at three reclaimed surface mine sites. The addition of alkaline CCR to the subsurface environment can raise the pH, limit propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reduce the rate of acid generation. Many CCR`s can also form cement-like grout, which when injected into buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. The objective of this work was to develop an effective, economical and permanent method to abate or reduce post-mining water pollution. The effectiveness of CCR injection as an acid mine drainage abatement technique was evaluated by the BOM by monitoring water quality at three sites in: Upshur County, WV, Clinton County, PA and Greene County, PA. Geophysical techniques were used at all sites to locate monitoring and injection wells that were subsequently drilled into the spoil. Grout injection work was completed between 1990 and 1994 at the three sites. Baseline water quality data were collected at all three sites for a minimum of one year. Post-grouting water quality at the discharge of the three sites showed a slight, long-term improvement and no apparent degradation in water quality resulting from the injection of the coal combustion residues. Notable and long-term improvements in water quality at various monitoring wells (on all sites) were also observed.

Ackman, T.E.; Jones, J.R.; Kim, A.G. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center

1996-12-31

370

Agricultural and water-quality conflicts. Economic dimensions of the problem. Agriculture information bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Modern farm production practices, which use agricultural chemicals, benefit consumers through lower prices and increased output. Consequences of agricultural production, however, such as soil erosion, chemical runoff and leaching, and wetlands conversion, may impair surface and ground water quality. These off-farm water-quality effects impose costs on society, including damage to fish and wildlife resources, costs of avoiding potential health hazards and preserving natural environments, and lost recreational opportunities. The report summarizes conflicts between agricultural production and water quality and discusses policies that stress the use of economic and technical assistance incentives to encourage adoption of pollution-reducing farming practices.

Crutchfield, S.; Hansen, L.; Ribaudo, M.

1993-07-01

371

Development and application of unique natural solvents for treating paraffin and asphaltene related problems  

SciTech Connect

Paraffin and asphaltene related problems including solid deposits, stabilization of emulsions and sludge production continue to plaque the oil and gas industry. Condensates and refined aromatic solvents are popular treatments for dissolving and/or controlling paraffin and asphaltene related problems. These treating fluids are typically used as a quick fix with little regard for formation damage consequences and long term effectiveness. Testing, blending and refining of unique condensate feedstocks has resulted in unique natural multi-component hydrocarbon solvents. These unique solvents will dissolve a broad carbon number spectrum of organic deposits and keep them in solution under extreme conditions. These natural solvents maximize solvency, demulsifying properties and natural wettibility tendencies without the addition of chemical additives. Those natural solvents offer economic alternatives and enhancement to common treatment practices including condensate treatments, hot oiling, chemical treatments, stimulation and production treatments.

King, S.R.; Cotney, C.R.

1996-09-01

372

Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

1973-01-01

373

Conceptualizing oral health and oral health-related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation considers oral health from a health-related quality of life perspective using a multidimensional concept representing a combination of impairment, function, perceptions, and\\/or opportunity. A subset of denate individuals aged 18 and older from a national probability sample of the U.S. was selected for the reported analysis with data available from personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and oral examinations. Impairment

Helen C. Gift; Kathryn A. Atchison; C. Mitchell Dayton

1997-01-01

374

Social support and health-related quality of life in chronic heart failure patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Objectives of this study were to: (1) describe perceived social support during a baseline hospitalization and 12 months\\u000a later among heart failure patients; (2) examine differences in social support as a function of gender and age (less than 65\\u000a and 65 years or older); and (3) examine social support as a predictor of health-related quality of life. Background: Social

S. J. Bennett; S. M. Perkins; M. Deer; D. C. Brater; M. D. Murray

2001-01-01

375

Impact of Recombinant Activated Factor VII on Health-Related Quality of Life after Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We recently demonstrated that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) given to patients presenting within 3 h of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reduces mortality (18% vs. 29%) and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS, 4–6, 53 vs. 69%). This analysis was performed to determine the impact of rFVIIa on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in those patients. Methods: In

Michael N. Diringer; Jean-Marc Ferran; Joseph Broderick; Stephen Davis; Stephan A. Mayer; Thorsten Steiner; Nikolai C. Brun; Brett E. Skolnick; Michael C. Christensen

2007-01-01

376

Dimensional structure of the oral health-related quality of life in healthy Spanish workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) is conceived as a multidimensional construct. Here our aim was to investigate the dimensional structure of OHQoL as measured by the Spanish versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires applied simultaneously. METHODS: We recruited a consecutive sample of 270 healthy Spanish workers visiting

Javier Montero; Manuel Bravo; María-Purificación Vicente; María-Purificación Galindo; Joaquín F López; Alberto Albaladejo

2010-01-01

377

Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

378

Race, Menopause, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Psychological Well-Being in Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in African-American (AA) and white (W) obese women.Research Methods and Procedures: Participants were 145 obese women (80 AA and 65 W; 87 premenopausal and 58 postmenopausal) who completed the Medical Outcomes Study short form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Life Distress Inventory, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem

Blandine Laferrère; ShanKuan Zhu; Jennifer R. Clarkson; Marianne R. M. Yoshioka; Katherine Krauskopf; John C. Thornton; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

2002-01-01

379

Health-related quality of life in cardiac patients with dyslipidemia and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypertension is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Similar association may be found for dyslipidemia. However, controversies exist regarding the HRQOL with dyslipidemia. We evaluated the HRQOL of cardiac patients with and without dyslipidemia and hypertension. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 284 cardiac patients rated their HRQOL using SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and three preference-based measures (Rating

Lyne Lalonde; Annette O'Connor; Lawrence Joseph; Steven A. Grover

2004-01-01

380

Evaluation of Magnesium Intake and Its Relation with Bone Quality in Healthy Young Korean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have reported magnesium’s role in nutrition as a vital factor involved in bone health. However, not enough studies\\u000a have evaluated magnesium (Mg) intakes in young women. In this study, we evaluated Mg intake in healthy adults and its relation\\u000a with bone quality. A total of 484 healthy young women in their early 20s were enrolled into the study.

Mi-Hyun Kim; Jee-Young Yeon; Mi-Kyeong Choi; Yun Jung Bae

381

Health-related quality of life among children and adolescents: associations with obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children, and to compare HRQOL scores of obese children in a hospital versus community setting.Design:A cross-sectional study in two clinical samples.Subjects:A total of 182 children and adolescents recruited from the community pediatric clinics and a hospital-based obesity clinic.Measurements:Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile

O Pinhas-Hamiel; S Singer; N Pilpel; A Fradkin; D Modan; B Reichman

2006-01-01

382

Long-term outcome and health-related quality of life in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective cohort study was designed to evaluate the long-term outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV) treated by the particle repositioning maneuver (PRM) in the outpatient clinic of a general community hospital. Fifty individuals with PC-BPPV were included, and 45 (90%) completed the study. The diagnosis was based on

Jose A. Lopez-Escamez; Maria J. Gamiz; Antonio Fernandez-Perez; Manuel Gomez-Fiñana

2005-01-01

383

Tools for Assessing Readability and Quality of Health-Related Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Internet becoming a growing source of information on genetics, genetic counselors and other health-care providers\\u000a may be called upon to guide their patients to appropriate material, which is written at a suitable reading level for the individual\\u000a and contains quality information. Given that many health-related Web sites are written at a high school or higher reading\\u000a level, without

Randi Shedlosky-Shoemaker; Amy Curry Sturm; Muniba Saleem; Kimberly M. Kelly

2009-01-01

384

Association between obesity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective:In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), obesity is paradoxically associated with better survival (the ‘obesity paradox’). Our objective was to determine whether this counterintuitive relationship extends to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes.Design:Cross-sectional observational study.Subjects:All adults undergoing coronary angiography residing in Alberta, Canada between January 2003 and March 2006 in the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment

A Oreopoulos; R Padwal; F A McAlister; J Ezekowitz; A M Sharma; K Kalantar-Zadeh; G C Fonarow; C M Norris

2010-01-01

385

Health-related quality of life in overweight and obese youths: Results of a multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We examined treatment-seeking overweight and obese youths to better understand the gender, age, and treatment modality differences in generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: This multicenter study included 1,916 patients (mean = 12.6 years; 57% females; mean zBMI = 2.4) who started treatment for overweight and obesity in 48 treatment facilities between July 2005 and October

Nora Wille; Monika Bullinger; Reinhard Holl; Ulrike Hoffmeister; Reinhard Mann; Cornelia Goldapp; Thomas Reinehr; Joachim Westenhöfer; Andreas Egmond-Froehlich; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

2010-01-01

386

An experience sampling study of PTSD and alcohol-related problems.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed 8 brief questionnaires daily for 2 weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Hahn, Austin M; Hofman, Nicole L; Hansen, Jamie; Buchkoski, Jerome

2014-12-01

387

Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

2012-12-01

388

Output-Sensitive Results on Convex Hulls, Extreme Points, and Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use known data structures for ray-shooting and linear-programming queries to derive new output-sensitive results on convex\\u000a hulls, extreme points, and related problems. We show that thef-face convex hull of ann-point setP in a fixed dimensiond?2 can be constructed in\\u000a $$0\\\\left( {n log f + \\\\left( {nf} \\\\right)^{1 - 1\\/\\\\left( {\\\\left[ {d\\/2} \\\\right] + 1} \\\\right)} \\\\log ^{0\\\\left( 1 \\\\right)}

Timothy M. Chan

1996-01-01

389

Classification of drug-related problems with new prescriptions using a modified PCNE classification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To explore and classify drug-related problems (DRPs) with new prescriptions detected in community pharmacies using a modified\\u000a PCNE (Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe) classification system. Setting Sixty-four Swiss community pharmacies offering internships for pharmacy students. Main outcome measures Occurrence, nature and pharmacist’s management of DRPs. Methods Fifth-year pharmacy students collected consecutively hospital discharge and primary care prescriptions. After training, they

Patrick M. Eichenberger; Markus L. Lampert; Irene Vogel Kahmann; J. W. Foppe van Mil; Kurt E. Hersberger

2010-01-01

390

Drug-related problems in diabetes and transplant patients: an observational study with home visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To get insight into the medication management of diabetes type 2 (DM) as well as solid organ transplant (Tx) patients and\\u000a to analyse drug-related problems (DRPs) in order to explore opportunities for the provision of pharmaceutical care. Setting Seventy-nine Swiss community pharmacies offering internships for pharmacy students. Methods Diabetes and transplant patients were recruited in community pharmacies and were

Patrick M. Eichenberger; Manuel Haschke; Markus L. Lampert; Kurt E. Hersberger

391

Treating Indigenous Australians with Alcohol\\/Drug Problems: Assessing Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the quality of life (QoL) of clients in an Indigenous Australian residential alcohol and drug treatment center. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a random sample of Indigenous clients utilizing the Self Evaluated Individual Quality of Life–Direct Weight tool. The findings from this study provide support for the inclusion of QoL as important in understanding the

Richard Chenhall; Kate Senior

2012-01-01

392

Identification of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Issues Relevant to Individuals with HD  

PubMed Central

This qualitative study explored health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Sixteen focus groups were conducted (n=6 groups with symptomatic HD individuals; n=5 with individuals who are at-risk or prodromal for HD; n=3 non-clinical HD caregivers; n=2 groups with HD clinicians). Qualitative analysis indicated that 28% of focus group comments were related to emotional health, 27% to social participation, 26% to physical health, 10% to cognitive health, and 9% to end of life issues. Findings highlight the importance of developing HD-targeted items to ensure sensitive assessment of HRQOL in HD research and clinical practice. PMID:22427174

Tulsky, David S.

2013-01-01

393

A comprehensive model of health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Insight in how impairments and disabilities related to Parkinson’s disease (PD) influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL)\\u000a is required to review adequacy of current management strategies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   The Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease (SCOPA) evaluation was used to assess impairments and disabilities. HRQoL was\\u000a assessed with the EuroQol-5D Visual Analogue Scale. 378 patients with PD who participated in

M. Visser; S. M. van Rooden; D. Verbaan; J. Marinus; A. M. Stiggelbout; J. J. van Hilten

2008-01-01

394

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning module, students work in teams to examine a broad array of information related to water quality in Lower Wheeling Creek and the Wheeling Creek watersheds in Wheeling, West Virginia. This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

395

Perceived Discrimination and Health-Related Quality of Life: Testing the Reserve Capacity Model in Hispanic Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested aspects of the Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003; Gallo et al., 2009) as a means of understanding disparities in health-related quality of life appraisals among Hispanic Americans. Questionnaire data were collected from 236 Hispanic participants, including measures of perceived discrimination, optimism, social support, symptoms of trait anxiety, and physical and mental health-related quality of life.

Alisha D. Adams; Kymberley Bennett

2012-01-01

396

Electronic problem list documentation of chronic kidney disease and quality of care  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly common and under-recognized in primary care clinics, leading to low rates of stage-appropriate monitoring and treatment. Our objective was to determine whether electronic problem list documentation of CKD is associated with monitoring and treatment. Methods This is a cross-sectional observational study of patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, defined as two past estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 separated by 90 days and collected between 2007-2008. We examined the association of problem list documentation with: 1) serum eGFR monitoring test, 2) urine protein or albumin monitoring test, 3) an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACE/ARB) prescription, 4) mean systolic blood pressure (BP), and 5) BP control. Results Out of 3,149 patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, only 16% of patients had CKD documented on the problem list. After adjustment for eGFR, gender, and race/ethnicity and after clustering by physician, problem list documentation of CKD was associated with serum eGFR testing (97% with problem list documentation vs. 94% without problem list documentation, p?=?0.02) and urine protein testing (47% with problem list documentation vs. 40% without problem list documentation, p?=?0.04). After adjustment, problem list documentation was not associated with ACE/ARB prescription, mean systolic BP, or BP control. Conclusions Documentation of CKD on the electronic problem list is rare. Patients with CKD documentation have better stage-appropriate monitoring of the disease, but do not have higher rates of blood pressure treatment or better blood pressure control. Interventions aimed at increasing documentation of CKD on the problem list may improve stage-appropriate monitoring, but may not improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24885821

2014-01-01

397

[1] P. Erdos and P. Turan. On a problem of Sidon in additive number theory, and on some related problems. J. London Math. Soc., 16:212215, 1941.  

E-print Network

, and on some related problems. J. London Math. Soc., 16:212­215, 1941. Results for E(6): Total number of basesReferences [1] P. Erd¨os and P. Tur´an. On a problem of Sidon in additive number theory

398

Nurses' personalities, nursing-related qualities and work satisfaction: a 10-year perspective.  

PubMed

The personalities and qualities of nursing personnel are considered to be of great importance for their interactions and nursing relationships with patients and may also influence work satisfaction. The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which different personal qualities and personality factors, with a possible effect on motivation, professional conduct and coping with stress and anxiety, are represented in a group of assistant nurses (second level nurses), and how these qualities are related to nursing competence and long-range work satisfaction. A group of 51 female nursing students (mean age 31.8 years) participated in the study. The nursing-related qualities were empathy, sensitivity to non-verbal communication, feelings of discomfort in different nursing situations and work satisfaction. The personality factors were psychogenic needs and defence mechanisms. At a follow-up 2 years later, 43 nurses were interviewed, work satisfaction was assessed and nursing competence was appraised. At a follow-up 10 years after completion of nursing school, 33 of the nurses took part in a telephone interview. Work satisfaction was assessed in 23 of those who were still working as nurses. Cluster analysis performed on baseline data resulted in four groups: empathic, discomfort prone, service-minded and dominant. At the first follow-up, the service-minded had the greatest work satisfaction, with many considered to be 'real jewels'. At the second follow-up 8 years later, there appeared to be an overrepresentation of injuries and long-term sick leave in this group, whose members had apparent difficulties in being dominant and asserting own interests. Work satisfaction diminished in all the groups over time. Long-term work satisfaction was found, however, to be related to degree of empathy and a low degree of sensitivity to aggressiveness. PMID:12603549

Sand, Asa

2003-03-01

399

Health-related quality of life in female long-term colorectal cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Although the number of women who survive treatment for colorectal cancer is growing, little is known about the quality of life of long-term survivors. The purpose of analyses presented in this paper is to describe the overall health-related quality of life of female long-term colorectal cancer survivors and the factors that may modify their levels of quality of life. A population-based sample of 726 Wisconsin women diagnosed with colorectal cancer from 1990-1991 was recontacted. Of the 443 women alive in 1999, 307 (69%) completed a follow-up questionnaire including the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Health Status Survey, which is comprised of 36 items that generate nine domain scale scores and two summary scores: the Physical Component Summary score and the Mental Component Summary score. The mean follow-up was 9 years (range 7-11), and the mean age at follow-up was 72 years (range 43-85). The mean Physical Component Summary score was lower for participants with greater ages, greater numbers of comorbidities, and greater body masses at the time of follow-up. The mean Mental Component Summary score also was lower for participants with greater numbers of comorbidities. Differences associated with degree of comorbidity were observed for all eight domain scales. Female long-term survivors of colorectal cancer appear to report health-related quality of life comparable with that of similarly aged women in the general population. These data suggest that, over the long term, factors attributable to aging, body weight, and chronic medical conditions play more dominant roles in determining physical and mental health than factors related to the initial colorectal cancer diagnosis. PMID:12897331

Trentham-Dietz, A; Remington, P L; Moinpour, C M; Hampton, J M; Sapp, A L; Newcomb, P A

2003-01-01

400

Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok  

SciTech Connect

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

1995-12-31

401

Health-related quality of life in Guillain-Barré syndrome patients: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) encompasses a broad spectrum of health-related quality of life (HRQL) determinants, including mobility, fatigue, pain, and depression. We systematically reviewed the literature on functional outcome domains in which GBS patients experience limitations in the short and long terms and evaluated determinants of HRQL in GBS patients. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched by two independent reviewers for articles covering HRQL data of GBS patients. Of 730 abstracts screened, 17 articles covering data of 14 studies matched the selection criteria. The included articles showed that many GBS patients experienced physical limitations, even years after the acute phase of the disease, while results were inconsistent for perceived levels of pain, fatigue, and general mental well-being. Only three papers covered HRQL assessments at more than one time point, generally showing large improvements in HRQL in the first year after GBS onset, but not thereafter. We appraised the methodological quality of included studies using a 13-item checklist; none of the articles fulfilled all items and only seven articles presented data on correlations between HRQL and determinants. In conclusion, the majority of studies on HRQL in GBS patients are cross-sectional and of low methodological quality. This paper provides guidance for much needed high-quality studies on patterns of patient-perceived recovery after GBS onset. PMID:24456426

Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Polinder, Suzanne; Mulder, Maxim J H L; Baena, Cristina P; van Leeuwen, Nikki; Franco, Oscar H; Jacobs, Bart C; van Doorn, Pieter A

2014-03-01

402

Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league. PMID:21834623

Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

2011-10-01

403

Inverse optimization: functional and physiological considerations related to the force-sharing problem.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the optimization techniques used for the solution of the force-sharing problem in biomechanics; that is, the distribution of the net joint moment to the force generating structures such as muscles and ligaments. The solution to this problem is achieved by the minimization (or maximization) of an objective function that includes the design variable (usually muscle forces) that are subject to certain constraints, and it is generally related to physiological or mechanical properties such as muscle stress, maximum force or moment, activation level, etc. The usual constraints require the sum of the exerted moments to be equal to the net joint moment and certain boundary conditions restrict the force solutions within physiologically acceptable limits. Linear optimization (objective and constraint functions are both linear relationships) has limited capabilities for the solution of the force sharing problem, although the use of appropriate constraints and physiologically realistic boundary conditions can improve the solution and lead to reasonable and functionally acceptable muscle force predictions. Nonlinear optimization provides more physiologically acceptable results, especially when the criteria used are related to the dynamics of the movement (e.g., instantaneous maximum force derived from muscle modeling based on length and velocity histories). The evaluation of predicted forces can be performed using direct measurements of forces (usually in animals), relationship with EMG patterns, comparisons with forces obtained from optimized forward dynamics, and by evaluating the results using analytical solutions of the optimal problem to highlight muscle synergism for example. Global objective functions are more restricting compared to local ones that are related to the specific objective of the movement at its different phases (e.g., maximize speed or minimize pain). In complex dynamic activities multiobjective optimization is likely to produce more realistic results. PMID:9505137

Tsirakos, D; Baltzopoulos, V; Bartlett, R

1997-01-01

404

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management...extent and causes of water quality problems in...which publicly owned treatment works should be constructed...relative contributions to water quality of...

2013-07-01

405

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management...extent and causes of water quality problems in...which publicly owned treatment works should be constructed...relative contributions to water quality of...

2012-07-01

406

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management...extent and causes of water quality problems in...which publicly owned treatment works should be constructed...relative contributions to water quality of...

2011-07-01

407

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

...for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management...extent and causes of water quality problems in...which publicly owned treatment works should be constructed...relative contributions to water quality of...

2014-07-01

408

40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management...extent and causes of water quality problems in...which publicly owned treatment works should be constructed...relative contributions to water quality of...

2010-07-01

409

Development of a Tool for Assessment and Care Planning for Dementia-Related Problem Behaviors in Home and Community-Based Services Programs: The Problem Behavior Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe development, validity, and application of the Problem Behavior Inventory (PBI), a tool to assess dementia-related problem behaviors (DRPBs) in community-based populations.Data Sources and Study Setting: Demographic, contact, and disease-specific data were extracted from client files from a Medicaid-funded home and community-based services program. Primary caregivers completed standard surveys relating to the care recipients' memory, mood, and behaviors.

V. L. Phillips; Sadhna Diwan; Amanda Egner

2002-01-01

410

[Problems of the effective energy used as a quality expression of diagnostic X-ray].  

PubMed

The effective energy has been generally used as a method of handily expressing an X-ray quality by one numerical value. The effective energy is a concept derived from "Half Value Layer (HVL)" that is the expressing parameter of beam quality based on the attenuation of the primary X-ray by a material. When beam quality is expressed by using HVL and / or the effective energy, it is necessary to describe the tube potential, the rectification method, and the homogeneity coefficient, etc. in parallel. However, recently feelings are that the effective energy should be handled like an absolute numerical value to physical characteristics of X-rays. In this paper, it was theoretically clarified that the effective energy had a different value depending on the absorber material used for the HVL measurement. In addition, the errors when physical characteristics of the X-rays were evaluated using the effective energy was also examined. Physical characteristics, such as interactions to the material of mono-energetic X-ray, are not equal to that of X-rays with a wide energy spectrum. It is not an easy comparison to express the quality of the diagnostic X-rays, and to calculate physical characteristics of the X-rays by using the effective energy. It is necessary to design a new method of expressing the quality of X-rays that takes the place of the "effective energy." PMID:22026986

Kato, Hideki; Hayashi, Naoki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Ando, Sho; Miyamoto, Mami; Wakasugi, Nao; Suzuki, Shizuma

2011-01-01

411

Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems  

PubMed Central

This study was a crosscultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy. Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors participated in the study and were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a Workshop Only condition. Twenty-one of these therapists treated 41 cannabis-abusing adolescents and their families. Therapist adherence and youth drug screens were collected during a five-month baseline period prior to the workshop on contingency management and during 12 months post workshop. The results replicated the previous finding that therapist adherence to the cognitive-behavioral interventions, but not to contingency management, showed a strong positive difference in trend in favor of the intensive quality assurance condition. While the clinical impact of such quality assurance may be delayed and remains to be demonstrated, cannabis abstinence increased as a function of time in therapy, and was more likely with stronger therapy adherence to contingency management, but did not differ across quality assurance interventions. PMID:21984866

Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

2011-01-01

412

Health-related quality of life after traumatic brain injury: Italian validation of the QOLIBRI  

PubMed Central

Summary The QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury) is a new international health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument developed for assessing the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We report the results of the Italian validation of the QOLIBRI. A total of 147 participants with TBI who had previously been discharged from the Santa Lucia Foundation rehabilitation hospital were recruited to investigate the concurrent validity of the Italian version of the QOLIBRI and to compare this instrument with several functional and cognitive-behavioral scales, taking into account various clinical parameters. The QOLIBRI met the standard criteria for internal consistency, homogeneity and test-retest reliability. The results suggest that it is very sensitive in relation to outcome as measured by the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and other instruments for functional assessment of disability, emotions and subjective health status, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short-Form 36. The QOLIBRI avoids some of the limitations of traditional scales for quantifying residual functional capacity, such as the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the GOS-E, and may contribute to the achievement of better quality-controlled care, medical decision-making, rehabilitation planning, and measurement of well-being and HRQoL from the patient’s perspective. However, a longitudinal study is needed to assess the responsiveness of the QOLIBRI to changes over time. PMID:25473736

Giustini, Marco; Longo, Eloise; Azicnuda, Eva; Silvestro, Daniela; D’Ippolito, Mariagrazia; Rigon, Jessica; Cedri, Cinzia; Bivona, Umberto; Barba, Carmen; Formisano, Rita

2014-01-01

413

[Health-related quality of life in the elderly after coronary artery bypass grafting].  

PubMed

Despite of higher operative risk in the elderly, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is more often performed in this age group to achieve the remission of the disease and to improve the quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess some subjective and objective health indices in the elderly two years after CABG (I group) in comparison to analogous group of older patients just waiting for CABG (II group). 109 patients aged 65 years and older, consecutively discharged from the Cardiac Surgery Department 2 years ago, were analyzed as well as 60 patients currently waiting for such surgery. Both groups of patients did not differ with demographic features. The health related quality of life was measured with the EASYCare questionnaire and similar one of own construction supplemented with some items of the WHOQol-BREF scale. Two years after CABG, 100 patients were available for the study (six persons died and three persons refused). Response rate was 92%. Significant reduction of symptoms of the coronary artery disease were shown. The chest pain was declared in 18% in I group vs 70% in II group; palpitation in 23% in I group vs 38% in II group and effort angina in 38% in I group vs 65% in II group. The positive evaluation of the health status was declared significantly more often in the patients of I group in comparison to patients in II group. CABG caused positive change concerning health-related quality of life in the elderly two years after surgery. PMID:15850328

Lapi?ski, Tomasz; Bie?, Barbara; Wilma?ska, Jolanta

2004-01-01

414

Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55?K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study identified several quality related key genes including many other genes, their interactions (quality x development) and temporal and spatial distributions. Conclusions The candidate genes identified for processing quality and information on temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions would be useful for designing wheat improvement programs for processing quality either by changing their expression or development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers. PMID:24433256

2014-01-01

415

The relation between understanding and practice in problem-based medical education.  

PubMed

The importance of conceptions of the soundness of medical education are considered briefly. This leads to the question of misconceptions. A pervasive misconception characterized by the separation of understanding from action and practice, illustrated by two examples from the literature on medical education, is discussed. Questions as to the soundness of medical education are usually approached in terms of empirical inquiry; this paper takes a different, complementary, approach. Five medical faculties in Australia, Sweden and the UK. Problem-based medical course staff and students. The practical effect of the separation between action and practice is illustrated in the question of problem-solving as conceived in transitional semiproblem-based curricula in common with traditional curricula, limiting the development of sound professional education. The centrality of the misconception generates a widespread approach to the curriculum, described as the 'Convenient peg' model. In contrast, the 'Growing web' model enables the design of rigorous problem-based curricula which acknowledge that action and practice are necessarily related to understanding in a way unrecognized in the 'Convenient peg' model. Consequently, rigorous problem-based curricula embody a thoroughly integrated curriculum enabling improved medical education. PMID:10336771

Margetson, D B

1999-05-01

416

Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

2014-01-01

417

Relative equilibria in the unrestricted problem of a sphere and symmetric rigid body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the unrestricted problem of two mutually attracting rigid bodies, a uniform sphere (or a point mass) and an axially symmetric body. We present a global, geometric approach for finding all relative equilibria (stationary solutions) in this model, which was already studied by Kinoshita. We extend and generalize his results, showing that the equilibria solutions may be found by solving at most two non-linear, algebraic equations, assuming that the potential function of the symmetric rigid body is known explicitly. We demonstrate that there are three classes of the relative equilibria, which we call cylindrical, inclined coplanar and conic precessions, respectively. Moreover, we also show that in the case of conic precession, although the relative orbit is circular, the point mass and the mass centre of the body move in different parallel planes. This solution has not been known yet in the literature.

Vereshchagin, Mikhail; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Go?dziewski, Krzysztof

2010-04-01

418

Predicting natural resolution of alcohol-related problems: a prospective behavioral economic analysis.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the relative allocation of discretionary monetary expenditures to alcoholic beverages versus savings (presumed to reflect relative preferences for immediate vs. delayed rewards) before quitting abusive drinking predicted natural resolution among untreated problem drinkers. Drinking, life events, income, and expenditures were assessed for the year before resolution and again 1 and 2 years later (N = 50). Compared with those who relapsed, participants who remained resolved at 2 years reported proportionally more pre-resolution discretionary expenditures on savings and less on alcohol. Income and expenditures were similar across groups. The findings support the predictive utility of this functional index of relative reward preferences that operate over variable time horizons and suggest that temporal discounting is an important process in addictive behavior change. PMID:12233985

Tucker, Jalie A; Vuchinich, Rudy E; Rippens, Paula D

2002-08-01

419

Effects of comprehensive intervention on health-related quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis B in China  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant global health problem, especially in China. Chronic liver disease affects health related quality of life (HRQOL). The intervention method to improve HRQOL in patients with hepatitis B has been one-dimensional with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention on health-related quality of life and provide guidance on improving HRQOL for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods Patients with chronic hepatitis B eligible for our study were randomly selected in three model regions of Jiangsu Province in June 2010. 272 patients were invited and 254 took part, with a refusal rate of 6.62%. Comprehensive intervention included government support, technical guidance from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, standardised medical care, and community involvement. HRQOL before and 1 year after intervention was measured with the Short Form 36 and HBV-specific health surveys. Chi-square test, t-test and multiple linear regressive analyses were used. Results After comprehensive intervention, the HRQOL in patients with chronic hepatitis B showed significantly improvements in bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, and mental, as well as physical and mental component score (p < 0.05). Family and social support increased, and financial concerns decreased (p < 0.05). Marital status, duration of illness-related absence from work, education level, family financial status, and health insurance type were important factors affecting HRQOL change between the baseline and final assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Conclusion The comprehensive intervention was effective in improving the HRQOL of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Trial registration ChiCTR-OCH-12001882 PMID:24093163

2013-01-01

420

Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.  

PubMed

COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID:24653767

Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

2014-03-15

421

Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

2006-01-01

422

Childhood Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Leptin Concentration in Two Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Poor sleep in childhood is associated with increased obesity risk, possibly by affecting appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin. We examined short- and long-term sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin in two US pediatric cohorts. Design: Analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies. Setting: Population-based. Adolescent polysomnography assessments performed in a clinical research unit. Patients or Participants: Children in Project Viva (n = 655) and adolescents in the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study (n = 502). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In Project Viva, mothers reported average child sleep duration annually from infancy through age 7, and we measured leptin at ages 3 and 7. In the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study, we collected self-reported sleep duration, polysomnography-derived measures of sleep quality, and fasting leptin at ages 16-19. In sex-stratified linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and adiposity, chronic curtailed sleep was associated with lower leptin at age 7 in girls; a one-unit decrease in sleep score was associated with a 0.08 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.01,0.15). The association was stronger in girls with greater adiposity (P = 0.01). Among adolescents, shorter sleep was associated with lower leptin in males; each one-hour decrease in sleep duration was associated with a 0.06 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.00, 0.11). Sleep duration was not associated with leptin at other ages. Sleep quality indices were not associated with leptin. Conclusions: Our results suggest possible age-specific sexual dimorphism in the influence of sleep on leptin, which may partly explain inconsistencies in the literature. Citation: Boeke CE; Storfer-Isser A; Redline S; Taveras EM. Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies. SLEEP 2014;37(3):613-620. PMID:24587585

Boeke, Caroline E.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

423

An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention  

PubMed Central

Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population. PMID:25093161

Togas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

424

Exploratory Study on Drug Users' Perspectives on Quality of Life: More than Health-Related Quality of Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In drug treatment outcome literature, a focus on objective and socially desirable indicators of change (e.g. no drug use) has predominated, while outcome indicators that are important for drug users themselves (e.g. quality of life, satisfaction with treatment) have largely been neglected. Nonetheless, Quality of Life (QoL) has become an important…

De Maeyer, Jessica; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Broekaert, Eric

2009-01-01

425

Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

426

Exploring quality of life as an intervention outcome among women with stress-related disorders participating in work rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Findings from quality of life studies are often inconclusive for reasons such as: i) estimates may address different aspects of quality of life and thus produce different outcomes; ii) quality of life is largely determined by self-factors; and iii) people with a long-term condition rate their quality of life better than those who have had their condition for a short duration. This makes quality of life a complex phenomenon to measure. Aims The above explanations served as hypotheses for this methodologically oriented paper, based on a longitudinal study on women with stress-related disorders receiving work rehabilitation. Methods Eighty-four women participating in a lifestyle intervention or care as usual were compared. Self-ratings of “general quality of life” and a summarized “satisfaction with different life domains” index (according to Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life) and two self-factors (self-esteem and self-mastery) were administered at admission and a 6-month follow-up. Participant age and amount of months on sick leave prior to rehabilitation were used as two proxies of duration of the condition. Results General quality of life distinguished between the groups, whereas satisfaction with life domains did not. Self-esteem and self-mastery were related to both quality of life aspects. Age was related to both estimates of quality of life, whereas duration of sick leave was unrelated to both. Conclusion General quality of life and satisfaction with life domains produced different results. Outcome studies should apply more than one operationalization of quality of life and self-factors should be considered as important determinants of quality of life. Duration of the condition needs to be acknowledged as well when interpreting levels of quality of life, although the current study could not present any clear-cut findings in this respect. PMID:25610009

Eklund, Mona

2015-01-01

427

Building-related health symptoms and classroom indoor air quality: a survey of school teachers in New York State.  

PubMed

Most previous research on indoor environments and health has studied school children or occupants in non-school settings. This investigation assessed building-related health symptoms and classroom characteristics via telephone survey of New York State school teachers. Participants were asked about 14 building-related symptoms and 23 classroom characteristics potentially related to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between these symptoms and each classroom characteristic, controlling for potential confounders. About 500 teachers completed the survey. The most frequently reported classroom characteristics included open shelving (70.7%), food eaten in class (65.5%), dust (59.1%), and carpeting (46.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms included sinus problems (16.8%), headache (15.0%), allergies/congestion (14.8%), and throat irritation (14.6%). Experiencing one or more symptoms was associated most strongly with reported dust (relative risk (RR) = 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-5.13), dust reservoirs (RR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.72-2.65), paint odors (RR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.40-2.13), mold (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.11), and moldy odors (RR = 1.65 95% CI: 1.30-2.10). Stronger associations were found with increasing numbers of reported IAQ-related classroom characteristics. Similar results were found with having any building-related allergic/respiratory symptom. This research adds to the body of evidence underscoring the importance to occupant health of school IAQ. PMID:25196499

Kielb, C; Lin, S; Muscatiello, N; Hord, W; Rogers-Harrington, J; Healy, J

2014-09-01

428

Relation of Shallow Water Quality in the Central Oklahoma Aquifer to Geology, Soils, and Land Use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to identify, describe, and explain relations between natural and land-use factors and ground-water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer NAWQA study unit. Natural factors compared to water quality included the geologic unit in which the sampled wells were completed and the properties of soils in the areas surrounding the wells. Land-use factors included types of land use and population densities surrounding sampled wells. Ground-water quality was characterized by concentrations of inorganic constituents, and by frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Water-quality data were from samples collected from wells 91 meters (300 feet) or less in depth as part of Permian and Quaternary geologic unit survey networks and from an urban survey network. Concentrations of many inorganic constituents were significantly related to geology. In addition, concentrations of many inorganic constituents were greater in water from wells from the Oklahoma City urban sampling network than in water from wells from low-density survey networks designed to evaluate ambient water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer study unit. However, sampling bias may have been induced by differences in hydrogeologic factors between sampling networks, limiting the ability to determine land-use effects on concentrations of inorganic constituents. Frequencies of detection of pesticide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground-water samples were related to land use and population density, with these compounds being more frequently detected in densely-populated areas. Geology and soil properties were not significantly correlated to pesticide or VOC occurrence in ground water. Lesser frequencies of detection of pesticides in water from wells in rural areas may be due to low to moderate use of those compounds on agricultural lands in the study unit, with livestock production being the primary agricultural activity. There are many possible sources of pesticides and VOC's in the urban areas of Central Oklahoma. Because only existing water-supply wells were sampled, it is not clear from the data collected whether pesticides and VOC's: (1) occur in low concentrations throughout upper portions of the aquifer in urban areas, or (2) are present in ground water only in the immediate vicinity of the wells due to back-flow of those chemicals into the wells or to inflow around cement seals and through gravel packs surrounding well casings of surface runoff containing those compounds.

Rea, Alan H.; Christenson, Scott C.; Andrews, William J.

2001-01-01

429

Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

2011-01-01

430

Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

Plant, Martin, Ed.

431

Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among a large national cohort of 87,134 Thai adults  

PubMed Central

Background Oral health has been of interest in many low and middle income countries due to its impact on general health and quality of life. But there are very few population-based reports of adult Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in developing countries. To address this knowledge gap for Thailand, we report oral health findings from a national cohort of 87,134 Thai adults aged between 15 and 87 years and residing all over the country. Methods In 2005, a comprehensive health questionnaire was returned by distance learning cohort members recruited through Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. OHRQoL dimensions included were discomfort speaking, swallowing, chewing, social interaction and pain. We calculated multivariate (adjusted) associations between OHRQoL outcomes, and sociodemographic, health behaviour and dental status. Results Overall, discomfort chewing (15.8%), social interaction (12.5%), and pain (10.6%) were the most commonly reported problems. Females were worse off for chewing, social interaction and pain. Smokers had worse OHRQoL in all dimensions with Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 1.32 to 1.51. Having less than 20 teeth was strongly associated with difficulty speaking (OR = 6.43), difficulty swallowing (OR = 6.27), and difficulty chewing (OR = 3.26). Conclusions Self-reported adverse oral health correlates with individual function and quality of life. Outcomes are generally worse among females, the poor, smokers, drinkers and those who have less than 20 teeth. Further longitudinal study of the cohort analysed here will permit assessment of causal determinants of poor oral health and the efficacy of preventive programs in Thailand. PMID:21668968

2011-01-01

432

Impact of Psychological Problems and Marital Adjustment of Iranian Veterans on Their Children's Quality of Life and Happiness  

PubMed Central

Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063

Zargar, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

433

Coal Slurry Transportation Systems and Related Water Rights and Water Quality Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two successful pipelines not withstanding, considerable controversy remains over the extent to which state and Federal assistance is warranted for coal-slurry-pipeline transportation. Although the merits of slurry pipelines can be demonstrated by two successful operations, litigation is inevitable over water rights and availability, rights of way and the granting of eminent-domain power, and environmental impacts. The pipelines eliminate the noise

WALTER KIECHEL JR.; W. Jr

1979-01-01

434

Relation of Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life with Outcome after Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite, increasing number of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) being performed, there is a paucity of Indian studies on the psychological effects of PTCA. Aim. To study the relation of anxiety, depression, and health related quality of life with outcome after PTCA. Methods. A total of 35 patients undergoing PTCA were included in the present project with their informed consent. All patients filled a specially designed proforma, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Coronary Scale, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, and a health related quality of life measure (EQ 5D) one day before undergoing PTCA. Three days after PTCA patients were reassessed with the Hospital anxiety & depression scale, Seattle angina questionnaire and the EQ 5D. Results. Analysis showed that 46% had significant anxiety and 32.1% had significant depression before PTCA. Following successful PTCA, none of the patients had significant anxiety, and only 2 (3.6%) had significant depression. On the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, physical limitation reduced from 67.9 to 48. Disease perception improved from 21.2 to 37.1. On the EQ5D, the health status improved from 42.7 before PTCA to 78.7 after PTCA. Conclusion. Successful PTCA resulted in significant reduction in anxiety, depression, and physical limitation and improvement in disease perception and health status. PMID:24319368

Chaudhury, Suprakash; Srivastava, Kalpana

2013-01-01

435

Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate  

PubMed Central

Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P < 0.05. The crude odds ratio (OR) was determined using simple binary logistic regression and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 (3.2) years. The analysis of racial data reveals that 50% (236/471) students were from Middle East, 32% (151/471) from other parts of Asia, 11% (52/471) from Africa, 4% (19/471) from America and 3% (14/471) from Europe. The most common visual problems reported among computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm – OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). Conclusion: High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems. PMID:24761249

Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

2014-01-01

436

Throat related symptoms and voice: development of an instrument for self assessment of throat-problems  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms from throat (sensation of globus; frequent throat clearing; irritated throat) are common in patients referred to voice clinics and to ENT specialists. The relation to symptoms of voice discomfort is unclear and in some cases patients do not have voice problems at all. Instruments for patients' self-reporting of symptoms, and assessment of handicap, such as the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), are in common use in voice clinics. Symptoms from throat are however only marginally covered. Purpose: To develop and evaluate an instrument that could make the patients' estimation of symptoms from the throat possible. Further to facilitate the consideration of the relation between throat- and voice problems with the Throat subscale together with a Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index. Finally to try the VHI with the Throat subscale: the VHI-T, for test-retest reliability and validity. Methods A subscale with 10 throat related items was developed for appliance with the VHI. The VHI was translated to Swedish and retranslated to English. The questionnaire was tried in two phases on a total of 23+144 patients and 12+58 voice healthy controls. The reliability was calculated with Cronbach's alpha, ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The validity was estimated by independent T-test. Results The difference in VHI-T scores between the patients and the voice-healthy controls was significant (p = < 0,01) and there was a good correlation of the test- retest occasions. The reliability testing of the entire questionnaire showed an alpha value of r = 0,90 and that for the Throat subscale separately a value of r = 0,87 which shows a high degree of reliability. Conclusions For the estimation of self-perceived throat and voice problems the scale on throat related problems together with the present Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index, (VHI) the VHI-Throat, proves to be a valid and reliable instrument. The throat subscale seems to help revealing a category of symptoms that are common in our patients. These are symptoms that have not earlier been possible to cover with the questionnaires designed for use in the voice clinic. PMID:20507589

2010-01-01

437

Open problems in the theory of finite-dimensional integrable systems and related fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper collects a number of open problems in the theory of integrable systems and related fields, their study being suggested by the main lecturers and participants of the Advanced Course on Geometry and Dynamics of Integrable Systems, from September 9th to 14th 2013, as well as the Conference on Integrability, Topological Obstructions to Integrability and Interplay with Geometry, from September 16th to 20th 2013, both held at the Centre de Recerca Mathematica in Barcelona within the Research Programme 'Geometry and Dynamics of Integrable Systems'.

Rosemann, Stefan; Schöbel, Konrad

2015-01-01

438

Health related quality of life in sickle cell patients: The PiSCES project  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic disease associated with high degrees of morbidity and increased mortality. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adults with sickle cell disease has not been widely reported. Methods We administered the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form to 308 patients in the Pain in Sickle Cell Epidemiology Study (PiSCES) to assess HRQOL. Scales included physical function, physical and emotional role function, bodily pain, vitality, social function, mental health, and general health. We compared scores with national norms using t-tests, and with three chronic disease cohorts: asthma, cystic fibrosis and hemodialysis patients using analysis of variance and Dunnett's test for comparison with a control. We also assessed whether SCD specific variables (genotype, pain, crisis and utilization) were independently predictive of SF-36 subscales, controlling for socio-demographic variables using regression. Results Patients with SCD scored significantly worse than national norms on all subscales except mental health. Patients with SCD had lower HRQOL than cystic fibrosis patients except for mental health. Scores were similar for physical function, role function and mental health as compared to asthma patients, but worse for bodily pain, vitality, social function and general health subscales. Compared to dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients scored similarly on physical role and emotional role function, social functioning and mental health, worse on bodily pain, general health and vitality and better on physical functioning. Surprisingly, genotype did not influence HRQOL except for vitality. However, scores significantly decreased as pain levels increased. Conclusion SCD patients experience health related quality of life worse than the general population, and in general, their scores were most similar to patients undergoing hemodialysis. Practitioners should regard their HRQOL as severely compromised. Interventions in SCD should consider improvements in health related quality of life as important outcomes. PMID:16129027

McClish, Donna K; Penberthy, Lynne T; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Roberts, John D; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Levenson, James L; Roseff, Susan D; Smith, Wally R

2005-01-01

439

Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care: Education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The primary purpose of this study was to cross-sectionally examine breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema self-care education,\\u000a self-care practices, and perceived self-care barriers, burdens, and benefits. We also explored the associations among self-care\\u000a education, practices, symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors with known lymphedema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional design was used to obtain data about lymphedema self-care education, self-care

Sheila H. Ridner; Mary S. Dietrich; Nancy Kidd

2011-01-01

440

Swedish population health-related quality of life results using the EQ-5D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured on population level may be useful to guide policies for health. This study\\u000a aims to describe the HRQoL; in EQ-5D dimensions, mean rating scale (RS) scores and mean EQ-5D index values, in the general\\u000a population, by certain disease and socio-economic groups, in Stockholm County 1998. The EQ-5D self-classifier and a RS were\\u000a included in

Kristina Burström; Magnus Johannesson; Finn Diderichsen

2001-01-01

441

Oral health-related quality of life and somatization in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Somatization disorders are frequent in the elderly, and previous studies have revealed that psychological factors affect the\\u000a outcome of measurement of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate\\u000a the correlation between OHRQoL and somatization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One-hundred and twenty-five participants aged 60 years or older (mean age 76.6 years; 40 males) from a primary geriatric medical

Alexander J. Hassel; Claudia Rolko; Joachim Leisen; Marc Schmitter; Walter Rexroth; Michael Leckel

2007-01-01

442

Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies that have identified variables associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with colorectal cancer have been cross-sectional or included patients with other diagnoses. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of HRQL in patients with colorectal cancer and interpret the clinical importance of the results. Methods We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of patients identified through three regions of the California Cancer Registry. Surveys were completed by 568 patients approximately 9 and 19 months post-diagnosis. Three HRQL outcomes from the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Colorectal (FACT-C) were evaluated: social/family well-being (SWB), emotional well-being (EWB) and the Trial Outcome Index (TOI), which is a colorectal cancer-specific summary measure of physical function and well-being. Sociodemographic, cancer/health, and healthcare variables were assessed in multivariable regression models. We computed the difference in predicted HRQL scores corresponding to a large difference in a predictor variable, defined as a 1 standard deviation difference for interval variables or the difference relative to the reference category for nominal variables. The effect of an explanatory variable on HRQL was considered clinically meaningful if the predicted score difference was at least as large as the minimally important difference. Results Common predictors of better TOI, SWB and EWB were better general health and factors related to better perceived quality of cancer care. Predictor variables in addition to general health and perceived quality of care were identified only for SWB. Being married/living as married was associated with better SWB, whereas being male or of Hispanic ethnicity was associated with worse SWB. Among the sociodemographic, cancer/health, and healthcare variables evaluated, only Hispanic ethnicity had a clinically meaningful effect on an HRQL outcome. Conclusion Our findings, particularly the information on the clinical importance of predictor variables, can help clinicians identify patients who may be at risk for poor future HRQL. Potentially modifiable factors were related to perceived quality of cancer care; thus, future research should evaluate whether improving these factors improves HRQL. PMID:18724874

Yost, Kathleen J; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z; West, Dee W

2008-01-01

443

Chemotherapy-related polyneuropathy may deteriorate quality of life in patients with B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This prospective study was performed to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy-related neurotoxicity on quality of life (QOL)\\u000a of patients with lymphoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-two patients with diffuse large B-cell or follicular lymphoma without prior evidence of neuropathy were enrolled. Patients\\u000a underwent the evaluations based on neuropathy symptom and disability score, nerve conduction studies, and SF-36 questionnaire\\u000a for QOL assessment. They received six

Byung-Jo Kim; Ha-Rim Park; Hak Jae Roh; Du-Shin Jeong; Byung Soo Kim; Kun-Woo Park; S. Charles Cho; Yuen T. So; Sung Yong Oh; Seok Jin Kim

2010-01-01

444

Effects of two weight-loss diets on health-related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare the effects of two diets on health-related quality of life (HRQOL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Overweight volunteers (n = 119) were randomized to follow a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 24 weeks. HRQOL was\\u000a measured every 4 weeks using the Short Form-36 and analyzed using linear mixed-effects models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The mean age was 45 years and mean baseline body mass index was 34 kg\\/m2;

William S. Yancy Jr; Daniel Almirall; Matthew L. Maciejewski; Ronette L. Kolotkin; Jennifer R. McDuffie; Eric C. Westman

2009-01-01

445

Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an Evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the validity and short-term responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for febrile illnesses evaluated in the pediatric emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of children 2–18 years discharged after ED evaluation for fever (? 38°C). Self-administered, parent-report of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the

Rakesh D Mistry; Molly W Stevens; Marc H Gorelick

2009-01-01

446

The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR): A Measure of Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Life for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: No outcome measures specific to pulmonary hypertension (PH) currently exist. The aim of the study was to develop health-related\\u000a quality of life (symptoms and functioning) scales and a quality of life scale that would allow comprehensive, accurate and\\u000a valid patient-reported outcome assessment in clinical studies. Methods: The content of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) was derived from

S. P. McKenna; N. Doughty; D. M. Meads; L. C. Doward; J. Pepke-Zaba

2006-01-01

447

Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease: The impact of surgical therapy  

PubMed Central

Over the past 30 years, health related quality of life (HRQOL) has developed into a scientific index of subjective health status. Measurement of HRQOL is now clearly a mandatory component in evaluating interventions and management of medical and surgical diseases. In designing comprehensive and meaningful clinical studies particular attention ought to be made of measures of HRQOL. This is clearly very important in inflammatory bowel disease. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) have a major impact on HRQOL. The chronic and unrelenting nature of these diseases, the often early age of onset, and the impact on social and sexual aspects of life significantly change patient’s perception, body image and quality of life. This manuscript is an overview of the available published data on HRQOL in UC and CD patients focusing on the impact of surgical therapy. While these two diseases may have some similarities in their management, clearly their impact on quality of life and the effects of are significantly different. Hence we are presenting the data separately. PMID:20976838

Umanskiy, Konstantin; Fichera, Alessandro

2010-01-01

448

Health-related quality of life in traumatic brain injury: is a proxy report necessary?  

PubMed

Despite its importance to care, clinicians and researchers often discount patient-reported outcomes in favor of proxy reports, in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rationale relates to concerns about lack of awareness of patients regarding their functioning. However, although lack of awareness occurs in some patients with severe TBI, or in TBI involving certain lesion locations, or very soon after injury, this conclusion has been overgeneralized. The objective of this study is to determine the validity of patient-reported health-related quality of life by evaluating its relationship to injury severity and more objective indices of outcome, in a representative series of adults with TBI. A consecutive sample of 374 persons with TBI at least 14 years old, and having a post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale score ?12, an acute seizure, or a CT scan showing TBI- related findings. Seventy-six percent (374/491) of the eligible survivors were assessed at 6 months post-injury on the Life Satisfaction Survey. The greatest decrease in satisfaction was in the ability to think and remember, work, receive adequate income, and participate in leisure and recreational activities. Dissatisfaction significantly related to the functional limitation in that area as judged by the patients themselves (p<0.001) or by someone who knew them well (p?0.001). The most severely injured group reported the most dissatisfaction for 13 out of 17 areas assessed. Patients with TBI, in general, do not need a proxy to report on their behalf regarding their functional limitations or health-related quality of life. PMID:23731370

Machamer, Joan; Temkin, Nancy; Dikmen, Sureyya

2013-11-15

449

Usage of Underground Space for 3D Cadastre Purposes and Related Problems in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Modern cities have been trying to meet their needs for space by using not only surface structures but also by considering subsurface space use. It is also anticipated that without planning of underground spaces for supporting surface city life in the years and generations to come, there will be serious and unavoidable problems with growing populations. The current Turkish cadastral system, including land right registrations, has been trying to meet users' needs in all aspects since 1924. Today Turkey's national cadastre services are carried out by the General Directorate of Land Titles and Cadastre (TKGM). The Cadastre Law, Number 3402, was approved in 1985 to eliminate problems by gathering all existing cadastral regulations under one law and also to produce 3D cadastral bases to include underground spaces and determine their legal status in Turkey. Although the mandate for 3D cadastre works is described and explained by the laws, until now the bases have been created in 2D and the reality is that legal gaps and deficiencies presently exist in them. In this study, the usage of underground spaces for the current cadastral system in Turkey was briefly evaluated, the concept of 3D cadastral data is examined and the need for using subsurface and 3D cadastre in addition to the traditional 2D register system, related problems and registration are mentioned with specific examples, but without focusing on a specific model.

Aydin, Cevdet C.

2008-01-01

450

Identification and characterization of students' attitudes toward technology as related to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

Viewing the role of technology as either the cause of or solution to environmental problems may be unrealistic, and such extreme attitudes may inhibit the resolution of environmental problems. Courses that present a particular orientation toward the role of technology may encourage these extreme attitudes. Identifying attitudes of students enrolled in such courses and designing instruction to foster specific attitudes can lead to a more rational and objective attitude toward technology as related to environmental problems. The Scientific-Environmental-Technological (SET) literacy model was suggested as an appropriate framework for presenting the role of technology to students. A 34 item Likert scale was developed to measure attitudes as defined by two constructs: PRO-technology and ANTI-technology. Students enrolled in three courses (E200, Environment and People, K201, The Computer in Business, E100, Freshman Engineering Lectures), were asked to respond to the survey at the beginning and end of the fall, 1980 semester. The findings indicate that the survey was useful in identifying and characterizing attitudes of certain populations. The differences between the E200 and E100 students indicate that instruction that recognizes and examines the full range of perspectives on the impact of technology should be provided for these students.

Lubbers, J.D.

1984-01-01

451

Patient risk factors for developing a drug-related problem in a cardiology ward  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the high incidence of drug-related problems (DRPs) among hospitalized patients with cardiovascular diseases and their potential impact on morbidity and mortality, it is important to identify the most susceptible patients, who therefore require closer monitoring of drug therapy. Purpose To identify the profile of patients at higher risk of developing at least one DRP during hospitalization in a cardiology ward. Method We consecutively included all patients hospitalized in the cardiology ward of a teaching hospital in 2009. DRPs were identified through a computerized warning system designed by the pharmacy department and integrated into the electronic medical record. Results A total of 964 admissions were included, and at least one DRP was detected in 29.8%. The variables associated with a higher risk of these events were polypharmacy (odds ratio [OR]=1.228; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.153–1.308), female sex (OR=1.496; 95% CI=1.026–2.180), and first admission (OR=1.494; 95% CI=1.005–2.221). Conclusion Monitoring patients through a computerized warning system allowed the detection of at least one DRP in one-third of the patients. Knowledge of the risk factors for developing these problems in patients admitted to hospital for cardiovascular problems helps in identifying the most susceptible patients. PMID:25565852

Urbina, Olatz; Ferrández, Olivia; Luque, Sònia; Grau, Santiago; Mojal, Sergi; Pellicer, Rosa; Riu, Marta; Salas, Esther; Comin-Colet, Josep

2015-01-01

452

Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems  

SciTech Connect

The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations.

LeSage, L.G.

1997-10-01

453

Functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in people with asbestos related pleural disease: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Functional exercise capacity in people with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) is unknown and there are no data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary aims were to determine whether functional exercise capacity and HRQoL were reduced in people with ARPD. The secondary aim was to determine whether functional exercise capacity was related to peak exercise capacity, HRQoL, physical activity or respiratory function. Methods In participants with ARPD, exercise capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and incremental cycle test (ICT); HRQoL by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and physical activity by an activity monitor worn for one week. Participants also underwent lung function testing. Results 25 males completed the study with a mean (SD) age of 71 (6) years, FVC 82 (19)% predicted, FEV1/FVC 66 (11)%, TLC 80 (19)% predicted and DLCO 59 (13)% predicted. Participants had reduced exercise capacity demonstrated by six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 76 (11)% predicted and peak work rate of 71 (21)% predicted. HRQoL was also reduced. The 6MWD correlated with peak work rate (r=0.58, p=0.002), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total score (r=-0.57, p=0.003), metabolic equivalents from the activity monitor (r=0.45, p<0.05), and FVC % predicted (r=0.52, p<0.01). Conclusions People with ARPD have reduced exercise capacity and HRQoL. The 6MWT may be a useful surrogate measure of peak exercise capacity and physical activity levels in the absence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and activity monitors. Trial registration ANZCTR12608000147381 PMID:23305075

2013-01-01

454

Maternal gene expression in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) and its relation to egg quality  

PubMed Central

Background The commercial production of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) suffers from a major bottleneck due to the low success of producing juveniles for on-growing. Atlantic halibut females are routinely hand-stripped and incorrect timing of stripping can result in low quality eggs due to post-ovulatory aging. Post-ovulatory aging leads to compositional changes in eggs that include maternally provided proteins and RNAs. There have been few studies of the maternally provided mRNA transcripts that control early development in commercially important fish species. The present study aimed to study maternal gene expression in Atlantic halibut and its relation to egg quality parameters including blastomere symmetry and hatching success. Results A maternal EST library containing 2341 sequences was constructed by suppressive subtractive hybridisation. Thirty genes were selected for expression studies; 23 novel genes and 7 genes with documented roles in early development. The expressions of twenty-one selected genes were measured by qPCR from fertilization to the 10-somite stage. Three genes were identified as strictly maternal genes that were expressed until the start of gastrulation; askopos (kop), si:dkey-30j22.9 (Tudor family member), and Tudor 5 protein (Tdrd5). The expressions of 18 genes at the 8-cell stage were correlated with egg quality parameters. The majority of genes showed either no or very minor correlations with egg quality parameter. However, two genes correlated positively with hatching success (r> 0.50, HHC00353: r = 0.58, p < 0.01; HHC01517: r = 0.56, p < 0.01) and one gene (HHC00255) was negatively correlated with the percentage of normal blastomeres (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Conclusions During this study we have related maternal levels of gene expression to hatching success in fish. Poor hatching success was not correlated with a general decrease in transcript abundance but with low transcript levels of some specific genes. Thu