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1

Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

2012-01-01

2

The Relationship between Sleep Problems and Health Related Quality of Life among Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Rationale Among adult liver transplant recipients, sleep disturbances and fatigue are common. Sleep problems following pediatric liver transplantation may contribute to daytime fatigue and lower HRQoL. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the impact of sleep problems on child HRQoL in pediatric liver transplant recipients using validated measures of sleep and quality of life. Methods Participants included 47 liver transplant recipients (LTR). The mean age of patients was 10.9 years ± 4.6, and the mean time since transplant was 6.2± 3.9 years. The primary indication for transplantation was biliary atresia (51%). Results Based on parent report, pediatric transplant recipients had symptoms of sleep disordered breathing, excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime behavior problems, and restless legs. 40.4% of parents and 43.8% of children reported significantly lower child Total HRQoL. Age, time since transplantation and health status variables were not significantly related to quality of life. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the sleep-disordered breathing subscale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire accounted for significant variance in parent-proxy reports on the PedsQL summary scales measuring child Psychosocial Health (R2=0.38, p < 0.001), Physical Health (R2=0.19, p=0.004), and Total HRQoL (R2 =0.35, p < 0.0001). Across the subscales of the PedsQL, sleep-disordered breathing accounted for significant variance on the child self-reported school functioning scale (R2 = 0.18, p=0.033). Clinically significant sleep problems were more common among children with low Total HRQoL. There were no significant group differences based on child self-report. Conclusions Sleep problems were common in this cohort of pediatric liver transplant recipients and predicted significant variance in parent-proxy reports of HRQoL. Prospective larger scale studies are needed to assess factors that may lead to sleep difficulties and low HRQoL in this population. Appropriate detection of significant sleep problems may lead to interventions that could benefit the quality of life of pediatric LTR.

Fredericks, Emily M.; Dore-Stites, Dawn; Calderon, Sheyla Y.; Well, Andrew; Eder, Sally J.; Magee, John C.; Lopez, M. James

2012-01-01

3

Sleep problems and depressed mood negatively impact health-related quality of life during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate and identify determinants of health related quality of life (HRQoL) during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 245) completed questionnaires measuring: HRQoL (Short Form Health Survey SF-36), life stress, social support, sleep, and depressed mood in the third trimester. Demographics and medical variables were also collected. Compared to Canadian normative data, our sample scored significantly poorer on the following HRQoL domains: physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning. Multivariate linear regressions were used to model each of the SF-36 subscales. Experiencing sleep problems emerged as a significant determinant of poorer HRQoL in all domains, with the exception of emotional role. Higher depressed mood scores was independently associated with lower HRQoL in six of the eight domains, including bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, emotional role, and mental health. Greater pregnancy-related anxiety was independently associated with lower scores on physical functioning and role limitations due to physical health problems. Women experience lower HRQoL during pregnancy, particularly in the physical domains. The importance of identifying and managing modifiable determinants early in pregnancy to enhance maternal health status is discussed. PMID:19728037

Da Costa, Deborah; Dritsa, Maria; Verreault, Nancy; Balaa, Caline; Kudzman, Jennifer; Khalifé, Samir

2010-06-01

4

Challenges With Health-related Quality of Life Assessment in Arthroplasty Patients: Problems and Solutions  

PubMed Central

Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using patient-reported outcomes in arthroplasty has become popular because it provides a unique perspective on successful elective procedures. However, challenges exist in the assessment of HRQOL in clinical practice and in clinical research. Patient compliance with multiple and sometimes lengthy HRQOL assessments administered at multiple follow-up visits is problematic. Many well-validated HRQOL instruments are available, and progress has been made in defining the minimal clinically important difference in hip and knee arthroplasty that denotes the minimal change perceived to be important by patients. Challenges in understanding the literature are attributable to the use of various HRQOL scales, with different scoring ranges and scoring algorithms, different interpretations of highest score, and differences in the presentation of raw versus transformed scores.

Singh, Jasvinder; Sloan, Jeff A.; Johanson, Norman A.

2010-01-01

5

[Health-related quality of live in breast cancer patients--actuality and problems].  

PubMed

Women with early breast cancer have three surgical options fir this current moment: conservative treatment (lumpectomy, quadrantectomy); mastectomy alone and mastectomy plus reconstruction (immediate or delayed). When randomized trials showed oncological safety of breast--conservative treatment compared with mastectomy, the question of cosmetic results assessment become actual, because of its impact on quality of live. The current state of the art permits achievement of good oncological results and good cosmetics ones. There are some technical factors affecting cosmetic results after breast--conservative treatment: orientation of resection; the breast / resection ratio; tumor localization; orientation of axillary dissection. Combination of extended resection (quadrantectomy) plus axillary dissection through the same incision results in cosmetic failure. After operation there is a remarkable breast asymmetry, retraction of the mammilla and inferior contour distortion. The main reasons for cosmetic failures are: volume of resection (lumpectomy, quadrant-ectomy), postoperative radiotherapy, deviation from normal breast morphology and tumor location. There are a lot of questionnaires for quality of live assessment. For Bulgarian population N. Mashonov created and adopted original questionnaire. The author investigated quality of live among patients with hard failure during recovery period. PMID:16044875

Molov, V; Tepavicharova, P; Deenichin, G; Dimov, R; Stefanov, Ch

2004-01-01

6

Survey of Current Research into Air Infiltration and Related Air Quality Problems in Buildings 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre's world wide survey of current research into air infiltration and related topics, provides organisations in participating countries with regularly updated information about ongoing research in this field. In par...

P. Charlesworth

1986-01-01

7

Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

Lehmann, C. M. B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M. J.; Sun, J.

1998-01-01

8

Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

1975-01-01

9

Stability, compatibility, and related problems of additives in Naval distillate fuels derived from lower quality feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first two years of a study co-sponsored by DOE and the US Navy to determine which antioxidant additives are most effective in delaying fuel degradation in a variety of middle distillate straight run/light cycle oil blends. In this study, straight-run middle distillate and catalytically cracked product were mixed at ratios of 85:15, 70:30, and 60:40, respectively. All of these blended fuels were immediately treated with commercially available additives. Usual dosages were 12 and 24 ppM (volume/volume). Stability testing and fuel characterizations performed at four different laboratories were used to evaluate the additives. Each laboratory used a different type of stability test. The characterization studies were performed to ensure that the base fuel blends tested were within the range allowed by MIL-F-16884H and to determine whether any of the additives would make the fuels unacceptable for Navy use. Because of the high degree of stability of several of the control (additive-free) fuels, it was difficult to differentiate additive effectiveness in these fuels. Some studies were performed to see if controlled aging techniques prior to actual stability testing could increase the amount of sediment in the fuel. Results indicated that this would increase sediment in some cases and would have no effect in others. Sample collection techniques at the refineries were also investigated. Both lined and unlined cans were used in these studies. In cases where control fuels exhibited instability, it was possible to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of the 12 stabilizer additives. Five of the additives (2, 3, 10, 11, and 12) have been shown to be superior to the remaining seven. However, all 12 will continue to be tested during the remainder of this study. 2 refs., 6 figs., 25 tabs.

Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.

1987-02-01

10

The proxy problem anatomized: child-parent disagreement in health related quality of life reports of chronically ill adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Discrepancy between self-reports and parent-proxy reports of adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been repeatedly acknowledged in the literature as the proxy problem. However, little is known about the extent and direction of this discrepancy. The purpose of this study is to explore to what extent and in what direction HRQoL self-reports of adolescents with chronic conditions and those of their parents differ. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents suffering from chronic conditions and their parents. Socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics were collected and information about consequences of the chronic condition was assessed. HRQoL was measured with KIDSCREEN-10 and DISABKIDS condition generic measure (DCGM-10). Agreement was analysed through defining a threshold of agreement based on half of the standard deviation of the HRQoL score with the highest variance. Agreement occurred if the difference between adolescent and parent scores was less than or equal to half of the standard deviation. Intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were also computed. The characteristics associated with direction of disagreement were statistically tested with one-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results 584 paired HRQoL scores were obtained. Ratings from both adolescents and parents were high, compared to European norm data. Differences between adolescents and parents were statistically significant, yet relatively small. Disagreement existed in both directions: in 24.5% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 16.8% (DCGM-10) of the cases adolescents rated their HRQoL lower than did their parent, while in 32.2% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 31.7% (DCGM-10) of the cases the opposite was true. Adolescent's age, educational level and type of education, parent's educational level, number of hospital admissions and several other disease-related factors influenced direction of disagreement. Conclusions In a reasonable proportion of cases the adolescent and parent agreed on the adolescent's HRQoL (43-51% of the cases) and most disagreement tended to be minor. Thus, the proxy problem may be smaller than presented in the literature and its extent may differ per population. As adolescents are expected to become partners in their own health care, it is recommended to focus on adolescents' own perceptions of HRQoL.

2012-01-01

11

Revisiting the problem of using problem reports for quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our experience with using problem reports from industry for quality assessment. The non-uniform terminology used in problem reports and validity concerns have been subject of earlier research but are far from settled. To distinguish between terms such as defects or errors, we propose to answer three questions on the scope of a study related to

Parastooi Mohagheghi; Reidar Conradi; Jon Arvid Børretzen

2006-01-01

12

Assessing the Quality of Problems in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the construct validity and reliability of a newly devised 32-item problem quality rating scale intended to measure the quality of problems in problem-based learning. The rating scale measured the following five characteristics of problems: the extent to which the problem (1) leads to learning objectives, (2) is familiar, (3)…

Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome; Schmidt, Henk

2012-01-01

13

DEMOS for RELATED RATE Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demo provides a toolbox of visual aids that illustrate fundamental concepts for understanding and developing equations that model related rate problems. A gallery of animations for various problems is included.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-02-11

14

AN APPLICATION OF THE RELATIVE WARPS ANALYSIS TO PROBLEMS IN HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY - WITH NOTES ON RAW DATA QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the use of geometric morphometrics as well as methodological aspects specifically related to its application in paleoanthropology. Based on lateral photographs taken from a fossil sample of 58 specimens, a relative warps analysis was computed in order to assess the variation of cranial shape among various hominin groups. The fossil sample represents Middle and Late Pleistocene populations

MARTIN FRIEß

2003-01-01

15

Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.  

PubMed

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. PMID:23582650

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-06-01

16

A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and

Tatiana L Taylor; Helen Killaspy; Christine Wright; Penny Turton; Sarah White; Thomas W Kallert; Mirjam Schuster; Jorge A Cervilla; Paulette Brangier; Jiri Raboch; Lucie Kališová; Georgi Onchev; Hristo Dimitrov; Roberto Mezzina; Kinou Wolf; Durk Wiersma; Ellen Visser; Andrzej Kiejna; Patryk Piotrowski; Dimitri Ploumpidis; Fragiskos Gonidakis; José Caldas-de-Almeida; Graça Cardoso; Michael B King

2009-01-01

17

Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins  

MedlinePLUS

... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins Many vein problems are ... have varicoceles, see your doctor. Other Related Vein Problems Other types of varicose veins include venous lakes, ...

18

A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems  

PubMed Central

Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines of clinical governance that ensure adherence to evidence-based guidelines and attention should be paid to service users' physical health through regular screening.

Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose; Cardoso, Graca; King, Michael B

2009-01-01

19

Georgia's Water Problems and Related Research Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water problems and research needs are discussed by region of the State. They are also discussed under the headings of water quantity, quality, ecology, planning and management, and agriculture. A survey of research capability in Georgia colleges is includ...

G. E. Willeke A. C. Benke A. M. Lumb B. H. Kornegay W. P. Neely

1973-01-01

20

Problems in Education and Quality Circles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed analysis of the structure, use, and effectiveness of the quality circles concept includes a school district case study and offers advice to school systems in labor relations trouble. The appendixes include a bibliography, two models, a resource guide, and a school district decision-making accountability chart. (MLF)

Crisci, Pat

1983-01-01

21

Self-consciousness, friendship quality, and adolescent internalizing problems  

PubMed Central

The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties.

Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

2013-01-01

22

Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

1988-01-01

23

The Relative Effects of Maternal and Child Problems on the Quality of Attachment: A Meta-Analysis of Attachment in Clinical Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distributions of child attachment classifications in mother-child dyads in which the mother evidenced physical or mental problems were highly divergent from distributions for normal samples. Distributions of child attachment classifications in mother-child dyads in which the child evidenced physical problems were similar to distributions in normal…

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; And Others

1992-01-01

24

An Investigation Into HPLC Data Quality Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the analyses and results produced by a five-member investigative team of Government, university, and industry experts, established by NASA HQ. The team examined data quality problems associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of pigment concentrations in seawater samples produced by the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS). This report shows CHORS did not validate the methods used before placing them into service to analyze field samples for NASA principal investigators (PIs), even though the HPLC literature contained easily accessible method validation procedures, and the importance of implementing them, more than a decade ago. In addition, there were so many sources of significant variance in the CHORS methodologies, that the HPLC system rarely operated within performance criteria capable of producing the requisite data quality. It is the recommendation of the investigative team to a) not correct the data, b) make all the data that was temporarily sequestered available for scientific use, and c) label the affected data with an appropriate warning, e.g., "These data are not validated and should not be used as the sole basis for a scientific result, conclusion, or hypothesis--independent corroborating evidence is required."

Hooker, Stanford B.; VanHeukelem, Laurie

2011-01-01

25

Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.  

PubMed Central

This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

Sanchez, R A

1995-01-01

26

Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure.  

PubMed

This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et al. and 10 single case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by Horner et al. and the What Works Clearinghouse. Results indicated that 14 group design studies met the criteria for high-quality or acceptable research, whereas SCD studies did not meet the standards for an evidence-based practice. Based on these findings, strategy instruction priming the mathematics problem structure is considered an evidence-based practice using only group design methodological criteria. Implications for future research and for practice are discussed. PMID:23686999

Jitendra, Asha K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E; Zaslofsky, Anne F; Kunkel, Amy K; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M

2013-05-16

27

Depression and Related Problems in University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

2012-01-01

28

Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

Cunningham, Denise D.

2010-01-01

29

Relational Qualities of Leadership Style.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project aimed at clarifying leadership style with respect to qualities affecting leader-follower relationships and making for effective or ineffective leadership. Three distinct tasks were completed: first, pertinent work was reviewed and evaluated f...

E. P. Hollander

1979-01-01

30

Future Problem Solving and Quality Circles in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two programs are described: the first, the Future Problem Solving Program, is an interdisciplinary approach to studying and solving future problems. The second, Quality Circles, originally a management technique, has been implemented in schools to improve motivation, attendance, learning, and quality of life. (Author/LC)

Torrance, E. Paul

1982-01-01

31

Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

1999-01-01

32

Problems in Statewide Uniform Air Quality Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rhode Island Clean Air Act, forming a Division of Air Pollution Control within the State Department of Health, went into effect on January 1, 1967. Under this Act the new7 Division was given responsibility for air quality throughout the State of Rhode Island. All municipal air pollution control organizations were now defunct. Six basic regulations were introduced seven months

Austin C. Daley

1969-01-01

33

Manual of Analytical Quality Control for Pesticides and Related Compounds in Human and Environmental Samples. A Compendium of Systematic Procedures Designed to Assist in the Prevention and Control of Analytical Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable m...

J. Sherma M. Beroza

1979-01-01

34

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

35

Problem Solving and Total Quality Goals in University Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how quality concepts such as customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, and defining the customer apply to education. Describes how creative problem solving can overcome such conceptual blocks as constancy, commitment to the past, compression of ideas, and complacency. (SK)

Smith, Taggart

1993-01-01

36

Relative locality and the soccer ball problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies Emacro much larger than MP. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order Emacro/N·MP.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

2011-10-01

37

Manufacturing Employers Report Widespread Problems with Labor Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Labor quality is a chief concern of both rural and urban manufacturing employers. New skills required by advanced technology explain part of the problem, but dissatisfaction with work attitude is common to high- and low-tech employers. Lack of a high school diploma is linked to problems with worker skills and attitude. Employers are increasing…

Gale, Fred

1999-01-01

38

Preventive strategies for alcohol-related problems.  

PubMed

Preventive strategies for alcohol-related problems need to be in keeping with their socio-political context. Prohibition is inappropriate except where it has widespread support within the culture. Preventive strategies focus on the population and/or high risk groups and behaviours. Primary prevention can be achieved by control policies, education and provision of alternatives. Fiscal measures are of proven value. Legislative approaches influence availability and context of drinking, such as drinking and driving. Advertising control, server training and server liability are further approaches. Encouraging the provision of alternative beverages and promoting alcohol-free environments is a further approach which should be seen as part of an integrated community response. Secondary prevention linked with early recognition of hazardous drinking at primary level is of known efficacy and would form part of a coordinated strategy. PMID:7841861

Ritson, B

1994-11-01

39

Drug-Related Problems And the Physician: The Calgary Experience  

PubMed Central

Experiences of a sample of Calgary physicians treating drug-related problems are described. Family physicians and specialists are compared on number of cases seen, by type of drug problems. Difficulties in treating or managing people with such problems, suggestions for overcoming difficulties, suggestions for improving treatment and prevention of drug-related problems in Calgary, and attitudes toward such problems are also reported.

Rootman, Irving

1973-01-01

40

RELATE real-world problem index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of mechanics problems provide real-world examples of applications of physics. Each problem contains a description of an event or experiment with data. Students are asked questions to explore and explain the situation. Each of the problems in the collection are described by their topic, concept, and difficulty.

Pritchard, David E.; Belcher, John; Pawl, Andrew

2009-09-02

41

Relations of Friends' Activities to Friendship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine age and sex differences in friends' activities and relations of participation in these activities to perceived friendship quality. In Study 1, 52 fourth and eighth graders were asked open-ended questions about activities they do with their best friends. In Study 2, 105 fourth and eighth graders reported both…

Mathur, Ravisha; Berndt, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

42

ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

43

Some Problems of Special Relativity. Relativistic Electrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The known problem of definition of the electromagnetic energy and momentum of charged particles and of a charge in a moving current-carrying conductor is discussed. A covariant solution of these problems is presented. The volume element was chosen based o...

V. N. Strel'tsov

1977-01-01

44

Measuring health-related quality of life in tuberculosis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, increasing efforts have been dedicated to assessing the health-related quality of life experienced by people infected with tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to better understand the impact of tuberculosis and its treatment on people's quality of life, and to review quality of life instruments used in

Na Guo; Fawziah Marra; Carlo A Marra

2009-01-01

45

Food technology problems related to space feeding.  

PubMed

The development of foods suitable for extraterrestrial consumption posed unique problems. Limitations on weight, volume and stability of space food together with the lack of refrigeration favored the use of dehydrated foods on Gemini and Apollo menus. Environmental constraints, cabin pressures of 1/3 atmosphere with exposure of the food assembly to the vacuum of space in conjunction with extravehicular activities and zero gravity required special packaging and adaptation of foods considered suitable for space flight use. Requirements for acceptable, familiar, crumb free, low residue, non-gas producing, stable foods added to the complexity of the developmental effort. Four basic approaches: semisolid foods in metal tubes, dehydrated bite-size foods to be eaten dry, dehydrated foods to be reconstituted before eating and flexibly packaged thermostabilized wet meat products have been utilized in the feeding systems developed for Projects Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. The development of each type posed many interesting technologic problems. Data from current Apollo flights have pointed to certain deficiencies which still remain to be corrected. Work is progressing to eliminate current problems and to provide feeding systems suitable for both short-term and long-term space flights. PMID:11826888

Hollender, H A; Klicka, M V; Smith, M C

1970-01-01

46

Robot Hand Grasping and Related Problems: Optimal Control and Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal control problem related to the grasping of ob jects by multifingered grippers of robots is investigated. The Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP), which governs the static unilateral and frictional contact problem, is formulated, and certain propositions concerning necessary and sufficient conditions for its solution are proved. Next the optimal control problem is formulated and studied. Presented also is numeric

P. D. Panagiotopoulos; Ahmad M. Al-fahed Nuseirat

1994-01-01

47

Problems Related to Conservation Laws - Phase Transitions and Viscoelasticity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a final report of the project titled Problems related to conservation laws Phase transitions and viscoelasticity. In this project I considered the dynamical aspects of a phase transitions problem and the stability issue of waves for viscoelastic m...

H. Hattori

1993-01-01

48

ICTs and Employment: The Problem of Job Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of information and communications technologies on jobs is not yet known and no outcome is inevitable. Technology-driven changes in organizational structures, employment relations, worker autonomy, and work organization will not automatically result in higher job quality. (Contains 92 references.) (SK)

Rubery, Jill; Grimshaw, Damian

2001-01-01

49

Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative effects of interpersonal strain in male and female adolescent delinquency. Results from a sample of 3,595 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 show that, although interpersonal strain is an important correlate of some types of female delinquency, it is a more important correlate of male delinquency.…

Agnew, Robert; Brezina, Timothy

1997-01-01

50

The Effect of Shift Work on Quality and Stability of Marital Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed a national panel of 1,668 married women and men in 1980 and 1983 to assess effects of shift work on 6 measures of marital quality (marital happiness, interaction, disagreements, general problems, sexual problems, and child-related problems) and probability of divorce. Results suggested that shift work has a modest but general adverse…

White, Lynn; Keith, Bruce

1990-01-01

51

Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.  

PubMed

1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

Moses, M

1989-03-01

52

Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

53

Study of Fuzzy Relations and Their Inverse Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper consists of two main topics relating to the fuzzy logic and reasoning: fuzzy implication and its inverse problem. Firstly, the characteristic difference of various types of implication functions will be analyzed by introducing two new relations...

M. Togai P. P. Wang

1983-01-01

54

Smokers' knowledge about smoking-related health problems in Lebanon.  

PubMed

The relationship between smokers' knowledge about smoking related health problems and the motivation to quit smoking in a sample of Lebanese smokers was evaluated. The first group of smokers was composed of hospitalized subjects for a cardiologic or a respiratory health problem (n = 42). The second group was composed of smokers who have not suffered from any smoking-related health problem (n = 69). A positive correlation was found between the Richmond test score and the knowledge level about smoking related health problems (r = .302; p = .0013). PMID:24041132

Khalil, Rami Bou; Aoun-Bacha, Zeina; Hlais, Sani; Richa, Sami

2014-02-01

55

Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).  

PubMed

Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information. PMID:23605062

E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

1998-06-01

56

Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.  

PubMed

In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (? = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (? = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life. PMID:24431407

McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

2014-02-01

57

Open questions related to the problem of Birkhoff and Maltsev  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Birkhoff-Maltsev problem asks for a characterization of those lattices each of which is isomorphic to the lattice L(K) of all subquasivarieties for some quasiva- riety K of algebraic systems. The current status of this problem, which is still open, is discussed. Various unsolved questions that are related to the Birkhoff-Maltsev problem are also considered, including ones that stem from

M. E. Adams; Kira V. Adaricheva; Wieslaw Dziobiak; A. V. Kravchenko

2004-01-01

58

PRESERVICE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS' ABILITY TO SOLVE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to apply academic skills to agriculture is increasingly important. Even so, studies have shown that students and teachers of agricultural education lack competence in solving agriculture-related mathematics problems. The purpose of this correlational study was to explain variance in the mathematical problem-solving ability of preservice agricultural educators. Findings show a lack of competence in mathematical problem-solving among the

Greg Miller; Joe A. Gliem

59

A Gallery of Visualization DEMOS for Related Rate Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a gallery of demos for visualizing common related rate situations. These animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background relating to the steps for solving related problems. Two file formats, gif and mov are available.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2003-01-02

60

Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

2000-01-01

61

Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

2009-01-01

62

Inductive Influence of Related Quantitative and Conceptual Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses two questions: "Does conceptual understanding help students solve related quantitative problems?" and "Does working through a quantitative problem help students understand the concepts involved?" A class of approximately 100 students was split into two equally skillful groups, A and B. Group A was administered a tutorial…

Dukes, Phillip; Pritchard, David E.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

63

Heavy Metals: Identification of Air Quality and Environmental Problems in the European Community. Volume 1 and Volume 2,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the report is to identify air quality and other environmental problems related to the emission of heavy metals by man. It chiefly deals with the following problems, covering the territory of the European Communities: Heavy metals emissions in t...

E. Lahmann S. Munari V. Amicarelli P. Abbaticchio

1987-01-01

64

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual primarily provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the prevention and control of analytical procedures which arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. The sections dealing with inter- and intra-laboratory quality control, the evaluati...

65

Economic Considerations Relative to Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Resources Council states that benefits of water quality should be evaluated, but little progress has been made. Economists have contributed mostly to evaluation of water based recreation, which is only one of basic aspects. A recent report on th...

W. Whipple

1969-01-01

66

Addressing the wicked problem of quality in higher education: theoretical approaches and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed as a wicked, ill-defined problem that is

Kerri-Lee Krause

2012-01-01

67

Preventing alcohol-related problems through health policy research.  

PubMed

Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

Voas, Robert B; Fell, James C

2010-01-01

68

Mood-related sleep problems in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Sleep problems are an essential part of the current diagnostic criteria for depressive and bipolar disorders in children and adolescents. Whereas many studies have reported subjective sleep problems in youth with depression or bipolar disorder, except for reduced rapid eye movement latency associated with depression, few objective mood-related sleep abnormalities have been consistently identified. Recent technologic advances, such as spectral EEG and actigraphy, hold promise for revealing additional objective disturbances. There are presently few evidence-based published practice recommendations for mood-related sleep problems in youth. In this article, the authors chronologically review research on the phenomenology and treatment of sleep difficulties in youth with depressive and bipolar disorders and present research-based and clinically guided recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. PMID:19836695

Lofthouse, Nicholas; Gilchrist, Richard; Splaingard, Mark

2009-10-01

69

Parallel algorithms for planar graph isomorphism and related problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel algorithms for planar graph isomorphism and several related problems are presented. Two models of parallel computation are considered: the CREW-PRAM model and the two-dimensional array of processors. The results include O(?n)-time mesh algorithms for finding a good separating cycle and the triconnected components of a planar graph, and for solving the single-function coarsest partitioning problem

J. Jaja; S. R. Kosaraju

1988-01-01

70

Basic physical problems related to dry laser cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we discuss some problems, related to the particle on the surface, i.e. optical resonance and near-field effects in laser cleaning. Another problem is the dynamics of the particle in adhesion potential. It is shown that the particle performs oscillations, which can be in principal resonantly enhanced. The analysis of thermal deformation shows that 1D thermal expansion

Boris S. Luk; Yuan Wei Zheng; Yong Feng Lu

2002-01-01

71

Health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of health-related quality of life may be an adjunct to understanding the chronic illness experience and its effects on health outcomes. In this study, we evaluated health-related quality of life of 150 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (63 ulcerative colitis, 87 Crohn's disease). We used a standardized measure, the Sickness Impact Profile, and a questionnaire we developed that

Douglas A. Drossman; Donald L. Patrick; C. Madeline Mitchell; Edwina A. Zagami; Mark I. Appelbaum

1989-01-01

72

Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Ji?í; Hekelová, Edita

2012-12-01

73

Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

74

Spectral methods for numerical relativity: The initial data problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial differential equations of numerical relativity have traditionally been solved using a finite difference (FD) approximation. The accuracy of a FD solution increases as a fixed power of resolution while the computational resources required for the solution increase as the resolution raised to the (space + time) dimensionality of the problem. Modest accuracy solutions to problems involving either the initial conditions or the evolution of a dynamical black hole spacetime tax the capabilities of the computers presently available for the task, while the resources required for modest accuracy binary black hole problems are beyond what is presently available. For problems with smooth solutions alternatives to the FD approximation exist that may make more efficient use of the available computational resources. Here we investigate one of these techniques: the pseudo-spectral collocation (PSC) approximation. To determine its effectiveness relative to FD methods in solving problems in numerical relativity we use PSC to solve several two-dimensional problems that have been previously studied by other researchers using FD methods, focusing particularly on the computational resources required as a function of the desired solution accuracy. We find that PSC methods applied to these problems can achieve close to the theoretical limit of exponential convergence with problem resolution, while the computational resources required continue to scale only as the resolution raised to the problem dimensionality. Correspondingly, for solutions of even modest accuracy we find that PSC is substantially more efficient, as measured by either execution time or memory required, than FD; furthermore, these savings increase rapidly with increasing accuracy. We also discuss less quantitative but no less tangible advantages that the PSC approximation holds over the FD approximation. In particular, the solution provided by PSC is an analytic function given everywhere on the computational domain, not just at fixed grid points. Consequently, no ad hoc interpolation operators are required to determine field values at intermediate points or to evaluate the approximate solution or its derivatives on the boundaries. Since the practice of numerical relativity by finite differencing has been, and continues to be, hampered by both high computational resource demands and the difficulty of formulating acceptable finite difference alternatives to the analytic boundary conditions, we argue that PSC should be further pursued as an alternative way of formulating the computational problem of finding numerical solutions to the field equations of general relativity.

Kidder, Lawrence E.; Finn, Lee Samuel

2000-10-01

75

Oral health-related quality of life in Germany.  

PubMed

The prevalence of impaired oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Germany is unknown. The aim was to determine the OHRQoL distribution in the population and to derive population-based norms. OHRQoL was measured using the German version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-G, 53 items) which was administered in a personal interview to 2050 subjects (response proportion: 60%) 16-79 yr of age. Subjects were sampled using a multistage sampling technique in a national survey. Prevalence was calculated for any impairment on the item (OHIP answer categories ranging from 'hardly ever' to 'very often') and for frequent problems (categories 'fairly often' and 'very often'). Norms for the OHIP-G summary score (sum of all item responses in the English-language OHIP, range 0-196) were described by percentiles. Past-month prevalence of any impairment in OHRQoL ranged from 13% to 46% across all items. Frequent problems were rare (/= 5 OHIP-G score points and 10% had >/= 38 points. For subjects with removable dentures the scores were 15 and 60 points, respectively, and for subjects with complete dentures, 23 and 85 points, respectively. The results provide the first overview of impaired OHRQoL in Germany. PMID:14632684

John, Mike T; LeResche, Linda; Koepsell, Thomas D; Hujoel, Philippe; Miglioretti, Diana L; Micheelis, Wolfgang

2003-12-01

76

Institutional Problems of Water Quality Planning (Section 208) in Urbanizing Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional problems that occurred during development of areawide water quality management plans mandated by Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 were investigated. Definition of such problems included conflicts and ...

T. E. Smith B. Bruesch

1980-01-01

77

Modifications of bundles, elliptic integrable systems, and related problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a construction of elliptic integrable systems based on bundles with nontrivial characteristic classes, especially attending to the bundle-modification procedure, which relates models corresponding to different characteristic classes. We discuss applications and related problems such as the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equations, classical and quantum R-matrices, monopoles, spectral duality, Painlevé equations, and the classical-quantum correspondence. For an SL(N,?)-bundle on an elliptic curve with nontrivial characteristic classes, we obtain equations of isomonodromy deformations.

Zotov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

2013-10-01

78

Quality Control in Title I Evaluation: Problems and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational program evalaution is subject to many difficulties. Problems with evaluation include such conceptual problems as: (1) understanding of decisions to be made; (2) adequate definition; (3) consensus on values and criteria; (4) coordination among administrative levels; and (5) use of an appropriate evaluation model. Technical problems

Hansen, Joe B.

79

The input\\/output complexity of sorting and related problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide tight upper and lower bounds, up to a constant factor, for the number of inputs and outputs (I\\/OS) between internal memory and secondary storage required for five sorting-related problems: sorting, the fast Fourier transform (FFT), permutation networks, permuting, and matrix transposition. The bounds hold both in the worst case and in the average case, and in several situations

Alok Aggarwal; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1988-01-01

80

Solving Drug-Related Problems in the Professional Experience Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness of using the Pharmacist's Work-up of Drug Therapy (PWDT) in teaching 91 pharmacy students in a clinical clerkship program to identify and solve drug-related problems. Because the instructional technique was recently implemented, the study looked at effects of 3 different quantities of training (0, 1, and 3…

Kane, Michael P.; And Others

1993-01-01

81

Problems Associated with Relating Normative and Skill Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How to describe the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) Placement Tests to the non-IPI community; how to assess student performance over a period of time, and what information can be obtained relative to the IPI curriculum: such are the concerns of this study. A possible solution to the first problem is to describe the IPI Placement Test…

Temkin, Sanford

82

GEE-WIS Anchored Problem Solving Using Real-Time Authentic Water Quality Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEE-WIS scientific problem solving consists of observing, hypothesizing, synthesis, argument building and reasoning, in the context of analysis, representation, modeling and sense-making of real-time authentic water quality data. Geoscience Environmental Education - Web-accessible Instrumented Systems, or GEE-WIS, an NSF Geoscience Education grant, has established a set of companion websites that stream real-time data from two campus retention ponds for research and use in secondary and undergraduate water quality lessons. We have targeted scientific problem solving skills because of the nature of the GEE-WIS environment, but further because they are central to state and federal efforts to establish science education curriculum standards and are at the core of performance-based testing. We have used a design experiment process to create and test two Anchored Instruction scenario problems. Customization such as that done through a design process, is acknowledged to be a fundamental component of educational research from an ecological psychology perspective. Our efforts have shared core design elements with other NSF water quality projects. Our method involves the analysis of student written scenario responses for level of scientific problem solving using a qualitative scoring rubric designed from participation in a related NSF project, SCALE (Synergy Communities: Aggregating Learning about Education). Student solutions of GEE-WIS anchor problems from Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 will be summarized. Implications are drawn for those interested in making secondary and high education geoscience more realistic and more motivating for students through the use of real-time authentic data via Internet.

Young, M.; Wlodarczyk, M. S.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

2002-05-01

83

Relational Control and Relationship Quality in Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Certain interactional theorists propose that for counseling/psychotherapy to be effective, the therapist must control the definition of the therapy relationship. Although the relationship between patterns of relational dominance/control in counseling and counseling outcome seems reasonably well established, little is known of the relationship…

Lichtenberg, James W.; And Others

84

Problems of quality control in constructing earth dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion 1.Current methods of conducting geotechnical control when constructing high earth dams do not have effective criteria for evaluating the technology and therefore they cannot provide real quality control of dam construction.2.A system of controlling the quality of constructing earth dams with the use of the technology safety factor analogous to the soil safety factor, realizing feedback of geotechnical control

A. G. Chernilov

1987-01-01

85

Content Quality Assessment Related Frameworks for Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of content quality (CQ) in social media adds a layer of complexity over traditional information quality assessment\\u000a frameworks. Challenges arise in accurately evaluating the quality of content that has been created by users from different\\u000a backgrounds, for different domains and consumed by users with different requirements. This paper presents a comprehensive\\u000a review of 19 existing CQ assessment related

Kevin Chai; Vidyasagar Potdar; Tharam S. Dillon

2009-01-01

86

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

87

[Breathing-related nursing care problems--a descriptive study].  

PubMed

Research into nursing problems related to breathing that can occur by pulmonary patients and their relationship with literature on Nursing Diagnoses (further referred to as diagnoses) on this subject has been done on two nursing wards. Interviews have been held with eleven nurses working in direct patient care. From the acquired data twelve problems with their signs and symptoms as well as the possible etiology were found, each showing one or more similarities with diagnoses from the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). Similarities and differences between the NANDA diagnoses and the acquired data have been analysed. PMID:9397927

Kleve, G R; Pranger, A; Visser, L; Wieringa, M R

1997-02-01

88

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

89

RELATING AIR CLEANER EFFICIENCY TO INDOOR AIR QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of a single-story office building, relating air cleaner efficiency to indoor air quality. redicting the improvement in indoor air quality due to in-duct air cleaners is an important aspect of ventilation system design. he effects of percentage o...

90

Development of a Mathematical Model for Process with S-Type Quality Characteristics to a Quality Selection Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality selection problem generally identifies the process parameters, such as the initial process means of a production\\u000a process. The joint determination of the initial process means and the production run has been reported in the literature.\\u000a Most of these studies considered a process with multiple independent nominalthe- better types of quality characteristics.\\u000a In a real industrial situation, the quality

K. Tahera; R. N. Ibrahim; P. B. Lochert

91

Climate change induced risk in water quality control problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA modeling framework is presented in this paper, integrating hydrologic scenarios projected from a General Circulation Model (GCM) with a water quality simulation model to quantify the future expected risk. Statistical downscaling with a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is carried out to develop the future scenarios of hydro-climate variables starting with simulations provided by a GCM. A Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) is used to quantify the risk of Low Water Quality (LWQ) corresponding to a threshold quality level, by considering the streamflow and water temperature as explanatory variables. An Imprecise Fuzzy Waste Load Allocation Model (IFWLAM) presented in an earlier study is then used to develop adaptive policies to address the projected water quality risks. Application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated with the case study of Tunga-Bhadra river in India. The results showed that the projected changes in the hydro-climate variables tend to diminish DO levels, thus increasing the future risk levels of LWQ.

Rehana, S.; Mujumdar, P. P.

2012-06-01

92

INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

93

Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were

W. Cockerill; M. Lunt; A. J. Silman; C. Cooper; P. Lips; A. K. Bhalla; J. B. Cannata; R. Eastell; D. Felsenberg; C. Gennari; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; C. Kiss; P. Masaryk; M. Naves; G. Poor; H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; J. Reeve; J. Stepan; C. Todd; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2004-01-01

94

Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

Krause, Kerri-Lee

2012-01-01

95

Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers.

Hughes, Tonda

2012-01-01

96

Quality Control and Flux Sampling Problems for Tower and Aircraft Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of automated tests is developed for tower and aircraft time series to identify instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and physically plausible but unusual situations. The automated procedures serve as a safety net for quality controlling data. A number of special flags are developed representing a variety of potential problems such as inconsistencies between different tower levels and the

Dean Vickers; L. Mahrt

1997-01-01

97

Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the (summary) scale scores were adequate representations of the information obtained by the individual items. The DIF analyses identified a number of cases of DIF, which, among other things, contributed to detection of possible problems in the HAD Scale. It was concluded that DIF analyses are relevant when important analyses based on multi-item scales are made. A new way to evaluate the validity of questionnaires was developed. The results from questionnaires completed by patients were compared against results from open ended interviews with the same patients rated by observers. The idea was that if results were similar, the patients had then probably understood and completed the questionnaire items as intended. On the other hand, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires and interviews was excellent, indicating very good validity. The median weighted kappa for the EORTC QLQ-C30 was 0.85 (range 0.49-1.00); it was 0.79 (range 0.65-0.95) for the HAD Scale, and 0.92 (range 0.51-1.00) for the DBCG 89 Questionnaire. However, the study identified a mechanism called selective reporting, which may affect results from most HRQL questionnaires: in order to provide correct and useful answers some patients do not report symptoms they believe are irrelevant to the study, e.g., symptoms unrelated to cancer. This mechanism may lead to bias if results from patients are compared to results from populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conduc

Groenvold, Mogens

2010-09-01

98

Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2011-01-01

99

A School Quality Planning and Evaluation Tool: Science, Mathematics, and Related Technologies Quality Measurement (SMARTQM).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to discover the efficacy of the Science, Mathematics, and Related Technologies Quality Measurement (SMARTQM) as a measure of total school quality and to determine the usefulness of this instrument in predicting school performance through self-reported student achievement. SMARTQM is an integrated data collection and…

Daly, Brian E.

100

Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

1972-01-01

101

The quality of water: problems, identification, and improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next two or three decades, water problems in the United States, particularly in the western region, may well constitute a greater crisis than does energy today.' The major difference between the water and energy crises is that there are no known physical substitutes for water in satisfying direct demands by people, but there are many known substitutes for

John F. Timmons

1979-01-01

102

Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists  

PubMed Central

Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1–28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction.

Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schroder, Annette

2012-01-01

103

Health-related quality of life among adults with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has significant effects on quality of life; however, the interrelationships are complex among the physiologic and\\u000a psychosocial effects of diabetes, the effects of treatment regimens, and the social and cultural contexts in which we live.\\u000a These important relationships and effects are being defined, but much additional work is needed to reliably and accurately\\u000a measure health-related quality of life among

Susan L. Norris

2005-01-01

104

Quality of Life in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems: An Explorative Study  

PubMed Central

The field of intellectual disability (ID) is strongly influenced by the Quality of Life paradigm (QOL). We aimed at investigating whether or not the QOL paradigm also applies to clients with ID and cooccurring mental health problems. This paper aims at stimulating a debate on this topic, by investigating whether or not QOL domains are universal. Focus groups with natural and professional network members were organized to gather qualitative data, in order to answer two questions: (1) Are the QOL dimensions conceptualized in the model of Schalock et al. applicable for persons with ID and mental health problems? (2) What are indicators relating to the above-mentioned dimensions in relation to persons with ID and mental health problems? The results offer some proof for the assumption that the QOL construct seems to have universal properties. With regard to the second question, the study revealed that the natural and professional network members are challenged to look for the most appropriate support strategies, taking specific indicators of QOL into account. When aspects of empowerment and regulation are used in an integrated manner, the application of the QOL paradigm could lead to positive outcomes concerning self-determination, interdependence, social inclusion, and emotional development.

Morisse, Filip; Vandemaele, Eleonore; Claes, Claudia; Claes, Lien; Vandevelde, Stijn

2013-01-01

105

Health-related quality of life following podiatric surgery.  

PubMed

This 6-month prospective study investigated the outcomes of foot surgery performed by Fellows of the Australian College of Podiatric Surgeons. The study recruited 140 patients who were treated for orthopedic, neurological, or integumentary diseases of the foot. The majority of subjects who underwent podiatric surgery experienced significant postoperative improvements in a range of health-related quality-of-life dimensions as measured by the disease-specific Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Subjects reported a reduction in foot pain, increased levels of physical function, improved general foot health perception, and improved footwear-related quality of life. No significant adverse outcomes or unplanned re-admissions to the hospital were reported. This study demonstrates the advantage of assessing health-related quality of life as opposed to patient satisfaction. PMID:11319246

Bennett, P J; Patterson, C; Dunne, M P

2001-04-01

106

The relative degree enhancement problem for MIMO nonlinear systems  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a result for linearizing a nonlinear MIMO system by employing partial feedback - feedback at all but one input-output channel such that the SISO feedback linearization problem is solvable at the remaining input-output channel. The partial feedback effectively enhances the relative degree at the open input-output channel provided the feedback functions are chosen to satisfy relative degree requirements. The method is useful for nonlinear systems that are not feedback linearizable in a MIMO sense. Several examples are presented to show how these feedback functions can be computed. This strategy can be combined with decentralized observers for a completely decentralized feedback linearization result for at least one input-output channel.

Schoenwald, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Oezguener, Ue. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-07-01

107

The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

2011-01-01

108

Evaluating Quality Management of Acute Low Back Problems Provided by Air Force Nurse Practitioners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Providing appropriate quality health care is essential to the management of patients with acute low back problems (ALBP). In 1994, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) published clinical guidelines to assist health care providers when ma...

L. A. Tomlonson

1999-01-01

109

Negative affectivity and educational attainment as predictors of newlyweds' problem solving communication and marital quality.  

PubMed

This investigation examines the role of negative affectivity and educational attainment in newlywed couples' mutual problem solving and marital quality (i.e., personal commitment and divorce proneness). The vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model of marital development was used as a framework to explain the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities, adaptive processes, and marital quality. Dyadic analyses and tests of indirect effects were performed on data from 186 couples who had been married on average for 1.5 years. Spouses' negative affectivity and educational attainment were significantly associated with their own and their partner's mutual problem solving, personal commitment, and propensity to divorce. In addition, there was evidence supporting the assumption that the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities and marital quality can be explained, in part, by mutual problem solving for husbands. This study highlights the important role that enduring vulnerabilities have on mutual problem solving communication and marital quality. PMID:23472443

Woszidlo, Alesia; Segrin, Chris

2013-01-01

110

Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

Rebello, Carina M.

111

Differential susceptibility effects: the interaction of negative emotionality and sibling relationship quality on childhood internalizing problems and social skills.  

PubMed

Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory. PMID:22366882

Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Olino, Thomas M

2012-08-01

112

Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.…

Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

2011-01-01

113

Temperament in Context: Infant Temperament Moderates the Relationship between Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were…

Colder, Craig R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Fite, Paula J.; Mott, Joshua A.; Bush, Nicole R.

2006-01-01

114

A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ?CDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, ?, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big Bang singularity, to appeal to the need for a quantum theory of gravity. This thesis takes a very different approach to the problem, in hypothesising that, because our physical model really does appear to do a very good job of describing the observed cosmic expansion rate, and all the data indicate that our Universe might well expand precisely according to the flat ?CDM scale-factor, it may not be the model, but our basic expectations that need to be modified in order to derive a physical theory that stands in reasonable agreement with the empirical results; i.e., that it may actually be that we need to re-examine, and rationally modify our expectations of what should theoretically be, so that we might derive a theory to explain the empirical results of cosmology, which would be based solely on reasonably acceptable first principles. Therefore, a self-consistent theory is constructed here, upon re-consideration of the cosmological foundations of relativity theory, which eventually does afford an explanation of the cosmological problem, as it provides good reason to actually expect observations in the fundamental rest-frame to be described precisely by the flat ?CDM scale-factor which has been empirically constrained.

Janzen, Daryl

115

Supervisor Verbal Style as Related to the Quality of Interpersonal Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was the purpose of this study to establish whether or not supervisor verbal style was related to teacher perceptions of the quality of their interpersonal relationships with their supervisor. More specifically, the hypothesis was that indirect supervisor styles will result in higher quality interpersonal relationships with respect to the…

Cryan, John R.

116

Conceptual issues specifically related to health-related quality of life in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years increasing attention has been given to the quality of survival in critical care. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue both for patients and their families. Furthermore, admission to the intensive care unit can have adverse psychological effects in critically ill patients. Recent studies conducted in critically ill patients have measured HRQOL. However, usually absent

José GM Hofhuis; Henk F van Stel; Augustinus JP Schrijvers; Johannes H Rommes; Jan Bakker; Peter E Spronk

2009-01-01

117

Hybrid Probabilistic Relational Models for System Quality Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formalism Probabilistic Relational Models (PRM) couples discrete Bayesian Networks with a modeling formalism similar to UML class diagrams and has been used for architecture analysis. PRMs are well-suited to perform architecture analysis with respect to system qualities since they support both modeling and analysis within the same formalism. A particular strength of PRMs is the ability to perform meaningful

Per Närman; Markus Buschle; Johan König; Pontus Johnson

2010-01-01

118

A survey on tree edit distance and related problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the problem of comparing labeled trees based on simple local operations of deleting, inserting, and relabeling nodes. These op- erations lead to the tree edit distance, alignment distance, and inclusion problem. For each problem we review the results available and present, in detail, one or more of the central algorithms for solving the problem.

Philip Bille

2005-01-01

119

Quantum Algorithms for Graph Traversals and Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the complexity of algorithms for graph traver- sal problems on quantum computers. More precisely, we look at eule- rian tours, hamiltonian tours, travelling salesman problem and project scheduling. We present quantum algorithms and quantum lower bounds for these problems. Our results improve the best classical algorithms for the corresponding problems. In particular, we prove that the quantum algorithms

Sebastian Dorn

120

Relating Software Requirements and Architectures Using Problem Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem frames provide a means of analyzing and de- composing problems. They emphasise the world outside of the computer, helping the developer to focus on the problem domain, instead of drifting into inventing solutions. However, even modestly complex problems can force us into detailed consideration of the architecture of the solu- tion. This is counter to the intention of the

Jon G. Hall; Michael Jackson; Robin C. Laney; Bashar Nuseibeh; Lucia Rapanotti

2002-01-01

121

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

122

Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

2007-01-01

123

Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people.

Hingson, Ralph W.

2010-01-01

124

Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 203 adolescents with cerebral palsy (111 males, 92 females; mean age 16y [SD 1y 9mo]). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), as Level I (n=60), Level II (n=33), Level III (n=28), Level IV (n=50), or Level V…

Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Livingston, Michael H.; Palisano, Robert J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

2007-01-01

125

Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related

Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

2009-01-01

126

Asymmetry in Keratoconus and Vision-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relation of increased ocular asymmetry over time on vision-related quality of life in keratoconus. Methods Subjects were in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study and had complete data on a least one scale of the NEI VFQ and examination data at baseline and at least one follow-up visit. Three measures of disease asymmetry (visual acuity, corneal curvature, and refractive error) and better eye status were assessed. Multilevel models were fit to the data. Results Analyses were completed using 961 subjects. Six scales on the NEI VFQ had adequate variability to model (distance activity, driving, mental health, near activity, ocular pain, and role difficulties). Refractive error changes were not associated with statistically significant quality of life differences. Except for ocular pain, statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences were found for visual acuity changes and corneal curvature changes. For a 0.1-unit logMAR visual acuity change, the quality of life scales decreased between 0.20 and 0.99 units. For a 1.00-D steepening of corneal curvature these decreases were on the order of 0.20 to 0.59 units. Changes related to asymmetry were small as well: decreases on the order of 0.20 to 0.38 units. Conclusions Increasing ocular asymmetry and decreases in visual acuity and corneal steepening in the better eye were associated with decreasing vision-related quality of life, though the magnitudes of the changes were not clinically meaningful. Of these two disease status indicators, the vision in the better eye had greater effect on vision-related quality of life.

Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Walline, Jeffrey J.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Kymes, Steven M.; Zadnik, Karla

2012-01-01

127

Treatment for alcohol-related problems: special populations: research opportunities.  

PubMed

For the subgroups indicated, a few questions/issues are relevant to all three (women, elderly, minorities): 1. Heterogeneity of the special populations, for example, Hispanic-Americans are from different countries with different cultures. Women and the elderly vary by age, education, income, social class, health status, etc., to say nothing of ethnicity/color/religion. 2. Of therapy modalities, professional and indigenous, which are more efficacious? 3. Are group-specific therapies needed, or will sensitivity to a particular group work as well? WOMEN: Stereotypes and myths have prevailed, for example, the long-standing belief that women have poorer prognoses than male alcoholics. When female and male alcoholics are compared, women report more positive family history, a later onset of drinking and problems, more marital disruption, more comorbidity, etc. The review of treatment outcomes (Vannicelli, 1986) showed few significant gender differences in outcomes. Research recommendations include biological and genetic studies, women's view of and use of therapeutic modalities, and outcome studies of different modalities, including all female facilities. ELDERLY: Medications are used more by older patients, and such patients are more likely to experience adverse drug reactions. In the moderate social use of alcohol, there are conflicting reports and the extent of elderly use awaits decisive study. The etiology of problem drinking by older persons is studied rarely. An attempt has been made to explain onset later in life (vs. earlier onset) based on the stresses of aging (loss, loneliness, health problems, etc.); research results have not been supportive. Consequences of older persons' heavy drinking seems to be most often alcohol-related medical disorders, although there are often familial and social consequences. Atkinson (1995) recommended the development of elder-specific outcome measures, study of the efficacy of different treatment modalities, and study of the efficacy of treatment for patients in elder-specific and mixed age groups, etc. MINORITIES: Each of the federally mandated minority groups in the United States is heterogeneous. The epidemiology of use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs is well studied, but treatment issues are not. AMERICAN INDIANS: There are more than 200 tribes; each has its own customs and culture. Some tribes are abstinent; others have big problems with abuse of alcohol, and other drugs. Orthodox treatment methods, used by professional counselors and therapists, have not worked very well. Recommendation: study of traditional Indian forms of healing practices combined with other treatment; this would be a culture-sensitive model. BLACK AMERICANS: This includes not only African-Americans but people from the Caribbean, Central and South America, etc. Among African-Americans, there is a history of ambivalence toward alcohol: on the one hand, a tolerant "nightclub culture" and on the other, church beliefs in temperance and abstinence. There is "respectable drinking" and "problem drinking," most often defined as solitary or public drinking. The primary source of support is considered familial, so people tend to be distrustful of therapy from "strangers." They are anonymous in promoting sobriety and study of subcultural norms and the history of slavery. Earlier ethnographic works (Liebow, 1967) were of "street-corner men," slum dwellers, ghetto norms; recommended: studies of middle-class African-American life and drinking behaviors. ASIAN-AMERICANS: A study in Los Angeles reports differences among Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Koreans in drinking beliefs and behavior. Of these groups, the Japanese in Japan and the Japanese-Americans report the largest number of heavy drinkers. It is, however, considered a private matter, even when associated with social problems. Interestingly, there is an organization called the All Nippon Sobriety Association (like Alcoholics Anonymous). Recommendations: studies of generational differences among Japanese-Americ

Gomberg, Edith S Lisansky

2003-01-01

128

Laser beam-quality/aperture-shape scaling relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many high-energy lasers (HELs) have noncircular output apertures. Some are rectangular in shape with or without a central or noncentral (up to 30 percent) obscuration. However, most high-energy laser propagation codes (especially those developed for systems analysis) model the aperture as either an unobscured circle or as a circle with fixed (e.g., 10 percent) obscuration. A beam-quality/aperture-shape scaling relation is presented which can be useful when applying these codes to realistic designs for HELs. The analysis also yields a generalized formula for angular size of the Airy disk and definitions of a characteristic aperture length and aperture quality.

Rockower, E. B.

1986-05-01

129

Laser beam-quality/aperture-shape scaling relation  

SciTech Connect

Many high-energy lasers (HELs) have noncircular output apertures. Some are rectangular in shape with or without a central or noncentral (up to 30%) obscuration. However, most high-energy laser propagation codes (especially those developed for systems analysis) model the aperture as either an unobscured circle or as a circle with fixed (e.g., 10%) obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture-shape scaling relation which can be useful when applying these codes to realistic designs for HELs. our analysis also yields a generalized formula for angular size of the Airy disk and definitions of a characteristic aperture length and aperture quality.

Rockower, E.B.

1986-05-01

130

Evaluation of quality of life related to nutritional status.  

PubMed

The way in which the quality of life related to health (HRQoL) is affected by the nutritional status of the patient is a subject of constant interest and permanent debate. The purpose of the present paper is to review those studies that relate HRQoL to nutritional status and examine the tools (questionnaires) that they use to investigate this relationship. A critical review of published studies was carried out via an investigation of the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed); EMBASE; The Cochrane Library; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Spanish Health Sciences Bibliographic Index (IBECS). The search was carried out from the earliest date possible until July 2007.The medical subject heading terms used were 'quality of life', 'nutritional status' and 'questionnaires'. The articles had to contain at least one questionnaire that evaluated quality of life. Twenty-eight documents fulfilling the inclusion criteria were accepted, although none of them used a specific questionnaire to evaluate HRQoL related to nutritional status. However, some of them used a combination of generic questionnaires with the intention of evaluating the same. Only three studies selectively addressed the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life, this evaluation being performed not by means of specific questionnaires but by statistical analysis of data obtained via validated questionnaires. PMID:19183508

Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Castelló-Botia, Isabel; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio

2009-04-01

131

Hereditary influences in relation to the problem of child adoption.  

PubMed

There is little exact information on the hereditary influences which are of greatest interest from the social and educational points of view. Many genes are involved in the origins of socially significant traits and there are usually many steps in the causal chain linking gene to trait. The value of genetical judgements is thus limited; they cannot be substituted for facts ascertained about the physical and mental state of the child itself at the time of adoption. Information on the family occurrence of recessive autosomal or sex-linked traits may be used for predicting the likelihood of the onset of diseases later on in life. The knowledge that a rare dominant abnormality is present in a close relative is especially important if the close relative is the subject's own parent. But most genetical problems in adoption cases concern graded characters, and here prediction can only be very tentative. A definite degree of likeness obtains within families for graded characters, but the genetical divergence may be considerable, and it can be accentuated by environment. PMID:13106706

PENROSE, L S

1953-01-01

132

Hereditary influences in relation to the problem of child adoption*  

PubMed Central

There is little exact information on the hereditary influences which are of greatest interest from the social and educational points of view. Many genes are involved in the origins of socially significant traits and there are usually many steps in the causal chain linking gene to trait. The value of genetical judgements is thus limited; they cannot be substituted for facts ascertained about the physical and mental state of the child itself at the time of adoption. Information on the family occurrence of recessive autosomal or sex-linked traits may be used for predicting the likelihood of the onset of diseases later on in life. The knowledge that a rare dominant abnormality is present in a close relative is especially important if the close relative is the subject's own parent. But most genetical problems in adoption cases concern graded characters, and here prediction can only be very tentative. A definite degree of likeness obtains within families for graded characters, but the genetical divergence may be considerable, and it can be accentuated by environment.

Penrose, L. S.

1953-01-01

133

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research  

SciTech Connect

In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

Bayer, C.W.

2001-02-22

134

The problem of instincts and its relation to social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever the study of a scientific problem is vigorously pursued, misunderstandings of various sorts almost inevitably appear. The problem of instincts, displaying as it does, a veritable babel of misconstructions, is no exception to the general rule. Apparently such opposing interpretations arise because of the different cultural backgrounds of writers and their specific interests in the problem studied. Because the

J. R. Kantor

1923-01-01

135

Relations between sleep, fatigue and health-related quality of life in individuals with insomnia  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explored the relations between sleep, fatigue and health-related quality of life in a sample of individuals with chronic insomnia. Methods A total of 160 adults meeting diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia underwent three nights of polysomnography (PSG) and completed sleep diaries and questionnaires assessing daytime functioning including fatigue and health-related quality of life. Results A cluster analysis was conducted based on PSG-defined sleep disturbances and fatigue severity. A four-cluster solution (R2 = 0.68) was found, classifying individuals as having either (a) both severe sleep disturbance and severe fatigue (n = 15); (b) severe sleep disturbance but milder fatigue (n = 15); (c) milder sleep disturbance but severe fatigue (n = 68) or (d) both milder sleep disturbance and milder fatigue (n = 61). Health-related quality of life was lower in both clusters with severe fatigue compared to those with milder fatigue, and was further decreased when severe sleep disturbances were present. Relations between several indicators of fatigue and health-related quality of life were then examined using factor analysis in order to identify different domains of impairment. A three-factor structure was selected, suggesting that daytime symptoms can be classified as relating to fatigue, physical health, or mental health. These different subtypes of daytime impairment were predicted by distinct sets of variables. Conclusion More severe fatigue is not necessarily related to poorer PSG-defined sleep but appears associated with greater impairment in health-related quality of life. Fatigue and health-related quality of life appear to be distinct but interrelated constructs.

Fortier-Brochu, Emilie; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M.

2010-01-01

136

IMPACT OF POST-POLIO-RELATED FATIGUE ON QUALITY OF LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the impact of post-polio-related fatigue on quality of life. Design: Cross-sectional case control study. Subjects: Patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue were selected from among 82 polio survivors. Twenty-six patients with post-polio syndrome and 10 without post-polio syndrome were included. Control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. Methods: We assessed presence and severity of

Arzu Yagiz On; Julide Oncu; Funda Atamaz; Berrin Durmaz

2006-01-01

137

Dimensions of oral health related quality of life measured by EQ-5D+ and OHIP-14  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to compare the dimensions of oral-health-related quality-of-life measured by a generic health state measure, the EuroQol, and a specific oral health measure, the Oral Health Impact Profile. METHODS: Data were collected in 2001–02 from a random sample of South Australian dentists using mailed self-complete questionnaires. Dentists recorded the diagnosis of dental problems and

David S Brennan; A John Spencer

2004-01-01

138

Solving engineering problems with PC-based relational databases  

SciTech Connect

Information management and instant access to information is increasingly important in the day-to-day operation of oil and gas fields, ant the data are only as valuable as the ability to use them to solve problems. This paper presents an example of a project-driven approach to engineering information management of large engineering projects, such as integrated reservoir studies. By project-driven, the authors mean that the design and content of the database are project-specific and custom-built to fit the needs of the project. This approach has the advantage of addressing the specific requirements of a particular project and providing the end users of that database with a customized interface to access the data. The authors used a PC-based relational database from existing engineering data as part of a larger integrated study. The data were originally in a variety of formats. The RDBMS allowed the authors to construct rapidly a database specific to the needs of the project. The database includes forms and reports for data entry and review and graphics for displaying data. In addition, the database is very flexible, allowing changes to be made quickly and easily as the project progresses or if the objectives of the project change along the way. Finally, the database can import a wide variety of raw-data formats and export data to other engineering analysis applications.

Bastian, P.A.; Pietsch, C.L. Voneiff, G.W. [S.A. Holditch and Associates, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)

1997-10-01

139

Health-Related Quality of Life Varies among Obese Subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of overweight\\/obese individuals from different subgroups that vary in treatment-seeking status and treatment intensity.Research Methods and Procedures: Participants were from five distinct groups, representing a continuum of treatment intensity: overweight\\/obese community volunteers who were not enrolled in weight-loss treatment, clinical trial participants, outpatient weight-loss program\\/studies participants, participants in a day treatment

Ronette L. Kolotkin; Ross D. Crosby; G. Rhys Williams

2002-01-01

140

Dimensions of Oral-health-related Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is expected to have multiple dimensions. It was the aim of this study to investigate the dimensional structure of OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (German version) (OHIP-G) and to derive a summary score for the instrument. Subjects (N = 2050; age, 16–79 yrs) came from a national survey. We used rotated principal-components

M. T. John; P. Hujoel; D. L. Miglioretti; L. LeResche; T. D. Koepsell; W. Micheelis

2004-01-01

141

42 CFR 425.504 - Incorporating reporting requirements related to the Physician Quality Reporting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reporting requirements related to the Physician Quality Reporting System. 425.504 Section... MEDICARE SHARED SAVINGS PROGRAM Quality Performance Standards and Reporting ...reporting requirements related to the Physician Quality Reporting System. (a) Physician...

2013-10-01

142

Benchmarking Strategies for Measuring the Quality of Healthcare: Problems and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Over the last few years, increasing attention has been directed toward the problems inherent to measuring the quality of healthcare and implementing benchmarking strategies. Besides offering accreditation and certification processes, recent approaches measure the performance of healthcare institutions in order to evaluate their effectiveness, defined as the capacity to provide treatment that modifies and improves the patient's state of health. This paper, dealing with hospital effectiveness, focuses on research methods for effectiveness analyses within a strategy comparing different healthcare institutions. The paper, after having introduced readers to the principle debates on benchmarking strategies, which depend on the perspective and type of indicators used, focuses on the methodological problems related to performing consistent benchmarking analyses. Particularly, statistical methods suitable for controlling case-mix, analyzing aggregate data, rare events, and continuous outcomes measured with error are examined. Specific challenges of benchmarking strategies, such as the risk of risk adjustment (case-mix fallacy, underreporting, risk of comparing noncomparable hospitals), selection bias, and possible strategies for the development of consistent benchmarking analyses, are discussed. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of the illustrated benchmarking strategies, an application focused on determining regional benchmarks for patient satisfaction (using 2009 Lombardy Region Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) is proposed.

Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio

2012-01-01

143

HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms  

PubMed Central

Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

2009-01-01

144

A quantitative approach to the traffic air quality problem: the Traffic Air Quality index.  

PubMed

The Traffic Air Quality (TAQ) model is a simple tool to estimate traffic fine particulate emissions on roadways (g/km) and can be used for both real-time analysis and for localized conformity analysis ("hot-spot" analysis for nonattainment areas) as defined by 40 CFR 93.123. This paper is a follow-up to a study published earlier regarding the development of the TAQ model. This paper shows how local air quality levels can be a factor in traffic management in nonattainment areas. Similar to the industrial source quotas measured in tons per year, it is proposed that road segments are to be assigned emission quotas (or TAQ indices) measured in pollutant mass emitted per road length (g/km) above which traffic-measures have to be taken to reduce the fine-particulates emissions on such road links. The TAQ model as well as traffic-rerouting measures along with the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) protocols can be used to have a real-time control of the traffic conditions along expressways to maintain the fine-particulates emissions below the quota assigned per road link and consequently improving the over all local air quality in nonattainment areas. PMID:18512441

Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B

2008-05-01

145

Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

Freund, Roland

1989-01-01

146

Inductive Influence of Related Quantitative and Conceptual Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, the authors' assert that physics education research shows that conceptual understanding is not necessary for students to do well on standard quantitative problems in introductory physics. The specific question the research asks is "Is conceptual understanding sufficient or helpful for students to do well in quantitative problems?"

Dukes, Phillip; Pritchard, David E.

2010-08-04

147

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

2012-01-01

148

Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

Herd, Denise

2010-01-01

149

The Shapes of Galaxy Clusters and Related Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmological many body problem describes the gravitational clustering of galaxies in the universe. These galaxies cluster about each other to produce some of the largest structures in the universe. These structures are modeled by the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution (GQED). The GQED is a fairly robust and simple theory based on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics that, in its simplest form, describes galaxies as point masses of equal mass. We show that more realistic descriptions of the universe only introduce higher order corrections to the theory, and the simple description is sufficient to model most cases of galaxy clustering. To demonstrate this, we use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to show that the observed counts-in-cells distribution of galaxies in the universe follows the GQED. Using the GQED, we develop a theory to study the structure of clusters and groups of galaxies, relating the internal structure of a cluster to the large scale structure of the universe. This theory describes the probability that the galaxies in a region of space have a given kinetic and correlation potential energy. These energies are closely related to the 6-dimensional phase space configuration and thus the shape and structure of a cluster of galaxies. This theory suggests that clusters of galaxies with more than 10 members are very likely to be bound and virialized on average, but may also contain substructure in the form of smaller subclusters that cluster about each other. These subclusters may be the cores of smaller clusters that have merged, which means that the merger history of a cluster may be an important factor that determines its internal structure. Because the full 6-dimensional phase space configuration of a cluster of galaxies cannot be observed, direct comparisons with observations are not possible. Instead, we attempt to model the unobservable dimensions and show that on a statistical basis, the kinetic energies of clusters in the SDSS agrees with theory. However, we also find that the correlation potential energies of cells have additional uncertainties caused by merging galaxies that require more detailed models to resolve.

Yang, Abel Jiahui

2012-05-01

150

An isospectral problem related to the Dirichlet eigenvalues and the Neumann eigenvalues of a string equation and some related problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let p(x) be a positive continuous function defined in [0, 1] with ?10p(t) dt = 1. Denote Sp(x) = ?1xp(t) dt. We prove that the string equation, with the density function p(x), satisfies the Dirichlet-Neumann (DN)-isospectral property if and only if the function Sp satisfies the relation Sp(Sp(x)) = x for every x in [0, 1]. Applying this result, with the help of a technique developed by Kac and Kre\\v{\\i} n for transforming a potential equation into a string equation, we investigate the DN-isospectral problem for the potential equation with a continuous potential function defined in [0, 1]. We prove among others that a potential equation, with a continuous potential function q, satisfies the condition ?0(q) = 0 and the DN-isospectral property if and only if q(x) = (f'(x))2 + f''(x), x in [0, 1], where f(x) is a periodic C2-function of period 2, whose Fourier series expansion is of the form ??m = 0a2m + 1cos (2m + 1)?x.

Shen, Chao-Liang

2011-07-01

151

Modeling and efficient optimization for object-based scalability and some related problems.  

PubMed

MPEG-4 is the first visual coding standard that allows coding of scenes as a collection of individual audio-visual objects. We present mathematical formulations for modeling object-based scalability and some functionalities that it brings with it. Our goal is to study algorithms that aid in semi-automating the authoring and subsequent selective addition/dropping of objects from a scene to provide content scalability. We start with a simplistic model for object-based scalability using the "knapsack problem"--a problem for which the optimal object set can be found using known schemes such as dynamic programming, the branch and bound method and approximation algorithms. The above formulation is then generalized to model authoring or multiplexing of scalable objects (e.g., objects encoded at various target bit-rates) using the "multiple choice knapsack problem." We relate this model to several problems that arise in video coding, the most prominent of these being the bit allocation problem. Unlike previous approaches to solve the operational bit allocation problem using Lagrangean relaxation, we discuss an algorithm that solves linear programming (LP) relaxation of this problem. We show that for this problem the duality gap for Lagrange and LP relaxations is exactly the same. The LP relaxation is solved using strong duality with dual descent--a procedure that can be completed in "linear" time. We show that there can be at most two fractional variables in the optimal primal solution and therefore this relaxation can be justified for many practical applications. This work reduces problem complexity, guarantees similar performance, is slightly more generic, and provides an alternate LP-duality based proof for earlier work by Shoham and Gersho (1988). In addition, we show how additional constraints may be added to impose inter-dependencies among objects in a presentation and discuss how object aggregation can be exploited in reducing problem complexity. The marginal analysis approach of Fox (1966) is suggested as a method of re-allocation with incremental inputs. It helps in efficiently re-optimizing the allocation when a system has user interactivity, appearing or disappearing objects, time driven events, etc. Finally, we suggest that approximation algorithms for the multiple choice knapsack problem, which can be used to quantify complexity vs. quality tradeoff at the encoder in a tunable and universal way. PMID:18262907

Batra, P

2000-01-01

152

Identifying and treating patients with alcohol-related problems  

PubMed Central

Problem drinking is a serious health issue, but often patients whose alcohol consumption places them at risk are not diagnosed by physicians. Case finding is an essential component of "best practice." In many cases if given the appropriate advice, counselling and behavioural interventions, problem drinkers can be helped to reduce their use of alcohol and improve functioning in other areas of their lives. Some patients may benefit from more comprehensive therapy including the prescription of disulfiram, calcium carbimide or naltrexone. For those with serious problems with alcohol, referral to specialized addiction treatment programs and other community resource centres may also be appropriate.

Ogborne, A C

2000-01-01

153

Some Indoor Air Quality Problems and Measures to Control Them in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following complaints by people about the bad indoor air quality in some residential houses, office buildings (with air conditioning) and public rooms surveys were carried out in some of these buildings. Ventilation rates and the main parameters related to indoor air quality were tested. These included: inhalable particulates and the gases: CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, HCHO and NH3. Test results

Jiang Liu; Guang-quan Liu

2005-01-01

154

Evaluation of Problems Related to Scaling in Limestone Wet Scrubbing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report defines the relationship between scale formation and scrubber chemistry, based on thermodynamic analyses and bench-scale scrubber experiments, and includes a review of scaling problems in limestone wet scrubbing systems. It is assumed that mech...

J. B. Berkowitz

1973-01-01

155

Foreign Currency Exchange Problems Relating to the Book Trade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the purchase of books from foreign countries, the basic problem with regard to currency is to decide which currency will be used in these transactions, and how to reach agreement with vendors on this point. (11 references) (Author)

Moran, Michael

1973-01-01

156

Theory of Sliding Charge Density Waves and Related Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dc dynamics of models of incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) conductivity was reduced to a purely static problem. The dc characteristics of the incommensurate chain have been determined. A microscopic understanding of differences in nonlinear ele...

L. Sneddon

1984-01-01

157

[Some problems in assessing the quality of rendering medical assistance to people with multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

To solve the problem of medical and social assistance to people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is possible in employing a system/ comprehensive approach which involves appropriate material basis and appropriate structures, systems, sub-systems with a definite area of their activities and functional interrelations between them. The quality of medical services is a complicated category that is defined by many characteristics. One needs certain equipment to manage in order to obtain the quality while based on the system approach. Experts in the area of quality management inform that, currently, the Russian healthcare is mostly characterized by primary level of quality, which is represented by unsystematic management of the quality and unsystematic (unstable) quality. The methodology of improving the quality is a multistage one. In accordance with the management cycle of Deming-Schuchart or the cycle of PDCA ('P' is for 'plan', 'D' is for 'deed', 'C' is for 'control' and checking the conformity of the result planned to that in the end, and, 'A' is for 'adjustment' of actions depending on the results achieved), the methodology comprises certain problems, an analysis of the system, an action plan development, testing proposed changes in pilot institutions, and practical application in the healthcare system. The article attempts to analyze basic problems and difficulties in setting up medical assistance for a resource-consuming group of patients, by the example of 382 patients with MS, taking into account the experience acquired in a test of application of management systems for medical assistance quality, which is based on international standards (ISO 9000), in order to find possible ways to overcome the existing negative processes and facts. PMID:19891361

Vlasov, Ia V; Toreeva, E K

2009-01-01

158

Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). Overall composite score was 75.2?±?17.2 in the keratoconus group and 93.2?±?5.6 in the control group (P = 0.00). Contact lens wearers had higher best corrected visual acuity in comparison with noncontact lens wearers (P = 0.028). Patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR?>?0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life.

Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris

2014-01-01

159

Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

Kuzu, Abdullah

2009-01-01

160

Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2007-01-01

161

Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

1981-01-01

162

Quality control problem in printed circuit board manufacturing—An extended rough set theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new heuristic algorithm, called extendedrough set theory, for reduct selection in rough set theory (RST) applications. This algorithm is efficient and quick in selecting reducts especially if the problem size is large. The algorithm is able to derive the rules and identify the most significant features simultaneously, which is unique and useful in solving quality control

Tong Teresa Wu

2004-01-01

163

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

164

Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Instructor's Manual. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the instructor's manual for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. It is designed so a program may be designed for a specific facility. The problem structures are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs and/or drawings representing familiar data forms contain the necessary information to…

Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

165

Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions, Relationship Quality and Socio-Emotional Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, sibling relationship quality, and children's socio-emotional problem solving were examined in 40 grade 5-6 children (M age = 11.5 years) from middle class, Caucasian, Canadian families using a multi-method approach (i.e. interviews, self-report questionnaires, daily diary…

Karos, Leigh Karavasilis; Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin

2007-01-01

166

Health-related Quality of Life Assessment & Application  

Cancer.gov

One of the main objectives of the Outcomes Research Branch (ORB) is to enhance the conceptualization and measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to increase the application of HRQOL data for decision-making in research, practice, and policy. While there are many definitions of HRQOL, within the context of cancer outcomes research HRQOL can be understood as including physical and psychosocial well-being that are affected by cancer and its treatments as perceived by individuals throughout the cancer care continuum.

167

Health-related quality of life after elective surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  To examine the responsiveness of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to clinical changes in three surgical groups\\u000a and to study how health-related quality of life (HRQL) changes with time among patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty,\\u000a thoracic surgery for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design:  Prospective cohort study with serial evaluations of HRQL

Carol M. Mangione; Lee Goldman; E. John Orav; Edward R. Marcantonio; Alex Pedan; Lynn E. Ludwig; Magruder C. Donaldson; David J. Sugarbaker; Robert Poss; Thomas H. Lee

1997-01-01

168

Young adult drinking partnerships: alcohol-related consequences and relationship problems six years later.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Objective: This study examines the association between young adult drinking partnerships (ages 18-26 years) and later alcohol-related problems and consequences, alcohol use, relationship quality, and relationship dissolution in adult relationships (ages 26-35). Method: Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Waves III and IV) with 1,347 young adults and their partners at Wave III, including dating, cohabiting, and married couples, and individual adult behaviors at Wave IV, 6 years later. Drinking partnerships were based on alcohol use frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and getting drunk. Results: Four clusters included (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and frequent, and (d) congruent heavy and frequent drinkers. Young adult discrepant partnerships reported more alcohol-related problems and consequences 6 years later. Young adults in the congruent heavy drinking partnership indicated more separation/divorce and alcohol use as adults. Young adult married men who drank discrepantly and higher compared to their wives reported higher rates of adult drinking and problems than other men. There were a number of negative effects from congruent heavy drinking, especially for women. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that there are multiple types of young adult drinking partnerships based on couples' alcohol use behaviors. Men may be at risk for serious alcohol-related problems later in adulthood, especially when paired with discrepant drinking partners and congruent heavy drinking partners. Women are at risk when in congruent, heavy and frequent drinking partnerships. Studying romantic relationships and drinking has implications for broad aspects of young adult and adult development. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 704-712, 2014). PMID:24988269

Wiersma, Jacquelyn D; Fischer, Judith L

2014-07-01

169

Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or…

Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

2010-01-01

170

Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

1988-01-01

171

Stress-related problems in tokamak fusion reactor first walls  

SciTech Connect

Fracture and deformation problems anticipated for the first wall of a future steady-state fusion power reactor are discussed. The stress sources considered are surface heat flux, irradiation-induced creep and swelling, and coolant pressure. Simple examples, such as a beam or a plate, as well as finite element analyses of more realistic structures from recent design studies, are used to explain the problems that are anticipated. Detailed two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses of a grooved first wall are presented to show that grooving the first wall is a potential solution for high thermal stress.

Majumdar, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Pai, B.K. (Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN (USA))

1989-07-01

172

Defining, Assessing, and Treating Adolescent Insomnia and Related Sleep Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As parents, teachers, coaches, health care providers, and teenagers themselves know, adolescence is filled with significant\\u000a physical, cognitive, emotional, and social change. Sleep is a crucial and often ignored aspect of adolescents’ lives as it\\u000a changes and influences factors in their overall development, as well as in their daily lives. The quality and quantity of\\u000a adolescents’ sleep significantly influences their

Amy R. Wolfson; Alison Quinn; Anna Vannucci

173

How to evaluate the quality of health related websites.  

PubMed

To establish reliable quality criteria for medical websites is of foremost importance in relation to the increasing number of Internet users, both health professionals and lay people, searching for medical information in the mass of these sites. Quality in general refers to a set of features that distinguish one person or thing from others of the same type. The quality of a website is usually related to its content and usability. The first criteria we considered are contents and readability, which must be targeted to the intended type of user. Other important criteria include: transparency, consistency, honesty, references to sources, accountability, respect of privacy, currency of content material, responsibility, and accessibility. Technical criteria are the use of consolidated and standard technologies, soft colours, short page download time. Good medical websites should also follow the suggestions of organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Drug Administration, the European Communities. Another organization, Health On Net Foundation, has issued some guidelines for medical websites, summarized in eight points, fundamental to assign real scientific value to a site. We believe, in agreement with the literature, that it is unnecessary to apply strict rules to medical website developers. We want to stress the importance of guidelines and recommendations to be modified with the development of web technology and the cultural evolution of patient and physicians. In the near future the presence on the Internet of websites certified by national or international medical web authorities will lead users to trust and give their preference to such sites, leading to the self-regulation of website developers and users. PMID:15775897

Gattoni, Filippo; Sicola, Chiara

2005-03-01

174

Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

Cushing, Steven

175

On a heat transfer problem related to alpine ski racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/www.miun.se Abstract: We investigate a problem concerning damage on the running base on high speed alpine skis, that may be due to excessive heating. We carry out computations that indicate that heat transfer between the steel edges and the running base may actually be the reason for this, and discuss how to prevent such damage.

LISELOTT FLODÉN; ANDERS HOLMBOM; MARIANNE OLSSON; JEANETTE SILFVER

2006-01-01

176

Combining and relating ontologies: an analysis of problems and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the grown availability of large and specialized online ontologies, the questions about the com- bined use of independently developed ontologies have become even more important. Although there is already a lot of research done in this area, there are still many open questions. In this paper we try to classify the problems that may arise into a com- mon

Michel Klein

2001-01-01

177

Geotechnical problems related with loess deposits in Northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special problems were encountered in some areas in Northern France where the high speed railways (TGV Nord) crossed some loess deposits that appeared to be specially sensitive to change in water content and susceptible to collapse. Numerous sinkholes appeared along some sections of the line following wet climatic periods. After a general geological and geotechnical presentation of loess deposits and

Pierre Delage; Yu-Jun Cui; Pierre Antoine

2008-01-01

178

Dutch policy on the management of drug-related problems.  

PubMed

It is argued that the drug abuse problem should not be primarily seen as a problem of police and justice. It is essentially a manner of health. The Dutch acknowledge that the international repressive, prohibitive approach leads to unintentional negative side-effects, both for the individual and for society. They try to avoid a situation in which consumers of cannabis suffer more damage from the criminal proceedings than from the use of the drug itself. They opt rather for a realistic and practical approach to the drug problem than for a moralistic and over-dramatized one. The Dutch alternative is the normalization of the drug problem, as a pragmatic compromise between two extreme options: an intensified war on drugs and legalization. The implications of the normalization approach for the prevention and treatment policies are discussed: AIDS-prevention, harm reduction instead of detoxification and de-mystification. It is suggested that the policy of normalization is rather successful and does not produce an increase of drug use. PMID:2785828

Engelsman, E L

1989-02-01

179

Response to Reidun Tangen: Insiders and Relational Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses of insider epistemology are many. In Reidun Tangen's thought-provoking paper it is seen as a tentative foundation for educational research involving listening to children's voices. The author argues elsewhere that insider epistemology, from a philosophical viewpoint, is full of paradoxes, inconsistencies and unsolved problems. Its…

Kvernbekk, Tone

2008-01-01

180

Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... workplace to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical. The MSDS will describe any known risk for skin irritation, ... or skin cancer. Be sure to read each MSDS your company provides. Skin Problems Irritation and Rashes. ...

181

The dichotomy of relative humidity on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

Dry and irritated mucous membranes of the eyes and airways are common symptoms reported in office-like environments. Earlier studies suggested that indoor pollutants were responsible. We have re-evaluated, by review of the literature, how low relative humidity (RH) may influence the immediately perceived indoor air quality (IAQ), including odour, and cause irritation symptoms (i.e. longer-term perceived IAQ). "Relative humidity" were searched in major databases, and combined with: air quality, cabin air, dry eyes, formaldehyde, inflammation, mucous membranes, offices, ozone, pungency, sensory irritation, particles, precorneal tear film, sick building syndrome, stuffy air, and VOCs. The impact of RH on the immediately and longer-term perceived IAQ by VOCs, ozone, and particles is complex, because both the thermodynamic condition and the emission characteristics of building materials are influenced. Epidemiological, clinical, and human exposure studies indicate that low RH plays a role in the increase of reporting eye irritation symptoms and alteration of the precorneal tear film. These effects may be exacerbated during visual display unit work. The recommendation that IAQ should be "dry and cool" may be useful for evaluation of the immediately perceived IAQ in material emission testing, but should be considered cautiously about the development of irritation symptoms in eyes and upper airways during a workday. Studies indicate that RH about 40% is better for the eyes and upper airways than levels below 30%. The optimal RH may differ for the eyes and the airways regarding desiccation of the mucous membranes. PMID:17499853

Wolkoff, Peder; Kjaergaard, Søren K

2007-08-01

182

Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects  

PubMed Central

The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological status, and disability. Methods. 95 obese subjects were recruited from June 2012 to February 2013 and underwent physical examination and measures for the assessment of quality of life, sexual life, psychological status, and disability. Results. In obese subjects sexual life was related to gender, age, psychological status, disability, and quality of life. Conclusion. As obesity is a multifactorial disease, and is accompanied by multiple comorbidities, it is difficult to identify a single causative factor responsible for the impairment of sexual life in obese subjects; thus, a thorough, multidimensional evaluation including sexual function assessment should be performed in obese people.

Di Lazzaro, Luca; Pinto, Alessandro; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M.

2014-01-01

183

Approximation of a nondifferentiable nonlinear problem related to MHD equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present a simple method, based on a variant of the implicit function theorem, which leads to the existence of (a part of) a nontrivial solution branch of the nonlinear eigenvalue problem -?u=?u+ in O,u=-1 on ?O, where O is a two-dimensional domain with boundary ?O. The advantage of this method is that we can apply it for analysing

Jacques Rappaz

1984-01-01

184

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (n = 31) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared to the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology; and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for 1 subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students’ understanding of relational terminology for the other 2 subtypes.

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

185

Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Minor Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the feasibility, reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) in the first 2 weeks after pediatric emergency department care of minor injury. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Pediatric hospital emergency department. Participants Children and adolescents with minor injury (n = 334). Main Outcome Measures Child- and parent-reported clinical outcomes and PedsQL scale scores. Results The PedsQL had good to excellent internal consistency reliability (? range, 0.73–0.93). For each day that the clinical symptoms persisted, there were consistent decreases in mean health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores (validity testing). There were significantly greater negative changes in mean HRQOL scores for fractures vs soft-tissue injuries and for lower vs upper extremity injuries. Clinical outcomes categorized as poor had large negative changes in HRQOL not seen in good outcome groups. Distribution-based indicators of change supported good responsiveness (effect sizes for the physical summary score, 0.01–2.44; group differences at follow-up exceeded estimates of the minimal importance difference). Conclusions The PedsQL is feasible, reliable, and demonstrates good construct and discriminant validity and responsiveness in measuring short-term outcome after minor injury care in the pediatric emergency department. Assessing short-term outcome from the patient perspective with HRQOL measures may greatly enhance our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency department care.

Stevens, Martha W.; Hainsworth, Keri R.; Weisman, Steven J.; Layde, Peter M.

2013-01-01

186

Risk minimization in water quality control problems of a river system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies are presented for minimization of risk in a river water quality management problem. A risk minimization model is developed to minimize the risk of low water quality along a river in the face of conflict among various stake holders. The model consists of three parts: a water quality simulation model, a risk evaluation model with uncertainty analysis and an optimization model. Sensitivity analysis, First Order Reliability Analysis (FORA) and Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the fuzzy risk of low water quality. Fuzzy multiobjective programming is used to formulate the multiobjective model. Probabilistic Global Search Laussane (PGSL), a global search algorithm developed recently, is used for solving the resulting non-linear optimization problem. The algorithm is based on the assumption that better sets of points are more likely to be found in the neighborhood of good sets of points, therefore intensifying the search in the regions that contain good solutions. Another model is developed for risk minimization, which deals with only the moments of the generated probability density functions of the water quality indicators. Suitable skewness values of water quality indicators, which lead to low fuzzy risk are identified. Results of the models are compared with the results of a deterministic fuzzy waste load allocation model (FWLAM), when methodologies are applied to the case study of Tunga-Bhadra river system in southern India, with a steady state BOD-DO model. The fractional removal levels resulting from the risk minimization model are slightly higher, but result in a significant reduction in risk of low water quality.

Ghosh, Subimal; Mujumdar, P. P.

2006-03-01

187

Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

1976-01-01

188

Cancer-Related Fatigue: The Scale of the Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. Can- cer-related fatigue (CRF) is characterized by feelings of tiredness, weakness, and lack of energy, and is distinct from the \\

Maarten Hofman; Julie L. Ryan; Colmar D. Figueroa-Moseley; Pascal Jean-Pierre; Gary R. Morrow

189

Pediatric chronic pain and health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and adolescents with chronic pain. Sixty-nine participants (53 girls and 16 boys, 8-18 years old) were recruited, along with their caregivers, from an outpatient pain management clinic. Participants completed questionnaires regarding the child's pain intensity and HRQOL (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning). Findings indicated that children with chronic pain report significantly lower HRQOL scores compared to population-based normative data and data of children with other chronic illnesses. Lower levels of pain were associated with higher HRQOL scores. In addition to targeting pain management, interventions focused on emotional health are necessary to enhance health outcomes for children with chronic pain. PMID:19268235

Gold, Jeffrey Ira; Yetwin, Alexis Kant; Mahrer, Nicole Eva; Carson, Melissa Catherine; Griffin, Anya T; Palmer, Stephanie Naso; Joseph, Michael Henry

2009-04-01

190

Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.  

PubMed Central

We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that agricultural chemicals may have contributed to the reduction in semen quality in fertile men from mid-Missouri we reported previously.

Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

2003-01-01

191

Relative Perceived Product Quality: Increasing the Effectiveness of Restaurant Planning Through a More Effective Integration of the Competitive Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of competing for the customer, like many concepts, appears deceptively simple. A problem with some restaurants' analyses of customers and competitors is that they are often viewed as isolated events, decreasing the effectiveness with which information is incorporated in the firm's research, planning, and implementation efforts. The concept of relative perceived product quality not only synthesizes the customer

Allen Z. Reich

2011-01-01

192

World Health Organization Project on Community Response to Alcohol-Related Problems: Background Document. Observational Studies into Alcohol-Related Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annex to the World Health Organization Study of Community Responses to Alcohol-Related Problems Final Report (Phase I) is presented. This document was prepared to provide the Advisory Group, and local collaborators in Zambia, Mexico, and Scotland with ...

D. B. Heath

1977-01-01

193

The Relative Importance of Website Design Quality and Service Quality in Determining Consumers' Online Repurchase Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that website design quality is one main factor affecting consumers' initial online purchase behavior. For consumers' repurchase behavior, in addition to website design quality, service quality is another important factor. Which factor is more important in determining consumers' repurchase intention? Our results show that, compared with website design quality, service quality has significantly stronger effects on

Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu; Bin Wang

2009-01-01

194

Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

Labour Education, 1986

1986-01-01

195

The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writers investigate the possibility of an atomistic theory of matter and electricity which, while excluding singularities of the field, makes use of no other variables than the gmunu of the general relativity theory and the varphimu of the Maxwell theory. By the consideration of a simple example they are led to modify slightly the gravitational equations which then admit

Nathan Rosen

1935-01-01

196

Numerical problems related to the precise calculation of orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of orbital mechanics are related to mission analysis before the launching of a space vehicle and to orbit determination operations after the launching. The reported investigation is concerned with the second group of objectives. The procedure of orbit determination is based on a process called differential correction. Aspects of differential correction are examined, taking into account the principles

T. Elices

1976-01-01

197

Optimal experimental design and some related control problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the strong relations between experimental design and control, such as the use of optimal inputs to obtain precise parameter estimation in dynamical systems and the introduction of suitably designed perturbations in adaptive control. The mathematical background of optimal experimental design is briefly presented, and the role of experimental design in the asymptotic properties of estimators is emphasized.

Luc Pronzato

2008-01-01

198

Age-related hearing loss: quality of care for quality of life.  

PubMed

Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a leading cause of adult hearing handicaps in the United States. The prevalence of ARHL is expected to rise for the next several decades with the increasing aging Baby Boomer population. Nevertheless, ARHL remains an often undetected, underestimated and neglected condition in the geriatric population due to a slow development process of the disease. If left untreated, the impact of ARHL on patients, significant others, and the society as a whole would be significant. The purpose of this review is to raise the awareness of ARHL, to update our current understanding of ARHL with a focus on age-related deficits in auditory and cognitive processing of speech, and to explore strategies of prevention, identification, amplification, and aural rehabilitation. The ultimate goal is to improve the quality of hearing health care and the overall quality of life of the Baby Boomer generation. PMID:22383543

Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

2012-04-01

199

A FUZZY TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTAL METHOD FOR PROBLEMS WITH MULTI-ATTRIBUTE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS APPLICATION ON PLASMA ARC WELDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims at developing a modified Taguchi experimental method for handling problems with fuzzy multi-attribute quality characteristics. In this method, grey relationship analysis and fuzzy theory are integrated with Taguchi method for dealing with respectively multi-attribute quality characteristics and fuzzy semantic judgments to product quality in experimental design. To verify the feasibility and merits of the proposed method, the

Sheng-Chai Chi; Li-Chang Hsu

2001-01-01

200

Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

201

Health-Related Quality of Life across Pediatric Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Despite the growing use of patient-reported outcomes, few studies directly compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) across different pediatric chronic illnesses. Understanding the differential impact of specific illnesses on youth psychosocial functioning has treatment implications, especially for primary care providers. This study compared HRQOL across eight pediatric chronic conditions, including five understudied populations, and examined convergence between youth self-report and parent-proxy report. STUDY DESIGN Secondary data from 589 patients and their caregivers were collected across the following conditions: obesity, eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), epilepsy, type 1 diabetes, sickle cell disease (SCD), post-renal transplantation, and cystic fibrosis (CF). Youth and caregivers completed age-appropriate self-report and/or parent-proxy report generic HRQOL measures. RESULTS Youth diagnosed with EGID and obesity experienced lower HRQOL than other pediatric conditions by parent report. Caregivers reported lower HRQOL by proxy-report than youth self-reported across most subscales. CONCLUSION This study provides information regarding differences in HRQOL, especially youth with EGID and obesity, and highlights areas of concern for clinicians. Use of brief, easily administered, and reliable assessments of psychosocial functioning, such as HRQOL, may provide clinicians additional opportunities for intervention or services targeting improved HRQOL relative to the needs of each population.

Ingerski, Lisa M.; Modi, Avani C.; Hood, Korey K.; Pai, Ahna L.; Zeller, Meg; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Franciosi, James; Hommel, Kevin A.

2011-01-01

202

Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children  

PubMed Central

Background Minority groups have a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but there is little information if this finding also applies to children. In this study, we compared HRQOL between young children with and without migrant parents. Methods Two cross-sectional studies of culturally diverse preschool populations in Switzerland: Ballabeina (40 preschools, 258 girls and 232 boys aged 4 to 6 years) and Youp’là Bouge (58 child care centers, 453 girls and 522 boys aged 2 to 4 years). Most children were born in Switzerland (Ballabeina: 92.3%; Youp’là Bouge: 93.7%). Number of migrant parents was considered as the main exposure. HRQOL was measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results Children of migrant parents had a significantly lower HRQOL total score (mean?±?SD, Ballabeina: 84.2?±?9.1; 82.7?±?9.6 and 81.7?±?11.7 for children with none, one or two migrant parents, respectively; Youp’là Bouge: 83.8?±?8.6; 82.9?±?9.5; 80.7?±?11.7, all p?

2013-01-01

203

Micromechanics of some surface and interface related problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micromechanical behavior of near surface defects in a semi-infinite crystal lattice is investigated using a modified lattice theory, which was developed by extending the eigenstrain concept into the classical lattice theory. General discussion is given based on the Green's function method. It is proved that differences between lattice and continuum solutions exist only in a small neighborhood of the the defect. A local numerical method is proposed which shows through two examples that it is a simple and effective scheme regardless of the geometry where the problem is defined. An eigenstrain formulation is developed and applied to treat pre-existing defects in thin plates. Using the Eshelby solution, an elliptic inhomogeneity under uniform applied load can be made equivalent to that of an elliptic inclusion with appropriate uniform eigenstrain, and can therefore be solved readily. Micro-void nucleation at the interface between a thin film and a substrate under cyclic fatigue loading is discussed through a dislocation pile-up model. The accumulation of dislocation dipoles is calculated by solving an integral equation. It is shown that the total free energy of the system increases with the fatigue cycle number due to the increase in elastic strain energy, and that there exists a critical fatigue cycle number beyond which the initial state of dislocation dipole accumulation becomes energetically unstable, so that the energy of this state will be released by the formation of a micro-void at the interface. The study can not only provide the S-N curves for initiation but also their dependence on material parameters. The coalescence of such micro-voids is expected to be an important mechanism of delamination of a thin film from its substrate.

Qin, Shaowen

1991-12-01

204

[Management problems of improving the quality and efficiency of primary health care system of Georgia].  

PubMed

Improving the quality and efficiency of primary health care system is a key challenge. In this regard, problems that have accumulated in the system over the past decade - a weak material base of outpatient-polyclinic institutions, especially in rural areas; a surplus of medical personnel; lack of control by local, regional and central authorities--still remain as serious obstacle. The issue of financing the provided health services, is also particularly important, given the fact that a significant portion of the cost of medical services is covered by the patient directly. And as a consequence, the low level of applications for outpatient-polyclinic assistance due to declining affordability of medical services. In connection with the foregoing, the authors of the paper raise the question of implementing strict, multi-component system of quality control of medical care for patients. In particular, they propose: to base modern organization works on improving the quality of primary health care system on the principles of general management theory; Modern management of service quality should be clearly oriented towards the needs of the population in health care, its structure and dynamics; accessibility, incentives, determined by economic and technological competition characteristic to the market; Modern quality management, regardless of ownership and scale of outpatient-polyclinic establishment should optimally combine the actions, methods and tools that provide, on the one hand--the organization of diagnostic and therapeutic-prophylactic processes meeting the needs of the people, and on the other--the introduction of new methods and means to ensure the modern level of medical care; Schematic diagram of quality control mechanism organically interacts with the market research and includes a block of policy development in terms of quality. PMID:19644201

Dzhakeli, I V; Edzhibadze, O I; Gerzmava, O Kh

2009-01-01

205

Relative impacts from product quality, service quality, and experience quality on customer perceived value and intention to shop for the coffee shop market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides empirical results on relative impacts from product quality, service quality and experience quality on customer perceived value and intention to shop in the future, for a coffee shop market. Pine and Gilmore's (1999, 2000) framework of an experience economy generally assumes experience is a major contributor, compared with product and service, to a customer's perceived value. While

Hueiju Yu; Wenchang Fang

2009-01-01

206

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life.

2013-01-01

207

Relationship Between Sleep Problems and Quality of Life in Children With ADHD.  

PubMed

Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the sleep behaviors, sleep problems and frequency, and relationship with psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD Combined type and to evaluate the effect of sleep problems on quality of life. Method: Forty-six boys, aged 7 to 13 years, with ADHD-combined type and 31 healthy boys were included. ADHD children were never treated for sleep or psychiatric disorders. Intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores were minimum 80, body mass index were normal and did not have medical disorders. Parents completed Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Conners' Parent Rating Scale and The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and participants were asked about sleep behaviors and were administered PedsQL and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The frequency of sleep problems in ADHD is 84.8%, higher than the control group (p = .002). Evaluating PedsQL scores, the quality of life is worse in physical, psychosocial health, and total life quality (p < .05). ADHD group with sleep problems have more night wakings than control group with sleep problems (p = .02). The comorbidity do not increase sleep problems. The frequency of parasomnias is increased in group with learning disorders (p = .05). Conclusion: The results of this study, which controls for a number of possible confounders found in previous examinations of ADHD and sleep, support the results of a number of other studies that have found an increased overall prevalence of parent-reported sleep disturbances in children with ADHD compared with healthy control participants. As the ADHD group have more night wakings than the control group through the night, it is thought that night wakings that cause a partitioned sleep may be important signs seen in ADHD. That could be suggested by two hypotheses. First one is that, daytime sleepiness is more common in ADHD and those children present excessive hyperactivity during the day to stay awake and the second one is the improvement of ADHD signs when the drugs for sleepiness are used. Usage of standardized and valid diagnostic criteria, exclusion of adolescence, gender, socioeconomic level, primary sleep problems, medical disorders and low IQ level, making allowances for effect of comorbidities and having compared with the control group are the important methodological features of this study. The most important limitation of this study is small sample size that makes the findings less generalizable to other groups of children with ADHD, and another one is not having used objective measurements together with subjective measurements. In conclusion, these results underscore the importance of screening all children who have a symptom constellation suggestive of ADHD for sleep problems that may either play a causative role or exacerbate the clinical appearance of ADHD in a given child. Correct evaluation and treatment of sleep problems increase the life quality of family and child and also decrease the severity of ADHD symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23511553

Yürümez, Esra; Kiliç, Birim Günay

2013-03-19

208

The Nature and Constructs of Relative Expertise in Economic Problem Solving: Preliminary Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports preliminary research into the nature of relative expertise in economic problem solving. The first section briefly describes why such research is needed in the context of research on expert and novice problem solving. It also presents the problem explored in this study in the context of the existing research. Subsequent sections…

VanFossen, Phillip J.; Miller, Steven L.

209

Cauchy problems for the conformal vacuum field equations in general relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cauchy problems for Einstein's conformal vacuum field equations are reduced to Cauchy problems for first order quasilinear symmetric hyperbolic systems. The “hyperboloidal initial value” problem, where Cauchy data are given on a spacelike hypersurface which intersects past null infinity at a spacelike two-surface, is discussed and translated into the conformally related picture. It is shown that for conformal hyperboloidal initial

Helmut Friedrich; Hochschule der Bundeswehr Hamburg

1983-01-01

210

Family Relationship Quality and Contact with Deviant Peers as Predictors of Adolescent Problem Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how family relationship quality and contact with deviant peers (CDP) contributed to change in problem behaviors, particularly whether gender of the adolescent and parent moderated these associations. Found that CDP was associated with increases in problem behaviors, whereas family influence on problem behaviors was indirect and varied as…

Werner, Nicole E.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

2003-01-01

211

Health-Related Quality of Life Following Blind Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients’ vision targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. Methods The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at two and six months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11–109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Results Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of eleven NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both 2- and 6-month post-rehab intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Conclusions Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients’ self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem, and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL.

Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L.; Grubbs, Hartley E.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L.; Fuhr, Patti S.

2009-01-01

212

Dimensions of oral-health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

Oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is expected to have multiple dimensions. It was the aim of this study to investigate the dimensional structure of OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (German version) (OHIP-G) and to derive a summary score for the instrument. Subjects (N = 2050; age, 16-79 yrs) came from a national survey. We used rotated principal-components analysis to derive a summary score and to explore the dimensional structure of OHIP-G. The first principal component explained 50% of the variance in the data. The sum of OHIP-G item responses was highly associated with the first principal component (r = 0.99). This simple but informative OHIP-G summary score may indicate that simple sums are also potentially useful scores for other OHRQoL instruments. Four dimensions (psychosocial impact, orofacial pain, oral functions, appearance) were found. These OHIP-G dimensions may serve as a parsimonious set of OHRQoL dimensions in general. PMID:15557405

John, M T; Hujoel, P; Miglioretti, D L; LeResche, L; Koepsell, T D; Micheelis, W

2004-12-01

213

Health-related quality of life in Icelandic school children.  

PubMed

This study evaluated generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 10 to 12-year-old Icelandic school age children who were either with or without chronic health condition. The children and their parents answered self-report questionnaires. For the 480 children who participated, girls were found to perceive their HRQOL significantly higher than the boys, children who visited the school nurse over a one-week period and children who indicated they were bullied by other children, perceived their HRQOL to be significantly lower than children who did not visit the school nurse over this time period or children who did not indicate they were bullied by other children in school. From the stepwise regression analysis, perception of health, school connectedness, health promotion, bullying victimization, visits to the school nurse and age, significantly predicted 43.8% of the variance of the girls' perception of their HRQOL. However, perception of health, school connectedness, and chronic health condition/illnesses, bullying victimization and after school activities predicted 48.1% of the boys' perception of their HRQOL. Children with chronic health condition or illnesses, reported their HRQOL to be significantly lower than children without chronic health condition. Assessing HRQOL among 10 to 12-year-old children might be helpful to take preventive action early on in children's life and development. PMID:16756527

Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Orlygsdottir, Brynja

2006-06-01

214

Systematic review of health-related quality of life models  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL.

2012-01-01

215

Health-related quality of life in multiple system atrophy.  

PubMed

Although multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive disability and decreased life expectancy, little is known about patients' own evaluation of their illness and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). We, therefore, assessed Hr-QoL and its determinants in MSA. The following scales were applied to 115 patients in the European MSA-Study Group (EMSA-SG) Natural History Study: Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36), EQ-5D, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE), Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) Parkinson's disease staging scale, Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS), and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). Forty-six percent of patients had moderate to severe depression (BDI > or = 17); Hr-QoL scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were significantly impaired. Pain, the only domain with similar scores in MSA and published PD patients, was reported more frequently in patients with MSA-P (predominantly parkinsonian motor subtype) than MSA-C (predominantly cerebellar motor subtype; 76% vs. 50%; P = 0.005). Hr-QoL scores correlated most strongly with UMSARS motor, COMPASS, and BDI scores but not with MMSE scores, age at onset, or disease duration. The COMPASS and UMSARS activities of daily living scores were moderate-to-strong predictors for the SF-36 physical summary score and the BDI and UMSARS motor scores for the SF-36 mental summary score. This report is the first study to show that Hr-QoL is significantly impaired in MSA. Although not all possible factors related to impaired Hr-QoL in MSA could be assessed, autonomic dysfunction, motor impairment, and depression were most closely associated with poor Hr-QoL, and therapeutic management, therefore, should concentrate upon these aspects of the disease. PMID:16502399

Schrag, Anette; Geser, Felix; Stampfer-Kountchev, Michaela; Seppi, Klaus; Sawires, Martin; Köllensperger, Martin; Scherfler, Christoph; Quinn, Niall; Pellecchia, Maria T; Barone, Paolo; Del Sorbo, Francesca; Albanese, Alberto; Ostergaard, Karen; Dupont, Erik; Cardozo, Adriana; Tolosa, Eduardo; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Lindvall, Olle; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Daniels, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; Coelho, Miguel; Sampaio, Cristina; Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Schimke, Nicole; Eggert, Karla M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Djaldetti, Ruth; Colosimo, Carlo; Meco, Giuseppe; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K

2006-06-01

216

University and Industry Collaboration to Solve Welding Quality Problem Using Design of Experiments (DOE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A local automotive seat supplier experienced a major quality problem in the fabrication of the metal seat frame used in the manufacture of the front bucket seats of automobiles. This quality concern was failure of the seat cushion weld nuts to adhere to the metal seat frame during random quality torque testing at the lower specification limit. A company executive contacted Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) and requested a six-sigma study to determine the root causes of the problem and to work with his engineering and operations personnel to implement countermeasures. The six-sigma project team was setup by the company Project Champion and was led by the university Project Leader. The team consisted of the company welding engineer, three operations personnel, the MTSU professor, a graduate student, and three undergraduates. This paper focuses on the Design-of-Experiments portion of this project that required close collaboration between the industry and the university personnel. Note: This paper to be presented at the CIEC 2006 Conference.

Gore, David; Langston, Donald; Langston, P. E.

2009-07-30

217

[Quality and shortages of patient safety--how big is the problem?].  

PubMed

Patient safety is essential to quality health care, to ensure patients are not harmed, but also to ensure that resources are not wasted. More research evidence is becoming available about deficiencies in health care quality and safety. This evidence is reviewed in three consecutive articles in Läkartidningen. Research has discovered high rates of "adverse events" in health care services. The actual rate varies depending on definition, methods of measurement, and type of service. Rates as high as 46% of patients admitted to hospital have been reported. Sometimes high reported rates indicate that a service is serious about collecting data, rather than being an unsafe service. Generally, half of the events can be classified as "avoidable", and a significant proportion as "serious" causing death, disability or a longer hospital stay. Adverse drug events account for a high proportion and are probably the most well studied of patient safety problems. Although most of the current research has been done in the US, there is some evidence which suggests that problems within Swedish health care are of a similar magnitude and type. This article summarises the main studies and focuses on evidence of the economic consequences of deficiencies in patient safety and quality. PMID:15707107

Ovretveit, John; Sachs, Magna Andreen

218

Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight  

PubMed Central

Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight???1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight?problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

2012-01-01

219

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

2012-01-01

220

Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

Evans, Gerald W.

1995-01-01

221

Student Engagement and Its Relation to Quality Work Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to find out which instructional activities students find most engaging, and what design qualities, including technology, are included in those activities. Local middle school teachers designed lessons using the design qualities in Philip Schlechty's WOW framework (2002). Students assessed their own level of engagement in those lessons, and observers took notes of lessons and

Elizabeth R. Bowen; Jane Zahner; Linda Starnes; Kathy Rohacek

222

Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

2006-01-01

223

Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels of stress and drinking to cope than adaptive perfectionists and nonperfectionists. Adaptive perfectionists reported the fewest alcohol-related problems, suggesting

Kenneth G. Rice; Amy C. Van Arsdale

2010-01-01

224

Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

225

Dogmatism and anxiety in relation to problem solving: An extension of Rokeach's results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved a replication and extension of some of Rokeach's work on the relation of Dogmatism (D) and Anxiety (A) to performance in a problem solving task  Consistent with previous results, Ss with very high D scores performed more poorly on the  problem  and a significant positive relation  was found between D scores and A scores  A scores were

Samuel Fillenbaum; Arnold Jackman

1961-01-01

226

Are mental health problems associated with use of Accident and Emergency and health-related harm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous findings indicate that mental health problems are common in Emergency departments; however, there are few studies of the extent of health-related problems and emergency service use in mental health populations as a whole. Methods: Record linkage methods were used to map the association between mental health, age, gender, and health-related harm across total health and mental health care

J. Keene; J. Rodriguez

2007-01-01

227

Adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style: a mediational model of sexual coercion in intimate relationships.  

PubMed

Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed. PMID:23329647

Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel

2013-07-01

228

Learning to relate qualitative and quantitative problem representations in a model-based setting for collaborative problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an experimental study, we investigated how 10th graders acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. The study was made up of 2 main phases. In the 1st phase, students were taught either qualitative or quantitative aspects of classical mechanics by means of 2 different instructional units. In both units, concept maps were used for the presentation of information. In the 2nd phase, dyads were formed with students who worked on different instructional units and thus possessed systematically different knowledge. The 2 students collaboratively worked on problems that were beyond the competence of each of them and demanded the coordinated useof knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects. Before and after the instruction as well as after the collaborative problem solving, students had to work on multicomponent tests. In addition, during the collaborative problem solving, protocols were taken of the students' mutual exchange of information An analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative as well as quantitative knowledge can successfully be taught by means of concept maps. Students who initially were taught qualitative aspects of physics gained significantly more from the information provided by their quantitatively instructed partners during the collaborative problem solving than the other way around. An analysis of individual problem-solving attempts uncovered that students learned to construct increasingly more complete qualitative and quantitative problem representations. An explorative protocol analysis of the students' dialogues further indicated that the students gradually shifted their focus from quantitative to qualitative problem representations during collaborative problem solving.

Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

2005-11-22

229

Health-Related Quality of Life Issues for Dialysis Patients. Abstract, Executive Summary of Dissertation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Up to now, evaluations of care for dialysis patients have focused on biomedical quality, utilization, and cost indicators. The patient's self-assessed, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has received much less attention. This study evaluated factors a...

M. G. Trisolini

2001-01-01

230

Oral health-related quality of life of paediatric patients with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) exhibit impaired dental status, which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the oral health-related quality of life of these patients and associated factors. METHODS: The \\

Débora B Massarente; Carina Domaneschi; Heloísa HS Marques; Samantha B Andrade; Daniela Goursand; José LF Antunes

2011-01-01

231

Heart failure and health related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Quality of life is a major goal in the context of preventive and therapeutic cardiology. It is important, both as an outcome measure in clinical trials of congestive heart failure (CHF) and as a consideration in individual physicians' therapeutic decisions. In this article, quality of life concepts are reviewed, methods of measurement are explored and clinically significant changes on prognosis are discussed. There is a need for more research which is based on carefully selected measures of quality of life chosen as being of particular importance to patients and to the hypotheses being tested.

2005-01-01

232

The evolving role of physician organizations in quality related activities  

PubMed Central

As the fields of quality assessment and improvement become integral parts of medical practice, the roles of National Medical Associations, and other physician organizations in these endeavors have undergone major changes in scope and intensity as well. The survey based report in this journal by Levi et al. suggests some major overall trends but also notes wide variation from country to country. In this commentary, we touch on some likely reasons for the variation seen in the focus of physician organization participation in quality activities, and offer some suggestions for why expanded involvement by physician organizations may be critical to quality efforts going forward.

2014-01-01

233

Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures. Methods A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group. Results The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n?=?117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis. Conclusion The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely tested and several versions are available. COHIP employed a rigorous development strategy but has been tested in fewer populations. C-OIDP is shorter and has been used successfully in epidemiological studies. Further testing using modern psychometric techniques such as item response theory is recommended. Future developments should also focus on the development of measures which can evaluate longitudinal change.

2014-01-01

234

Indoor air quality and health problems associated with damp floor coverings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To study the relationship between a high incidence of bronchial asthma among employees working in an office building and an indoor air problem related to the degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor coverings in the building. The indoor air measurements and results of renovations are also described. Methods Employees’ symptoms were surveyed by a questionnaire, and the incidence of

Anneli Tuomainen; Markku Seuri; Anne Sieppi

2004-01-01

235

Poor health-related quality of life and abnormal psychosocial adjustment in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL), social competence, and behavioral problems in children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Brescia. We evaluated HRQL, social competence, and behavioral problems in 27 HIV-infected children compared with age and sex-matched control subjects using the Pediatric Quality

Monica Bomba; Renata Nacinovich; Silvia Oggiano; Morena Cassani; Liliana Baushi; Cristina Bertulli; Daniela Longhi; Simonetta Coppini; Giovanni Parrinello; Alessandro Plebani; Raffaele Badolato

2010-01-01

236

Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11]?=??0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11]?=??0.68, p?=?0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2?=?0.79, F [1, 10]?=?33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2?=?0.19, F [1, 10]?=?2.09, p?=?0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored.

Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

2014-01-01

237

Chinese entrepreneurs : Motivations, success factors, problems, and business-related stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to investigate motivations, success factors, problems, and business-related stress of entrepreneurs in small- and medium-sized enterprises and relates them to the success of the Chinese entrepreneurs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 196 entrepreneurs in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou were randomly selected for a survey, which was analyzed to determine motivations, success factors, problems, and business-related

Hung M. Chu; Orhan Kara; Xiaowei Zhu; Kubilay Gok

2011-01-01

238

Marijuana-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Role of Marijuana Behaviors in Social Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given

Julia D. Buckner; Richard G. Heimberg; Russell A. Matthews; Jose Silgado

2012-01-01

239

Relations between quality of urban runoff and quality of Lake Ellyn at Glen Ellyn, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparison of flow and chemical data collected at the principal inlet and at the outlets of Lake Ellynman urban lake in the Chicago metropolitan are--shows that detention storage alters the discharge and the quality of urban runoff. Peak water discharge and variation in the concentration of constituents transported by the runoff are usually reduced. Mass-balance relations based on comparison of measured constituent loads at the inlet and the outlets show that the lake is very efficient in trapping suspended solids, suspended sediment, and sediment-associated metals. Calculated trap efficiencies for many dissolved constituents were negative. However, negative efficiencies appear to be influenced mostly by insufficient sampling in winter. Trap efficiencies for nitrogen and phosphorus are intermediate to those determined for other constituents. Solids accumulate on the lake bottom as organic-rich muds that reduce lake storage and cover potential habitat for aquatic organisms. Lake sediments, particularly fine-grained sediments, have elevated concentrations of metals associated with them. Several organic compounds, not detected in inlet- or outlet-water samples, were detected in a lake-sediment sample collected near the inlet. Concentrations of many constituents dissolved in lake water are seasonally cyclic, with annual concentration peaks occurring during the winter. Establishment and maintenance of desirable benthic invertebrate and fish populations appear to be inhibited by sediment deposition.

Striegl, Robert G.; Cowan, Ellen A.

1987-01-01

240

Does understanding relational terminology mediate effects of intervention on compare word problems?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N=31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared with the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology, and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for one subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for the other two subtypes. PMID:22221461

Schumacher, Robin F; Fuchs, Lynn S

2012-04-01

241

Robust impact of social anxiety in relation to coping motives and expectancies, barriers to quitting, and cessation-related problems.  

PubMed

Although social anxiety is related to smoking and nicotine dependence, few researchers have sought to identify factors that contribute to these relations. The current study examined whether social anxiety was associated with cognitive vulnerability factors related to smoking: perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. Further, we tested whether social anxiety was robustly related to these factors after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, gender, alcohol-use frequency, lifetime cannabis-use status, panic attack frequency, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity. The sample consisted of 580 (38.6% female) treatment-seeking smokers. Social anxiety was associated with perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. After controlling for covariates, social anxiety was robustly related to perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, and negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies. Social anxiety was robustly related to negative-affect-reduction motives among men, but not women. Results indicate that social anxiety is robustly related to cognitive vulnerability factors associated with poorer cessation outcomes, suggesting that social anxiety may be an important therapeutic target during smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24978348

Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Jeffries, Emily R; Schmidt, Norman B

2014-08-01

242

Functional Ankle Instability and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Context: To our knowledge, no authors have assessed health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in participants with functional ankle instability (FAI). Furthermore, the relationships between measures of ankle functional limitation and HR-QOL are unknown. Objective: To use the Short Form–36v2 Health Survey (SF-36) to compare HR-QOL in participants with or without FAI and to determine whether HR-QOL was related to functional limitation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-eight participants with FAI (defined as at least 1 lateral ankle sprain and 1 episode of giveway per month) or without FAI were recruited (FAI group: n = 34, age = 25 ± 5 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.08 m, mass = 74.39 ± 12.78 kg, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score = 19.3 ± 4; uninjured [UI] group: n = 34, age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.08 m, mass = 67.94 ± 11.27 kg, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score = 29.4 ± 1). Main Outcome Measure(s): All participants completed the SF-36 as a measure of HR-QOL and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and the FAAM Sport version (FAAMS) as assessments of functional limitation. To compare the FAI and UI groups, we calculated multiple analyses of variance followed by univariate tests. Additionally, we correlated the SF-36 summary component scale and domain scales with the FAAM and FAAMS scores. Results: Participants with FAI had lower scores on the SF-36 physical component summary (FAI = 54.4 ± 5.1, UI = 57.8 ± 3.7, P = .005), physical function domain scale (FAI = 54.5 ± 3.8, UI = 56.6 ± 1.2, P = .004), and bodily pain domain scale (FAI = 52.0 ± 6.7, UI = 58.5 ± 5.3, P < .005). Similarly, participants with FAI had lower scores on the FAAM (FAI = 93.7 ± 8.4, UI = 99.5 ± 1.4, P < .005) and FAAMS (FAI = 84.5 ± 8.4, UI = 99.8 ± 0.72, P < .005) than did the UI group. The FAAM score was correlated with the physical component summary scale (r = 0.42, P = .001) and the physical function domain scale (r = 0.61, P < .005). The FAAMS score was correlated with the physical function domain scale (r = 0.47, P < .005) and the vitality domain scale (r = 0.36, P = .002). Conclusions: Compared with UI participants, those with FAI had less HR-QOL and more functional limitations. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between HR-QOL and functional limitation measures. This suggests that ankle impairment may reduce overall HR-QOL.

Arnold, Brent L.; Wright, Cynthia J.; Ross, Scott E.

2011-01-01

243

Health-related quality of life and income-related social mobility in young adults  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the association of income-related social mobility between the age of 13 and 30 years on health-related quality of life among young adults. Methods In 1988-89 n?=?7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n?=?4,604 children (60.0%) and n?=?4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06 n?=?632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% of those traced and living in Adelaide). Results Multivariate regressions adjusting for sex, tooth brushing and smoking status at age 30 showed that compared to upwardly mobile persons social disadvantage was associated (p?related socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more oral health impact, and lower health state and life satisfaction, while being downwardly mobile was associated with lower life satisfaction at age 30 years. Persons who were upwardly mobile were similar in health outcomes to stable advantaged persons.

2014-01-01

244

The Measurement and Use of Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to present a framework for the measurement and use of quality of life-related personal outcomes\\u000a for persons with intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities. The chapter is composed of two major sections.\\u000a In the first section (“the measurement of quality of life-related personal outcomes”) the author discusses quality of life\\u000a (QOL) measurement guidelines, a

Robert L. Schalock

245

The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.  

PubMed Central

There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams.

Negrete, J C

1990-01-01

246

Working Memory and Impulsivity Predict Marijuana-Related Problems Among Frequent Users  

PubMed Central

Background Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, only a small portion of users go on to develop dependence, suggesting that there are substantial individual differences in vulnerability to marijuana-related problems among users. Deficits in working memory and high trait impulsivity are two factors that may place marijuana users at increased risk for experiencing related problems. Methods Using baseline data from an experimental study that recruited 104 frequent marijuana users (M=71.86% of prior 60 days, SD=22%), we examined the associations of working memory and trait impulsivity with marijuana-related problems. Results Lower working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test B, but not short-term memory capacity, predicted more marijuana-related problems. Higher trait impulsivity scores were independently associated with greater number of problems. Conclusions Results suggest that marijuana users with reduced executive cognitive ability are more susceptible to developing problems related to their use. Trait impulsivity and executive working memory appear to be independent risk factors for experiencing marijuana-related problems.

Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Kahler, Christopher W.

2012-01-01

247

Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.  

PubMed

Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

1992-10-01

248

Road traffic noise and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Evidence is emerging linking environmental noise to health problems. Noise can affect health directly and indirectly: For example, noise sensitivity moderates the effects of noise annoyance, which in turn mediates the effects of noise exposure. An alternative hypothesis is that noise sensitivity marks the presence of susceptibility to health problems in general, including annoyance from noise. Whether noise sensitivity causes poor health or whether it is a marker of susceptibility to health problems was addressed by comparing the results of a community-based survey of people with similar noise sensitivity profiles but different environmental noise exposures. A questionnaire was delivered to people living in two socio-economically-matched areas: One was within 50 m of a motorway and the other was away from any significant source of environmental noise. The questionnaire contained 58 questions comprised of the World Health Organization health-related quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), and questions about amenity, neighborhood issues, environmental annoyances, demographics, and noise sensitivity. Noise sensitivity did not vary with proximity to the motorway but annoyance with traffic noise and fumes was greater in those living close to the motorway than in those who were not. Scores on the four WHOQOL domains (physical, psychological, social, and environmental) were lower in those living close to the motorway, and the WHOQOL domain scores correlated negatively with noise sensitivity in those who lived near motorways but not in those who lived in the quieter areas. This suggests that noise sensitivity is related to poor health outcomes rather than being a trait marker of susceptibility to health problems in general. PMID:23771420

Welch, David; Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim N; McBride, David; Marsh, Samantha

2013-01-01

249

Quality of mink skin in relation to proteins and lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funds: PFR, Various funds Project description: The quality of mink pelts depends both on hair and skin, where types of individual proteins and lipids comprising acylglycerols (fat) and phospholipids (membrane lipids) call for special attention. The composition of these skin components depends however on the animals genetic background and on the feed used in the mink production. Even as the

Hilmer Sørensen

2004-01-01

250

Correlates of alcohol-related problems in African-American and white gynecologic patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess racial differences in the risk of alcohol-related problems associated with alcohol consumption, regular psychoactive drug use, a family history of alcohol-related problems, sociodemographic factors (age and education), and social roles (work, marital, and parental) among nonabstaining African-American and White gynecologic outpatients. In addition, work, marital, and parental roles were investigated to determine whether they mediated or explained racial differences observed in relationships between these factors and alcohol-related problems. Respondents were 630 African-American women and 769 White women aged 13-77 who were systematically sampled from three obstetric/gynecologic clinics and two private practices in Erie County, New York. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the significance of main effects of these factors on alcohol-related problems, to test the interactive effects of race with each factor, and to test the interactive effects of social roles with alcohol consumption, the only factor for which a racial difference was observed in its relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, results indicated that correlates of alcohol-related problems were similar for African-American and White women. Higher risk of alcohol-related problems was associated with lower levels of education and lack of work and parental roles. In addition, married women who drank heavily were at higher risk of alcohol-related women who drank heavily were at higher risk of alcohol-related problems than unmarried women who drank heavily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7771657

Lozina, C; Russell, M; Mudar, P

1995-02-01

251

Effect of Postthrombotic Syndrome on Health-Related Quality of Life After Deep Venous Thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a fre- quent chronic complication of deep venous thrombosis, yet its impact on health-related quality of life has not been well characterized. We compared generic and venous dis- ease-specific quality of life in patients with and without PTS, and assessed whether quality of life correlated with severity of PTS. Methods: Subjects with previous deep venous

Susan R. Kahn; Andrew Hirsch; Ian Shrier

2002-01-01

252

Finding Quality Responses: The Problem of Low-Quality Survey Responses and Its Impact on Accountability Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have addressed the issue of response quality in survey studies, few have looked specifically at low-quality survey responses in surveys of college students. As students receive more and more survey requests, it is inevitable that some of them will provide low-quality responses to important campus surveys and institutional…

Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel

2011-01-01

253

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

254

Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

2012-01-01

255

Problems related to shiftwork for health care workers at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study of shiftwork-related problems was carried out among health care workers at hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shiftwork were collected from 432 randomly selected sub- jects by questionnaire. Sleep, social and subjective problems were more prevalent in shiftworkers than day workers. Irregular

A. Choobineh; A. Rajaeefard; M. Neghab

256

Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

Ji, Un Cig [Department of Mathematics, Research Institute of Mathematical Finance, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Obata, Nobuaki [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2010-12-15

257

Risk assessment modelling of microbiology-related solids separation problems in activated sludge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a risk assessment model for settling problems of microbiological origin in activated sludge systems (filamentous bulking, foaming and rising sludge). The aim of the model is not to diagnose microbiology-related solids separation problems with absolute certainty but to quantify in dynamic scenarios whether simulated operational procedures and control strategies lead to favourable conditions for them to arise

Joaquim Comas; Ignasi Rodríguez-roda; Krist V. Gernaey; C. Rosen; U. Jeppsson; Manel Poch

2008-01-01

258

The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N = 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific…

Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2008-01-01

259

Parent and child causal attributions related to the child's clinical problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and children were asked to give causal attributions related to the child's learning or behavior problems and an area of success. Actor-observer differences and tendencies of actors to make differential attributions for their positive and negative outcomes were examined. A significant number of parents and childen were in disagreement regarding the cause of the child's problem. Parents made significantly

Bruce E. Compas; Randi Friedland-Bandes; Rochelle Bastien; Howard S. Adelman

1981-01-01

260

Relevant Indicators of Relative Expertise in Economic Problem Solving: A Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports preliminary research into the nature of relative expertise in economic problem solving. Specifically, this report seeks to address the question of whether the presence of economic knowledge alone accounts for expertise in economic problem solving or whether both economic knowledge and the development and employment of economic…

VanFossen, Phillip J.

261

Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

2009-01-01

262

The Role of Marital Quality and Spousal Support in Behaviour Problems of Children with and without Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. Methods: The relationship…

Wieland, N.; Baker, B. L.

2010-01-01

263

Employment status and work-related problems of gastrointestinal cancer patients at diagnosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the employment status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer at diagnosis and to examine work-related problems of employed patients. Design New, consecutive patients were included at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Center Amsterdam, a one-stop, rapid access diagnostic assessment centre. Patients were interviewed on their employment status by a nurse. If (self-) employed, patients were asked to self-report on work-related problems, perceived distress (0–10), cancer-related problems, fatigue (MFI-20, range 4–20) and work ability (three WAI questions, range 0–10). Results Of all 333 included new consecutive patients (age range 32–89?years), 95 patients (28%) were (self-) employed at time of diagnosis, 179 (54%) were pensioners, and 59 were not working (18%). For the assessment of work-related problems, 45 (47%) of these 95 employed patients with cancer participated. Their mean age was 56?years, and patients had oesophageal/stomach (49%), colorectal (18%) or hepatic/pancreatic/biliary cancer (33%). Half of the employed patients (49%) were still at work, while 51% were on sick leave. The main reasons for sick leave were stress (35%), (scheduled) operation (26%), fatigue (17%) and pain (13%). Most patients on sick leave (70%) had no contact with their own occupational physician, although the majority (67%) would like to continue to work. Work-related problems were experienced by 73% of working patients. The mean work ability was 5.4, the mean general fatigue score was 11.5, and the mean distress score was 4.7. Employed patients on sick leave reported a lower work ability, more fatigue and higher distress but no more cancer-related problems compared with those still working. Conclusion A quarter of all patients with gastrointestinal cancer seen at an oncological centre are employed at time of diagnosis, and of these employed patients, 73% experience work-related problems. During diagnosis and treatment, information and support on work-related issues should be offered to patients with cancer as an essential part of high-quality oncological care.

Bruinvels, D J; Tytgat, K M A J; Schoorlemmer, A; Klinkenbijl, J H G; Frings-Dresen, M H W

2011-01-01

264

Problem Solving in the Presence of Others: How Rank and Relationship Quality Impact Resource Acquisition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.

Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.

2014-01-01

265

Health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem in Malaysia. However, it is also one of the most treatable cancers, resulting in significant numbers of survivors. Therefore, the impact of surviving treatment for colorectal cancer on health related quality of life is important for the patients, clinicians and policy makers, and may differ in different cultures and populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Malaysian versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life instruments among colorectal cancers patients. Methods/design This is a cross sectional multi centre study. Three hospitals were included, the University of Malaya Medical Centre, the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Tuanku Jaafar Seremban. Malaysian citizens and permanent residence were studied and demographic and clinical information obtained from hospital records. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Core 30, colorectal cancer CR29, and the colorectal cancer liver metastasis LMC 21 were used and an observer assessment of performance obtained with the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Questionnaires were translated into three most commonly spoken languages in Malaysia (Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese and Tamil), then administered, scored and analyzed following the developers’ guidelines. Ethical approval was obtained from the participating centres. Tests of reliability and validity were performed to examine the validity of these instruments. Conclusion The result of pilot testing shows that the use of the Malaysian versions of EORTC QLQ C30, CR29 instruments is feasible in our sample of colorectal cancer patients. Instructions for completion as well as questions were well understood except the questions on the overall quality of life, overall health status and sexual activity. Thus we anticipate obtaining good psychometric properties for the instruments at the end of the study.

2012-01-01

266

Health-related quality of life in Swedish pediatric burn patients and associations with burn and family characteristics.  

PubMed

Although many children with burns recover well and have a satisfying quality of life after the burn, some children do not adjust as well. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) focuses on the impact health status has on quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL with the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) in a nationwide Swedish sample of children with burns 0.3-9.0 years after injury. Participants were parents (n=109) of children aged up to 18 years at the time of investigation who were treated at the Linköping or Uppsala Burn Center between 2000 and 2008. The majority of children did not have limitations in physical function and they did not seem to experience much pain. However, there were indications of psychosocial problems. Parents of preschool children reported most problems with the children's behavior and family disruption, whereas parents of children aged 5-18 years reported most problems with appearance and emotional health. There were mainly burn-related variables associated with suboptimal HRQoL in children aged 5-18 years, while family-related variables did not contribute as much. PMID:24290162

Sveen, J; Sjöberg, F; Oster, C

2014-08-01

267

Solution of inverse problem of fuzzy relational equation by using perceptron model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Max-Min fuzzy system can be regarded as a network of max and min operational elements. Thus, the inverse problem of a fuzzy relational equation is interpreted as an input estimation problem from output values in the corresponding network. An approximate network model of a fuzzy relational system is proposed. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution of the system is presented for using a neural network technique.

Hirota, Kaoru; Ikoma, Norikazu

1991-01-01

268

Assessment of oral health related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dentistry, as in other branches of Medicine, it has been recognised that objective measures of disease provide little insight\\u000a into the impact of oral disorders on daily living and quality of life. A significant body of development work has been undertaken\\u000a to provide health status measures for use as outcome measures in dentistry. In descriptive population studies, poor oral

P Finbarr Allen

2003-01-01

269

Relation of Health-Related Quality of Life to Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, Depression, and Comorbid Illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in several studies. Many studies used only one HRQoL measure and failed to adjust for important confounding variables including obesity, depression, and comorbid conditions. Objective To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and HRQoL using multiple measures. We also sought to determine whether increasing body mass index (BMI) or diabetes status further modified this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study included 390 obese participants with elevated waist circumference and at least one other criterion for metabolic syndrome. Of these 390, 269 had metabolic syndrome [i.e., met 3 out of 5 criteria specified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)] and 121 did not. Participants were enrolled in a primary-care based weight reduction trial. HRQoL was assessed using two generic instruments, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), as well as an obesity-specific measure, the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQoL-Lite). Differences in HRQoL were compared among participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine how HRQoL varied according to metabolic syndrome status, and whether factors including weight, depression, and burden of comorbid disease modified this relationship. Results Metabolic syndrome was not associated with HRQoL as assessed by any of the measures. In univariable analysis, depression, disease burden, and employment status were significantly associated with worse HRQoL on all instruments. In the multivariable models, only depression remained significantly associated with reduced HRQoL on all measures. Increasing obesity and diabetes status did not modify the relationship between metabolic syndrome and HRQoL. Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, metabolic syndrome was not associated with impaired HRQoL as assessed by multiple measures. This suggests that metabolic syndrome in itself is not associated with decreased HRQoL, but other factors such as obesity, depression, and greater disease burden may significantly influence quality of life in this population.

Vetter, Marion L.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Lavenberg, Jeffrey; Moore, Renee H.; Volger, Sheri; Perez, Joanna L.; Sarwer, David B.; Tsai, Adam Gilden

2011-01-01

270

Rewarding results: Improving the quality of treatment for people with alcohol and drug problems.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders are the nation's number one health problem, and lie at the root of many public safety and workplace issues. Improving quality of treatment is as important as improving access to treatment. Leadership for improvement must come from many sources: Congress, SAMHSA, state legislatures, state and local treatment agencies, criminal justice, welfare and other public agencies, employers and managed care organizations, providers, and community leaders. We hope that our report helps leaders see ways to improve treatment quality. Our recommendations can be summed up in a single phrase: reward results. We recognize that there are many avenues for treatment quality improvement, including training, credentialing, best practice dissemination, work force development, facility licensing standards, improvement and implementation of new models for treatment of dual diagnosis patients. We believe, however, that rewarding results is essential to motivating action for improvement. We also believe that if providers receive rewards for improved results, they will creatively open new avenues for improvement--a focus on results gives greater freedom than more detailed mandates for change. Finally, we believe that rewards for result may lead to a restructured treatment system with greater stability and correspondingly greater capacity to improve. While we have placed central emphasis on the role of institutional buyers and managers of care, we believe that the voices of patients and families must be heard. People who have progressed to the stage of recovery, and their families, often have essential insight into what did and did not work for them--their personal stories are frequently compelling and persuasive. We also believe that providers of treatment for substance use disorders are profoundly committed to serving their patients, and often have great understanding of what works. Wise managers will listen very carefully and systematically to the voices of consumers, their families, and their providers. We have advocated that buyers reward results as a central strategy for improving quality. We believe that this is the best long-term strategy, not only to effect quality improvement, but also to end stigmatization and increase resources. We wish, in closing, to reemphasize our shared beliefs that adequate resources are essential, that treating persons with substance use disorders is always emotionally challenging and often profoundly frustrating and alienating, and that those on the front line deserve our unequivocal support and our profound gratitude for their service. Legislators should adequately fund public treatment and mandate parity in insurance reimbursement for treatment of substance use disorders. PMID:15285207

2004-03-01

271

Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems  

SciTech Connect

Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

King, J.M. Jr.

1996-03-01

272

Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed.

Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

2011-01-01

273

Fluctuating asymmetry in relation to indices of quality and fitness in the damselfly, Enallagmaebrium (Hagen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) refers to random deviations from symmetry of otherwise bilaterally symmetric traits. Researchers\\u000a have hypothesized that FA should be inversely related to individual quality or fitness. In this study, we tested for FA-quality\\u000a and FA-fitness relations in the damselfly, Enallagmaebrium (Hagen). We used wet mass of an individual as a measure of its quality and longevity as a

Brian Leung; Mark R. Forbes

1997-01-01

274

Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related

Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

2008-01-01

275

Health-related quality of life before and after bariatric surgery in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent data reaffirm decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese adults and children. Health-related quality of life is markedly improved after bariatric surgery in adults. Little HRQL data are available in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery.

Tara J. Loux; Ramanath N. Haricharan; Ronald H. Clements; Ronette L. Kolotkin; Samuel E. Bledsoe; Beverly Haynes; Teresa Leath; Carroll M. Harmon

2008-01-01

276

How to interpret the magnitude of change in health-related quality of life? A study on the use of Cohen's thresholds for effect size estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper aims to identify problems ,in the ,evaluation of the ,magnitude ,of treatment-related change, or responsiveness of health status or health-related quality of life instruments, which are induced by standardizingchange over time with the standard deviation of the difference score. This effect size is widely used and is represented as the Standardised Response Mean (SRM), and interpretation is

Berrie Middel; Eric van Sonderen

277

Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover. PMID:23600246

Findlay, S; Fischer, D

2013-01-01

278

Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

Bacci, Geoff

2002-01-01

279

Emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems: The mediating role of urgency.  

PubMed

Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems. This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 and 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest that poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

Emery, Noah N; Simons, Jeffrey S; Clarke, C Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M

2014-10-01

280

Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college students who were surveyed in March 2007. Methods: The Rasch model was employed

Ozgur Avci; Michael Fendrich

2010-01-01

281

COMMUNITIES AND COLLEGES: UTILIZING PUBLIC RELATIONS TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES TO SOLVE CHRONIC TOWN-GOWN PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Kristin,M. Leavey COMMUNITIES AND COLLEGES: UTILIZING PUBLIC RELATIONS TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES TO SOLVE CHRONIC TOWN-GOWN PROBLEMS 2003\\/2004 Dr. Suzanne,Sparks,FitzGerald Master,of,Arts,- Public,Relations The,purpose,of,this,thesis,was,to,determine,what

Kristin M. Leavey

2004-01-01

282

Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

Johnson, L. Syd M.

2012-01-01

283

Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

2007-01-01

284

Coping as a Moderator of Relations Between Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress, Health Status, and Internalizing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coping moderation of relations between involuntary stress-reactivity, health status, and internalizing problems was tested in sociotropic college students responding to a standardized laboratory interpersonal stressor. Coping moderated relations between heart rate reactivity and health status, with primary control engagement coping, secondary control engagement coping, and disengagement coping all serving as buffers. Primary control also buffered the link between self-reported arousal

Jennifer K. Connor-Smith; Bruce E. Compas

2004-01-01

285

Onsager's reciprocity relations in problems of the kinetic theory of gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to the flow of a multicomponent gas mixture in an arbitrary domain. A general method is proposed for choosing the kinetic coefficients for which Onsager's reciprocity relation is satisfied. It is shown that, in order to satisfy these relations in non-one-dimensional problems it is necessary to take into account the heat flux on the lateral surface of

F. M. Sharipov; V. D. Akin'shin; V. D. Seleznev

1989-01-01

286

Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

2009-01-01

287

Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…

Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

2010-01-01

288

Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

Ito, Jun-ichi

2006-01-01

289

Relations between delay discounting and low to moderate gambling, cannabis, and alcohol problems among university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has generally demonstrated that the discounting of delayed rewards is associated with severity of addictive behaviour. Less clear, however, is the relative strength of the relation for specific addictive behaviours. University students (N=218) completed a computerized delay discounting task for hypothetical monetary rewards, and gambling, cannabis, and alcohol problem severity was assessed. A multiple regression analysis revealed that while

Jonathan N. Stea; David C. Hodgins; Michael J. Lambert

2011-01-01

290

A note on relative motion in the general three-body problem.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the equations of the general three-body problem take on a very symmetric form when one considers only their relative positions, rather than position vectors relative to some given coordinate system. From these equations one quickly surmises some well known classical properties of the three-body problem, such as the first integrals and the equilateral triangle solutions. Some new Lagrangians with relative coordinates are also obtained. Numerical integration of the new equations of motion is about 10% faster than with barycentric or heliocentric coordinates.

Broucke, R.; Lass, H.

1973-01-01

291

Relations among early adolescents' parent-adolescent attachment, perceived social competence, and friendship quality.  

PubMed

To assess whether the relation between attachment and friendship quality may be explained by social competence, 113 students in Grades 7 and 8 from the Baltimore metropolitan area completed self-report questionnaires on the variables of interest. In hierarchical regression analyses, both maternal Affective Quality of Attachment and the interaction of School with paternal Affective Quality of Attachment predicted social competence. Also, the interaction of School with paternal Affective Quality of Attachment predicted negative friendship features, whereas social competence predicted positive friendship features. These findings provide support for a pathway between adolescents' attachment to both parents and adolescents' perceived social competence and, in turn, their friendship quality. PMID:22420115

Boling, Melissa W; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Kotchick, Beth A; Lowry, Jen

2011-12-01

292

Symmetry, reduction and relative equilibria of a rigid body in the J2 problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The J2 problem is an important problem in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics and orbital design of spacecraft, as non-spherical mass distribution of the celestial body is taken into account. In this paper, the J2 problem is generalized to the motion of a rigid body in a J2 gravitational field. The relative equilibria are studied by using geometric mechanics. A Poisson reduction process is carried out by means of the symmetry. Non-canonical Hamiltonian structure and equations of motion of the reduced system are obtained. The basic geometrical properties of the relative equilibria are given through some analyses on the equilibrium conditions. Then we restrict to the zeroth and second-order approximations of the gravitational potential. Under these approximations, the existence and detailed properties of the relative equilibria are investigated. The orbit-rotation coupling of the rigid body is discussed. It is found that under the second-order approximation, there exists a classical type of relative equilibria except when the rigid body is near the surface of the central body and the central body is very elongated. Another non-classical type of relative equilibria can exist when the central body is elongated enough and has a low average density. The non-classical type of relative equilibria in our paper is distinct from the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria in the spherically-simplified Full Two Body Problem, which cannot exist under the second-order approximation. Our results also extend the previous results on the classical type of relative equilibria in the spherically-simplified Full Two Body Problem by taking into account the oblateness of the primary body. The results on relative equilibria are useful for studies on the motion of many natural satellites, whose motion are close to the relative equilibria.

Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

2013-04-01

293

Weight, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Maintaining weight is important for better prognosis of breast cancer survivors. The associations between weight and cancer-related symptoms are not known. We examined associations among weight, weight change, inflammation, cancer-related symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors. Participants were recruited on average 6 months (2–12 months) after diagnosis. Height, weight, and c-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed at approximately 30 months post-diagnosis; cancer-related symptoms (chest wall and arm symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, urinary incontinence, vaginal symptoms, cognition/mood problems, sleep, sexual interest/function), and HRQOL (SF-36) were assessed at approximately 40 months post-diagnosis. Weight was measured at baseline in a subset. Data on 661 participants were evaluable for body mass index (BMI); 483 were evaluable for weight change. We assessed associations between BMI (<25.0, 25.0–29.9, ?30.0 kg/m2), post-diagnosis weight change (lost ?5%, weight change <5%, gained ?5%), and CRP (tertile) with cancer-related symptoms and HRQOL using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Higher symptoms scores indicate more frequent or severe symptoms. Higher HRQOL scores indicate better HRQOL. Compared with those with BMI<25kg/m2, women with BMI ?30 kg/m2 had scores that were: increased for arm symptoms (+25.0%), urinary incontinence (+40.0%), tendency to nap (+18.9%) and poorer physical functioning (?15.6%, all p<0.05). Obese women had lower scores in trouble falling asleep (?9.9%; p<0.05). Compared with weight change <5%, participants with ?5% weight gain had lower scores in physical functioning (?7.2%), role-physical (?15.5%) and vitality (?11.2%), and those with weight loss ?5% had lower chest wall (?33.0%) and arm symptom scores (?35.5%, all p<0.05). Increasing CRP tertile was associated with worse scores for chest wall symptoms, urinary incontinence, physical functioning, role-physical, vitality and physical component summary scores (all Ptrend<0.05). Future studies should examine whether interventions to maintain a healthy weight and reduce inflammation could alleviate cancer-related symptoms and improve HRQOL.

Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; George, Stephanie M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

2013-01-01

294

PHYTOPLANKTON WATER-QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS IN U.S. LAKES. PART VIII: ALGAE ASSOCIATED WITH OR RESPONSIBLE FOR WATER-QUALITY PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental data are presented for 117 species and 24 genera of freshwater algae that have been associated with or are responsible for water quality problems. The environmental data are based upon algal occurrence records from 250 lakes sampled in Eastern and Southeastern State...

295

Lyapunov Robust Control for the Coupled Large Angle Relative Trajectory Following Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the general relative position of synchronous low Earth orbit satellites, the desired relative attitude and attitude rate guidance commands are derived for a large angle relative trajectory following problem. A globally stable Lyapunov type nonlinear robust controller is designed with respect to uncertainties coming from state and input functions. Furthermore, the saturation and slew rate of a chosen micro reaction wheel are considered in the simulation.

Xu, Y.

296

Practical evaluation of the drug-related problem management process in Swiss community pharmacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop and evaluate a coding system integrated into pharmaceutical software to routinely report and assess the process\\u000a of community pharmacists’ interventions related to medical prescriptions. Setting A convenient sample of 20 Swiss community pharmacies. Method Pharmacists documented their interventions concerning all drug-related problems (DRPs) related to medical prescriptions during\\u000a four consecutive weeks in 2005. The coding system assesses

Jean-Marc Krähenbühl; Bertha Kremer; Bertrand Guignard; Olivier Bugnon

2008-01-01

297

Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.  

PubMed

To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence. PMID:22420125

Sumi, Katsunori

2011-12-01

298

Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling, Related Harms and Help-Seeking Behaviours Among an Australian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently reported prevalence rates ranging between 0.9 and 23.5% for problem gambling among\\u000a young people. With such a large range reported in the literature, it is clear that more research in this area would be of\\u000a value. The current study investigated the prevalence rate of adolescent gambling and problem gambling and explored types of\\u000a harm-related and help-seeking

Katie Splevins; Shab Mireskandari; Kymbra Clayton; Alex Blaszczynski

2010-01-01

299

Night-Shift Work Related Problems in Young Female Nurses in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Night-Shift Work Related Problems in Young Female Nurses in Japan: Takashi OHIDA, et al. Department of Public Health Administration, National Institute of Public Health—Background: The relationship of night-shift work to sleep problems and work performance was examined in young female nurses in 11 hospitals in Japan. Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaires, carried

Takashi OHIDA; AMM KAMAL; Tomofumi SONE; Toshihiro ISHII; Makoto UCHIYAMA; Masumi MINOWA; Sadahiko NOZAKI

2001-01-01

300

Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal\\u000a pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings\\u000a by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the\\u000a experience of back

Clare S Rees; Anne J Smith; Peter B O’Sullivan; Garth E Kendall; Leon M Straker

2011-01-01

301

Health-related quality of life improves with treatment-related GERD symptom resolution after adjusting for baseline severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severity and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) related symptoms are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study evaluated the association between baseline heartburn severity and endpoint HRQL of patients treated for heartburn and the relationship between complete resolution of heartburn symptoms and HRQL outcomes after controlling for baseline severity. We completed a secondary analysis of clinical

Dennis A Revicki; Marc W Zodet; Sandra Joshua-Gotlib; Douglas Levine; Joseph A Crawley

2003-01-01

302

Prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in the Lower Mississippi Delta.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess demographic and geographic differences in prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1991 and 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults 18 years or older. RESULTS: Less educated African American women and women of other minority groups who were aged 35 to 64 years reported the highest prevalence of health problems. Geographic differences involved prevalence of hypertension, health status, and insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific demographic subgroups and geographic areas with a high risk of health problems are in particular need of targeted interventions.

Smith, J; Lensing, S; Horton, J A; Lovejoy, J; Zaghloul, S; Forrester, I; McGee, B B; Bogle, M L

1999-01-01

303

Posttraumatic Stress and Sleep: Differential Relations across Types of Symptoms and Sleep Problems  

PubMed Central

Posttraumatic stress symptoms and self-reported sleep problems reliably covary. The current study investigated how posttraumatic stress symptom clusters (i.e., hyperarousal, avoidance, and reexperiencing) relate to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Participants included traumatic event-exposed respondents from the NCS-R. Results suggested that posttraumatic stress symptom severity is related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares. Investigation of symptom clusters indicated that reexperiencing symptoms were related to trouble initiating and maintaining sleep and nightmares, while hyperarousal symptoms were related to trouble maintaining sleep and nightmares. Findings partially support both reexperiencing and hyperarousal-based models of the relation between sleep and posttraumatic stress.

Babson, Kimberly; Feldner, Matthew; Badour, Christal; Trainor, Casey; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman

2011-01-01

304

Alcohol Use and Health-Related Quality of Life among Youth in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine the extent to which the use of the three most commonly consumed drugs in Taiwan (i.e., alcohol, tobacco, and betel nut) is related with health-related quality of life among adolescents. We probe whether the relationship linking alcohol use with health-related quality varies by health-orientated domains (e.g., physical, social, or emotional) and if it differs with other drug involvement.

Chuan-Yu Chen; Carla L. Storr

2006-01-01

305

The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems.  

PubMed

This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. PMID:24295382

Van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovi?, Maja; De Haan, Amaranta D; Asscher, Jessica J; Widiger, Thomas

2013-12-01

306

Stability of relative equilibria in the full two-body problem.  

PubMed

The stability of relative equilibrium solutions for the interaction of two massive bodies is explored. We restrict ourselves to the interaction between an ellipsoid and a sphere, both with finite mass. The study of this problem has application to modeling the relative dynamics of binary asteroids, the motion of spacecraft about small bodies, and the dynamics of gravity gradient satellites. The relative equilibrium can be parameterized by a few constants, including the mass ratio of the two bodies, the shape of the ellipsoid, and the normalized distance between the two bodies. Planar stability is characterized over this range of parameter values. When restricted to motion in the symmetry plane, the dynamical problem can be reduced to a two-degrees of freedom Hamiltonian system, which allows for an efficient computation of stability characteristics of the relative equilibria. Future work will look at full stability of these relative equilibria. PMID:15220142

Scheeres, D J

2004-05-01

307

HON label and DISCERN as content quality indicators of health-related websites.  

PubMed

Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which assessed with a standardized tool the general and content quality (evidence-based health information) of health-related websites. Keywords related to Social phobia, bipolar disorders, pathological gambling as well as cannabis, alcohol and cocaine addiction were entered into popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality (evidence-based information). "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of 874 websites identified, 388 were included. Despite an observed association with higher content quality scores, the HON label fails to predict good content quality websites when used in a multiple regression. Sensibility and specificity of a DISCERN score >40 in the detection of good content quality websites were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.96. The DISCERN is a potential quality indicator with a relatively high specificity. Further developments in this domain are warranted in order to facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients. PMID:21547515

Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

2012-03-01

308

Health-related quality of life in adults with Hodgkin's disease: the state of the science.  

PubMed

Hodgkin's disease (HD) affects younger and older adults and can disrupt developmental tasks and cause multiple medical sequelae. Since long-term survival is excellent, understanding issues related to all domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL)-physical, psychological, social/functional, and spiritual-after completion of treatment is a critical step in designing and testing interventions to improve survivors' adjustment and return to their previous level of functioning. This article is an integrative review of empirical studies of HRQOL in HD survivors. Following Ganong's guidelines, 35 studies were identified and reviewed. Commonly reported physical consequences of HD include fatigue, anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and cognitive problems that lasted several years after treatment completion, as well as long-term life-threatening adverse effects including secondary cancers and cardiovascular and respiratory complications. Psychological consequences include emotional distress, especially depression and anxiety, and social/functional difficulty, including inability to return to work and adjustment to the workplace environment secondary to diminished capacity to complete work tasks. Within the spiritual domain, survivors reported that they had a greater appreciation for life after treatment. Development of appropriate theory-guided interventions to improve the HRQOL for HD survivors can be achieved through more rigorous study designs and standardization of HRQOL measurements. PMID:19816166

Roper, Kristin; McDermott, Kathleen; Cooley, Mary E; Daley, Kristen; Fawcett, Jacqueline

2009-01-01

309

Health related quality of life in Critically ill Patients A study of health related quality of life in critically ill patients admitted on the Intensive Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is a relevant outcome measure for patients admitted to the\\u000aintensive care unit (ICU). Long term outcome for physical and psychological factors, functional\\u000astatus and social interactions are becoming more and more important both for doctors and nurses\\u000aas well as for patients and their relatives (1;2). Therefore doctors and nurses want to know

J. G. M. Hofhuis

2008-01-01

310

Rural-Urban Analyses of Health-Related Quality of Life among People with Multiple Sclerosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional construct including aspects of life quality or function that are affected by physical health and symptoms, psychosocial factors, and psychiatric conditions. HRQOL gives a broader measure of the burden of disease than physical impairment or disability levels. Purpose: To…

Buchanan, Robert J.; Zhu, Li; Schiffer, Randolph; Radin, Dagmar; James, Wesley

2008-01-01

311

Health-related Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Morbid Obesity Coming for Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Obesity has become a major health issue not only in the West but also in Asia. Morbid obesity can lead to much comorbidity and can markedly interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) between patients with morbid obesity coming for bariatric surgery and the healthy population in

Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Hung; Yu-Yin Chang; Chi-Ming Tai; Jaw-Town Lin; Jung-Der Wang

2008-01-01

312

Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

2013-01-01

313

WATER QUALITY RELATED PUBLICATIONS FOR ROCK CREEK, IDAHO. REFERENCES THROUGH 1991  

EPA Science Inventory

This bibliography contains citations and abstracts for 626 water quality and water resource related publications for Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) through 1991. Clark, W.H. 1991.Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Divison of Environmental Quality, Boise, ID. 167 pp....

314

Health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) profoundly affects the quality of patients’ lives. A systematic review was performed to evaluate critically the published literature and to examine what is known about health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with IPF.Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to 1 April 2004. Abstracts and bibliographies of

J J Swigris; W G Kuschner; S S Jacobs; S R Wilson; M K Gould

2005-01-01

315

Effects of relative humidity on apple quality under simulated shelf temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the quality of ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples were studied at 20°C under 30, 65 and 95% RH conditions. The aim of the research was to assess the effects of RH on apple quality under retailers’ shelf temperatures. Mealy texture may develop by holding apples at high RH (95%), and 20°C for some time

K Tu; J De Baerdemaeker

2000-01-01

316

A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

2007-01-01

317

Health related quality of life in parents of six to eight year old children with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Raising a child with Down syndrome (DS) has been found to be associated with lowered health related quality of life (HRQoL) in the domains cognitive functioning, social functioning, daily activities and vitality. We aimed to explore which socio-demographics, child functioning and psychosocial variables were related to these HRQoL domains in parents of children with DS. Parents of 98 children with DS completed the TNO-AZL adult quality of life questionnaire (TAAQOL) and a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, child functioning and psychosocial predictors. Using multiple linear regression analyses for each category of predictors, we selected relevant predictors for the final models. The final multiple linear regression models revealed that cognitive functioning was best predicted by the sleep of the child (?=.29, p<.01) and by the parent having given up a hobby (?=-.29, p<.01), social functioning by the quality of the partner relation (?=.34, p<.001), daily activities by the parent having to care for an ill friend or family member (?=-.31, p<.01), and vitality by the parent having enough personal time (?=.32, p<.01). Overall, psychosocial variables rather than socio-demographics or child functioning showed most consistent and powerful relations to the HRQoL domains of cognitive functioning, social functioning, daily activities and vitality. These psychosocial variables mainly related to social support and time pressure. Systematic screening of parents to detect problems timely, and interventions targeting the supportive network and the demands in time are recommended. PMID:24083990

Marchal, Jan Pieter; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Hatzmann, Janneke; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Grootenhuis, Martha A

2013-11-01

318

Predictors of expressed emotion, burden and quality of life in relatives of Mexican patients with psychosis.  

PubMed

Expressed emotion, burden and quality of life of relatives received attention because of the increasing interest in predicting and preventing relapse in psychotic patients; but they have subsequently acquired interest of their own as important aspects of families' psychological well-being. The study explores whether the psychological distress and illness perception of a sample of relatives of Mexican patients with psychosis can predict their levels of expressed emotion, burden and quality of life above patients' clinical and functional status. Sixty-five patient-relative dyads were interviewed. Relatives self-reported on expressed emotion, burden, quality of life, psychological distress and illness perception. Patients' clinical and functional status was rated by an interviewer. Pearson correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regressions were used for statistical analyses. Patients' functional status and relatives' psychological distress were significantly associated with expressed emotion, burden and quality of life. Patients' clinical status and relatives' illness perception were most strongly related to expressed emotion and burden. Relatives' psychological distress and illness perception dimensions predicted both burden and quality of life, over and above patients' clinical and functional status. Results underscore the relatives' need of support to overcome their own distress and concerns about the illness, for the psychological well-being of both patients and relatives. PMID:23551489

Gómez-de-Regil, L; Kwapil, T R; Barrantes-Vidal, N

2014-03-01

319

Feeding Problems in Healthy Young Children: Prevalence, Related Factors and Feeding Practices  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively). The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of mealtimes, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha

2013-01-01

320

Evolution of Flying Qualities Analysis: Problems for a New Generation of Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of challenges in the development and application of flying qualities criteria for modern aircraft are addressed in this dissertation. The history of flying qualities is traced from its origins to modern day techniques as applied to piloted aircra...

M. C. Cotting

2010-01-01

321

Detection of medication-related problems in hospital practice: a review  

PubMed Central

This review examines the effectiveness of detection methods in terms of their ability to identify and accurately determine medication-related problems in hospitals. A search was conducted of databases from inception to June 2012. The following keywords were used in combination: medication error or adverse drug event or adverse drug reaction, comparison, detection, hospital and method. Seven detection methods were considered: chart review, claims data review, computer monitoring, direct care observation, interviews, prospective data collection and incident reporting. Forty relevant studies were located. Detection methods that were better able to identify medication-related problems compared with other methods tested in the same study included chart review, computer monitoring, direct care observation and prospective data collection. However, only small numbers of studies were involved in comparisons with direct care observation (n = 5) and prospective data collection (n = 6). There was little focus on detecting medication-related problems during various stages of the medication process, and comparisons associated with the seriousness of medication-related problems were examined in 19 studies. Only 17 studies involved appropriate comparisons with a gold standard, which provided details about sensitivities and specificities. In view of the relatively low identification of medication-related problems with incident reporting, use of this method in tracking trends over time should be met with some scepticism. Greater attention should be placed on combining methods, such as chart review and computer monitoring in examining trends. More research is needed on the use of claims data, direct care observation, interviews and prospective data collection as detection methods.

Manias, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

322

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS (FIRST EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This first external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released in January 2005 for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean A...

323

Air Quality in Private Dwelling-Houses. A Study of Need Related Ventilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements laid down in the Swedish Building Code (SBN) regarding the ventilation of dwellings do not produce an acceptable air quality in bedrooms if the comfort requirements which should apply regarding relative humidity and carbon dioxide content...

A. Loegdberg A. Adling

1986-01-01

324

Quality-Related Pay Adjustment Factors for Pavements. NCHRP Research Results Digest 371.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This digest summarizes the findings of the research conducted under NCHRP Project 10-79 to develop guidance pertaining to the quality-related pay adjustment factors used for flexible and rigid pavement construction. Highway agencies generally specify cert...

2013-01-01

325

Recommended Carbon Dioxide and Relative Humidity Levels for Maintaining Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the AFLC Surgeon, AFOEHL prepared a recommendation for carbon dioxide and relative humidity levels to maintain adequate indoor air quality. The report summarizes and analyzes the results of approximately 75 building investigations and ma...

B. J. Poitrast D. Carpenter

1990-01-01

326

[Psychological problems related to the sexual stimulation video (SSV) test in the diagnosis of erectile disorders].  

PubMed

The Authors analyze scientific community's attitude towards VSS test. Related psychological problems are examined: the doctor's fear to be accused of voyeurism, the doctor's inadequacy in "invading" patient's field of intimacy, the doctor's relationship with his own erotic fantasies and with pornography, the "castrating" aspects in hospital environment and so on. PMID:7951358

Rosso, C; Furlan, P M; Rolle, L; Fontana, D

1994-09-01

327

Educational problems related to quantitative EEG changes in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between educational problems and clinical\\/electroencephalographic aspects was assessed in 38 children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Children were assessed using the School Performance Test; questionnaires on learning difficulties administered to parents and teachers; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition; and EEGs. Absolute and relative amplitudes in the classic bands (quantitative EEG) and characteristics

Glória M. A. S. Tedrus; Lineu C. Fonseca; Elisa M. V. Melo; Valeria L. Ximenes

2009-01-01

328

Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

2012-01-01

329

Applications of dynamic scheduling technique to space related problems: Some case studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the applications of 'Dynamic Scheduling' technique, which has been invented for the scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing System, to two space related scheduling problems: operation scheduling of a future space transportation system, and resource allocation in a space system with limited resources such as space station or space shuttle.

Nakasuka, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

1994-01-01

330

Prospective evaluation of shoulder-related problems in patients with pectoral cardioverter-defibrillator implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pectoral approach to implantation of cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has become a standard in defibrillator therapy because of reduced generator size, weight, and volume. But the size of these devices is still comparable to the size of the early conventional antibradycardia pacemakers that were associated with a number of significant pocket- and shoulder-related problems after implantation in the pectoral

Thomas Korte; Werner Jung; Ulrich Schlippert; Christian Wolpert; Bahman Esmailzadeh; Roef Fimmers; Ottmar Schmitt; Berndt Lüderitz

1998-01-01

331

Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

Gokler, Riza

2013-01-01

332

Early Childhood Externalising Behaviour Problems: Child, Parenting, and Family-related Predictors Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the dynamic relationships between child, parenting, and family-related predictor variables and early childhood externalising behaviour problems. A community sample of 395 Australian children was followed longitudinally, and assessed at 4 and 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and standard measures of parenting, temperament, and familial adversity. Variables based on the average scores across

Lauren R. Miller-Lewis; Peter A. Baghurst; Michael G. Sawyer; Margot R. Prior; Jennifer J. Clark; Fiona M. Arney; Josephine A. Carbone

2006-01-01

333

Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

2010-01-01

334

Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

2011-01-01

335

AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEMS RELATED TO RESEARCH IN CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING, MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS IN POLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems related to research on the organization, management, economics and technology in the construction industry in Poland are discussed and evaluated in this paper. Scientific and, more specifically, academic circles are characterised and alarming phenomena that accompany practicing the issues of organization and management in construction engineering are discussed: an increase of the number of employees with economic education, phenomena

Oleg Kapli?ski; Edmundas K. Zavadskas

2002-01-01

336

Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

2012-01-01

337

The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

2008-01-01

338

Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

2010-01-01

339

Relations Between Social Self-Perceptions, Time Use, and Prosocial or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined…

Jacobs, Janis E.; Vernon, Margaret K.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2004-01-01

340

Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy in Families with Conduct-Problem Children: Links with Peer Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We addressed the question of whether mothers of conduct-problem (CP) children differ from mothers of non-CP children in their awareness and coaching of emotion, and also examined whether mother's awareness and coaching of emotion is associated with better peer relations in CP children. Meta-emotion philosophy, assessed through audio taped…

Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Windecker-Nelson, Bess

2004-01-01

341

New iterative algorithm for algebraic Riccati equation related to H ? control problem of singularly perturbed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the solution to the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) with indefinite sign quadratic term related to the H? control problem for singularly perturbed systems by means of a Kleinman type algorithm. The resulting algorithm is very efficient from the numerical point of view because the ARE is solvable even if the quadratic term has an indefinite sign. Moreover, the

Hiroaki Mukaidani; Hua Xu; Koichi Mizukami

2001-01-01

342

Young Children's Emotionally-Charged Moral Narratives: Relations with Attachment and Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined affectively-charged moral narratives and attachment-related narratives of preschoolers. Found that, after controlling for child age, gender, SES, and expressive language ability, children with more externalizing problems were more likely to describe aggressive themes, and less likely to mention adult aid or taking responsibility for…

Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Arsenio, William F.

2001-01-01

343

Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

2012-01-01

344

Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

2007-01-01

345

Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality

Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

2012-01-01

346

Healthcare Inspection: Alleged Quality of Care and Problems with Services VA Gulf Coast Veterans Health Care System Biloxi, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The VA Office of Inspector General Office of Healthcare Inspections conducted a review at the request of Congressman Jo Bonner to assess allegations concerning a patient's quality of care as well as address problems with services at the VA Gulf Coast Vete...

2013-01-01

347

Increasing Involvement of Elementary School Teachers in Problem-Solving, Vertical Communication, and Policy Development by Implementing Quality Circles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of quality circles to increase elementary school teachers' involvement in problem solving, vertical communication, and policy formation is examined in this practicum report. An attitudinal survey of 44 elementary teachers to document lack of vertical communication yielded 32 responses. A followup survey was administered to the…

Thomas, Grace Gilliard

348

Low relative humidity and aircraft cabin air quality.  

PubMed

Mucosal irritation remains a common complaint among travelers and flight attendants in aircraft cabins. Despite the fact that very low humidity is routinely encountered, few studies of its effects have been conducted in the cabin environment. The authors reviewed chamber and field studies in the experimental literature to explore whether there is an association and, if so, at what level it was likely to be present. Subjects who participated in prior research were not always able to perceive low humidity or changes in the humidity level and, at times, this inability has been confused in the literature with the lack of a humidity effect. The studies with more powerful experimental designs have demonstrated the effects of low humidity, such as drying of the skin and mucus membranes, and that a modest increase in relative humidity seems to alleviate a great number of symptoms. The exposure duration below during which the effects of low humidity are not noticeable is in the order of 3 to 4 h. It is conceivable that some symptoms experienced by flight attendants and passengers, especially on flights lasting 3 h or longer, may stem from low humidity. PMID:11521505

Nagda, N L; Hodgson, M

2001-09-01

349

The mediating role of relational benefit between service quality and customer loyalty in airline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service quality, in essence, seeks to measure firm performance along transactional dimensions, whereas relational benefits measure the intangible aspects of relationships, over and above the core elements of the service. Thus, the interaction between the consumer and service provider is ongoing (relational) rather than one-off (transactional). The purpose of this study aims to identify the role of relational benefits between

Po-Tsang Chen; Hsin-Hui ‘Sunny’ Hu

2012-01-01

350

Papers Related to Gasoline Supply, Misfueling and Environmental Air Quality for the Summer of 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains nine back-up essays to the study, 'Analysis of Options to Limit Air Quality Degradation Due to Misuse of Leaded Gasoline in Cars Equipped with Catalytic Converters,' IDA P-1426. Thus, the essays pertain to the problem of 'misfueling' ...

D. Dacy P. Cutchis F. Giertz R. Kuenne J. Magnin

1979-01-01

351

MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

352

Determinants of altered quality of life in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of altered quality of life in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. E. Sforza, J.P. Janssens, T. Rochat, V. Ibanez. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Recent reports have suggested that altered quality of life and well-being are reported by patients with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). There seems to be no data available in the literature on factors underlying these behavioural

E. Sforza; J. P. Janssens; T. Rochat; V. Ibanez

2003-01-01

353

Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerodontology 2005; 22; 219-226 Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in frail old people, residents at community care centers. Further, reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for

Elisabeth Warnberg Gerdin; Susanne Einarson; Margareta Jonsson; Kerstin Aronsson; Ingegerd Johansson

2005-01-01

354

Costs and quality of life associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective observational data collection study assessed the cost and quality of life related to hip, vertebral and wrist\\u000a fracture 1 year after the fracture, based on a patient sample consisting of 635 male and female patients surviving a year\\u000a after fracture. Data regarding resource use and quality of life related to fractures was collected by questionnaires at baseline,\\u000a 4

Fredrik Borgström; Niklas Zethraeus; Olof Johnell; Lars Lidgren; Sari Ponzer; Olle Svensson; Peter Abdon; Ewald Ornstein; Karl Lunsjö; Karl Göran Thorngren; Ingemar Sernbo; Clas Rehnberg; Bengt Jönsson

2006-01-01

355

Quality of care and the National Practitioner Data Bank: are the two related?  

PubMed

As the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) approaches its tenth year of operation, it is time to review Data Bank operations in comparison to the goals set forth in the legislation that created it, the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986. The goal of the enabling legislation was to improve the quality of health care rendered in this country. The NPDB was created as one step in the achievement of that goal by identifying problem practitioners who may move from one geographic location to another, thus leaving a poor performance record behind. The premise of this article is to review the contributions of the NPDB in terms of accurately identifying practitioners who pose a quality problem. PMID:15318429

Bartholomew, L A

1999-01-01

356

[Relating briefly the natural resources and the population problems of China].  

PubMed

Problems in population, manifested primarily as either "over" or "under" population, are ultimately related to the development of natural resources. Land is the most basic of natural resources. China's land mass is largely mountainous, with 56% of its more than 2000 counties, 1/3 of its population, 40% of its cultivated land and a majority of its forests, situated in mountainous regions. The quality and the distribution of the various kinds of land are complex and uneven. Although China is rich in forests, grazing, and arable land compared to the rest of the world, its 1 billion population makes the land a limited resource. The limitations of the land are also seen in soil erosion, soil that is increasingly turning into sand, and deforestation. Water resources are not considered scarce, yet compared to the rest of the world, it is limited. Its distribution is very uneven, with more water in the east and west, and less in the north and south. In the southwest mountainous border regions, for instance, water is abundant, but the population and arable land there is such that the demand for water is low. Moreover, droughts and heavy precipitation make the annual water supply unpredicatable. The demand for water becomes increasingly greater as agricultural production develops further, the population increases and as the cities continue to expand. living matter as a resource includes all the animal and plant life that is necessary for livelihood, but only forests and grasslands are discussed here. China's forests, if their use is not abused, can serve as a continuous supply for manufactured products. But its distribution is uneven and sparse. Population control will be ineffective if the forests are not replenished and developed. Grasslands are the primary source for animal products. The natural grasslands, found mainly in the north and west, are not as productive as that of other nations due to the nature of China's topography, the vagaries of climate, and deterioration. Energy, the source for fuel, includes such natural resources as coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydraulic, and solar power. China is among the world's richest in energy resources, yet the supply is sometimes insufficient when spread among 1 billion people. PMID:12312933

Lian, Y

1983-01-29

357

Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems.

Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

2014-01-01

358

Problems with Using the Normal Distribution - and Ways to Improve Quality and Efficiency of Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The Gaussian or normal distribution is the most established model to characterize quantitative variation of original data. Accordingly, data are summarized using the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation, by ± SD, or with the standard error of the mean, ± SEM. This, together with corresponding bars in graphical displays has become the standard to characterize variation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we question the adequacy of this characterization, and of the model. The published literature provides numerous examples for which such descriptions appear inappropriate because, based on the “95% range check”, their distributions are obviously skewed. In these cases, the symmetric characterization is a poor description and may trigger wrong conclusions. To solve the problem, it is enlightening to regard causes of variation. Multiplicative causes are by far more important than additive ones, in general, and benefit from a multiplicative (or log-) normal approach. Fortunately, quite similar to the normal, the log-normal distribution can now be handled easily and characterized at the level of the original data with the help of both, a new sign, x/, times-divide, and notation. Analogous to ± SD, it connects the multiplicative (or geometric) mean * and the multiplicative standard deviation s* in the form * x/s*, that is advantageous and recommended. Conclusions/Significance The corresponding shift from the symmetric to the asymmetric view will substantially increase both, recognition of data distributions, and interpretation quality. It will allow for savings in sample size that can be considerable. Moreover, this is in line with ethical responsibility. Adequate models will improve concepts and theories, and provide deeper insight into science and life.

Limpert, Eckhard; Stahel, Werner A.

2011-01-01

359

Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT.

van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

2008-01-01

360

Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies. Methods Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed. Results Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p?

2012-01-01

361

Cardiac rehabilitation in Austria: long term health-related quality of life outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs is not only to prolong life but also to improve physical functioning, symptoms, well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to document the long-term effect of a 1-month inpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention on HRQL in Austria. Methods Patients (N = 487, 64.7% male, age 60.9 ± 12.5 SD years) after myocardial infarction, with or without percutaneous interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery underwent inpatient cardiac rehabilitation and were included in this long-term observational study (two years follow-up). HRQL was measured with both the MacNew Heart Disease Quality of Life Instrument [MacNew] and EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D]. Results All MacNew scale scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and exceeded the minimal important difference (0.5 MacNew points) by the end of rehabilitation. Although all MacNew scale scores deteriorated significantly over the two year follow-up period (p < .001), all MacNew scale scores still remained significantly higher than the pre-rehabilitation values. The mean improvement after two years in the MacNew social scale exceeded the minimal important difference while MacNew scale scores greater than the minimal important difference were reported by 40-49% of the patients. Two years after rehabilitation the mean improvement in the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score was not significant with no significant change in the proportion of patients reporting problems at this time. Conclusion These findings provide a first indication that two years following inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Austria, the long-term improvements in HRQL are statistically significant and clinically relevant for almost 50% of the patients. Future controlled randomized trials comparing different cardiac rehabilitation programs are needed.

2009-01-01

362

On the existence of the relative equilibria of a rigid body in the J 2 problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of a point mass in the J 2 problem has been generalized to that of a rigid body in a J 2 gravity field for new high-precision applications in the celestial mechanics and astrodynamics. Unlike the original J 2 problem, the gravitational orbit-rotation coupling of the rigid body is considered in the generalized problem. The existence and properties of both the classical and non-classical relative equilibria of the rigid body are investigated in more details in the present paper based on our previous results. We nondimensionalize the system by the characteristic time and length to make the study more general. Through the study, it is found that the classical relative equilibria can always exist in the real physical situation. Numerical results suggest that the non-classical relative equilibria only can exist in the case of a negative J 2, i.e., the central body is elongated; they cannot exist in the case of a positive J 2 when the central body is oblate. In the case of a negative J 2, the effect of the orbit-rotation coupling of the rigid body on the existence of the non-classical relative equilibria can be positive or negative, which depends on the values of J 2 and the angular velocity ? e . The bifurcation from the classical relative equilibria, at which the non-classical relative equilibria appear, has been shown with different parameters of the system. Our results here have given more details of the relative equilibria than our previous paper, in which the existence conditions of the relative equilibria are derived and primarily studied. Our results have also extended the previous results on the relative equilibria of a rigid body in a central gravity field by taking into account the oblateness of the central body.

Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie; Tang, Liang

2013-07-01

363

Postoperative recovery and its association with health-related quality of life among day surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background Day surgery holds advantages for both the patient and the health care organization. However, recovery beyond the first postoperative week and following different types of surgery has not been explored to any greater degree. The current aims were to prospectively describe postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life among different groups of day surgery patients and to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life 30 days after discharge. Methods A consecutive sample of 607 adult day surgery patients undergoing orthopaedic, gynaecological or general surgery was included. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 using the Swedish Post-discharge Surgery Recovery scale and the Quality of Recovery-23 scale. The EQ-5D was used to assess health-related quality of life preoperatively and 30 days following discharge. A repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to evaluate postoperative recovery from day 1 to day 14 and between different surgical groups. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life. Results Postoperative recovery improved from day 1 to 14 in all surgical groups (p<0.001). The orthopaedic patients had lower postoperative recovery on day 14 compared to the general and the gynaecological patients (p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was lower among orthopaedic patients (p<0.001), even if significant improvements over time were seen in all groups. Recovery on day 7 was associated with health-related quality of life 30 days after the day surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion Particularly orthopaedic day surgical patients seem to favour a closer follow-up in order to support recovery and thereby also positively influence health-related quality of life.

2012-01-01

364

Health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status: inequalities among adults with a chronic disease  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have shown an association between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and socioeconomic status (SES). Indicators of SES usually serve as potential confounders; associations between SES and HRQL are rarely discussed in their own right. Also, few studies assess the association between HRQL and SES among those with a chronic disease. The study focuses on the question of whether people with the same state of health judge their HRQL differently according to their SES, and whether a bias could be introduced by ignoring these differences. Methods The analyses were based on a representative sample of the adult population in Germany (n?=?11,177). HRQL was assessed by the EQ-5D-3 L, i.e. the five domains (e.g. ‘moderate or severe problems’ concerning mobility) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). SES was primarily assessed by educational level; age, sex and family status were included as potential confounders. Six chronic diseases were selected, each having a prevalence of at least 1% (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Multivariate analyses were conducted by logistic and linear regression. Results Among adults with a chronic disease, most ‘moderate or severe problems’ are reported more often in the low (compared with the high) educational group. The same social differences are seen for VAS values, also in subgroups characterized by ‘moderate or severe problems’. Gender-specific analyses show that for women the associations with VAS values can just be seen in the total sample. For men, however, they are also present in subgroups defined by ‘moderate or severe problems’ or by the presence of a chronic disease; some of these differences exceed 10 points on the VAS scale. Conclusions Low SES groups seem to be faced with a double burden: first, increased levels of health impairments and, second, lower levels of valuated HRQL once health is impaired. These associations should be analysed and discussed in their own right, based on interdisciplinary co-operation. Social epidemiologists could include measures of HRQL in their studies more often, for example, and health economists could consider assessing whether recommendations based on HRQL scales might include a social bias.

2014-01-01

365

Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity.

2013-01-01

366

Comparison of Discriminative Properties Among Disease-Specific Questionnaires for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires have been introduced to assess patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Breathing Problems Questionnaire (BPQ), and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). The purpose of the present study was to make comparisons between the SGRQ , the BPQ , and the CRQ in their

TAKASHI HAJIRO; KOICHI NISHIMURA; MITSUHIRO TSUKINO; AKIHIKO IKEDA; HIROSHI KOYAMA; TAKATERU IZUMI

1999-01-01

367

Potential problems relative to TDRS/IUS tilt table elevation with failed VRCS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational concerns and preliminary solution alternatives related to elevating the inertial upper stage/tracking and data relay satellite (IUS/TDRS) with a failed orbiter vernier reaction control system (VRCS) are presented. Problems arise from the combination of TDRS thermal constraints and tilt table constraints (the primary reaction control system (PRCS) cannot be used to hold attitude while the tilt table is being elevated), and the problems are compounded by the minimum PRCS attitude deadband. The potential solution options are affected by the launch window, flight profile, crew procedures, vehicle capability and constraints, and flight rules.

Bell, J.

1980-01-01

368

Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

2012-01-01

369

The interaction of conduct problems and depressed mood in relation to adolescent substance involvement and peer substance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conduct problems are strong positive predictors of substance use and problem substance use among teens, whereas predictive associations of depressed mood with these outcomes are mixed. Conduct problems and depressed mood often co-occur, and such co-occurrence may heighten risk for negative outcomes. Thus, this study examined the interaction of conduct problems and depressed mood at age 11 in relation to

W. Alex Mason; Julia E. Hitchings; Richard L. Spoth

2008-01-01

370

Summary of: Oral health-related quality of life of children in relation to dental appearance and educational transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A variety of inherited and acquired conditions affect the dentition. The aim of this research was to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in relation to the status of their permanent incisors, at a significant transitional stage in their childhood.Method Two hundred and sixteen patients of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield, aged between 10

M. Dorri

2011-01-01

371

Oral health-related quality of life of children in relation to dental appearance and educational transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A variety of inherited and acquired conditions affect the dentition. The aim of this research was to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children in relation to the status of their permanent incisors, at a significant transitional stage in their childhood.Method Two hundred and sixteen patients of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield, aged between 10

Z. Marshman; J. Porritt; J. Bradbury; S. R. Baker; H. D. Rodd

2011-01-01

372

The Universities and Environmental Quality--Commitment to Problem Focused Education. A Report to The President's Environmental Quality Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based on a study of a few of the multidisciplinary enviromental programs in over 30 universities. The study was undertaken to discover what kind of programs have been tried, which ones have been successful, and how the federal government might encourage effective interdisciplinary problem-focused programs. The report reviews the…

Steinhart, John S.; Cherniack, Stacie

373

Funding Source and Research Report Quality in Nutrition Practice-Related Research  

PubMed Central

Background The source of funding is one of many possible causes of bias in scientific research. One method of detecting potential for bias is to evaluate the quality of research reports. Research exploring the relationship between funding source and nutrition-related research report quality is limited and in other disciplines the findings are mixed. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether types of funding sources of nutrition research are associated with differences in research report quality. Design A retrospective study of research reporting quality, research design and funding source was conducted on 2539 peer reviewed research articles from the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library® database. Results Quality rating frequency distributions indicate 43.3% of research reports were rated as positive, 50.1% neutral, and 6.6% as negative. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that while both funding source and type of research design are significant predictors of quality ratings (?2?=?118.99, p<0.001), the model's usefulness in predicting overall research report quality is little better than chance. Compared to research reports with government funding, those not acknowledging any funding sources, followed by studies with University/hospital funding were more likely to receive neutral vs positive quality ratings, OR?=?1.85, P <0.001 and OR?=?1.54, P<0.001, respectively and those that did not report funding were more likely to receive negative quality ratings (OR?=?4.97, P<0.001). After controlling for research design, industry funded research reports were no more likely to receive a neutral or negative quality rating than those funded by government sources. Conclusion Research report quality cannot be accurately predicted from the funding source after controlling for research design. Continued vigilance to evaluate the quality of all research regardless of the funding source and to further understand other factors that affect quality ratings are warranted.

Myers, Esther F.; Parrott, J. Scott; Cummins, Deborah S.; Splett, Patricia

2011-01-01

374

Health-related quality of life and its determinants in children with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new therapeutics has led to progress in the early management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their family. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CDH treated according to the most recent concepts and methods outlined above on child survivors’ QoL and their parents’ QoL. Patients and methods This study incorporated a cross-sectional design performed in two PICU (Marseille, France). Families of CDH survivors born between 1999 and 2008 were eligible. The following data were recorded: socio-demographics, antenatal history and delivery, initial hospitalization history. Self-reported data were collected by mail, including current clinical problems of the children (13-symptom list), children’s QoL (Kidscreen-27 questionnaire), and parents’ QoL (Short-Form 36 questionnaire). Children’s QoL score was compared with controls and QoL of survivors of childhood leukemia. Parent’s QoL was compared with controls. Non-parametric statistics were employed. Results Forty-two families agreed to participate and questionnaires were completed by 32 of them. Twenty-one children had a current clinical problems related to CDH. All the QoL scores of CHD survivors were significantly lower compared with controls. The physical well-being dimension was significantly higher for CHD survivors compared with survivors of childhood leukemia. Gastro-esophageal reflux at discharge, antenatal diagnosis, length of stay in the PICU, and neuropsychological and respiratory issues significantly impacted QoL scores of children. The parents of CHD survivors had significantly poorer score in emotional role dimension compared with controls. Conclusion The impact of CDH on QoL seems to be important and must be understood by clinicians who treat these children and their parents.

2013-01-01

375

Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

2012-01-01

376

Health-related quality of life in psoriasis: important role of personal resources.  

PubMed

Many patients with psoriasis demonstrate psychological disturbances, including decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected personal resources and HRQoL in 168 in-patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The following questionnaires were used: Skindex-29, General Health Questionnaire, Coping with Skin Disease Scale, Acceptance of Illness Scale, Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. It was demonstrated that younger patients experienced fewer problems in psychosocial functioning, and that they showed a correlation between worse HRQoL and both external powerful others and external chance domains in locus of health control. Subjective self-evaluation of health correlated with HRQoL irrespective of patient's age. Coping with stress strategies hopelessness/helplessness and distraction/catastrophization correlated with worse overall HRQoL, whereas fighting spirit strategy correlated with better overall HRQoL. Hopelessness/helplessness coping strategy, somatic symptoms, disease acceptance, psoriasis severity and patient's age explained 61% of overall HRQoL variance. Psychomedical interventions designed for psoriatic patients should take into account the above variables. PMID:23407910

Miniszewska, Joanna; Juczy?ski, Zygfryd; Ograczyk, Alicja; Zalewska, Anna

2013-09-01

377

Improved solution methods for an inverse problem related to a population balance model in chemical engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a population balance equation, originating from applications in chemical engineering, is considered and novel solution techniques for a related inverse problem are presented. This problem consists in the determination of the breakage rate and the daughter drop distribution of an evolving drop size distribution from time-dependent measurements under the assumption of self-similarity. We analyze two established solution methods for this ill-posed problem and improve the two procedures by adapting suitable data fitting and inversion algorithms to the specific situation. In addition, we introduce a novel technique that, compared to the former, does not require certain a priori information. The improved stability properties of the resulting algorithms are substantiated with numerical examples.

Groh, Andreas; Krebs, Jochen

2012-08-01

378

Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.  

PubMed

Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

2009-08-01

379

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

380

Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.  

PubMed

Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events, listserves, and friendship networks. Females completed the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale [Szymanski, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2001). The internalized homophobia scale for lesbians: A rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 37-52.]; males completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory [Mayfield, W. (2001). The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 53-76.]. Items from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings 1998. Rockville, MD: Author.] measured alcohol consumption. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test [Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: the quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89-94.] and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences [Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The drinker inventory of consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse test manual. National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism project match monograph series volume 4. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.] measured alcohol-related problems. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists was partially supported for lesbians, but generally not supported for males. PMID:16183207

Amadio, Dean M

2006-07-01

381

Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our medical ward.

Tigabu, Bereket Molla; Daba, Daniel; Habte, Belete

2014-01-01

382

The need for education on health related-quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life is increasingly recognised as an important outcome measure that complements existing measures of clinical effectiveness. The education available on this subject for different healthcare professionals is varied. This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a Special Study Module on Health-Related Quality of Life for undergraduate medical students at the University of Birmingham. Methods The course involves 10 hours of "guided discovery learning" covering core concepts of Health-Related Quality of Life assessment including methodological considerations, use in clinical trials, routine practice and in health policy followed by self-directed learning. The taught components aim to provide students with the skills and knowledge to enable them to explore and evaluate the use of quality of life assessments in a particular patient group, or setting, through self-directed learning supported by tutorials. Results The use of case studies, recent publications and research, and discussion with a research oncology nurse in task-based learning appeared to provide students with a stimulating environment in which to develop their ideas and was reflected in the diverse range of subjects chosen by students for self-directed study and the positive feedback on the module. Course evaluation and student assessment suggests that quality of life education appears to integrate well within the medical curriculum and allows students to develop and utilise skills of time-management and independent, self-directed learning that can be applied in any context. Conclusion We suggest that education and training initiatives in quality of life may improve the quality of studies, and help bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Resources for curriculum development on health-related quality of life have been developed by the International Society for Quality of Life Research and may prove a useful tool to educators interested in this area.

Calvert, Melanie J; Skelton, John R

2008-01-01

383

Gender differences among middle-aged Koreans for health-related quality of life related to metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) on quality of life has not been studied much among Asians, especially Koreans. This\\u000a study compared the association between MS and health-related quality of life (HRQL) by gender for middle-aged Koreans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data containing 2,264 adults between the ages of 40 and 59 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health\\u000a and Nutrition

Yeo-Jin Sohn; Hyun Soon Sohn; Jin-Won Kwon

2011-01-01

384

Treatment patterns, treatment satisfaction, severity of disease problems, and quality of life in patients with psoriasis in three Nordic countries.  

PubMed

Biological drugs are expensive, but can reduce symptoms and increase quality of life for patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine quality of life, disease severity and treatment satisfaction in Danish, Finnish and Swedish patients with psoriasis. Based on 12 months' data from patient surveys and chart reviews, 3 treatment groups were identified: topical, systemic and/or biological <12 months, and biological for 12 months. Regression analyses were performed to investigate influence on treatment satisfaction, disease problems and quality of life. Patients treated with biological drugs for 12 months showed the highest treatment satisfaction and the lowest Dermatology Life Quality Index score. A number of patients with topical treatment reported low quality of life, severe or very severe disease problems, and low treatment satisfaction. Some patients with psoriasis may be under-treated and might benefit from a more aggressive treatment strategy. It is important, however, that resource utilization is optimized and patients are not treated with more advanced agents than necessary. PMID:23138500

Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Hjortsberg, Catharina; Bjarnason, Anton; Gniadecki, Robert; Heikkilä, Hannele; Jemec, Gregor B E; Kragballe, Knud; Miller, Iben M; Svensson, Åke

2013-07-01

385

Hospital implementation of health information technology and quality of care: are they related?  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, there has been considerable effort to promote the use of health information technology (HIT) in order to improve health care quality. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which HIT implementation is associated with hospital patient care quality. We undertook this study to determine the association of various HITs with: hospital quality improvement (QI) practices and strategies; adherence to process of care measures; risk-adjusted inpatient mortality; patient satisfaction; and assessment of patient care quality by hospital quality managers and front-line clinicians. Methods We conducted surveys of quality managers and front-line clinicians (physicians and nurses) in 470 short-term, general hospitals to obtain data on hospitals’ extent of HIT implementation, QI practices and strategies, assessments of quality performance, commitment to quality, and sufficiency of resources for QI. Of the 470 hospitals, 401 submitted complete data necessary for analysis. We also developed measures of hospital performance from several publicly data available sources: Hospital Compare adherence to process of care measures; Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) file; and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems HCAHPS® survey. We used Poisson regression analysis to examine the association between HIT implementation and QI practices and strategies, and general linear models to examine the relationship between HIT implementation and hospital performance measures. Results Controlling for potential confounders, we found that hospitals with high levels of HIT implementation engaged in a statistically significant greater number of QI practices and strategies, and had significantly better performance on mortality rates, patient satisfaction measures, and assessments of patient care quality by hospital quality managers; there was weaker evidence of higher assessments of patient care quality by front-line clinicians. Conclusions Hospital implementation of HIT was positively associated with activities intended to improve patient care quality and with higher performance on four of six performance measures.

2012-01-01

386

The Information-processing Demand of Chemistry Problems and Its Relation to Pascual-Leone's Functional M-capacity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated were the relation between functional M-capacity and student performance in solving chemistry problems of increasing M-demand. Student performance decreased as the M-demand of the problems increased. (Author/YP)

Niaz, Mansoor

1988-01-01

387

Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.  

PubMed

Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

2013-07-01

388

Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

2012-12-01

389

Tumor problem in the light of researches on plant tumors and galls and its relation to the problem of mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work done on the morphology, cytology and physiology of cancer, its transplantations and investigations in tissue cultures as well as on tumor production by various agents have trown much light in many ways on the nature of cancer, but have not solved as yet the cancer problem. This problem is at the present time not merely a subject for

Dontcho Kostoff

1933-01-01

390

On the indoor air quality problem in residential areas: the Athens case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buildings' environment plays a very important role in health matters and the quality of life. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in the residential sector of the greater region of Athens. Parameters influencing the indoor air quality such as particles, CO, CO2 and total organic compounds (TOCs) concentrations were monitored. Thermal and acoustic comfort as well as

Assimakopoulos Margarita Niki; Sfakianaki Aikaterini; Doukas Paris; Santamouris Matthaios; Fourtounas Antonis

391

On the indoor air quality problem in residential areas: the Athens case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buildings' environment plays a very important role in health matters and the quality of life. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in the residential sector of the greater region of Ath- ens. Parameters influencing the indoor air quality such as particles, CO, CO2 and total organic compounds (TOCs) concentrations were monitored. Thermal and acoustic comfort as well

M. N. Assimakopoulos; A. Sfakianaki; P. Doukas; M. Santamouris; A. Fourtounas

392

Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

2011-01-01

393

Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

1973-01-01

394

Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

1982-01-01

395

Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL) measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common

Dean T Eurich; Jeffrey A Johnson; Kimberly J Reid; John A Spertus

2006-01-01

396

Quality of Object Relations and Security of Attachment as Predictors of Early Therapeutic Alliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Security of attachment and quality of object relations were measured as predictors of initial impressions of the therapeutic alliance as well as dropout. Fifty-five individual psychotherapy clients were administered the Revised Adult Attachment Scale and the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory prior to their initial therapy…

Goldman, Gregory A.; Anderson, Timothy

2007-01-01

397

Assessing Cancer-Related Quality of Life Across a Spectrum of Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly as- sessed to understand the effects of cancer and cancer-related interventions. At the macro level, monitoring HRQOL in the population and in cancer survivors may be important to track progress against cancer and evaluate the outcome of policies and programs. At the meso level, where most re- search, to date, has been focused,

Carolyn Cook Gotay

2004-01-01

398

Health-related quality of life following ambulatory surgery procedures: assessment by RAND-36  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing numbers of elective surgical procedures are performed as day-cases. The impact of ambulatory surgery on health-related quality of life in the recovery period has seldom been described. Methods We assessed health-related quality of life in 143 adult outpatients scheduled for arthroscopic procedures of the knee and shoulder joints, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and inguinal hernia repair using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey preoperatively and one week after patients had returned to work or comparable normal daily routines. Results Postoperatively all patient groups reported significant improvements in bodily pain and vitality. Physical functioning improved significantly in orthopedic and inguinal hernia patients. However, in the orthopedic groups, postoperative scores for physical health were still relatively lower compared to the general population reference values. Conclusions Ambulatory surgery has a positive impact on health-related quality of life. Assessment of the recovery process is necessary for recognition of potential areas of improvement in care and postoperative rehabilitation.

2012-01-01

399

Factors Affecting Water Quality in Cherokee Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the pro...

M. L. Iwanski J. M. Higgins B. R. Kim R. C. Young

1980-01-01

400

Alcohol-related problems: acritical review of the literature and directions in nurse education  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that around 2–5%, of the adult population show major signs of alcoholdependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption.

David Arthur

1998-01-01

401

Teachers’ assessment-related local adaptations of a problem-based learning module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ implementation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program was examined to determine both how they assessed student\\u000a learning and their reasons for these assessment practices. Ten 6th grade science teachers used Alien Rescue, a computer-based\\u000a PBL module, with their students for approximately three weeks. Interviews, observations, and teacher-developed artifacts were\\u000a analyzed qualitatively. The results suggest that assessment-related issues impacted the

Susan Pedersen; Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz; Douglas Williams

2009-01-01

402

How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts Between Temperament and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research\\u000a linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers,\\u000a the relationships between children’s maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament models (Thomas and Chess, Buss\\u000a and Plomin, and Rothbart), and a Five-Factor based personality model.

Sarah S. W. De Pauw; Ivan Mervielde; Karla G. Van Leeuwen

2009-01-01

403

Classification of drug-related problems with new prescriptions using a modified PCNE classification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To explore and classify drug-related problems (DRPs) with new prescriptions detected in community pharmacies using a modified\\u000a PCNE (Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe) classification system. Setting Sixty-four Swiss community pharmacies offering internships for pharmacy students. Main outcome measures Occurrence, nature and pharmacist’s management of DRPs. Methods Fifth-year pharmacy students collected consecutively hospital discharge and primary care prescriptions. After training, they

Patrick M. Eichenberger; Markus L. Lampert; Irene Vogel Kahmann; J. W. Foppe van Mil; Kurt E. Hersberger

2010-01-01

404

Pain and Health-Related Quality of Life in War Veterans with Bilateral Lower Limb Amputations  

PubMed Central

Background Amputation and pain may have considerable impact on health-related quality of life. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pain on health-related quality of life in a population of war related bilateral lower limb amputees. Materials and Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affairs Foundation (VMAF) database documented 578 patients with bilateral lower limb amputation; 335 consented to the study (response rate = 58%). The majority of participants in the sample were males (96.7%). Types of pain were investigated using a questionnaire. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was investigated using the sf-36 questionnaire. Results About two third of amputees reported phantom pain 66.7% (n = 223) and vertebral column pain 60.9% (n = 204). The most common type of pain was lumbosacral pain 52.8 % (n = 177) followed by neck 18.2 % (n = 61) and thoracic pain 9.6% (n = 32). Back pain affected on vitality, social function, mental health and mental component scale in our cases (P < 0.05). Neck pain affected all components of health-related quality of life (P < 0.05). Thoracic pain affected quality of life significantly (P < 0.05). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that none of the three spinal column pains including neck, thoracic and lumbosacral pain resulted in poor physical or mental component scales. Conclusions This study revealed that bilateral lower limb amputees suffer from different types of pain and poor health-related quality of life. Therefore, the assessment and management of all types of pain are necessary to improve quality of life in veterans.

Rahimi, Abolfazl; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Masumi, Mehdi; Montazeri, Ali

2012-01-01

405

Quantity and quality of obesity-related research in Arab countries: assessment and comparative analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a serious worldwide medical condition, considered by some researchers as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. The main objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of obesity-related research from Arab countries and compare it with that from non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published by Arab countries about obesity up until 2011 were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, journals names, citations, top 10 active institutions, and the contribution of each Arab country to obesity research. Results The total number of original and review research articles published globally about obesity was 110,167. The leading country in obesity research was United States of America (42.47%). Turkey, Israel, and Iran were in the top 30 countries while Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Egypt, and Kuwait ranked 39th, 43rd, and 47th, respectively. A total of 1,121 documents about “obesity” were published by Arab countries, representing 1.0% of the global research output, with 13,343 citations (average citation of 11.9 per document) and an h-index of 44. The Arab countries’ research output was very low until the mid-1990s and then increased steadily. Of the 1,121 documents, 107 (9.55%) were published in the Saudi Medical Journal. KSA, with a total of 318 publications ranked first among Arab countries in research quantity while Kuwait ranked first after adjustment based on population size. King Saud University in KSA was the most productive institution with a total of 140 documents. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, the research productivity from Arab countries was lower than that from Turkey, higher than that from Iran, and close to that from Israel. However, the h-index of documents about obesity published from Arab countries was lower than that of Turkey and Israel, but slightly higher than that from Iran. Conclusions The present data reveals a good contribution by some Arab countries, particularly Arab gulf countries, to obesity research. More efforts are needed by other Arab countries to bridge the gap in this topic and to improve the quality of obesity-related research originating from Arab countries.

2014-01-01

406

Frailty and health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on frailty in older adults has focused on morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to elicit the relationship between being non-frail, pre-frail, or frail and health related quality of life in a representative sample of older Mexican Americans surveyed in 2005–2006. Methods Data were from a representative subsample of the Hispanic Established Populations Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) and included 1008 older adults living in the community (mean (sd) age = 82.3(4.3)). Multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between frailty status and the eight SF-36 health related quality of life subscales and two summary scales. Models also adjusted for the participants' sociodemographic and health status. Results We found that, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health related covariables, being pre-frail or frail was significantly associated (p < 0.001) with lower scores on all physical and cognitive health related quality of life scales than being non-frail. Conclusion When compared to persons who are not frail, older Mexican American individuals identified as frail and pre-frail exhibit significantly lower health related quality of life scores. Future research should assess potential mediating factors in an effort to improve quality of life for frail elders in this population.

Masel, Meredith C; Graham, James E; Reistetter, Timothy A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

2009-01-01

407

Determinants for a low health-related quality of life in asthmatics.  

PubMed

People with asthma suffer from impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL), but the determinants of HRQL among asthmatics are not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to study determinants of low HRQL in asthmatics and to study whether the determinants of HRQL differ between sexes and age groups. A cohort of three age groups in Sweden was investigated in 1990 using a questionnaire with focus on respiratory symptoms. To study quality of life, the generic instrument Gothenburg Quality of Life was used. The participants were also investigated with interviews, spirometry, and allergy testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 616 subjects. Fifty-eight per cent (n = 359) of the subjects were women; and 24% were smokers, 22% ex-smokers, and 54% were non-smokers. Women were more likely than men to report poor health-related quality of life. Respiratory symptoms severity was another independent determinant of a lower quality of life as well as airway responsiveness to irritants. Current and former smokers also reported lower quality of life. Finally, absenteeism from school and work was associated with lower quality of life. Factors such as sex, smoking habits, airway responsiveness to irritants, respiratory symptom severity, allergy, and absenteeism from school and work were associated with low HRQL in asthmatics. PMID:22200102

Leander, Mai; Lampa, Erik; Janson, Christer; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Uddenfeldt, Monica; Rask-Andersen, Anna

2012-03-01

408

Health-related Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Morbid Obesity Coming for Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity has become a major health issue not only in the West but also in Asia. Morbid obesity can lead to much comorbidity\\u000a and can markedly interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL)\\u000a between patients with morbid obesity coming for bariatric surgery and the healthy population in Taiwan.

Chi-Yang Chang; Chih-Kun Hung; Yu-Yin Chang; Chi-Ming Tai; Jaw-Town Lin; Jung-Der Wang

2010-01-01

409

Health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in diabetes patients separately for those with current foot ulcers, those with primary healed ulcers, and those who have undergone minor or major amputations. The EuroQol quality of life (QoL) questionnaire including a visual analogue scale (VAS) was sent to 457 patients treated for foot ulcers by a multidisciplinary team between 1995 and

Gunnel Ragnarson Tennvall; Jan Apelqvist

2000-01-01

410

Sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in African-American elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep apnea was examined in a sample of elderly African-Americans\\u000a screened for snoring and daytime sleepiness. Seventy African-Americans over the age of 65 years completed a comprehensive\\u000a sleep questionnaire, the Quality of Well-Being Scale (QWB), and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Core Measures of HRQOL (116-item\\u000a Long Version) and had sleep

Carl Stepnowsky; Sherella Johnson; Joel Dimsdale; Sonia Ancoli-Israel

2000-01-01

411

A health-related quality of life measure for multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for clinical effectiveness research and for quality of care research, particularly for chronic diseases, is increasingly recognized. We assessed a measure of HRQOL for people with multiple sclerosis, a chronic neurological condition. We used the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (aka SF-36) as a generic core measure, to enable comparisons

B. G. Vickrey; R. D. Hays; R. Harooni; L. W. Myers; G. W. Ellison

1995-01-01

412

Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can\\u000a reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment\\u000a is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment.\\u000a The objective of this study was to review the

Lisa A Prosser; Phaedra S Corso

2007-01-01

413

Psychosocial Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sociodemographic and clinical variables are known to influence the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with kidney disease, yet the relationship between psychological factors and the HRQOL measured by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF) is incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial status (depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, and

Isabel Vázquez; Fernando Valderrábano; Joan Fort; Rosa Jofré; Juan Manuel López-Gómez; Fuensanta Moreno; Dámaso Sanz-Guajardo

2005-01-01

414

Subjective Quality of Life in Relation to Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the great variation in approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation, the literature does not provide a uniform description\\u000a of these methods. In this review, outcomes in terms of subjective quality of life are discussed in relation to vocational\\u000a training, activity-based rehabilitation, case management, and social skills training. Relationships between aspects of daily\\u000a life and subjective quality of life are also

Mona Eklund

415

Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no taikeiteki seiri. Gijutsu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai. (Systematic arrangement of global environmental problems related technologies. Current status and problems in technological development).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technology systematization was attempted according to the fields covered by different global environmental problems related technologies. Prevention of global warming was systematized with development of new energies to suppress emission of CO2, developme...

1995-01-01

416

Parent and self-report health-related quality of life measures in young patients with Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and comorbid behavioral problems. This study compared child- and parent-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. We assessed 75 children with Tourette syndrome, of which 42 (56%) had comorbid conditions (obsessive-compulsive disorder = 25; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder = 6; both comorbidities = 4). All patients completed psychometric instruments, including the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale for Children and Adolescents (child report) and the Child Tourette's Syndrome Impairment Scale (parent report). Data were compared for patients with pure Tourette syndrome, Tourette syndrome + obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome + attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome + both comorbidities. There were no group differences in quality of life. However, there were differences for total, school, and home activities impairment scores. Children and parents may not share similar views about the impact of Tourette syndrome on functioning. The measurement of health-related quality of life in Tourette syndrome is more complex in children than adults. PMID:22952315

Cavanna, Andrea E; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Blangiardo, Rosanna; Eddy, Clare M; Silvestri, Paola R; Cali', Paola V; Gagliardi, Emanuela; Balottin, Umberto; Cardona, Francesco; Rizzo, Renata; Termine, Cristiano

2013-10-01

417

Parent and Self-Report Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Young Patients With Tourette Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and comorbid behavioral problems. This study compared child- and parent-reported quality of life and everyday functioning. We assessed 75 children with Tourette syndrome, of which 42 (56%) had comorbid conditions (obsessive-compulsive disorder = 25; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder = 6; both comorbidities = 4). All patients completed psychometric instruments, including the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome–Quality of Life Scale for Children and Adolescents (child report) and the Child Tourette’s Syndrome Impairment Scale (parent report). Data were compared for patients with pure Tourette syndrome, Tourette syndrome + obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome + attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome + both comorbidities. There were no group differences in quality of life. However, there were differences for total, school, and home activities impairment scores. Children and parents may not share similar views about the impact of Tourette syndrome on functioning. The measurement of health-related quality of life in Tourette syndrome is more complex in children than adults.

Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Blangiardo, Rosanna; Eddy, Clare M.; Silvestri, Paola R.; Cali', Paola V.; Gagliardi, Emanuela; Balottin, Umberto; Cardona, Francesco; Rizzo, Renata; Termine, Cristiano

2013-01-01

418

Inverse optimization: functional and physiological considerations related to the force-sharing problem.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the optimization techniques used for the solution of the force-sharing problem in biomechanics; that is, the distribution of the net joint moment to the force generating structures such as muscles and ligaments. The solution to this problem is achieved by the minimization (or maximization) of an objective function that includes the design variable (usually muscle forces) that are subject to certain constraints, and it is generally related to physiological or mechanical properties such as muscle stress, maximum force or moment, activation level, etc. The usual constraints require the sum of the exerted moments to be equal to the net joint moment and certain boundary conditions restrict the force solutions within physiologically acceptable limits. Linear optimization (objective and constraint functions are both linear relationships) has limited capabilities for the solution of the force sharing problem, although the use of appropriate constraints and physiologically realistic boundary conditions can improve the solution and lead to reasonable and functionally acceptable muscle force predictions. Nonlinear optimization provides more physiologically acceptable results, especially when the criteria used are related to the dynamics of the movement (e.g., instantaneous maximum force derived from muscle modeling based on length and velocity histories). The evaluation of predicted forces can be performed using direct measurements of forces (usually in animals), relationship with EMG patterns, comparisons with forces obtained from optimized forward dynamics, and by evaluating the results using analytical solutions of the optimal problem to highlight muscle synergism for example. Global objective functions are more restricting compared to local ones that are related to the specific objective of the movement at its different phases (e.g., maximize speed or minimize pain). In complex dynamic activities multiobjective optimization is likely to produce more realistic results. PMID:9505137

Tsirakos, D; Baltzopoulos, V; Bartlett, R

1997-01-01

419

Quality of life research in patients with rectal cancer: traditional approaches versus a problem-solving oriented perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper critically appraises two recent overviews of the literature on rectal cancer and quality of life (QL).\\u000a These reviews focus on the Anglo-American literature, largely neglect research from other countries, and provide little stimulus\\u000a regarding future research directions. As an alternative perspective we propose the concept of problem-solving oriented QL\\u000a research. The major theme is that the QL

M. Koller; W. Lorenz

1998-01-01

420

A New Criterion for the Optimal Software Release Problems: Moving Average Quality Control Chart with Bootstrap Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new practical method for determining when to stop software testing. This issue has been widely known\\u000a as the optimal release problem of software product, and many researchers have been developing mathematical models for finding\\u000a the solution.\\u000a \\u000a We try to develop a new quality control charting to help making the right decision for it, by employing the

Mitsuhiro Kimura; Takaji Fujiwara

421

Electronic problem list documentation of chronic kidney disease and quality of care  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly common and under-recognized in primary care clinics, leading to low rates of stage-appropriate monitoring and treatment. Our objective was to determine whether electronic problem list documentation of CKD is associated with monitoring and treatment. Methods This is a cross-sectional observational study of patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, defined as two past estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 separated by 90 days and collected between 2007-2008. We examined the association of problem list documentation with: 1) serum eGFR monitoring test, 2) urine protein or albumin monitoring test, 3) an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACE/ARB) prescription, 4) mean systolic blood pressure (BP), and 5) BP control. Results Out of 3,149 patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, only 16% of patients had CKD documented on the problem list. After adjustment for eGFR, gender, and race/ethnicity and after clustering by physician, problem list documentation of CKD was associated with serum eGFR testing (97% with problem list documentation vs. 94% without problem list documentation, p?=?0.02) and urine protein testing (47% with problem list documentation vs. 40% without problem list documentation, p?=?0.04). After adjustment, problem list documentation was not associated with ACE/ARB prescription, mean systolic BP, or BP control. Conclusions Documentation of CKD on the electronic problem list is rare. Patients with CKD documentation have better stage-appropriate monitoring of the disease, but do not have higher rates of blood pressure treatment or better blood pressure control. Interventions aimed at increasing documentation of CKD on the problem list may improve stage-appropriate monitoring, but may not improve clinical outcomes.

2014-01-01

422

Who's judging the quality of care? Indigenous Maya and the problem of "not being attended".  

PubMed

In developing countries, lack of trust in the quality of care provided is often cited as a major factor promoting reluctance to seek biomedical help for obstetric emergencies. This article draws on fieldwork among Mayan informants in Sololá, Guatemala, to explore poor perceptions of the quality of care received when seeking obstetric care in the hospital. Using data collected over two years, I set out to understand why interviewees repeatedly complain that hospital staff "do not attend to you." I maintain that the powerlessness of patients to influence the treatment they receive further reduces their trust in the quality of care delivered, ultimately negatively impacting the decision to seek obstetric care. Finally, I argue for the importance of recognizing the influence of the wider historical and social context in creating the dynamics of this interaction. The implications of this research in defining the quality of care and skilled attendance within the quest to make pregnancy safer are discussed. PMID:18464128

Berry, Nicole S

2008-01-01

423

Quality of Residential Environment in a City Facing Unsustainable Growth Problems: Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liveability of a settlement is determined by the quality of the built and natural environment in addition to the activities that take place within that environment. As it is widely accepted the \\

Fulin Bolen; Handan Dulger Turkoglu; Nilgun Ergun; Funda Yirmibesoglu

424

Comparison of perceived oral health in patients with temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety using oral health-related quality of life profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments provide information beyond what is represented in their summary scores.\\u000a Individual item information also provides useful insight into patient-related oral health problems. Our study aim was to compare\\u000a patients’ perceived impact from temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and from dental anxiety on oral health using item profiles\\u000a contained within the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP).

Oliver Schierz; Mike T. John; Daniel R. Reißmann; Mats Mehrstedt; András Szentpétery

2008-01-01

425

Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy fusion.  

PubMed

Outcomes are an integral part of surgical decision making among patients, families, physicians, and nurses. The purpose of this descriptive, longitudinal study was to investigate and compare health-related quality of life as an outcome measure in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Data were collected preoperatively, and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Potential participants were identified by staff members at two neurosurgical practices in central New Jersey. Findings revealed improved health over time with significant change in 6 of the 9 subscales of health-related quality of life. Cervical disk disease and ACDF impact health-related quality of life. A holistic approach to the education and support of patients undergoing ACDF surgery is recommended throughout the preoperative and postoperative periods. PMID:15902952

Fowler, Susan B; Anthony-Phillips, Patricia; Mehta, Deviyani; Liebman, Kenneth

2005-04-01

426

Health-related quality of life of Egyptian children with immune thrombocytopenia and their parents.  

PubMed

Health-related quality of life has been recognized as an important pediatric outcome measurement. Kid's ITP Tool was used to measure health-related quality of life of 80 Egyptian children with immune thrombocytopenia and their parents in relation to different disease parameters. A positive correlation between scores of child/proxy reports and parent report was found. Patients with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia had significantly lower scores of both child/proxy reports and parent reports than chronic patients. Longer duration of illness was correlated with higher scores of child/proxy reports. Negative correlations were found between severity of bleeding and both scores of child/proxy reports and parent reports. Platelet count was positively correlated with parent report score. Regression analysis revealed that severity of bleeding had the highest significant impact on parent report score. Improving parents' knowledge about the pathogenesis and course of the disease may improve their quality of life. PMID:24322497

Mokhtar, Galila M; Farid, Samar M; Shaker, Nermin M; Farrag, Khalid E

2014-04-01

427

Drug-related problems in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a cross sectional retrospective study.  

PubMed

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs), as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE) 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%), drug interactions (24.9%), and dosing problems (13.3%). Factors such as advanced age (p?=?0.005), a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p?=?0.001), polydrug treatments (p<0.001), multiple comorbidities (p<0.001), and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p?=?0.011), diabetes mellitus(p?=?0.001), hypertension (p<0.001) and renal impairment (p?=?0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients. PMID:24475089

Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Hui Xin, Chong; Sulaiman, Che Zuraini

2014-01-01

428

Drug-Related Problems in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Cross Sectional Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs), as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE) 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%), drug interactions (24.9%), and dosing problems (13.3%). Factors such as advanced age (p?=?0.005), a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p?=?0.001), polydrug treatments (p<0.001), multiple comorbidities (p<0.001), and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p?=?0.011), diabetes mellitus(p?=?0.001), hypertension (p<0.001) and renal impairment (p?=?0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients.

Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Hui Xin, Chong; Sulaiman, Che Zuraini

2014-01-01

429

Study of the inverse problem resolution quality: application to low-field magnetostatic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper presents a method to improve inverse problem resolution. This method focuses on the measurement set and particularly on sensor position. Based on experiment, it aims at finding sensor position criteria to insure the least bad inverse problem solving. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The studied device is a magnetized steel sheet measured by four sensors. Three optimization techniques are

Sébastien Guerin; Jean-Louis Coulomb; Gilles Cauffet

2005-01-01

430

Sick Buildings or Not: Indoor Air Quality and Health Problems in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor indoor air in schools has become a wide-spread problem with serious effects on occupant health. Resultant costs can be considerable at both local and national government levels. These include absenteeism and rehabilitation as well as building alterations and even demolition and rebuilding. This project aims to show factors contributing to health problems in Swedish schools. It includes a literature

Thomas Alsmo; Sture Holmberg

2007-01-01

431

Health-related quality of life surveillance--United States, 1993-2002.  

PubMed

Problem/Condition: Population-based surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is needed to promote the health and quality of life of U.S. residents and to monitor progress in achieving the two overall Healthy People 2010 goals: 1) increase the quality and years of healthy life and 2) eliminate health disparities. Reporting Period: This report examines surveillance-based HRQOL data from 1993 through 2002. Description of System: Survey data from a validated set of HRQOL measures (CDC HRQOL-4) were analyzed for 1993-2001 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for 2001-2002 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These measures assessed self-rated health; physically unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which physical health, including physical illness and injury, was not good); mentally unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which mental health, including stress, depression, and problems with emotions, was not good); and days with activity limitation (i.e., number of days during the preceding 30 days that poor physical or mental health prevented normal daily activities). A summary measure of overall unhealthy days also was computed from the sum of a respondent's physically unhealthy and mentally unhealthy days, with a maximum of 30 days. Results and Interpretation: During 1993-2001, the mean number of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, overall unhealthy days, and activity limitation days was higher after 1997 than before 1997. During 1993-1997, the percentage of respondents with zero overall unhealthy days was stable (51%-53%) but declined to 48% by 2001. The percentage of respondents with >/=14 overall unhealthy days increased from 15%-16% during 1993-1997 to 18% by 2001. Adults increasingly rated their health as fair or poor and decreasingly rated it as excellent or very good. Women, American Indians/Alaska Natives, persons of "other races," separated or divorced persons, unmarried couples, unemployed persons, those unable to work, those with a <$15,000 annual household income, and those with less than a high school education reported worse HRQOL (i.e., physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, overall unhealthy days, and activity limitation days). Older adults reported more physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days, whereas younger adults reported more mentally unhealthy days. A seasonal pattern was observed in physically unhealthy days and overall unhealthy days. During 1993-2001, BRFSS respondents in 13 states reported increasing physically unhealthy days; respondents in 13 states and DC reported increasing mentally unhealthy days; respondents in Alabama, Connecticut, Maine, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, and Oregon reported both increasing physically and mentally unhealthy days; and respondents in 16 states and DC reported increasing activity limitation days. During 2001-2002, NHANES respondents with one or more medical conditions (e.g., arthritis or stroke) reported worse HRQOL than those without such conditions, and those with an increasing number of medical conditions reported increasingly worse HRQOL. Public Health Action: Policy makers and researchers should continue to monitor HRQOL and its correlates in the U.S. population. In addition, public health professionals should expand monitoring to populations currently missed by existing surveys, including institutionalized and homeless persons, adolescents, and children. A key aspect is to study and identify the personal and community determinants of HRQOL in prevention research and population studies, to understand how to improve HRQOL, and to reduce HRQOL disparities. In addition, population health assessment professionals should continue to refine and validate HRQOL, functional status, and self-reported health measures. PMID:16251867

Zahran, Hatice S; Kobau, Rosemarie; Moriarty, David G; Zack, Matthew M; Holt, James; Donehoo, Ralph

2005-10-28

432

Working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems among shoemakers in Turkey: Do child workers differ from others?  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated working conditions and related neuropsychiatric problems of shoemakers, including child workers, working in poor conditions with high health risks. Clinical diagnosis was not the objective of this study. Materials and Methods: We collected data from 318 workers ranging from 8-66 years of age. We evaluated working conditions, neuropathy symptoms and signs; urinary 2,5-hexanedione was used to estimate hexane exposure. We used the Zung depression scale for adult shoemakers to evaluate depression. Results: All workshops employed fewer than 10 workers with median daily work duration of 12h. Smoking and alcohol consumption were high among all workers including children. Peripheral neuropathy symptoms and signs were observed in 88 workers (27.8%) and it was related to alcohol consumption. Sixty-eight workers (47.9%) had depression and it was associated with daily work duration. Conclusion: Extremely poor, unhygienic, working conditions and a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders were the main problems observed among shoemakers. A high number of child workers increased the scale of these observed problems.

Elci, Omur Cinar; Yener, Gorsev; Ucku, Reyhan

2007-01-01

433

The Relational Health Indices: Reanalysis of a Measure of Relational Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the component structure of the Relational Health Indices (B. Liang et al., 2002) with a mixed-sex sample of students seeking services at a university counseling center. In contrast to previous findings, results suggested a unidimensional structure for the peer and mentor composites and a 2-component structure for the community…

Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Newman, Jody L.

2005-01-01

434

Developmental trajectories of chinese children's relational and physical aggression: associations with social-psychological adjustment problems.  

PubMed

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n?=?739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year. Results of Linear Mixed Models demonstrated that, on average, relational aggression increased in a linear fashion for fifth grade children and girls and physical aggression remained stable for boys and increased linearly for fifth grade girls. Further, increases in relational aggression were associated with time-dependent increases in depressive symptoms, and the effect size of this association seemed to be stronger than that of physical aggression. Findings are discussed in the context of Chinese culture. PMID:22477278

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R

2012-10-01

435

Family Functioning, Substance Use and Related Problem Behaviors: Hispanic vs. Anglo Runaway Youths  

PubMed Central

Runaway youths represent a neglected clinical group, and few studies have examined ethnicity differences within this population. Substance use, family functioning and related problem behaviors were examined in a sample of Hispanic and Anglo runaway youths with substance abuse diagnoses (N = 145). Youths, aged 12–17, were recruited from two urban, southwestern runaway shelters. Within single-parent families, Anglo youths reported more marijuana use, and, regardless of family constitution, reported more tobacco use than did Hispanic youths. Overall, Anglo youths reported more externalizing problems and more conflict tactics used in resolving disagreements with their primary caretaker while Hispanic youths reported higher depression and familism scores. Given the differences found between Hispanic and Anglo youths, the findings argue that culturally sensitive interventions for runaway youths and families are warranted.

Slesnick, Natasha; Vasquez, Christina; Bittinger, Joyce

2008-01-01

436

Health-related quality of life and influencing factors among rural left-behind wives in Liuyang, China  

PubMed Central

Background In China, the number of left-behind wives in rural areas has reached 47 million. Left-behind wives might have more psychological stress and lower life quality. This study was to examine the health-related quality of life and influencing social and cognitive factors in a sample of left-behind wives in rural areas of China. Methods The demographic data questionnaire, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale were completed by a sample of 1,893 left-behind wives and 969 non-left-behind wives. Results Left-behind wives had lower scores on physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS) , and all the eight subscales of the SF-36 than non-left-behind wives (P?problems (RE) and on MCS. Compared to non-left-behind wives, left-behind wives scored higher in depression, stress, and passive coping styles, and scored significantly lower in social support and active coping styles. Logistic regression analysis showed that the status of being left behind, age, education years, monthly income, employment, physical health status, active coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the PCS of rural women, whereas the status of being left behind, monthly income, physical health status, sense of marriage security, stress, social support, passive coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the MCS of rural women. Conclusions Left-behind wives scored lower on health-related quality of life than non-left-behind wives. Low health-related quality of life was associated with left behind status, older age, less education, low monthly income, unemployment, bad physical health status, passive coping styles, low social support, high level of stress, and high depression.

2014-01-01

437

Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to review all available literature concerning Type D (distressed) personality among the general population and to discuss its implications for research on health status, disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in non-clinical populations. Methods A computerized search of the literature was performed independently and in duplicate by both investigators on December 21st, 2009. Published research reports were included if they studied Type D personality among the general population. Nineteen articles were selected and they were subjected to an 11-item standardised quality checklist by both investigators. Results The methodological quality of the selected studies was adequate to high. The studies included in this review showed that the presence of Type D characteristics had a negative impact on mental health status (more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental distress, passive coping, and less social support) and physical health status (more somatic complaints, lower health status, more influenza-like illness reporting). Other studies reported on behavioral and biological mechanisms of disease in apparently healthy individuals with a Type D personality. Finally, some studies also showed a negative effect of Type D personality on work-related problems (higher absence-leave, higher levels of vital exhaustion and burnout, and more work-related stress). Conclusions Type D personality is a vulnerability factor for general psychological distress that affects mental and physical health status and is associated with disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in apparently healthy individuals.

2010-01-01

438

A test of vegetation-related indicators of wetland quality in the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was part of an effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantitatively assess the environmental quality or 'health' of wetland resources on regional and national scales. During a two-year pilot study, we tested selected indicators of wetland quality in the U.S. portion of the prairie pothole region (PPR). We assumed that the amount of cropland versus non-cropland (mostly grassland) in the plots containing these basins was a proxy for their quality. We then tested indicators by their ability to discriminate between wetlands at the extremes of that proxy. Amounts of standing dead vegetation were greater in zones of greater water permanence. Depth of litter was greater in zones of greater water permanence and in zones of basins in poor-quality watersheds. Amounts of unvegetated bottom were greater in basins in poor-quality watersheds; lesser amounts occurred in all wetlands during a wetter year. Greater amounts of open water occurred during a wetter year and in zones of greater water permanence. When unadjusted for areas (ha) of communities, plant taxon richness was higher in wet-meadow and shallow-marsh zones in good-quality watersheds than in similar zones in poor-quality watersheds. Wet-meadow zones in good-quality watersheds had greater numbers of native perennials than those in poor-quality watersheds. This relation held when we eliminated all communities in good-quality watersheds larger than the largest communities in poor-quality watersheds from the data set. We conclude that although amounts of unvegetated bottom and plant taxon richness in wet-meadow zones were useful indicators of wetland quality during our study, the search for additional such indicators should continue. The value of these indicators may change with the notoriously unstable hydrological conditions in the PPR. Most valuable would be indicators that could be photographed or otherwise remotely sensed and would remain relatively stable under various hydrological conditions. An ideal set of indicators could detect the absence of stressors, as well as the presence of structures or functions, of known value to major groups of organisms.

Kantrud, H. A.; Newton, W. E.

1996-01-01

439

Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Desing: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI).

Perez, Gloria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elias; Borrell, Carme

2013-01-01

440

Factors Related to Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Independent Brazilian Elderly  

PubMed Central

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the factors associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life in a sample of 504 Brazilian independent elderly. Data collection included oral examinations and structured interviews. The simplified form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dental services, and subjective measures of health was collected. Poisson regression within a hierarchical model was used to data analyses. The following variables were associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL: female gender (PR?=?1.40; CI 95%: 1.11–1.77); lower class (PR?=?1.58; CI 95%: 1.13–2.20); up to 3 occluding pairs of posterior teeth (PR?=?1.88; CI 95%: 1.13–3.14); at least one untreated caries (PR?=?1.28; CI 95%: 1.06–1.54); curative reasons for the last dental appointment (PR?=?1.52; CI 95%: 1.15–2.00); poor self-perception of oral health (PR?=?2.49; CI 95%: 1.92–3.24); and poor perception of dental care provided (PR?=?1.34; CI 95%: 1.12–1.59). The younger elderly also noticed this negative impact. These findings showed that the clinical, sociodemographic, and subjective factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL in elderly people. Health authorities must address all these factors when planning interventions on oral health for this population.

Ulinski, Karla Giovana Bavaresco; do Nascimento, Mariele Andrade; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Poli-Frederico, Regina Celia; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Fracasso, Marina Lourdes Calvo; Maciel, Sandra Mara

2013-01-01

441

Health-related quality of life and activities of daily living in 85-year-olds in Sweden.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with respect to daily living and health factors for relatively healthy elderly individuals. To this end, this study examines 85-year-olds' reported HRQoL in relation to social support, perceived health, chronic diseases, healthcare use and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Data were collected from 360 participants (55% response rate) between March 2007 and March 2008 using a postal questionnaire and a home visit interview. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L. For the items in the EQ-5D-3L, more problems were related to lower HRQoL. Restricted mobility and occurrence of pain/discomfort was common. Lower HRQoL was associated with increased risk for depression, increased use of medication, increased number of chronic diseases and more problems with IADL. Healthcare use and healthcare costs were correlated with lower HRQoL. HRQoL is of importance to healthcare providers and must be considered together with IADL in the elderly population when planning interventions. These should take into account the specific needs and resources of the older individuals. PMID:24313868

Andersson, Lena B; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa

2014-07-01

442

Next Generation Learning: Can We Crack Four Problems to Unleash Quality Education for All?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone knows that every single child should receive a high-quality education. Not only is it the ticket to opportunity in America and around the world, but also research has shown clearly that there are life-limiting implications for children who are not adequately educated. Where to start? As the authors reflect on their work and research in…

Newstead, Barry; Wright, Caitrin Moran; Colby, Susan

2010-01-01