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Sample records for quality problems related

  1. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  2. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  3. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were

  4. [Quality assurance in clinical trials. Problems related to patient information].

    PubMed

    Pettersen, A G; Eide, G; Skjerdal, A; Wold, I; Ose, L

    1992-10-20

    In connection with a phase-III study of cholesterol lowering agents, a questionnaire survey was carried out on information to patients' during clinical trials. The survey included 124 patients and nine team members with different professional backgrounds. The results show that, in spite of the fact that the patients had received information in accordance with the guidelines, only 47% of them had perceived that conventional treatment would be offered to those who dropped out of the study. A test of the extent of the patients' understanding about the drugs they were taking showed that only 39% knew how the drug acted and the reasons for the chosen dosing schedule. 23% of the patients would like to have received more information, but 9% of these had problems in formulating questions to the health personnel. Anxiety was a problem for 16% of patients, especially in the early phase of the clinical study. Only half of the team-members were aware of this. 45% of the patients felt that they would disappoint the team if they expressed a wish to drop out of the study. Most of the team-members would have tried to motivate the patients to continue to participate in the trial. Based on the results of the survey, we suggest some main elements of standard procedures for providing information to patients in connection with clinical trials. PMID:1462295

  5. Types and Qualities of Knowledge and Their Relations to Problem Solving in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friege, Gunnar; Lind, Gunter

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical findings and theoretical considerations related to the field of expertise research, the importance of "types" and "qualities" of knowledge in relation to problem solving in physics was investigated. The students (N = 138) in this study had a level of competence that corresponds to an intensive beginner college course in physics.…

  6. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.; Camp, J.; Horstman, S. )

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a negative ion-generator device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems.

  7. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Daniell, W; Camp, J; Horstman, S

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a "negative ion-generator" device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems. PMID:1907639

  8. Rethinking the contribution of drained and undrained grasslands to sediment-related water quality problems.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, G S; Brazier, R E; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Butler, P; Granger, S; Krueger, T; Freer, J; Quinton, J

    2008-01-01

    Grass vegetation has been recommended for use in the prevention and control of soil erosion because of its dense sward characteristics and stabilizing effect on the soil. A general assumption is that grassland environments suffer from minimal soil erosion and therefore present little threat to the water quality of surface waters in terms of sediment and sorbed contaminant pollution. Our data question this assumption, reporting results from one hydrological year of observations on a field-experiment monitoring overland flow, drain flow, fluxes of suspended solids, total phosphorus (TP), and molybdate-reactive phosphorus (<0.45 mum) in response to natural rainfall events. During individual rainfall events, 1-ha grassland lysimeters yield up to 15 kg of suspended solids, with concentrations in runoff waters of up to 400 mg L(-1). These concentrations exceed the water quality standards recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L(-1)) and the USEPA (80 mg L(-1)) and are beyond those reported to have caused chronic effects on freshwater aquatic organisms. Furthermore, TP concentrations in runoff waters from these field lysimeters exceeded 800 mug L(-1). These concentrations are in excess of those reported to cause eutrophication problems in rivers and lakes and contravene the ecoregional nutrient criteria in all of the USA ecoregions. This paper also examines how subsurface drainage, a common agricultural practice in intensively managed grasslands, influences the hydrology and export of sediment and nutrients from grasslands. This dataset suggests that we need to rethink the conceptual understanding of grasslands as non-erosive landscapes. Failure to acknowledge this will result in the noncompliance of surface waters to water quality standards. PMID:18453413

  9. Power quality problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atputharajah, A.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.; Pasupuleti, J.

    2013-06-01

    This paper addresses the power quality problems and solutions related to (i) wind power generation and (ii) large industrial customers. Intermittent nature of wind power affects the quality of its electrical power output. The usage of low cost energy saving equipments also generates harmonics and voltage flicker thus affects the quality of supply voltage. A wide rang of solutions are being already proposed with the development on power electronic devices and electrical machines. This paper is organized to discuss the (i) power quality problems in brief, (ii) four major developments in wind generator technologies and (iii) solutions to large industrial customers using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Active Power Filter (APF) and Static Compensator (STATCOM). Finally development in power electronic devices' control is briefed in each of the devices, which has utilizes these power electronic devices with integrated solutions to solve number of power quality problems.

  10. Locating Problems with Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald D.; Bednar, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Five categories of common quality circles problems are identified to help firms anticipate difficulties and avert circle failures. These categories include encountered internal problems, encountered external problems, created internal problems, created external problems, and interface problems. Solutions are suggested. (CT)

  11. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  12. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  13. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-06-01

    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844913

  14. [Quality and quality assurance, a European problem].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H

    1994-01-01

    The problem of quality and quality assurance for the free exchange of blood and blood products in Europe is discussed. The background of all discussion of quality is the categorical theory of Aristoteles. The philosophical basis is described. The fundamental law of the daily work of a blood center has to be a philosophy of quality which depends on the sociodemographic situation in the region. This basic varies from country to country in Europe. The importance of the supranational bodies in Europe is mentioned. The weightness of the Code of Ethics is discussed. Virus safety, purity and validity of blood and blood products are described as parameters of the quality aspects. Finally it is confirmed that a well running blood program is a multicategorical problem. PMID:9480130

  15. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  16. Auditing and Evaluating Quality: Questions and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostrikov, A.

    2004-01-01

    For many Russian universities, improving the quality of education has become a central problem. Colleges and universities that have traditionally enjoyed high academic authority are not especially concerned about it; they are more concerned about the problems of financing and their own development. But for relatively young educational institutions…

  17. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls. PMID:26438642

  18. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  19. [Sleeping problems and attachment quality in toddlers].

    PubMed

    Nolte, Nicola; Pott, Wilfried; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    The study presented addresses the association between 18-months-olds' attachment quality and subsequent sleeping problems at 30 months. The sample consisted in 62 healthy, firstborn children and their primary caregivers. Attachment quality was assessed using Ainsworths' Strange Situation Procedure. Sleeping disorders were diagnosed conducting a standardized psychiatric interview with the mothers. Securely attached toddlers showed sleeping problems more often than insecurely-avoidant attached ones. Attachment disorganization was not related to sleeping problems. Analyzing the impact of self-stimulation behavior (i.e. thumb or pacifier sucking) it could be demonstrated that all 30-months-olds who showed self-stimulating behavior were insecurely-avoidant attached to their primary caregiver. Thus, insecure-avoidant toddlers might incline to suppress attachment behavior and negative emotions when being separated from parent in the evening and night hours. PMID:16802421

  20. Engaging in job-related activities is associated with reductions in employment problems and improvements in quality of life in substance abusing patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Andrade, Leonardo F.; Rash, Carla J.; Cherniack, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement-based interventions are highly efficacious in the treatment of substance use disorders, and their benefits can extend to other areas of functioning as well. In particular, reinforcing participation in job-related activities may be useful for improving employment outcomes, which in turn may enhance quality of life and decrease substance use. These secondary analyses compared substance abusing patients randomized to reinforcement interventions (N = 185) who selected and completed two or more job-related activities during treatment versus those who did not. Patients who completed two or more job-related activities during treatment had significantly greater reductions in employment-related problems and improvements in quality of life than those who completed only one or no job-related activities, even after controlling for baseline differences that may impact employment outcomes. Further, patients who completed employment activities remained in treatment significantly longer and achieved greater durations of abstinence than those who did not. These data suggest that reinforcing job-attainment activities may have broad beneficial effects. Reinforcement interventions should be considered for enhancing employment skills training acquisition more generally. PMID:23586451

  1. Parental problem-solving abilities and the association of sickle cell disease complications with health-related quality of life for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Lamia P; Daniel, Lauren C; Smith, Kelsey; Renée Robinson, M; Patterson, Chavis A

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6-12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management. PMID:24222378

  2. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  3. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to

  4. Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…

  5. Using Verbal Protocol Data to Reflect the Quality of Problem Representation in Solving Algebra Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Elizabeth Kay

    The goal of this study was to find a way to quantify three criteria of representational quality, described by Greeno, so that it would be possible to examine statistically the relationship between representational quality and other variables related to problem solution. The sample consisted of 18 college students, 84 percent of whom had…

  6. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines of clinical governance that ensure adherence to evidence-based guidelines and attention should be paid to service users' physical health through regular screening. PMID:19735562

  7. "They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic emplotment that incorporates patients and parents' contributions in recognizing SPs and related sequelae in designing appropriate treatment and care. PMID:23305724

  8. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  9. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  10. An Investigation Into HPLC Data Quality Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; VanHeukelem, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the analyses and results produced by a five-member investigative team of Government, university, and industry experts, established by NASA HQ. The team examined data quality problems associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of pigment concentrations in seawater samples produced by the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS). This report shows CHORS did not validate the methods used before placing them into service to analyze field samples for NASA principal investigators (PIs), even though the HPLC literature contained easily accessible method validation procedures, and the importance of implementing them, more than a decade ago. In addition, there were so many sources of significant variance in the CHORS methodologies, that the HPLC system rarely operated within performance criteria capable of producing the requisite data quality. It is the recommendation of the investigative team to a) not correct the data, b) make all the data that was temporarily sequestered available for scientific use, and c) label the affected data with an appropriate warning, e.g., "These data are not validated and should not be used as the sole basis for a scientific result, conclusion, or hypothesis--independent corroborating evidence is required."

  11. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  12. Scientific Symposium “Small Solution for Big Water-Related Problems: Innovative Microarrays and Small Sensors to Cope with Water Quality and Food Security”

    PubMed Central

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Spurio, Roberto; Cimarelli, Lucia; Tito, Duarte; Mancini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents the conclusive results of two European Commission funded Projects, namely Universal Microarrays for the Evaluation of Fresh-water Quality Based on Detection of Pathogens and their Toxins (MicroAQUA) and Rationally Designed Aquatic Receptors (RADAR). These projects focused their activities on the quality of drinking water as an extremely important factor for public health of humans and animals. The MicroAQUA Project aimed at developing a universal microarray chip for the detection of various pathogens (cyanobacteria, bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa) and their toxins in waters. In addition, the project included the detection of select species of diatoms, which represent reliable bio-indicators to assess overall water quality. Large numbers of compounds are released into the environment; some of these are toxins such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and can affect the endocrine, immune and nervous systems of a wide range of animals causing alterations such as reproductive disorders and cancer. Detection of these contaminants in water systems is important to protect sensitive environmental sites and reduce the risk of toxins entering the food chain. A modular platform for monitoring toxins in water and food production facilities, using biosensors derived from aquatic organisms, was the main goal of RADAR Project.

  13. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  14. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion

  15. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

  16. The Burnside problem and related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adian, Sergei I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of results related to the famous Burnside problem on periodic groups. A negative solution of this problem was first published in joint papers of P.S. Novikov and the author in 1968. The theory of transformations of words in free periodic groups that was created in these papers and its various modifications give a very productive approach to the investigation of hard problems in group theory. In 1950 the Burnside problem gave rise to another problem on finite periodic groups, formulated by Magnus and called by him the restricted Burnside problem. Here it is called the Burnside-Magnus problem. In the Burnside problem the question of local finiteness of periodic groups of a given exponent was posed, but the Burnside-Magnus problem is the question of the existence of a maximal finite periodic group R(m,n) of a fixed period n with a given number m of generators. These problems complement each other. The publication in a joint paper by the author and Razborov in 1987 of the first effective proof of the well-known result of Kostrikin on the existence of a maximal group R(m,n) for any prime n, together with an indication of primitive recursive upper bounds for the orders of these groups, stimulated investigations of the Burnside-Magnus problem as well. Very soon other effective proofs appeared, and then Zel'manov extended Kostrikin's result to the case when n is any power of a prime number. These results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Bibliography: 105 titles.

  17. Fast Edge-Searching and Related Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boting

    Given a graph G = (V,E) in which a fugitive hides on vertices or along edges, graph searching problems are usually to find the minimum number of searchers required to capture the fugitive. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the minimum number of steps to capture the fugitive. We introduce the fast edge-searching problem in the edge search model, which is the problem of finding the minimum number of steps (called the fast edge-search time) to capture the fugitive. We establish relations between the fast edge-search time and the fast search number. While the family of graphs whose fast search number is at most k is not minor-closed for any positive integer k ≥ 2, we show that the family of graphs whose fast edge-search time is at most k is minor-closed. We establish relations between the fast (edge-)searching and the node searching. These relations allow us to transform the problem of computing node search numbers to the problem of computing fast edge-search time or fast search numbers. Using these relations, we prove that the problem of deciding, given a graph G and an integer k, whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is less than or equal to k is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for Eulerian graphs. We also prove that the problem of determining whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is a half of the number of odd vertices in G is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for planar graphs with maximum degree 4. We present a linear time approximation algorithm for the fast edge-search time that always delivers solutions of at most (1+|V|-1/|E|+1) times the optimal value. This algorithm also gives us a tight upper bound on the fast search number of the graph. We also show a lower bound on the fast search number using the minimum degree and the number of odd vertices.

  18. Signature change, mixed problems and numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Classical general relativity takes place on a manifold with a metric of fixed, Lorentzian, signature. However, attempts to amalgamate general relativity with quantum theory frequently involve manifolds with metrics whose signatures are Lorentzian in some regions and Euclidean in others. (Indeed even more exotic possibilities are discussed frequently.) Most theoretical calculations rely on analyticity arguments to continue variables from the Euclidean to the Lorentzian regime and vice versa. This paper examines models of signature change. It looks at a single second-order quasi-linear partial differential equation on a fixed background, whose principal part is elliptic in one regime and hyperbolic in another, i.e. a mixed problem. It introduces some examples, explains heuristically the concept of a well-posed problem and then discusses the issues involved in constructing a robust numerical algorithm to solve well-posed problems. The paper includes a worked example illustrating the proposed techniques, and a discussion of the role of the potential curvature singularity on the transition hypersurface.

  19. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-03-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincaré and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching.

  20. Breaking down the problem of blind video quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Michele A.; Bovik, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Although a variety of successful no-reference (blind) picture quality analyzers have been proposed, progress on the blind video quality analysis problem has been slow. We break down the problem of perceptual blind video quality assessment (VQA) into components, which we address individually, before proposing a holistic solution. The idea is to tackle the challenges that comprise the blind VQA problem individually in order to gain a better understanding of it. Publisher's Note: The first printing of this volume was completed prior to the SPIE Digital Library publication and this paper has since been replaced with a corrected/revised version.

  1. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

  2. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

    2011-10-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies Emacro much larger than MP. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order Emacro/N·MP.

  3. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E{sub macro} much larger than M{sub P}. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E{sub macro}/N{center_dot}M{sub P}.

  4. Quality of Care and Problem Behaviors in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagekull, Berit; Bohlin, Gunilla

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of care quality in children's homes and external day care settings to children's emotional expressions and to problem and competence behaviors. Subjects were 123 children (63 males, 60 females) mostly from middle-class Swedish families. When children were 29 months old, data about quality of care

  5. Operational Water Quality Management: Problem Context and Evaluation of a Model for River Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, M. B.; Finney, B. A.

    1987-11-01

    In river basins where water is used intensively and by many activities and facilities, the essential questions of water quality management are changing from being issues of planning alone to being problems of operational decision making. In the past 10 years in the United Kingdom, for example, the technology, economics, legislation, and institutional structure of management have all changed substantially. Together these changes have overturned the traditional assumptions made about the nature of managing river water quality. This paper discusses the foundations for a case study in operational water quality management. The basis of the case study is a dynamic model for stream discharge and quality covering a 54-km stretch of the Bedford Ouse River in England. The model describes interactions among biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, ammonium N, nitrate N, and chlorophyll a concentrations at various points along the river; preliminary identification results are presented using daily time series data for the whole of 1974. The behavior of the river, which relates the effects of a major upstream discharger to a downstream abstractor, is dominated by the dynamics of algal population growth and mortality. In addition to the presentation of these results the paper sets out the technical, economic, and policy questions central to the practical feasibility and potential of operational water quality management. This includes questions in quantifying the stochastic, dynamic aspects of river basin management, the development of improved operating strategies, and the development of operational decision support systems.

  6. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  7. Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Constance F.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive

  8. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS AND ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provide cosponsorship for the Indoor Air Quality Problems and Engineering Solutions Symposium to be held in Research Triangle Park on July 21-23, 2003. This is an international symposium that is held every 2 or 3 years. IEMB and AWMA (Air and Waste Management Association) have...

  10. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  11. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  12. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental

  13. The Gum nebula and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.; Brandt, J. C.; Stecher, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Papers were presented in conference sessions on the Gum nebula, the Vela X remnant, the hot stars gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis, the B associations in the Vela-Puppis complex, and pulsars. Ground-based optical and radio astronomy; rocket and satellite observations in the radio, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray regions; and theoretical problems in the physical state of the interstellar medium, stellar evolution, and runaway star dynamics were considered.

  14. The relationship of sleep problems to life quality and depression

    PubMed Central

    Sarıarslan, Hacı A.; Gulhan, Yıldırım B.; Unalan, Demet; Basturk, Mustafa; Delibas, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the level of depression, the level of life quality, and the relationship between these, in patients applying to sleep centers for various sleep problems. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 229 patients who applied for polysomnography at sleeping centers under supervision of the Neurology and Chest Diseases Clinics of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between June and August 2013. The data collection tools were a socio-demographical data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). For statistical analyses, the Student t-test, Kruskal-Wallis-variant analysis, and chi-square tests were used. Significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: In our study, patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom were observed to have significantly poorer sleep quality. While patients with any chronic disease had significantly higher scores for total PSQI and depression, their physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF scores were significantly lower. The PSQI total scores, and depression scores of the smoking patients were significantly higher for physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF fields. There was a positive correlation between PSQI scores and BDI scores while there was a negative correlation among BDI, PSQI, and WHOQOL-BREF life quality sub-scale scores. Conclusions: Sleep quality was significantly poorer in patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom. There was a significantly negative correlation among depression, sleep quality, and life quality, while there was a significantly positive correlation between life quality and depression. PMID:26166591

  15. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or

  16. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  17. Quality of sleep and health-related quality of life in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xia; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wallace, Linda; Teng, Sha; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Hao, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients after renal transplantation and to explore the relationship between the quality of sleep and the HRQOL. Background: Sleep disorders are still an important clinical problem after renal transplantation. Previous studies mainly focused on patients’ sleep quality before kidney transplant. More studies are needed to document sleep quality after renal transplantation. Design: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods: A convenience sample of renal transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure quality of sleep. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (MOS SF-36) was used to measure health-related quality of life. Results: The average PSQI score of the 204 renal transplant recipients was 5.81±3.52, significantly lower than the norm. Fifty (24.5%) recipients were classified as having poor sleep quality (global PSQI > 7). The mean scores of renal transplant recipients for SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) were 47.57±6.71 and 48.26±9.66 respectively. Compared with residents in Sichuan province, recipients’ scores for SF-36 dimensions were statistically lower except the dimension of mental health. SF-36 scores of poor sleepers (PSQI > 7) were significantly lower than the good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 7) in both the MCS and PCS. Significant differences exist between the groups in physical function, bodily pain, vitality, and mental health dimensions. Conclusions: Sleep quality and HRQOL of patients after renal transplantation were lower than the norm. Poor sleep is associated with lower HRQOL. Relevance to clinical practice: Health professionals need to pay attention to sleep quality and HRQOL in renal transplant recipients and take appropriate measures to improve patients’ sleep quality and HRQOL. PMID:26629133

  18. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  19. [On suggestion and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazutaro

    2013-01-01

    Recently, intensive discussions about dissociative disorders have led to the rediscovery of the psychology of P. Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the suggestion with which Janet has occupied himself throughout his long career. In this paper, the author examined suggestion from another point of view other than psychodynamic. It is presented that Freud reduced suggestion to a specific relation between an active subject and a passive object, as his precursors, F.A. Mesmer and R. de Puységur did the same. In contrast, Janet's early studies influenced by the philosophy of M. de Biran seem to focus on another aspect of suggestion. From this aspect, suggestion is based on a spontaneous intersubjective process that should be expressed by the middle voice. Referring to H. Bergson, with whom Janet corresponded, the author pointed out that one is not always one's own self that reflects one's whole life history, regardless of the presence/absence of mental abnormality, as is the case with a person under suggestion. Taking into account these factors of suggestion, i. e., the middle voice and fragile selfhood that is not firmly rooted in one's own life history, the author investigated hysteria as a distinct phenomenon that has a particularly close relation with suggestion. Furthermore, depersonalization and schizophrenia were discussed concerning their relation with hysteria. In this approach, the author suggested that the unconscious could be topographically localized not only in a deep portion of the mental apparatus, but also in its most superficial portion, unlike in the case of Freud's psychoanalysis. PMID:24228472

  20. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  1. Cognitive problems related to vertebrobasilar circulation.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Supporting this concept, both cognitive training exercises and physical activity promote blood flow increase and correlate with healthy cognitive aging. The terminal branches of the posterior circulation supply blood to areas of the brain, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum, involved with important intellectual functions, particularly recent memory, visual-spatial functioning, and visuomotor adaptations. Amnesia and visual agnosia may be a complication of not only posterior circulation infarctions but also vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) without accompanying structural infarcts. The cognitive impairment maybe a manifestation of transient attacks and may persist beyond resolution of symptoms related to ischemia. Early recognition of cognitive deficits in the VBI patient is important because several recent reports show stent placements or medical treatment may improve cognition. PMID:26738337

  2. Management of Amiodarone-Related Thyroid Problems

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shashithej K.; Woods, David R.; Boos, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective and well-established antiarrrhythmic drug. It can be used to treat supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias and has the added advantage of being well tolerated in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function with a low incidence of arrhythmic events, such as torsades de pointes. However, owing to its marked lipid affinity, it is highly concentrated in tissues and is linked to a number of adverse effects, including thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone can lead to both hypothyroidism (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and less commonly hyperthyroidism (amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis) and relates to high iodine content within the molecule as well as to several unique intrinsic properties of amiodarone. Dronedarone is a recently approved antiarrhythmic drug. It is structurally very similar to amiodarone, however the iodine moiety, present with amiodarone has been removed and replaced with a methylsulfonamide group to reduce fat solubility and adverse effects. We present an overview of the effects of amiodarone on thyroid function and the treatment options available, as well as a brief insight into dronedarone and its potential as an alternative to amiodarone. PMID:23148177

  3. Misdiagnosing the Teacher Quality Problem. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs summarizes the findings on issues related to teacher quality in the chapter by the author in the book, "The State of Education Policy Research" (Cohen, Fuhrman, Mosher, Eds., 2007). This report also draws on discussions that took place during a summer, 2006, policy briefing on teacher labor-market issues held in…

  4. ICTs and Employment: The Problem of Job Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubery, Jill; Grimshaw, Damian

    2001-01-01

    The impact of information and communications technologies on jobs is not yet known and no outcome is inevitable. Technology-driven changes in organizational structures, employment relations, worker autonomy, and work organization will not automatically result in higher job quality. (Contains 92 references.) (SK)

  5. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on

  6. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  7. Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

    This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

  8. Water and related problems in coal-mine areas of Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Alfred L.; Newton, John G.

    1977-01-01

    Water-resource problems or potential problems in Alabama resulting from surface and subsurface coal mining include erosion and sedimentation, flooding, diversion of drainage, decline in water level, land subsidence, and the degradation of water quality. The degradation of water quality is the most serious and widespread coal-mine related problem in Alabama. The chemical quality of water in numerous streams draining coal-mine areas has been altered drastically. The pH of water draining from mined areas commonly ranges from 2.1 to 5.0, generally has high sulfate and dissolved solids concentrations, is hard to very hard, and may contain objectionable amounts of iron. The detrimental quality of water in some streams may persist for decades after mining has ceased. Without proper safeguards, additional mining may cause a significant deterioration in the quality of water in major streams where the more mineralized mine waters are now diluted. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Quality Training and Learning in Aviation: Problems of Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Phillip J.; Lehrer, Henry R.; Telfer, Ross A.

    2001-01-01

    The challenge of producing training programs that lead to quality learning outcomes is ever present in aviation, especially when economic and regulatory pressures are brought into the equation. Previous research by Telfer & Moore (1997) indicates the importance of appropriate alignment of beliefs about learning across all levels of an organization from the managerial level, through the instructor/check and training level, to the pilots and other crew. This paper argues for a central focus on approaches to learning and training that encourage understanding, problem solving and application. Recent research in the area is emphasized as are methods and techniques for enhancing deeper learning.

  10. Problem-oriented stereo vision quality evaluation complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorchuk, D.; Gusamutdinova, N.; Konovalenko, I.; Ershov, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an original low cost hardware setting for efficient testing of stereo vision algorithms. The method uses a combination of a special hardware setup and mathematical model and is easy to construct, precise in applications of our interest. For a known scene we derive its analytical representation, called virtual scene. Using a four point correspondence between the scene and virtual one we compute extrinsic camera parameters, and project virtual scene on the image plane, which is the ground truth for depth map. Another result, presented in this paper, is a new depth map quality metric. Its main purpose is to tune stereo algorithms for particular problem, e.g. obstacle avoidance.

  11. Oral Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, L.; Broder, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications in survey and clinical research. OHRQoL is an integral part of general health and well-being. In fact, it is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program (2003). This paper identifies the what, why, and how of OHRQoL and presents an oral health theoretical model. The relevance of OHRQoL for dental practitioners and patients in community-based dental practices is presented. Implications for health policy and related oral health disparities are also discussed. A supplemental Appendix contains a Medline and ProQuest literature search regarding OHRQoL research from 1990-2010 by discipline and research design (e.g., descriptive, longitudinal, clinical trial, etc.). The search identified 300 articles with a notable surge in OHRQoL research in pediatrics and orthodontics in recent years. PMID:21422477

  12. Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).

    PubMed

    E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

    1998-06-01

    Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information. PMID:23605062

  13. Early Intervention of Eating- and Weight-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; White, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and other eating-related problems are widespread and are associated with harmful physical, psychological, and social problems. The dramatic increases in rates of pediatric obesity has created a mounting need for psychologists and other mental health care providers to play a significant role in the assessment and treatment of youth with eating- and weight-related problems. Therefore, it is imperative for providers to be aware of the causes and consequences of eating- and weight-related problems and to be familiar with evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches. Currently, the most well-established intervention approaches are family-based behavioral treatments, and weight loss maintenance treatments with a socio-ecological focus are promising. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these topics and highlights the important roles that mental health care providers can have. Medical settings are often the patient’s first point of contact within the healthcare system, making mental health care providers in such settings uniquely suited to assess for a broad range of eating- and weight-related problems and associated comorbidities, to deliver relevant evidence-based interventions, and to make appropriate referrals. Moving forward, providers and researchers must work together to address key questions related to the nature of eating- and weight-related problems in youth and to achieve breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of such problems in this vulnerable population. PMID:20960039

  14. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

  15. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and

  16. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, gueda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.

  17. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  18. Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

  19. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual primarily provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the prevention and control of analytical procedures which arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. The sections dealing with inter- and intra-laboratory quality control, the evaluati...

  20. Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

  1. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  2. Efforts To Solve Quality Problems. Background Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; And Others

    Producing goods and services of high quality is not expensive, but correcting poor quality costs U.S. companies as much as 20 percent of sales revenues annually. One survey reported that only 1 out of 300 U.S. companies involved management and engineering staff in quality training. The tendency is to have a quality control department, separate…

  3. Nutrition-related problems of pediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    González, L; Nazario, C M; González, M J

    2000-03-01

    Children with neuromuscular disorders have special health needs that place them at risk of nutritional problems. These needs may have detrimental effects on their development, immune and respiratory system. Identified nutrition-related problems are malnutrition, obesity, food intolerance, food allergies, drug-nutrient interactions, constipation and reflux. In order to improve the nutritional status of these patients, a nutritional assessment is recommended which should include anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. PMID:10761203

  4. Quality analysis of the solution produced by dissection algorithms applied to the traveling salesman problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cesari, G.

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to analyze experimentally the quality of the solution obtained with dissection algorithms applied to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem. Starting from Karp`s results. We apply a divide and conquer strategy, first dividing the plane into subregions where we calculate optimal subtours and then merging these subtours to obtain the final tour. The analysis is restricted to problem instances where points are uniformly distributed in the unit square. For relatively small sets of cities we analyze the quality of the solution by calculating the length of the optimal tour and by comparing it with our approximate solution. When the problem instance is too large we perform an asymptotical analysis estimating the length of the optimal tour. We apply the same dissection strategy also to classical heuristics by calculating approximate subtours and by comparing the results with the average quality of the heuristic. Our main result is the estimate of the rate of convergence of the approximate solution to the optimal solution as a function of the number of dissection steps, of the criterion used for the plane division and of the quality of the subtours. We have implemented our programs on MUSIC (MUlti Signal processor system with Intelligent Communication), a Single-Program-Multiple-Data parallel computer with distributed memory developed at the ETH Zurich.

  5. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  6. Policy, Pragmatic, and Problems in Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development of policy in quality assurance in higher education. While it briefly examines the broader context of quality assurance in South Africa in terms of the National Qualifications Framework as one of the political levers for establishing a quality assurance system in education and training systemically it focuses…

  7. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  8. Solving the relative Lambert's problem and accounting for its singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Changxuan; Zhao, Yushan; Li, Baojun; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    A novel approach based on Lagrange's time equation and differential orbital elements is developed to solve the relative Lambert's problem for circular reference orbits. Compared with the conventional Clohessy-Wiltshire equation, the proposed method directly obtains differences of orbital elements between a transfer orbit and a reference orbit. This advantage enables us to account for singularities that occur in the relative Lambert's problem. The solved relative velocities depend on the five differential orbital elements. Accordingly, singularities can be attributed to any significant change in the semi-major axis, eccentricity, or orbital plane. Furthermore, appropriately adjusting initial and final relative positions eliminates some singularities. A numerical simulation based on the classic Lambert's formula for a rendezvous mission in closed range demonstrates the analytical results.

  9. GENOTYPE-RELATED FIBER QUALITY VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of genotype with environment is important in genotype selection. The objective of this study was to assess fiber quality variability in four early maturity genotypes having different boll distribution patterns. Four cultivars (DP388, FM 958, PSE 355, and ST 474) which were part of...

  10. Some unsolved problems relating to noise in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A faithful description of many biological processes requires us to take into account noise and fluctuations. Simplified stochastic models may help to shed light on the role of fluctuations in biological systems. Two kinds of theoretical problems for such simplified models are discussed in this paper. Firstly, I review approaches for calculating analytically the statistics of stochastic non-linear models of spontaneous neural activity. In particular, I discuss (i) interspike interval correlations in non-renewal neurons and (ii) the effect of synaptic short-term plasticity on neural signal transfer. Secondly, I discuss the more conceptual problem of how more detailed models are related to simplified models. I consider, as an example of an open problem of this kind, the relation between detailed models of coupled molecular motors and models of active Brownian motion.

  11. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health. PMID:25922330

  12. The relation of eating problems and amenorrhea in ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Warren, M P; Hamilton, L H

    1987-02-01

    Exercise-induced amenorrhea has received considerable attention in the medical literature. The combination of exercise and low body weight is thought to exert synergistic effects in the pathogenesis of amenorrhea, while the role of dieting and eating problems, another possible causative mechanism, has not been examined. A sample of 55 adult dancers in national and regional classical ballet companies was studied; their mean age was 24.7 yr. Fifty-six percent of the dancers had delayed menarche (age 14 or later) and 19% of the sample were currently amenorrheic (5 months or longer). One-third of the dancers reported having had an eating problem (self-reported anorexia nervosa or bulimia). Amenorrhea and reported eating problems were significantly related: 50% of amenorrheics reported anorexia nervosa while 13% of the normals did. In addition, prolonged amenorrhea was significantly related to dieting (as measured by EAT-26 scales, a measure of dieting behavior). As expected, leanness and absolute weight also were related to prolonged amenorrhea. Amenorrhea in this sample of adult dancers was not related to current activity level or age at which training began. Thus, eating problems may be one factor in the pathogenesis of prolonged amenorrhea in certain athletic groups. PMID:3469489

  13. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol

  14. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  15. The Relation of Parenting Transitions to Boys' Adjustment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, D. M.

    The hypothesis that children are placed at increased risk for adjustment problems when parents divorce and remarry was tested with a sample of 206 boys in the fourth grade. It was also hypothesized that the relation of parenting transitions and boys' adjustment would be mediated by family management practices. Subjects attended schools in…

  16. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  17. Solving Drug-Related Problems in the Professional Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of using the Pharmacist's Work-up of Drug Therapy (PWDT) in teaching 91 pharmacy students in a clinical clerkship program to identify and solve drug-related problems. Because the instructional technique was recently implemented, the study looked at effects of 3 different quantities of training (0, 1, and 3

  18. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  19. Using creative problem solving (TRIZ) in improving the quality of hospital services.

    PubMed

    LariSemnani, Behrouz; Mohebbi Far, Rafat; Shalipoor, Elham; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    TRIZ is an initiative and SERVQUAL is a structured methodology for quality improvement. Using these tools, inventive problem solving can be applied for quality improvement, and the highest quality can be reached using creative quality improvement methodology. The present study seeks to determine the priority of quality aspects of services provided for patients in the hospital as well as how TRIZ can help in improving the quality of those services. This Study is an applied research which used a dynamic qualitative descriptive survey method during year 2011. Statistical population includes every patient who visited in one of the University Hospitals from March 2011. There existed a big gap between patients' expectations from what seemingly is seen (the design of the hospital) and timely provision of services with their perceptions. Also, quality aspects of services were prioritized as follows: keeping the appearance of hospital (the design), accountability, assurance, credibility and having empathy. Thus, the only thing which mattered most for all staff and managers of studied hospital was the appearance of hospital as well as its staff look. This can grasp a high percentage of patients' satisfaction. By referring to contradiction matrix, the most important principles of TRIZ model were related to tangible factors including principles No. 13 (discarding and recovering), 25 (self-service), 35 (parameter changes), and 2 (taking out). Furthermore, in addition to these four principles, principle No. 24 (intermediary) was repeated most among the others. By utilizing TRIZ, hospital problems can be examined with a more open view, Go beyond The conceptual framework of the organization and responded more quickly to patients ' needs. PMID:25560360

  20. Using Creative Problem Solving (TRIZ) in Improving the Quality of Hospital Services

    PubMed Central

    LariSemnani, Behrouz; Far, Rafat Mohebbi; Shalipoor, Elham; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    TRIZ is an initiative and SERVQUAL is a structured methodology for quality improvement. Using these tools, inventive problem solving can be applied for quality improvement, and the highest quality can be reached using creative quality improvement methodology. The present study seeks to determine the priority of quality aspects of services provided for patients in the hospital as well as how TRIZ can help in improving the quality of those services. This Study is an applied research which used a dynamic qualitative descriptive survey method during year 2011. Statistical population includes every patient who visited in one of the University Hospitals from March 2011. There existed a big gap between patients’ expectations from what seemingly is seen (the design of the hospital) and timely provision of services with their perceptions. Also, quality aspects of services were prioritized as follows: keeping the appearance of hospital (the design), accountability, assurance, credibility and having empathy. Thus, the only thing which mattered most for all staff and managers of studied hospital was the appearance of hospital as well as its staff look. This can grasp a high percentage of patients’ satisfaction. By referring to contradiction matrix, the most important principles of TRIZ model were related to tangible factors including principles No. 13 (discarding and recovering), 25 (self-service), 35 (parameter changes), and 2 (taking out). Furthermore, in addition to these four principles, principle No. 24 (intermediary) was repeated most among the others. By utilizing TRIZ, hospital problems can be examined with a more open view, Go beyond The conceptual framework of the organization and responded more quickly to patients ’ needs. PMID:25560360

  1. Relative displacement measurements for two-body problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Wood, J.; Joh, D.

    1985-01-01

    While high-sensitivity moire interferometry is very effective for displacement measurements in continuous bodies, special difficulties arise with two-body problems. Fringes may become discontinuous at the boundary between the bodies and as a result the relative displacements cannot be extracted from the fringe patterns. In this work, flexible bridges are used between the bodies to provide a continuous path for fringe counting. The bridges are made of relatively low modulus material and have a low stiffness geometry, such that they deform under minimal load. The experimental methods used for obtaining relative displacement measurements in two-body problems are described for the two cases; dovetail joint in turbo-machinery, and thick adherend lap joint.

  2. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  3. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol. PMID:15049741

  4. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Jiří; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  5. GEE-WIS Anchored Problem Solving Using Real-Time Authentic Water Quality Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M.; Wlodarczyk, M. S.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

    2002-05-01

    GEE-WIS scientific problem solving consists of observing, hypothesizing, synthesis, argument building and reasoning, in the context of analysis, representation, modeling and sense-making of real-time authentic water quality data. Geoscience Environmental Education - Web-accessible Instrumented Systems, or GEE-WIS, an NSF Geoscience Education grant, has established a set of companion websites that stream real-time data from two campus retention ponds for research and use in secondary and undergraduate water quality lessons. We have targeted scientific problem solving skills because of the nature of the GEE-WIS environment, but further because they are central to state and federal efforts to establish science education curriculum standards and are at the core of performance-based testing. We have used a design experiment process to create and test two Anchored Instruction scenario problems. Customization such as that done through a design process, is acknowledged to be a fundamental component of educational research from an ecological psychology perspective. Our efforts have shared core design elements with other NSF water quality projects. Our method involves the analysis of student written scenario responses for level of scientific problem solving using a qualitative scoring rubric designed from participation in a related NSF project, SCALE (Synergy Communities: Aggregating Learning about Education). Student solutions of GEE-WIS anchor problems from Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 will be summarized. Implications are drawn for those interested in making secondary and high education geoscience more realistic and more motivating for students through the use of real-time authentic data via Internet.

  6. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  7. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  8. Information needs related to teaching about air quality.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, William P; Stubbs, Harriett S

    2003-06-01

    Translating knowledge of air quality into a form that can be understood by students and the general public is a major challenge for scientists, public officials, and teachers. Social science studies have shown that both educators and the general public are relatively uninformed about recent findings in environmental research. It is especially difficult to get students of today excited about environmental issues because environmental education has become institutionalized. Students believe they know about major environmental problems even when their knowledge is rudimentary or even wrong. One problem in getting public attention is the general level of hyperbole and hysteria common in most media. Thus, do we try to be even more shrill and apocalyptic than other advocates clamoring for public notice, or should we refuse to participate in this competition for attention?A model is presented to bring K-12 teachers, scientists, and students together to develop innovative, inquiry-based, active learning materials for environmental education. Curricular materials utilizing the discovery process can be created and tested in an iterative process that incorporates the results of current science research into highly effective teaching materials for schools. Following extensive evaluative procedures and review, exemplary materials are prepared for publication. This collaborative method also gives teachers and students a more realistic understanding of how science works by giving them access to active scientists and practical scientific experience.Finally, we argue that scientists need to reveal why they care about environmental issues. It is not enough to remain aloof and objective. If we are going to motivate students and the public to make changes in their lives, we need to make a convincing case for the importance of air quality and what it means in practical terms to our common environment. PMID:12676221

  9. Modifications of bundles, elliptic integrable systems, and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-10-01

    We describe a construction of elliptic integrable systems based on bundles with nontrivial characteristic classes, especially attending to the bundle-modification procedure, which relates models corresponding to different characteristic classes. We discuss applications and related problems such as the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equations, classical and quantum R-matrices, monopoles, spectral duality, Painlevé equations, and the classical-quantum correspondence. For an SL(N,ℂ)-bundle on an elliptic curve with nontrivial characteristic classes, we obtain equations of isomonodromy deformations.

  10. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  11. How to Diagnose Solutions to a Quality of Care Problem.

    PubMed

    Harel, Ziv; Silver, Samuel A; McQuillan, Rory F; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Chertow, Glenn M; Nesrallah, Gihad; Chan, Christopher T; Bell, Chaim M

    2016-05-01

    To change a particular quality of care outcome within a system, quality improvement initiatives must first understand the causes contributing to the outcome. After the causes of a particular outcome are known, changes can be made to address these causes and change the outcome. Using the example of home dialysis (home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), this article within this Moving Points feature on quality improvement will provide health care professionals with the tools necessary to analyze the steps contributing to certain outcomes in health care quality and develop ideas that will ultimately lead to their resolution. The tools used to identify the main contributors to a quality of care outcome will be described, including cause and effect diagrams, Pareto analysis, and process mapping. We will also review common change concepts and brainstorming activities to identify effective change ideas. These methods will be applied to our home dialysis quality improvement project, providing a practical example that other kidney health care professionals can replicate at their local centers. PMID:27016495

  12. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  13. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  14. Alcohol use, related problems and psychological health in college students.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p < 0.01). Current users were further divided into two groups, moderate and heavy, considering the amount and frequency of alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students. PMID:21721361

  15. Evaluating the Quality and Responsiveness of Reading Interventions Developed through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn-Blakeslee, Alecia; Ikeda, Martin J.; Gustafson, Jeri

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that quality interventions, ambitious goals, and formative progress monitoring positively impact student achievement. This study evaluated 32 reading intervention cases, generated from problem-solving service delivery, for the inclusion of quality indices, goal ambitiousness, and student growth over time. Intervention quality was…

  16. On the Problems of Asking for a Definition of Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittek, Line; Kvernbekk, Tone

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the problems of asking for a definition of quality in education from a philosophy of language perspective. We take the concept of quality as it appears in higher education discourse as our example. More specifically we discuss the possibility of obtaining a precise, unified definition of quality by addressing the problem…

  17. Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

    1972-01-01

    Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

  18. Raising Standards in American Schools? Problems with Improving Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the teacher workforce is a subject of perennial concern in many developed countries. In the United States, through the "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act, the federal government has a mandate for reform of teacher education that is unprecedented in its scale. Essentially the Act demands that every teacher of core academic subjects…

  19. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  20. Theoretical and observational problems related to solar eclipses. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Z.; Stavinschi, M.

    The contributions to this book are based on the current knowledge of solar corona physics and on the prospects for future total eclipse observations, focusing on the eclipse of August 11, 1999, which forecasters believe will occur at precisely the maximum of solar activity. The results of past eclipse observations are reviewed, including coronal hot and cold structures, coronal heating, public education and instrumental problems. The relation of the corona to the Sun is discussed, viz., the energy and mass transfer between the chromosphere and the corona, including the formation of prominences by coronal condensation in coronal cavities and the supply of mass to the corona by spicules.

  1. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  2. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  3. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  4. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  5. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  6. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  7. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  8. The Friendship Quality of Overtly and Relationally Victimized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines links between overt and relational victimization and the quality of children's best friendships. Third-grade through fifth-grade children completed measures in the fall (n = 675) and spring (n = 620). There were strong concurrent associations between both types of victimization and friendship quality. Controlling for…

  9. RELATING AIR CLEANER EFFICIENCY TO INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of a single-story office building, relating air cleaner efficiency to indoor air quality. redicting the improvement in indoor air quality due to in-duct air cleaners is an important aspect of ventilation system design. he effects of percentage o...

  10. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS RELATED TO BLENDING WATERS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blending two or more waters of different quality and to relate their composition to the corrosive effects and calcium carbonate deposition tendency of the water on distribution systems. The EPA mobile water quality monitoring la...

  11. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

  12. Mitigating the Problem of Unmeasured Outcomes in Quality Reports

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

    2009-01-01

    Quality reports or profiles of health care providers are inevitably based on only a measurable subset of the “outputs” of the organization. Hospitals, for example, are being profiled on their mortality in the cardiac area but not in some other areas where mortality does not seem to be the appropriate measure of quality. If inputs used for outputs included in the profile also affect outputs outside the scope of the profile, it can be taken into account in constructing a profile of the measured outputs. This paper presents a theory for how such a commonality in production should be taken into account in designing a profile for a hospital or other health care provider. We distinguish between “conventional” weights in a quality profile, and “optimal” weights that take into account a commonality in the production process. The basic idea is to increase the weights on discharges for which output is measured that use inputs that are important to other discharges whose outputs are not included in the profile. PMID:20490360

  13. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely related to the issue of singularities in general relativity. Finally, we discuss the topic of stability of solutions to Einstein's equations. This is not only an important and active area of research, it is also one that only became meaningful thanks to the work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat.

  14. Genetic relationship between leg problems and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler population.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-08-01

    We herein report the genetic association between leg problems and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler control population. The leg problem traits were valgus (VL), varus (VR), and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), and that of bone quality were shank weight (SW), shank length (SL), shank diameter (SDIAM), tibia weight (TW), tibia length (TL), tibia diameter (TDIAM), tibia density (TDEN), tibia breaking strength (TBS), tibia mineral density (TMD), tibia mineral content (TMC), and tibia ash content (TAC). A threshold-linear mixed model, implemented via a Bayesian approach, was employed for the joint analysis of the traits. Genetic correlations of leg problems with bone quality traits ranged from -0.06 to 0.11 suggesting that genetic relationship between leg problems and quality is weak, and management strategies could better alleviate leg problems than genetic improvement. PMID:26089480

  15. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability. PMID:26816159

  16. Rehabilitation of spasticity and related problems in childhood cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Flett, P J

    2003-01-01

    Spasticity is one part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, but it is a widespread problem in cerebral palsy; it is debilitating, affects function and can lead to musculoskeletal complications. Significant advances have occurred in antispasticity management (and related musculoskeletal problems) in children with cerebral palsy during the past 5-10 years. Botulinum toxin A has been the most outstanding treatment advance; it is relatively long-lasting, easy to administer, reversible, has a favourable side-effect profile and is highly useful for focal spasticity. There is an emerging role for intrathecal baclofen in Australia. Despite being available and practised in North America for years, selective dorsal rhizotomy has not been popular in Australia. The use of orthopaedic surgery has significantly altered in recent years. There is still a place for oral drug treatment, including some newer agents and the potential for combination treatment with other modalities. The role of physical therapy in defining disability, assessing function, undertaking biomechanical assessment and providing mobility aids/casting/orthoses and motor training/stretching exercises is critical for the success of medical and surgical interventions. From an Australian perspective, the purpose of the present review is to provide a critical review of therapies available for spasticity associated with childhood cerebral palsy. PMID:12542805

  17. INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

  18. Relationships between Undergraduates' Argumentation Skills, Conceptual Quality of Problem Solutions, and Problem Solving Strategies in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebello, Carina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…

  19. The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

  20. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1–28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:23471477

  1. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement. PMID:21293923

  2. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  3. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the "Health on the Net" label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  4. Quality of Life in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Morisse, Filip; Vandemaele, Eleonore; Claes, Claudia; Claes, Lien; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The field of intellectual disability (ID) is strongly influenced by the Quality of Life paradigm (QOL). We aimed at investigating whether or not the QOL paradigm also applies to clients with ID and cooccurring mental health problems. This paper aims at stimulating a debate on this topic, by investigating whether or not QOL domains are universal. Focus groups with natural and professional network members were organized to gather qualitative data, in order to answer two questions: (1) Are the QOL dimensions conceptualized in the model of Schalock et al. applicable for persons with ID and mental health problems? (2) What are indicators relating to the above-mentioned dimensions in relation to persons with ID and mental health problems? The results offer some proof for the assumption that the QOL construct seems to have universal properties. With regard to the second question, the study revealed that the natural and professional network members are challenged to look for the most appropriate support strategies, taking specific indicators of QOL into account. When aspects of empowerment and regulation are used in an integrated manner, the application of the QOL paradigm could lead to positive outcomes concerning self-determination, interdependence, social inclusion, and emotional development. PMID:23476137

  5. Relationship between Poor Sleep Quality and Psychological Problems among Undergraduate Students in the Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Sonkprasert, Thanawan; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to fill the noted gap in the available literature by evaluating the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this understudied population and to explore the relationship between sleep quality and psychological problems among undergraduates in Thailand. This study used a cross-sectional survey. Self-administrated questionnaires included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Thai General Health Questionnaire. The study group included 1,055 undergraduates, aged 18-25 years. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 42.4%. Students classified as poor quality sleepers reported significantly more psychological problems, indicating a linear trend of progressively worse global sleep quality associated with greater mood and anxiety symptomatology. Prospective studies that include objective measures of sleep duration and quality are needed to more fully develop focused health promotion strategies for Southeast Asian undergraduates. PMID:27152114

  6. Infant-Mother Attachment Classification: Risk and Protection in Relation to Changing Maternal Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The relations between early infant-mother attachment and children's social competence and behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period were examined in more than 1,000 children under conditions of decreasing, stable, and increasing maternal parenting quality. Infants' Strange Situation attachment classifications predicted

  7. Infant-Mother Attachment Classification: Risk and Protection in Relation to Changing Maternal Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The relations between early infant-mother attachment and children's social competence and behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period were examined in more than 1,000 children under conditions of decreasing, stable, and increasing maternal parenting quality. Infants' Strange Situation attachment classifications predicted…

  8. Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

  9. A radiation detector design mitigating problems related to sawed edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

    2014-12-01

    In pixelated silicon radiation detectors that are utilized for the detection of UV, visible, and in particular Near Infra-Red (NIR) light it is desirable to utilize a relatively thick fully depleted Back-Side Illuminated (BSI) detector design providing 100% Fill Factor (FF), low Cross-Talk (CT), and high Quantum Efficiency (QE). The optimal thickness of such detectors is typically less than 300μm and above 40μm and thus it is more or less mandatory to thin the detector wafer from the backside after the front side of the detector has been processed and before a conductive layer is formed on the backside. A TAIKO thinning process is optimal for such a thickness range since neither a support substrate on the front side nor lithographic steps on the backside are required. The conductive backside layer should, however, be homogenous throughout the wafer and it should be biased from the front side of the detector. In order to provide good QE for blue and UV light the conductive backside layer should be of opposite doping type than the substrate. The problem with a homogeneous backside layer being of opposite doping type than the substrate is that a lot of leakage current is typically generated at the sawed chip edges, which may increase the dark noise and the power consumption. These problems are substantially mitigated with a proposed detector edge arrangement which 2D simulation results are presented in this paper.

  10. On the Gravitational Two-Body Problem in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, G. N.; Asanov, R. A.

    The method of POINCARÉ is applied to the consideration of the gravitational two-body problem in the framework of Special Relativity. The formulation of the theory contains two arbitrary functions. A specific choice of these functions leads to the correct description of three crucial experiments, supporting General Relativity, and the time delay of radar signals. However, the gyroscope precession is three times less than that of GR (the realization of this experiment is planned this year). The expansion over the inverse powers of the light velocity being performed approximate Lorentz covariant two-body equations without retardation effects are obtained. These equations are compared with the EIH two-body equations.Translated AbstractÜber das Zweikörperproblem in der speziellen RelativitätstheorieEs wird die POINCARÉ Methode auf das Problem der Gravitationwechselwirkung zweier Körper in der speziellen Relativitätstheorie angewendet. Die Theorie enthält zwei beliebige Funktionen. Im Potentialgrenzfall erhält man bei bestimmter Wahl dieser Funktionen eine richtige Beschreibung der drei bekannten Effekte in der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie und des Zeitverzögerungseffektes von Radarsignalen. Die Größe der Präzession des Gyroskops ergibt sich dreimal kleiner als in der Einsteinschen Theorie (die experimentelle Überprüfung dieses Effektes ist für 1980 geplant). Mit Hilfe einer inversen Potenzreihenentwicklung nach der Lichtgeschwindigkeit wurden genäherte Lorentz-kovariante Gleichungen für das Zweikörperproblem erhalten, in denen Retardierungseffekte fehlen. Es wird der Zusammenhang mit anderen Versuchen, Lorentz-kovariante Gleichungen für das Zweikörperproblem aufzustellen, erörtert.

  11. Health-related quality of life profiles among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Bakar, Zanariah Abu

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to determine and compare health-related quality of life profiles of schizophrenia family caregivers on the basis of their sociodemographic characteristics. Thirty outpatient family caregivers completed the generic 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (male = 53.5%; mean age = 51 years; married = 76.7%). The highest mean score was reported for social functioning while role limitation-emotional was rated the worst. Significantly better health-related quality of life profiles were demonstrated by caregivers who were male, younger than 50 years, adequately educated, employed, and without health problems and were receiving monthly income. Understanding of on health-related quality of life matters for family caregivers is crucial to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:21881420

  12. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  13. Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dietary protein intake and specifically the quality of the protein in the diet has become an area of recent interest. This study determined the relationship between the amount of quality protein, carbohydrate, and dietary fat consumed and the amount of times the ~10 g essential amino acid (EAA) threshold was reached at a meal, with percent central abdominal fat (CAF). Quality protein was defined as the ratio of EAA to total dietary protein. Quality protein consumed in a 24-hour period and the amount of times reaching the EAA threshold per day was inversely related to percent CAF, but not for carbohydrate or dietary fat. In conclusion, moderate to strong correlations between variables indicate that quality and distribution of protein may play an important role in regulating CAF, which is a strong independent marker for disease and mortality. PMID:22284338

  14. Resolving the Southern African Large Telescope's image quality problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Crause, Lisa A.; O'Connor, James; Strümpfer, Francois; Strydom, Ockert J.; Sass, Craig; Brink, Janus D.; Plessis, Charl du; Wiid, Eben; Love, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Images obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its commissioning phase in 2006 showed degradation due to a large focus gradient, astigmatism, and higher order optical aberrations. An extensive forensic investigation exonerated the primary mirror and the science instruments before pointing to the mechanical interface between the telescope and the spherical aberration corrector, the complex optical subassembly which corrects the spherical aberration introduced by the 11-m primary mirror. Having diagnosed the problem, a detailed repair plan was formulated and implemented when the corrector was removed from the telescope in April 2009. The problematic interface was replaced, and the four aspheric mirrors were optically tested and re-aligned. Individual mirror surface figures were confirmed to meet specification, and a full system test after the re-alignment yielded a root mean square wavefront error of 0.15 waves. The corrector was reinstalled in August 2010 and aligned with respect to the payload and primary mirror. Subsequent on-sky tests revealed spurious signals being sent to the tracker by the auto-collimator, the instrument that maintains the alignment of the corrector with respect to the primary mirror. After rectifying this minor issue, the telescope yielded uniform 1.1 arcsec star images over the full 10-arcmin field of view.

  15. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related

  16. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time. PMID:12639034

  17. Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.

  18. Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.…

  19. Temperament in Context: Infant Temperament Moderates the Relationship between Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Fite, Paula J.; Mott, Joshua A.; Bush, Nicole R.

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were…

  20. Exploring Sleep Quality and Related Factors in Chinese Midlife Women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qunyan; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Hui; Jing, Jianling

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the percentage of women with poor sleep quality and its related factors among mainland Chinese women. Sleep quality and menopausal status were self-reported. We explored the contribution of possible risk factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, lifestyle, psychological status, stressful life events, and vasomotor symptoms. We found that 38.6% of midlife Chinese women were poor sleepers. This percentage was higher in comparison with women from other Asian countries. Our multiple logistic regression showed that anxiety, comorbidities, perceived stress, and vasomotor symptoms were risk factors for poor sleep quality. PMID:25868869

  1. Converter-based solution to power quality problems on radial distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Zyl, A. van; Enslin, J.H.R.; Spee, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper it is shown that the converter-based Power Quality Manager is a viable solution to power quality problems on radial lines. It is capable of harmonic isolation, improving voltage regulation and flicker compensation simultaneously. These functions can also be implemented independently. The Power Quality Manager is a hybrid device comprising passive components and a converter. The converter power rating is lower than that required by an equivalent active filter or converter-based Static Var Compensator.

  2. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  3. Citrus Quality Control: An NMR/MRI Problem-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Sarah E.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment seated in an industrial context can provide an engaging framework and unique learning opportunity for an upper-division physical chemistry laboratory. An experiment that teaches NMR/MRI through a problem-based quality control of citrus products was developed. In this experiment, using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, students

  4. Citrus Quality Control: An NMR/MRI Problem-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Sarah E.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment seated in an industrial context can provide an engaging framework and unique learning opportunity for an upper-division physical chemistry laboratory. An experiment that teaches NMR/MRI through a problem-based quality control of citrus products was developed. In this experiment, using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, students…

  5. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for

  6. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for…

  7. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  8. Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Carr, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod…

  9. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education

  10. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  11. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-09-13

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection-diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  12. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (20102012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.455.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.164.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.072.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  13. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456

  14. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  15. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. PMID:26046402

  16. Problems and Solutions Related to College Students' Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinming

    2008-01-01

    With China staying in its social transition period, its changes in economy, politics and culture have influenced college students' thought to a large extent. Currently, in spite of the healthy and upward mainstream thought among college students, there are also some problems. This article elaborates on the problems and manifestations in college…

  17. Adolescent Nonsexual and Sex-Related Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlinus, Robert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared the involvement in problem behaviors of a national sample of male and female youth who were: virgins, sexually experienced (never pregnant), pregnant, or parents. Regression analyses showed that never pregnant adolescents were more likely than virgins to have been involved in four types of nonsexual problem behaviors. (JBJ)

  18. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  19. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  20. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  2. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  4. [Quality of life and problems posed by hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus during oral hypoglycemic therapy].

    PubMed

    Ionova, T I; Odin, V I; Nikitina, T P; Kurbatova, K A; Shablovskaia, N E

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life characteristics, hypoglycemic episodes and patients' attitude toward them were estimated in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the modern recommendations for the patient-oriented treatment with metformin in combination with sulfonylurea derivatives (M+S) therapy, traditional approach, n = 83) and metformin in combination with vildagliptin (M+V therapy, innovative approach, n = 111). M+V therapy ensured a higher quality of life than M+S therapy based on all SF-36 scales. Quality of life parameters corresponded to population norms in most patients given M+V therapy and only in 52% of those treated with M+S. The frequency of hypoglycemic episodes, related concerns, and other problems associated with this condition were less apparent in case of M+V therapy. Transition from M+S to M+V therapy resulted in the improvement of quality of life and reduction in the frequency of hypoglycemia. Quality of life did not change after transition to M+S therapy while the frequency of hypoglycemia and the number of related problems increased. HbA1c levels were similar in both groups (0.8% difference). According to patients' reports M+V therapy is more efficient than M+S; these data allow to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of therapy and monitor the health state of diabetic patients in the course of treatment. PMID:24437153

  5. Asymmetry in Keratoconus and Vision-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Walline, Jeffrey J.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Kymes, Steven M.; Zadnik, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relation of increased ocular asymmetry over time on vision-related quality of life in keratoconus. Methods Subjects were in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study and had complete data on a least one scale of the NEI VFQ and examination data at baseline and at least one follow-up visit. Three measures of disease asymmetry (visual acuity, corneal curvature, and refractive error) and better eye status were assessed. Multilevel models were fit to the data. Results Analyses were completed using 961 subjects. Six scales on the NEI VFQ had adequate variability to model (distance activity, driving, mental health, near activity, ocular pain, and role difficulties). Refractive error changes were not associated with statistically significant quality of life differences. Except for ocular pain, statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences were found for visual acuity changes and corneal curvature changes. For a 0.1-unit logMAR visual acuity change, the quality of life scales decreased between 0.20 and 0.99 units. For a 1.00-D steepening of corneal curvature these decreases were on the order of 0.20 to 0.59 units. Changes related to asymmetry were small as well: decreases on the order of 0.20 to 0.38 units. Conclusions Increasing ocular asymmetry and decreases in visual acuity and corneal steepening in the better eye were associated with decreasing vision-related quality of life, though the magnitudes of the changes were not clinically meaningful. Of these two disease status indicators, the vision in the better eye had greater effect on vision-related quality of life. PMID:22825402

  6. Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Livingston, Michael H.; Palisano, Robert J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 203 adolescents with cerebral palsy (111 males, 92 females; mean age 16y [SD 1y 9mo]). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), as Level I (n=60), Level II (n=33), Level III (n=28), Level IV (n=50), or Level V…

  7. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands. PMID:25641930

  8. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Noordhuizen, Jptm; Cannas da Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health. PMID:22082372

  9. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health. PMID:22082372

  10. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the (summary) scale scores were adequate representations of the information obtained by the individual items. The DIF analyses identified a number of cases of DIF, which, among other things, contributed to detection of possible problems in the HAD Scale. It was concluded that DIF analyses are relevant when important analyses based on multi-item scales are made. A new way to evaluate the validity of questionnaires was developed. The results from questionnaires completed by patients were compared against results from open ended interviews with the same patients rated by observers. The idea was that if results were similar, the patients had then probably understood and completed the questionnaire items as intended. On the other hand, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires and interviews was excellent, indicating very good validity. The median weighted kappa for the EORTC QLQ-C30 was 0.85 (range 0.49-1.00); it was 0.79 (range 0.65-0.95) for the HAD Scale, and 0.92 (range 0.51-1.00) for the DBCG 89 Questionnaire. However, the study identified a mechanism called selective reporting, which may affect results from most HRQL questionnaires: in order to provide correct and useful answers some patients do not report symptoms they believe are irrelevant to the study, e.g., symptoms unrelated to cancer. This mechanism may lead to bias if results from patients are compared to results from populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conducted in order to generate hypotheses that could be tested in the data from patients. We contacted 46 health care professionals and 36 (78%) responded. Overall, the staff survey did not prove very useful for the intended purpose. The main reason for this was probably that the health care professionals had limited insight into the patients' HRQL. A different approach to the problem of multiple hypothesis testing proved more useful. Hypotheses generated from the initial literature review were tested in the comparison of patients in chemotherapy against patients not in chemotherapy. The study of women selected at random from the general population showed that these women experienced a considerable degree of "morbidity" according to all three questionnaires. This shows that symptoms and problems reported by cancer patients may have causes other than cancer, and thus constitutes a good justification for the use of data from general population studies when interpreting data from cancer patients. The levels of anxiety and depression of low-risk breast cancer patients were found to be lower than those from the general population sample. After careful consideration we concluded that this finding was probably incorrect. The most important explanations were thought to be the wording of some HAD Scale items as well as two mechanisms that are not specific to the HAD Scale, the "selective reporting mechanism" found in the validation study, and the response-shift problem. These findings indicate - in contrast to the conclusion above - that the comparability of HRQL data from cancer patients and general population data must be questioned. However, as this is the first study to raise the problem, this issue needs further investigation. Based on the initial literature review and interviews we hypothesised that 30 different HRQL issues would be impaired in patients undergoing CMF chemotherapy compared to patients not in chemotherapy; 23 of these hypotheses were confirmed. In addition, our study and other research suggest that other HRQL aspects may also be affected by chemotherapy. Thus, there is considerable evidence that patients in chemotherapy may experience effects on a wide spectrum of HRQL issues. Most other studies have assessed surprisingly few of the HRQL issues shown in our study to be impaired in patients receiving chemotherapy. Similarly, current review articles on HRQL effects of adjuvant chemotherapy mention only relatively few of these topics. Concerning HRQL after the treatment period, our main finding was that many symptoms and problems had declined or disappeared, but some persisted: anticipatory nausea, weight gain, endocrine effects (e.g., hot flushes/sweats, irregular bleedings/amenorrhea, vaginal dryness), disturbed sleep, and sexual dysfunction. These findings are in agreement with the literature. The staff study showed that experienced physicians and nurses did not expect many of the "scientifically well documented" consequences of chemotherapy. Taken together, our findings suggest that information to patients about chemotherapy should be more comprehensive than that which has been practised in most places. When compared against ovarian ablation, chemotherapy was associated with more impact on HRQL during the treatment period; only hot flushes/sweats were more pronounced in the ovarian ablation group. Thus, from an overall "HRQL perspective" ovarian ablation or suppression may be preferable. However, younger women may preserve their premenopausal status (including fertility) by having chemotherapy, and this may be an argument for chemotherapy or for temporary ovarian ablation via goserelin, rather than permanent ovarian ablation. Furthermore, while ovarian ablation/suppression may be preferable because of less impairment of HRQL, contemporary chemotherapeutic regimens may be more effective. These results indicate that for some patients, the HRQL data and results on treatment efficiency may be in conflict. There is no simple, universally correct solution to this dilemma. More research into patients' views and expectations to the health-care system in cases where medical decision-making involves complex trade-offs between treatment efficiency and HRQL issues is needed. Contrary to expectations, the analyses showed that fatigue and emotional function predicted the risk of recurrence and death independently of biological and clinical prognostic variables. In multivariate Cox regression analyses patients who were more fatigued or had poorer emotional function had a worse prognosis. These results are consistent with one small study, but are inconsistent with five similar studies in patients with primary breast cancer, which found no such associations. The reasons for these important differences are currently unknown. In conclusion, this study consisted of methodological and clinical investigations of HRQL in primary breast cancer patients. The initial questionnaire development resulted in a combination of questionnaires that was more comprehensive than in other similar studies. The results of the methodological studies generally supported the validity of the questionnaires but also gave important insights into potential scientific problems that are probably not restricted to the present study. These insights helped to prevent misinterpretations of the clinical data. The study provided the most detailed description of HRQL during and after breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy to date, and compared results of chemotherapy against ovarian ablation. It also provided controversial results concerning the prognostic value of HRQL data. The combination of a large empirical study and several methodological sub-studies thus proved useful and gave new results. PMID:20816024

  11. Foreign Currency Exchange Problems Relating to the Book Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael

    1973-01-01

    In the purchase of books from foreign countries, the basic problem with regard to currency is to decide which currency will be used in these transactions, and how to reach agreement with vendors on this point. (11 references) (Author)

  12. Problems faced by relatives caring for cancer patients at home.

    PubMed

    Tsigaroppoulos, Thomas; Mazaris, Evangelos; Chatzidarellis, Eleftherios; Skolarikos, Andreas; Varkarakis, Ioannis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos

    2009-02-01

    The care of patients suffering from advanced cancer is not limited in the hospital setting. It continues at home where the burden of care is borne by specific individuals. The aim of the present study was to survey and record the various problems faced by those who care for cancer patients at home. The study was conducted in our hospital during the summer of 2007. All participants completed, during a personal interview, a questionnaire which covered pathologic, social, psychological, spiritual/religious and financial problems. Seventy-six carers returned fully completed questionnaires. The most frequent problems reported were: anxiety regarding the patient's future (61.8%), troublesome symptoms such as pain (54%), increased economic burden-financial difficulty (51.3%), problems with patient's feeding (50%), unhappiness or depression (48,7%), emotional upset (47.4%), worsening of the patient's behaviour and personality (38.2%), difficulty of establishing a positive attitude regarding their current status (34.2%), transport to hospital (32.9%), assistance from the wider family circle (25%). Taking care of cancer patients at home creates several problems among carers. Many of them remain undetected. The acknowledgement and recognition of these problems by health-care professionals might contribute to finding solutions in order to assist the difficult task of these individuals. PMID:19187163

  13. Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

  14. Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality constraint was imposed on the full order AOTV point mass equations of motion, using a simple aerodynamic heating rate model.

  15. A quantitative approach to the traffic air quality problem: the Traffic Air Quality index.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B

    2008-05-01

    The Traffic Air Quality (TAQ) model is a simple tool to estimate traffic fine particulate emissions on roadways (g/km) and can be used for both real-time analysis and for localized conformity analysis ("hot-spot" analysis for nonattainment areas) as defined by 40 CFR 93.123. This paper is a follow-up to a study published earlier regarding the development of the TAQ model. This paper shows how local air quality levels can be a factor in traffic management in nonattainment areas. Similar to the industrial source quotas measured in tons per year, it is proposed that road segments are to be assigned emission quotas (or TAQ indices) measured in pollutant mass emitted per road length (g/km) above which traffic-measures have to be taken to reduce the fine-particulates emissions on such road links. The TAQ model as well as traffic-rerouting measures along with the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) protocols can be used to have a real-time control of the traffic conditions along expressways to maintain the fine-particulates emissions below the quota assigned per road link and consequently improving the over all local air quality in nonattainment areas. PMID:18512441

  16. [The assessment of bone quality in lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)and other lifestyle-related diseases are associated with an increased risk of bone quality deterioration-type osteoporosis. The deterioration of bone quality in type 2 DM involves factors such as qualitative changes of collagens, reduction in bone turnover, narrow cortical bone diameter, increased cortical bone porosity, and destruction of trabecular bone microarchitecture. In mild to moderate chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the factors involved are thought to be hyperhomocysteinemia and deterioration of trabecular bone microarchitecture as well as cortical bone structure. Investigations of the usefulness of bone quality assessment using approaches such as the following are under way : biocheminal markers such as pentosidine and homocysteine, bone structure assessment methods such as hip structure analysis, trabecular bone score, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. PMID:26728532

  17. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems. PMID:23173689

  18. eEurope 2002: Quality Criteria for Health related Websites

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background A number of organisations have begun to provide specific tools for searching, rating, and grading this information, while others have set up codes of conduct by which site providers can attest to their high quality services. The aim of such tools is to assist individuals to sift through the mountains of information available so as to be better able to discern valid and reliable messages from those which are misleading or inaccurate. Objective Recognising that European citizens are avid consumers of health related information on the internet and recognising that they are already using the types of rating system described above, the European Council at Feira on June 19-20 2000 supported an initiative within eEurope 2002 to develop a core set of Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. The specific aim was to draw up a commonly agreed set of simple quality criteria on which Member States, as well as public and private bodies, may draw in the development of quality initiatives for health related websites. These criteria should be applied in addition to relevant Community law. Methods A meeting was held during 2001 which drew together key players from Government departments, International Organisations, non-governmental organisations and industry, to explore current practices and experiments in this field. Some sixty invited participants from all the Member States, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States of America took part in the meeting of June 7-8, 2001: they included delegates from industrial, medical, and patient interest groups, delegates from Member States' governments, and key invited speakers from the field of health information ethics. These individuals, and many others, also took part in the web-based consultation which was open from august to November 2001. Results The broad headings for quality criteria identified include Transparency and Honesty, Authority, Privacy and data protection, Updating of information, Accountability, Responsible partnering, Editorial policy, Accessibility, the latter includes attention to guidelines on physical accessibility as well as general findability, searchability, readability, usability, etc. A metadata labelling system may be used to make health data more findable. Such a system may also be used in conjunction with quality criteria to give higher ranking by search engines to those sites or pages labelled as complying with defined quality criteria. Conclusions The set of quality criteria is based upon a broad consensus among specialists in this field, health authorities, and prospective users. It is now to be expected that national and regional health authorities, relevant professional associations, and private medical website owners will 1) implement the Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites in a manner appropriate to their website and consumers; 2) develop information campaigns to educate site developers and citizens about minimum quality standards for health related websites; 3) draw on the wide range of health information offered across the European Union and localise such information for the benefit of citizens (translation and cultural adaptation); 4) exchange information and experience at European level about how quality standards are being implemented. PMID:12554546

  19. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  20. The Quality of High School Students' Problem Solving from an Expertise Development Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elvira, Quincy; Imants, Jeroen; deMaeyer, Sven; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems is a key skill and is essential to our day-to-day lives, at home, at school and at work. The present study explores the quality of managerial problem-solving of participants who are in secondary education. We studied 10th, 11th, and 12th graders following a business track in the Netherlands. Participants were asked to…

  1. The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows: Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319). Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives. PMID:26913251

  2. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  3. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in

  4. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C.?M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n?=?13?997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (BlackWhite and HispanicWhite). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  5. Income inequality, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Karriker-Jaffe KJ; Roberts SC; Bond J

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals.METHODS: Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states.RESULTS: Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality.CONCLUSIONS: Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.

  6. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  7. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  8. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  9. Measuring health-related quality of life in tuberculosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Na; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, increasing efforts have been dedicated to assessing the health-related quality of life experienced by people infected with tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to better understand the impact of tuberculosis and its treatment on people's quality of life, and to review quality of life instruments used in current tuberculosis research. Methods A systematic literature search from 1981 to 2008 was performed through a number of electronic databases as well as a manual search. Eligible studies assessed multi-dimensional quality of life in people with tuberculosis disease or infection using standardized instruments. Results of the included studies were summarized qualitatively. Results Twelve original studies met our criteria for inclusion. A wide range of quality of life instruments were involved, and the Short-Form 36 was most commonly used. A validated tuberculosis-specific quality of life instrument was not located. The findings showed that tuberculosis had a substantial and encompassing impact on patients' quality of life. Overall, the anti-tuberculosis treatment had a positive effect of improving patients' quality of life; their physical health tended to recover more quickly than the mental well-being. However, after the patients successfully completed treatment and were microbiologically 'cured', their quality of life remained significantly worse than the general population. Conclusion Tuberculosis has substantially adverse impacts on patients' quality of life, which persist after microbiological 'cure'. A variety of instruments were used to assess quality of life in tuberculosis and there has been no well-established tuberculosis-specific instrument, making it difficult to fully understand the impact of the illness. PMID:19224645

  10. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  11. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  12. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in Educational Facilities: Guidelines for Hot, Humid Climates. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, J. David; DuBose, George

    This manual addresses the errors that occur during new construction that subsequently contribute to indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in newly constructed buildings in hot and humid climates, and offers guidelines for preventing them during the design and construction phases. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the design team, the…

  13. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Problems and Student-Teacher Relationship Quality for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Blacher, Jan; Bush Hurst, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    The associations between student-teacher relationship (STR) quality and externalizing behavior problems in school were examined among 166 children with ASD (82% boys, ages 4-7 years) across three assessments over a 1.5-year period; IQs in the sample range from 50 to 139 (M = 88.7). Unlike other non-ASD populations, the association between STR…

  14. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions, Relationship Quality and Socio-Emotional Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karos, Leigh Karavasilis; Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin

    2007-01-01

    Associations between reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, sibling relationship quality, and children's socio-emotional problem solving were examined in 40 grade 5-6 children (M age = 11.5 years) from middle class, Caucasian, Canadian families using a multi-method approach (i.e. interviews, self-report questionnaires, daily diary…

  15. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  16. A Problem-Based Learning Project Focused on the Missouri Teacher Quality Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott A.; Cotter, Joshua C.; Long, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    This team project was a requirement for the Saint Louis University Executive Doctor of Education program. It was a problem-based learning project focused on the teacher quality standards adopted by the Missouri State Board of Education in June 2011. In the earliest stages prior to adoption of the standards, the researchers hired by the state…

  17. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Instructor's Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the instructor's manual for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. It is designed so a program may be designed for a specific facility. The problem structures are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs and/or drawings representing familiar data forms contain the necessary information to…

  18. Oral health-related quality of life and associated factors in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Wang, Nina J; Skau, Irene; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate associations between oral health-related quality of life assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 and demographic factors, number of teeth present, dental visits, dental health behaviour and self-rated oral health in a representative sample of 20-80-year-old Norwegians. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted in a stratified random sample of 3538 individuals. Questionnaires including questions on demographic factors, number of remaining teeth, dental visits, dental health behaviour, self-rated oral health and OHIP-14 were mailed to the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS. The response rate was 69%. The mean OHIP-14 score was 4.1 (standard deviation = 6.2). No problem was reported by 35% of the respondents. The most frequently reported problems were: physical pain (56%), psychological discomfort (39%) and psychological disability (30%). When the effect of all independent variables was analysed in multivariate analysis, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the prevalence of having problems and frequent problems. Self-rated oral health had the strongest association with having problems [odds ratio (OR) 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-6.0] and with having frequent problems (OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.7-5.8). Dental health behaviour, use of floss and toothpicks and oral rinsing were not associated with having problems related to oral quality of life in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION. In this Norwegian adult sample, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were associated with having problems as estimated using the OHIP-14. PMID:21247228

  19. Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants’ knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  20. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  1. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  2. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-05-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  3. Inverse Spin Glass and Related Maximum Entropy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William

    2014-09-01

    If we have a system of binary variables and we measure the pairwise correlations among these variables, then the least structured or maximum entropy model for their joint distribution is an Ising model with pairwise interactions among the spins. Here we consider inhomogeneous systems in which we constrain, for example, not the full matrix of correlations, but only the distribution from which these correlations are drawn. In this sense, what we have constructed is an inverse spin glass: rather than choosing coupling constants at random from a distribution and calculating correlations, we choose the correlations from a distribution and infer the coupling constants. We argue that such models generate a block structure in the space of couplings, which provides an explicit solution of the inverse problem. This allows us to generate a phase diagram in the space of (measurable) moments of the distribution of correlations. We expect that these ideas will be most useful in building models for systems that are nonequilibrium statistical mechanics problems, such as networks of real neurons.

  4. Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

  5. [The problems, mental disorders and quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, N I; Grigor'eva, E A; Kapustina, L V; Aksenfel'd, R G; Baranova, E Ia; Parusova, N I

    1991-01-01

    There were 157 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Of these, only 65 patients (41.4%) failed to show any factor at the disease onset, which could be estimated as provoking. Psychoemotional factor was most common (in 47.7% of cases). Later the indicated factor played a more important part: only 5.1% of the patients denied or doubted it. In most cases, the distress was caused by family relations. There was an appreciable difference in the intensity of the problems in family and single patients. Affective disorders (neurotic and hypopsychotic depressions) were mostly recorded among mental disorders. The life quality determined in accordance with the self-estimation of the "health" and happiness" noticeably depended both on biological factors (pain intensity, the degree of damage to the bones and joints, and the disease stage) and on social factors--the educational level and social position. The degree of personality merits defined according to the self-estimation of the "mentality" and "character" appeared higher in persons with higher education and in patients suffering from erosive arthritis. The data obtained provide evidence for the necessity of psychosomatic orientation of practicing physicians. PMID:1792594

  6. Randomized shortest-path problems: two related models.

    PubMed

    Saerens, Marco; Achbany, Youssef; Fouss, François; Yen, Luh

    2009-08-01

    This letter addresses the problem of designing the transition probabilities of a finite Markov chain (the policy) in order to minimize the expected cost for reaching a destination node from a source node while maintaining a fixed level of entropy spread throughout the network (the exploration). It is motivated by the following scenario. Suppose you have to route agents through a network in some optimal way, for instance, by minimizing the total travel cost-nothing particular up to now-you could use a standard shortest-path algorithm. Suppose, however, that you want to avoid pure deterministic routing policies in order, for instance, to allow some continual exploration of the network, avoid congestion, or avoid complete predictability of your routing strategy. In other words, you want to introduce some randomness or unpredictability in the routing policy (i.e., the routing policy is randomized). This problem, which will be called the randomized shortest-path problem (RSP), is investigated in this work. The global level of randomness of the routing policy is quantified by the expected Shannon entropy spread throughout the network and is provided a priori by the designer. Then, necessary conditions to compute the optimal randomized policy-minimizing the expected routing cost-are derived. Iterating these necessary conditions, reminiscent of Bellman's value iteration equations, allows computing an optimal policy, that is, a set of transition probabilities in each node. Interestingly and surprisingly enough, this first model, while formulated in a totally different framework, is equivalent to Akamatsu's model ( 1996 ), appearing in transportation science, for a special choice of the entropy constraint. We therefore revisit Akamatsu's model by recasting it into a sum-over-paths statistical physics formalism allowing easy derivation of all the quantities of interest in an elegant, unified way. For instance, it is shown that the unique optimal policy can be obtained by solving a simple linear system of equations. This second model is therefore more convincing because of its computational efficiency and soundness. Finally, simulation results obtained on simple, illustrative examples show that the models behave as expected. PMID:19323635

  7. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…

  8. A note on static spaces and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jie; Yuan, Wei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study static spaces introduced in Hawking and Ellis (1975) [1], Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] and Riemannian manifolds possessing solutions to the critical point equation introduced in Besse (1987) [11], Hwang (2000) [12]. In both cases, on the manifolds there is a function satisfying a particular Ricci-Hessian type equation (1.6). With an idea similar to that used in Cao et al. (2012) [15,16], we have made progress in solving the problem raised in Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] of classifying vacuum static spaces and in proving the conjecture proposed in Besse (1987) [11] concerning manifolds admitting solutions to the critical point equation in general dimensions. We obtain even stronger results in dimension 3.

  9. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M. )

    1994-11-28

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

  10. Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Grid-Interactive Distributed Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhende, C. N.; Kalam, A.; Malla, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Having an inter-tie between low/medium voltage grid and distributed generation (DG), both exposes to power quality (PQ) problems created by each other. This paper addresses various PQ problems arise due to integration of DG with grid. The major PQ problems are due to unbalanced and non-linear load connected at DG, unbalanced voltage variations on transmission line and unbalanced grid voltages which severely affect the performance of the system. To mitigate the above mentioned PQ problems, a novel integrated control of distribution static shunt compensator (DSTATCOM) is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM control helps in reducing the unbalance factor of PCC voltage. It also eliminates harmonics from line currents and makes them balanced. Moreover, DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power required by the load locally and hence, grid need not to supply the reactive power. To show the efficacy of the proposed controller, several operating conditions are considered and verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  11. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  12. Associations between Psychological Problems and Quality of Life in Pediatric Short Stature from Patients’ and Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja Christine; Bernardino Da Silva, Neuza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Short stature has been associated with psychosocial impairments, but whether treatments and achieved height impact on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological functioning of children/adolescents is still controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of height deviation and treatment status on psychosocial adaptation outcomes and to identify clinical and psychosocial determinants of internalizing/externalizing problems in a large cohort of short statured children/adolescents from seven European countries. Participants were 345 children aged 8–18 years with a clinical diagnosis of short stature and 421 parents of 4–18 year-old patients. Children and parents reported on psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), generic (KIDSCREEN) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY). According to analyses of covariance, children/adolescents with current short stature presented more parent-reported internalizing problems and lower self- and parent-reported condition-specific HrQoL, compared to patients with an achieved height above -2SD. Treated children self-reported better HrQoL than the untreated group. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, rather than height–related clinical variables, children’s sex, younger age and poorer HrQoL were the best predictors of psychological problems, explaining 39% of the variance in patient- and 42% in parent-reported internalizing problems, and 22% of the variance in patient- and 24% in parent-reported externalizing problems. Treatment status also moderated the negative links between patient-reported HrQoL and internalizing problems, explaining 2% of additional variance. These results suggest that children with current short stature are at greater risk for internalizing problems. Routine assessment of HrQoL in pediatric healthcare may help identify children for referral to specialized psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:27097033

  13. [Health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Cano-de la Cuerda, Roberto; Vela-Desojo, Lydia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C; Macías-Macías, Yolanda; Muñoz-Hellin, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a disabling and progressive neurological condition characterized by multiple motor and non motor symptoms that contribute to deterioration in quality of life. The diversity of symptoms associated with the disease and its management affect the patients on their physical, social and mental quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify key dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) in a population affected with Parkinson's disease with a degree of mild-moderate impairment. Thirty six patients with Parkinson were recruited. The Hoehn and Yarh scale, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rate Scale, the scale of activities of daily life and Schwab & England Get Up & Go Test were applied. HRQOL was assessed with the EuroQol-5D and the specific questionnaire Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items. The dimensions of the PDQ-39, except the PDQ-39 Pain domain and the EuroQol-5D correlated significantly with the severity of the disease. HRQOL was correlated with the functional status of patients. Only the PDQ-39 pain domain correlated with the risk of falls. Our results suggest that the HRQOL of patients with PD, in a state of mild-moderate impairment, is strongly influenced by disease severity and functional status. PMID:21163736

  14. Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or

  15. Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or…

  16. [Evaluation of the quality of performance of general practitioners. What is the problem with primary care quality indicators in Hungary?].

    PubMed

    Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Rurik, Imre

    2016-02-28

    The Hungarian primary care quality indicator system has been introduced in 2009, and has been continuously developed since then. The system offers extra financing for family physicians who are achieving the expected levels of indicators. There are currently 16 indicators for adult and mixed practices and 8 indicators are used in paediatric care. Authors analysed the influencing factors of the indicators other than those related to the performance of family physicians. Expectations and compliance of patients, quality of outpatient (ambulatory) care services, insufficient flow of information, inadequate primary care softwares which need to be updated could be considered as the most important factors. The level of financial motivations should also be significantly increased besides changes in the reporting system. It is recommended, that decision makers in health policy and financing have to declare clearly their expectations, and professional bodies should find the proper solution. These indicators could contribute properly to the improvement of the quality of primary care services in Hungary. PMID:26895800

  17. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  18. Methodological problems in cross-cultural studies of linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y

    1989-03-01

    Bloom (1981) tested a weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (i.e., "Language affects thinking though it does not determine thinking") in a series of cross-cultural experiments. According to Bloom, Chinese lacks two linguistic devices that are present in English and supposed to be critical in performing theoretical thinking. It was found that the Chinese subjects were outperformed by American counterparts in all the tests designed to assess the ability of theoretical thinking. The results were taken as evidence for the weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. A methodological consideration has revealed, however, that all of his experiments except one are uninterpretable because of the lack of necessary control conditions. In addition, three experiments in the present study have demonstrated that the findings in Bloom's sole interpretable experiment were artifacts due to a methodological flaw. Further theoretical considerations reveal the inadequacy of Bloom's basic methodology and the limitation in the effects of linguistic relativity that may be possible at least theoretically. PMID:2721133

  19. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  20. Health related quality of life in Malaysian children with thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Adriana; Campbell, Michael J; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd; Jones, Georgina L

    2006-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) studies on children with chronic illness such as thalassaemia are limited. We conducted the first study to investigate if children with thalassaemia have a lower quality of life in the four dimensions as measured using the PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score: physical, emotional, social and role (school) functioning compared to the healthy controls allowing for age, gender, ethnicity and household income. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 was administered to children receiving blood transfusions and treatments at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using PedsQL 4.0 generic Scale Score. Accordingly, the questionnaire was also administered to a control group of healthy school children. Socio-demographic data were also collected from patients and controls using an interview schedule designed for the study. Results Of the 96 thalassaemia patients approached, 78 gave consent to be interviewed giving a response rate of 81.3%. Out of 235 healthy controls approached, all agreed to participate giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age for the patients and schoolchildren is 11.9 and 13.2 years respectively. The age range for the patients and the schoolchildren is between 5 to 18 years and 7 to 18 years respectively. After controlling for age and demographic background, the thalassaemia patients reported having significantly lower quality of life than the healthy controls. Conclusion Thalassaemia has a negative impact on perceived physical, emotional, social and school functioning in thalassaemia patients which was also found to be worse than the children's healthy counterparts. Continuing support of free desferal from the Ministry of Health should be given to these patients. More understanding and support especially from health authorities, school authorities and the society is essential to enhance their quality of life. PMID:16813662

  1. Fatigue, Sleep Quality, and Disability in Relation to Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Moloud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) in part due to physical disability. MS-associated fatigue and poor sleep are common and treatable features of MS that affect QOL. We assessed the association between fatigue, sleep quality, and QOL in people with MS. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 217 patients with MS. Health-related QOL (MS Quality of Life-54), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory [PSQI]) were assessed. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were also provided by a qualified neurologist. Results: The mean ± SD age of the 217 patients was 32.6 ± 8.6 years, and 79% were female. One hundred fifty-two patients (70.0%) were classified as poor sleepers based on PSQI scores; 122 (56.2%) had significant fatigue based on FSS results. The mean ± SE physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health composite scores of the MSQOL-54 were 40.12 ± 1.27 and 43.81 ± 1.61, respectively. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between PCS scores and MCS (r = 0.58), FSS (r = 0.49), and PSQI (r = 0.52) scores. MCS scores were strongly correlated with FSS (r = 0.53) and PSQI (r = 0.35) scores. Age exhibited statistically significant negative correlations with PCS (r = −0.21) and MCS (r = −0.58) scores, and was statistically significantly correlated with FSS (r = 0.23) and PSQI (r = 0.21) scores. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were strongly correlated with FSS scores. Conclusions: These findings support screening of fatigue severity and sleep quality and their effects on QOL. PMID:26664332

  2. How to evaluate the quality of health related websites.

    PubMed

    Gattoni, Filippo; Sicola, Chiara

    2005-03-01

    To establish reliable quality criteria for medical websites is of foremost importance in relation to the increasing number of Internet users, both health professionals and lay people, searching for medical information in the mass of these sites. Quality in general refers to a set of features that distinguish one person or thing from others of the same type. The quality of a website is usually related to its content and usability. The first criteria we considered are contents and readability, which must be targeted to the intended type of user. Other important criteria include: transparency, consistency, honesty, references to sources, accountability, respect of privacy, currency of content material, responsibility, and accessibility. Technical criteria are the use of consolidated and standard technologies, soft colours, short page download time. Good medical websites should also follow the suggestions of organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Drug Administration, the European Communities. Another organization, Health On Net Foundation, has issued some guidelines for medical websites, summarized in eight points, fundamental to assign real scientific value to a site. We believe, in agreement with the literature, that it is unnecessary to apply strict rules to medical website developers. We want to stress the importance of guidelines and recommendations to be modified with the development of web technology and the cultural evolution of patient and physicians. In the near future the presence on the Internet of websites certified by national or international medical web authorities will lead users to trust and give their preference to such sites, leading to the self-regulation of website developers and users. PMID:15775897

  3. Matrix general relativity: a new look at old problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidi, Ivan G.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to gravity that we call 'matrix general relativity' (MGR) or 'gravitational chromodynamics' (GCD or GQCD for the quantum version). Gravity is described in this approach not by one Riemannian metric (i.e. a symmetric two-tensor field) but by a multiplet of such fields, or by a matrix-valued symmetric two-tensor field that satisfies certain conditions. We define the matrix extensions of standard constructions of differential geometry including connections and curvatures, and finally, an invariant functional of the new field that reduces to the standard Einstein action functional in the commutative (diagonal) case. Our main idea is the analogy with Yang Mills theory (QCD and the standard model). We call the new degrees of freedom of gravity associated with the matrix structure 'gravitational colour' or simply 'gravicolour' and introduce a new gauge symmetry associated with this degree of freedom. As in the standard model there are two possibilities. First of all, it is possible that at high energies (say at the Planckian scale) this symmetry is exact (symmetric phase), but at low energies it is badly broken, so that one tensor field remains massless (and gives general relativity) and the other ones become massive with masses of Planckian scale. The second possibility is that the additional degrees of freedom of the gravitational field are confined to the Planckian scale. What one sees at large distances are singlets (invariants) of the new gauge symmetry.

  4. Coherent states of inverse oscillators and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Macedo, E. S.; Pereira, A. S.

    2013-08-01

    We consider an example of a quantum system with a continuous and unbounded spectrum—a particle in the parabolic potential barrier. Conditionally, we call this system the inverse oscillator. Following the method used in our previous publication (Bagrov et al 2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 125306), we construct different families of generalized coherent states (GCS). We discuss properties of the constructed GCS and their relation to what is already known in the literature about semiclassical states for the inverse oscillator. Then in the same manner, we construct families of GCS for the normal oscillator. Using special variables, we succeeded in constructing GCS for the normal oscillator that admit different limiting cases: free particle GCS, the usual Schrödinger, Glauber CS and GCS of the inverse oscillator.

  5. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  6. Temperament in context: Infant temperament moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Fite, Paula J.; Mott, Joshua A.; Bush, Nicole R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were characterized by either high positive affect and low fear or by low positive affect and high fear. Depression/anxiety increased from age 6 to age 12 for children in poor quality neighborhoods who were characterized in infancy by low positive affect. A combination of low fear and high positive affect in infancy appeared to be protective, as it was associated with decreases in depression/anxiety during childhood. These findings suggest the utility of examining multiple dimensions of temperament and of integrating multiple levels of influence into moderational models to understand and prevent the development of childhood symptomatology. PMID:25530650

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Luca; Pinto, Alessandro; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological status, and disability. Methods. 95 obese subjects were recruited from June 2012 to February 2013 and underwent physical examination and measures for the assessment of quality of life, sexual life, psychological status, and disability. Results. In obese subjects sexual life was related to gender, age, psychological status, disability, and quality of life. Conclusion. As obesity is a multifactorial disease, and is accompanied by multiple comorbidities, it is difficult to identify a single causative factor responsible for the impairment of sexual life in obese subjects; thus, a thorough, multidimensional evaluation including sexual function assessment should be performed in obese people. PMID:24707290

  8. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  9. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems.

    PubMed

    Smathers, J B

    1988-08-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons. To summarize, the cost of medicine and the fear of cancer may result in an increased use of radiation in the treatment of specific maladies and an increased potential for exposure of the general public to ionizing radiation. In contrast, there is a definite trend toward reducing exposure of the public as a result of general radiographic examinations. PMID:3137187

  10. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  11. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  12. Patterns of Problem Behavior in Relation to Thriving and Precocious Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…

  13. The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

  14. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  15. Relation Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Sleep Quality With Adjustment for Comorbidity Among the Korean Elderly: Mixed-Effects Model With a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Amy M; Shin, Chol

    2016-04-01

    It is an important public health problem to identify risk factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the elderly. We recruited subjects from Ansan, Korea, as a subset of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which is an ongoing population study, and followed up their sleep quality for 6 years. Mixed effect models were used to estimate the association between sleep quality and HRQoL, and we found that overall HRQoL was significantly lower to the elderly having poor sleep quality with adjustment for significant covariates although sleep quality showed a significant interaction effect with time for the mental component summary of SF-12. In particular, the elderly having lack of quality sleep appeared to have good general health, but their functional performances were significantly poor. PMID:26826370

  16. Prospective relationship between poor sleep and substance-related problems in a national sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Maria M.; Roberson, Gail; Dyson, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that poor sleep prospectively predicted alcohol related problems and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults (Wong et al., 2010, 2012). However, more works needs to be done to elucidate the nature of these problems. The purpose of this study was to examine whether sleep difficulties and hours of sleep prospectively predicted several serious substance related problems, e.g., binge drinking, driving under the influence of alcohol, risky sexual behavior. Methods Study participants were 6504 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD HEALTH). Data were collected from interviews and questionnaires. The current study analyzed data from the first three waves of data (T1: 1994–95; T2: 1996; T3: 2001–02). In all analyses, we used sleep difficulties at a previous wave to predict substance-related problems at a subsequent wave, while controlling for substance-related problems at a previous wave. Results Holding T1 alcohol-related problems constant, sleep difficulties at T1 significantly predicted alcohol-related interpersonal problems, binge drinking, gotten drunk or very high on alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, getting into a sexual situation one later regretted due to drinking, ever using any illicit drugs and drugs-related problems at T2. T1 hours of sleep negatively predicted T2 alcohol-related interpersonal problems and binge drinking. The relationship between T2 sleep variables and T3 substance-related problems were consistent with previous waves, though the effect was weaker. Conclusions Sleep difficulties and hours of sleep are a significant predictor of a number of substance-related problems. It may be useful to educate adolescents about the importance of sleep, sleep hygiene and the potential consequences of poor sleep on drinking and related behaviors. PMID:25598438

  17. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that agricultural chemicals may have contributed to the reduction in semen quality in fertile men from mid-Missouri we reported previously. PMID:12948887

  18. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  19. Health related quality of life after combined hormone replacement therapy: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on health related quality of life. Design Randomised placebo controlled double blind trial. Setting General practices in United Kingdom (384), Australia (94), and New Zealand (24). Participants Postmenopausal women aged 50-69 at randomisation; 3721 women with a uterus were randomised to combined oestrogen and progestogen (n=1862) or placebo (n=1859). Data on health related quality of life at one year were available from 1043 and 1087 women, respectively. Interventions Conjugated equine oestrogen 0.625 mg plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5/5.0 mg or matched placebo orally daily for one year. Main outcome measures Health related quality of life and psychological wellbeing as measured by the womens health questionnaire. Changes in emotional and physical menopausal symptoms as measured by a symptoms questionnaire and depression by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CES-D). Overall health related quality of life and overall quality of life as measured by the European quality of life instrument (EuroQol) and visual analogue scale, respectively. Results After one year small but significant improvements were observed in three of nine components of the womens health questionnaire for those taking combined HRT compared with those taking placebo: vasomotor symptoms (P<0.001), sexual functioning (P<0.001), and sleep problems (P<0.001). Significantly fewer women in the combined HRT group reported hot flushes (P<0.001), night sweats (P<0.001), aching joints and muscles (P=0.001), insomnia (P<0.001), and vaginal dryness (P<0.001) than in the placebo group, but greater proportions reported breast tenderness (P<0.001) or vaginal discharge (P<0.001). Hot flushes were experienced in the combined HRT and placebo groups by 30% and 29% at trial entry and 9% and 25% at one year, respectively. No significant differences in other menopausal symptoms, depression, or overall quality of life were observed at one year. Conclusions Combined HRT started many years after the menopause can improve health related quality of life. Trial registration ISRCTN 63718836. PMID:18719013

  20. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas apply to both new construction and existing buildings. Nearly all of the recommended priority R&D project areas include tasks intended to facilitate the communication and implementation of the research results. In addition, the priority agenda includes several projects specifically designed to facilitate or stimulate the use of existing energy-efficient technologies and practices for improving IEQ. To assure that the research program continues to meet the needs of stakeholders and to facilitate the coordination of research among sponsors, the core team recommends an annual meeting attended by sponsors, a balanced group of stakeholders, and a selection of researchers implementing the agenda.

  1. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  2. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  3. Medication reviews in primary care in Sweden: importance of clinical pharmacists' recommendations on drug-related problems.

    PubMed

    Modig, Sara; Holmdahl, Lydia; Bondesson, Åsa

    2016-02-01

    Background One way of preventing and solving drug-related problems in frail elderly is to perform team-based medication reviews. Objective To evaluate the quality of the clinical pharmacy service to primary care using structured medication reviews, focusing on the clinical significance of the recommendations made by clinical pharmacists. Setting A random sample of 150 patients (out of 1541) who received structured team based medication reviews. The patients lived at a geriatric nursing home or were ≥65 years and lived in ordinary housing with medication-related community help. Method Based on information on symptoms, kidney function, blood pressure, diagnoses and the medication list, a pharmacist identified possible drug-related problems and supplied recommendations for the general practitioner to act on. Two independent physicians retrospectively ranked the clinical significance of the recommendations according to Hatoum, with rankings ranging between 1 (adverse significance) and 6 (extremely significant). Main outcome measure The clinical significance of the recommendations. Results In total 349 drug-related problems were identified, leading to recommendations. The vast majority of the recommendations (96 %) were judged to have significance 3 or higher and more than the half were judged to have significance 4 or higher. Conclusion The high proportion of clinically significant recommendations provided by pharmacists when performing team-based medication reviews suggest that these clinical pharmacy services have potential to increase prescribing quality. As such, the medication reviews have the potential for contributing to a better and safer drug therapy for elderly patients. PMID:26582483

  4. Lignocellulosic Biomass Quality Changes in Relation to Available Feedstock Tonnage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compositional and functional quality of lignocellulosic biomass impacts their utilization as feedstocks for ethanol production. However, these compositional and functional qualities are in turn skewed by the assembly system used for the biomass feedstock retrieval and delivery. Accessing differe...

  5. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  6. Adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style: a mediational model of sexual coercion in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed. PMID:23329647

  7. Problem of data quality and the limitations of the infrastructure approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlen, Fred M.; Sayre, Richard E.; Rackus, Edward; Ye, Dingzhong

    1998-07-01

    The 'Infrastructure Approach' is a PACS implementation methodology wherein the archive, network and information systems interfaces are acquired first, and workstations are installed later. The approach allows building a history of archived image data, so that most prior examinations are available in digital form when workstations are deployed. A limitation of the Infrastructure Approach is that the deferred use of digital image data defeats many data quality management functions that are provided automatically by human mechanisms when data is immediately used for the completion of clinical tasks. If the digital data is used solely for archiving while reports are interpreted from film, the radiologist serves only as a check against lost films, and another person must be designated as responsible for the quality of the digital data. Data from the Radiology Information System and the PACS were analyzed to assess the nature and frequency of system and data quality errors. The error level was found to be acceptable if supported by auditing and error resolution procedures requiring additional staff time, and in any case was better than the loss rate of a hardcopy film archive. It is concluded that the problem of data quality compromises but does not negate the value of the Infrastructure Approach. The Infrastructure Approach should best be employed only to a limited extent, and that any phased PACS implementation should have a substantial complement of workstations dedicated to softcopy interpretation for at least some applications, and with full deployment following not long thereafter.

  8. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. PMID:26187685

  9. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  10. The relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Mitch; Goemans, Anouk; Vedder, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Peer victimization has been found related to sleeping problems in children and adolescents in multiple studies. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to study the relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase and LILACS were searched for articles. There were 21 articles that met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. These 21 articles contained 46 independent effect sizes and 363,539 children and adolescents, ranging in age from 7 up to 19 y of age. Results revealed that peer victimization is related to more sleeping problems. These results were not affected by publication bias. Moderator analyses revealed that for younger children the relation between peer victimization and sleeping problems was stronger than for older children. Results suggest that sleeping problems may be used as a possible signal that a child is victimized by peers. PMID:26140869

  11. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  12. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life Following Blind Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kuyk, Thomas; Liu, Lei; Elliott, Jeffry L.; Grubbs, Hartley E.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L.; Fuhr, Patti S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of residential blind rehabilitation on patients’ vision targeted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and general physical and mental function. Methods The National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) plus appendix questions, the 12 item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Hope Scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory were administered to 206 legally blind veterans prior to their entering a residential (in-patient) blind rehabilitation program and again to 185 and 176 of the original cohort at two and six months after completion of the rehabilitation program, respectively. Data on visual acuity, visual field extent, contrast sensitivity and scanning ability were also collected. The duration of the in-patient rehabilitation programs ranged from 11–109 days. Questionnaire scores were compared pre-rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation. Results Following rehabilitation there was a significant improvement in nine of eleven NEI VFQ subscales and in a composite score at both 2- and 6-month post-rehab intervals. Mental health (SF-12) and self esteem also improved significantly although physical health ratings declined over the course of the study (approximately 10 months). Conclusions Residential blind rehabilitation appears to improve patients’ self-reported vision-targeted HRQOL, self-esteem, and mental health aspects of generic HRQOL. PMID:18392688

  14. CORRELATES OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN STROKE CAREGIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Olivio J.; Grant, Joan S.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Perkins, Martinique M.; Haley, William E.; Roth, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Family caregivers are susceptible to negative outcomes as a result of their caregiving role. A stress process model was utilized to identify characteristics of stroke caregivers who are at risk for poor physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL). Research Method Individuals who experienced an incident stroke event within the previous year were identified from a larger epidemiologic study of stroke incidence. These stroke survivors were enrolled in the Caring for Adults Recovering from the Effects of Stroke (CARES) study along with their primary family caregivers (N=146 dyads). Caregivers completed a baseline telephone interview that assessed physical and mental health-related QOL, problems their family members were experiencing, appraisals of those problems, and caregiver resources. Results Objective stressors, appraisals, and caregiver resources were related to caregiver physical and mental health-related QOL, p’s <.05. Objective stressors were found to have a stronger association with caregiver mental health than physical health. Hierarchical regression models showed the relative importance of each category of predictors. In the final models, older age and receiving more support were associated with worse physical health-related QOL while African American race and fewer stroke survivor problems were associated with better mental health. Implications The correlates of health-related QOL identified in this national sample of caregivers can help identify stroke caregivers who are at-risk for poor adjustment to the caregiving role and aid in identifying areas that can potentially be intervened upon for these caregivers. PMID:23437997

  15. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  16. Oral health-related quality of life and complications after treatment with partial removable dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Imam, H; Özhayat, E B; Benetti, A R; Pedersen, A M L; Gotfredsen, K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to measure and describe the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to identify the complications caused by partial removable dental prosthesis (RDPs) in patients 1-5 years after treatment. Complications were identified in 65 patients who were treated with 83 RDPs (48 upper, 35 lower). OHRQoL was measured using the OHIP-49 before treatment and at the baseline (1-2 months after treatment) and follow-up (1-5 years after treatment) examinations. The types and numbers of oral problems that were experienced were described based on OHIP items with a score of 3 and 4. A significant improvement (P < 0·05) in the total OHIP-49 was registered from pre-treatment (mean 42, SD ± 37) to baseline (mean 29, SD ± 27) and from pre-treatment to 1-5 years after treatment (mean 32, SD ± 30). There was no significant difference between the baseline and 1- to 5-year follow-up examinations. Problems with eating and appearance registered at pre-treatment were improved at baseline and after 1-5 years. Problems with dentures that had been registered pre-treatment were improved at baseline but reoccurred after 1-5 years. The two most frequent complications were ill-fitting RDPs and inflammation of the oral mucosa, followed less frequently by fractures of the clasps. Treatment with RDPs improved OHRQoL, but denture-related problems partly remained, and new problems related to RDPs occurred 1-5 years after treatment. The two most frequent complications were ill-fitting RDPs and inflammation of the oral mucosa. PMID:26268721

  17. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  18. Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minority groups have a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but there is little information if this finding also applies to children. In this study, we compared HRQOL between young children with and without migrant parents. Methods Two cross-sectional studies of culturally diverse preschool populations in Switzerland: Ballabeina (40 preschools, 258 girls and 232 boys aged 4 to 6 years) and Youp’là Bouge (58 child care centers, 453 girls and 522 boys aged 2 to 4 years). Most children were born in Switzerland (Ballabeina: 92.3%; Youp’là Bouge: 93.7%). Number of migrant parents was considered as the main exposure. HRQOL was measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results Children of migrant parents had a significantly lower HRQOL total score (mean ± SD, Ballabeina: 84.2 ± 9.1; 82.7 ± 9.6 and 81.7 ± 11.7 for children with none, one or two migrant parents, respectively; Youp’là Bouge: 83.8 ± 8.6; 82.9 ± 9.5; 80.7 ± 11.7, all p < 0.05). Similar results were found in Ballabeina and Youp’là Bouge for social, school and physical functioning (all p < 0.05), but not for emotional functioning. The differences in HRQOL measures were partly mediated by children’s place of birth, parental education, paternal occupational level, children’s BMI, screen time and physical activity in one study (Ballabeina), but not in the other (Youp’là Bouge). Conclusion In preschoolers, children of migrant parents have lower HRQOL than children of non-migrant parents. These differences are only partly mediated by other sociocultural characteristics or lifestyle behavior. These families may need assistance to prevent further inequalities. PMID:23617686

  19. Comparison of Quality Engineering Practices in Malaysian and Indonesian Automotive Related Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nilda Tri; Sha'ri Mohd, Yusof; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    The main motivating factor driving this research is to find differences between the automotive related companies in Malaysia and Indonesia with regard to quality engineering (QE) implementation. A comparative study between Malaysia and Indonesia provides the opportunity to gain perspective and thorough understanding of the similarities and differences on the critical factors for successful QE practices in the context of both these countries. Face to face interviews are used to compare the QE practices in two automotive companies in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. The findings of study showed that both countries have clear quality objectives to achieving zero defects in processes and products and total customer satisfaction. Top and middle management in both countries were found to be directly involved in quality improvement on the shop floor to provide On-The-Job training and actively encourage team members to perform quality problem solving through the formation of quality control circles (QCC) particularly in Indonesia automotive industry. In Malaysia automotive industry, the implementation was not fully effective, but they have started to cultivate those values in the daily execution. Based on the case study results and analysis, the researcher has provided suggestions for both countries as an improvement plan for successful QE implementation. These recommendations will allow management to implement appropriate strategies for better QE implementation which hopefully can improve company's performance and ultimately the making the automotive industry in both countries to reach world class quality. It is strongly believed that the findings of this study can help Malaysia and Indonesia automotive industries in their efforts to become more effective and competitive.

  20. Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Frances L; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems, alcohol problems and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms co-occur at a high rate and are heritable in adolescence. The γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, α2 gene (GABRA2) is associated with a broad spectrum of externalizing problems and disinhibitory-related traits. The current study tested whether two important forms of disinhibition in adolescence, impulsivity and sensation seeking, mediated the effects of GABRA2 on hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, conduct problems, and alcohol problems. Participants were assessed at two waves (11-17 and 12-18 years old; N = 292). Analyses used the GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, which tags the two complementary (yin-yang) GABRA2 haplotypes. Multiple informants reported on adolescents' impulsivity and sensation seeking and adolescents self-reported their hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, conduct problems and lifetime alcohol problems. Impulsivity mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems, hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, and conduct problems, whereas sensation seeking mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems (AA/AG genotypes conferred risk). GABRA2 directly predicted adolescent alcohol problems, but the GG genotype conferred risk. Results suggest that there may be multiple pathways of risk from GABRA2 to adolescent externalizing problems, and suggest important avenues for future research. PMID:25804982

  1. Working Memory and Impulsivity Predict Marijuana-Related Problems Among Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, only a small portion of users go on to develop dependence, suggesting that there are substantial individual differences in vulnerability to marijuana-related problems among users. Deficits in working memory and high trait impulsivity are two factors that may place marijuana users at increased risk for experiencing related problems. Methods Using baseline data from an experimental study that recruited 104 frequent marijuana users (M=71.86% of prior 60 days, SD=22%), we examined the associations of working memory and trait impulsivity with marijuana-related problems. Results Lower working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test B, but not short-term memory capacity, predicted more marijuana-related problems. Higher trait impulsivity scores were independently associated with greater number of problems. Conclusions Results suggest that marijuana users with reduced executive cognitive ability are more susceptible to developing problems related to their use. Trait impulsivity and executive working memory appear to be independent risk factors for experiencing marijuana-related problems. PMID:23312340

  2. Anxiety sensitivity facets in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-fear of anxiety-related experiences-has been implicated in smoking motivation and maintenance. In a cross-sectional design, we examined AS facets (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in 473 treatment-seeking smokers. After controlling for sex, race, age, educational attainment, hypertension status, and neuroticism, linear regression models indicated that AS physical and cognitive concerns were associated with tobacco dependence severity (β=.13-.14, p<.01), particularly the severity of persistent smoking regardless of context or time of day (β=.14-.17, p<.01). All three AS facets were related to more severe problems during past quit attempts (β=.23-.27, p<.001). AS cognitive and social concerns were related to negative affect reduction smoking motives (β=.14, p<.01), but only the social concerns aspect of AS was related to pleasurable relaxation smoking motives and positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking outcome expectancies (β=.14-.17, p<.01). These data suggest that AS physical and cognitive concerns are associated with negative reinforcement-related smoking variables (e.g., abstinence-related problems), whereas the social concerns aspect of AS is associated with positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking variables. Together with past findings, current findings can usefully guide AS-oriented smoking cessation treatment development and refinement. PMID:26802790

  3. Robust Impact of Social Anxiety in Relation to Coping Motives and Expectancies, Barriers to Quitting, and Cessation-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety is related to smoking and nicotine dependence, little work has sought to identify factors that contribute to these relations. The current study examined whether social anxiety was associated with cognitive vulnerability factors related to smoking: perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies, and negative affect reduction motives. Further, we tested whether social anxiety was robustly related to these factors after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, gender, alcohol use frequency, lifetime cannabis use status, panic attack frequency, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity. The sample consisted of 580 (38.6% female) treatment-seeking smokers. Social anxiety was associated with perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies, and negative affect reduction motives. After controlling for covariates, social anxiety was robustly related to perceived barriers for quitting, cessation- related problems, and negative affect reduction outcome expectancies. Social anxiety was robustly related to negative affect reduction motives among men but not women. Results indicate that social anxiety is robustly related to cognitive vulnerability factors associated with poorer cessation outcomes, suggesting that social anxiety may be an important therapeutic target during smoking cessation. PMID:24978348

  4. Robust impact of social anxiety in relation to coping motives and expectancies, barriers to quitting, and cessation-related problems.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Jeffries, Emily R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-08-01

    Although social anxiety is related to smoking and nicotine dependence, few researchers have sought to identify factors that contribute to these relations. The current study examined whether social anxiety was associated with cognitive vulnerability factors related to smoking: perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. Further, we tested whether social anxiety was robustly related to these factors after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, gender, alcohol-use frequency, lifetime cannabis-use status, panic attack frequency, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity. The sample consisted of 580 (38.6% female) treatment-seeking smokers. Social anxiety was associated with perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. After controlling for covariates, social anxiety was robustly related to perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, and negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies. Social anxiety was robustly related to negative-affect-reduction motives among men, but not women. Results indicate that social anxiety is robustly related to cognitive vulnerability factors associated with poorer cessation outcomes, suggesting that social anxiety may be an important therapeutic target during smoking cessation. PMID:24978348

  5. Factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    This study described health-related quality of life and examined the relationship of factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 105 community-dwelling minority elders in Southwest China. The participants reported poor physical health-related quality of life. Depression, chronic diseases, and body mass index were predictors of health-related quality of life among the minority elders. Community health care providers need to assess chronic diseases, mental health and nutrition among minority elders, and consider interventions to assist minority elders to enhance their health-related quality of life. PMID:21809931

  6. Presentation of problem-specific, text-based medical knowledge: XML and related technologies.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, S; Boettcher, H; Schweiger, R K; Konetschny, J; Dudeck, J

    2001-01-01

    Systematic reviews of the impact of clinical decision support systems on provider behavior and patient outcome have shown evidence of benefit. Knowledge-based functions for decision support or monitoring that are integrated in clinical information systems are a potentially effective way. But these concepts are restricted by the efforts required for development and maintenance of the information systems and the limited number of implemented medical rules. Physicians are familiar to get their information from text-based sources. It seems to be straight-forward to rely on a document-based solution in order to present problem-specific information at the point of care. We have developed a concept for context-sensitive retrieving and presentation of text-based medical knowledge (textbook of internal medicine) using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and related technologies. This concept can facilitate the electronic query and presentation of this resource. XML may replace narrative text as a storage format and allows to structure the data in a stepwise fashion. On the basis of structured data we are able to improve the search quality for clinical information and its presentation which forms a crucial pre-requisite for the use of the information and the implementation of evidence-based care in the clinical routine. PMID:11825191

  7. Impact of Job Satisfaction on Greek Nurses' Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Katsikavali, Vassiliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Papadatou, Danai; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2015-01-01

    Background Employee job satisfaction and its relationship with health and quality of life has been an issue of major concern over the past decades. Nurses experience difficult working conditions that affect their job satisfaction, health, and quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three general hospitals and their respective health centers. Stratified random sampling by level of education was used, and 508 nurses and nursing assistants were included. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which included the Measure of Job Satisfaction, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, as well as demographic details, education, and work conditions data, was used. Results Greek nurses were found to be dissatisfied with their job according to the total score of the job satisfaction scale, although personal satisfaction and satisfaction with support had had higher scores. Their general health was reported as average, because of physical and mental health problems, low vitality, low energy, and increased physical pain. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that males and those wishing to stay in the job had higher physical and mental health. Increased job satisfaction was related to increased physical and mental health. Conclusion Although Greek nurses are not satisfied with their work, those with high levels of job satisfaction had better health-related quality of life. The findings suggest that improvement of the work environment would contribute to a healthier and more satisfied nursing workforce. PMID:26929845

  8. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations among facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs…

  9. Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki

    2010-12-15

    The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

  10. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…

  11. The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N = 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific

  12. Relevant Indicators of Relative Expertise in Economic Problem Solving: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.

    This paper reports preliminary research into the nature of relative expertise in economic problem solving. Specifically, this report seeks to address the question of whether the presence of economic knowledge alone accounts for expertise in economic problem solving or whether both economic knowledge and the development and employment of economic

  13. Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who

  14. Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

  15. Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who…

  16. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  17. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three

  18. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221…

  19. Health-related quality of life for chronically ill children.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Kelly, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 43% of children in the United States (32 million) are currently living with at least 1 of 20 common chronic childhood illnesses. The most common chronic childhood illnesses are asthma, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, obesity, malnutrition, developmental disabilities, cerebral palsy, consequences of low birthweight, and mental illness. For all chronically ill pediatric populations, the outcome of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is particularly important because many of these children have not and will not be cured, and will continue to manage their chronic illness into adulthood. Advances in biomedical science and technology continue to improve efficacy of treatments and care for chronically ill children, adolescents, and their families, which highlight the importance measurement of HRQOL as a treatment and health status outcome. The construct of HRQOL is subjective, multidimensional, dynamic, and unique to each individual. It includes aspects of physical, psychological, social function, and goal attainment. Outcomes of HRQOL now include the financial implications for these children and their families, as well as financial and organizational consequences for healthcare planning and delivery of services.This article reviews the importance of HRQOL as a health outcome for chronically ill children. A historical overview and synthesis of the conceptualization and measurement of HRQOL for the chronically ill pediatric population is provided. Current research investigations that have measured health outcomes using individual scales tailored to children's specific symptoms health outcomes, such as PROMIS®-Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-are reviewed. The clinical applications of HRQOL outcomes research include facilitation of patient-healthcare provider communication, improved patient satisfaction, identification of hidden morbidities, a positive impact on clinical decision making, and improvement of patient outcomes over time. PMID:25285426

  20. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  1. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises.

    PubMed

    Pęciłło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  2. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

  3. Treatment-related problems experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wagland, R; Richardson, A; Armes, J; Hankins, M; Lennan, E; Griffiths, P

    2015-09-01

    Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy experience a range of treatment-related problems, and variations in prevalence exist between treatment centres. A scoping review was undertaken to map reported rates of problem prevalence in the literature. This will inform development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to monitor prevalence and severity of problems over time and assist service providers optimise supportive care provision. Two databases (Embase and Medline) were searched from 2002 to 2013. Fifty one published papers and conference abstracts reporting problem prevalence rates were identified. The papers reported 98 different problems, from which a typology of 27 problem domains was developed, including both physical symptoms and psychosocial issues. The problem domains most often studied were nausea, vomiting and fatigue. This review reflects the chemotherapy-associated problems to which researchers attach the most importance. The range in reported prevalence across studies was very broad (e.g. nausea: 9-74%), with even less frequently studied problems showing high prevalence in some studies (e.g. gynaecological problems: up to 94%). The wide variation in prevalence and range of problems experienced raises challenges for PROM development. Patients should therefore be involved in consensus exercises to assist selection of items to ensure any instrument is complete and robust. PMID:25296389

  4. Solution of inverse problem of fuzzy relational equation by using perceptron model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, Kaoru; Ikoma, Norikazu

    1991-01-01

    A Max-Min fuzzy system can be regarded as a network of max and min operational elements. Thus, the inverse problem of a fuzzy relational equation is interpreted as an input estimation problem from output values in the corresponding network. An approximate network model of a fuzzy relational system is proposed. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution of the system is presented for using a neural network technique.

  5. During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Clough, Peter J; Lemola, Sakari; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-07-24

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between mental toughness, subjective sleep, physical activity, and quality of life during early and mid-adolescence. A total of 1475 participants (mean age = 13.4 years; range: 11-16 years) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires related to mental toughness, physical activity, subjective sleep, and quality of life. Greater mental toughness was related to more favorable quality of life and increased subjective sleep. Mental toughness was not related to physical activity. Increased mental toughness, favorable quality of life, and sleep are related during early and mid-adolescence. Against our expectations, mental toughness was not related to physical activity. PMID:25060987

  6. Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures. Methods A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group. Results The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n = 117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis. Conclusion The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely tested and several versions are available. COHIP employed a rigorous development strategy but has been tested in fewer populations. C-OIDP is shorter and has been used successfully in epidemiological studies. Further testing using modern psychometric techniques such as item response theory is recommended. Future developments should also focus on the development of measures which can evaluate longitudinal change. PMID:24758535

  7. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  8. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  9. Opposite poles: A comparison between two Spanish regions in health-related quality of life, with implications for health policy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although health is one of the main determinants of the welfare of societies, few studies have evaluated health related quality of life in representative samples of the population of a region or a country. Our aim is to describe the health-related quality of life of the inhabitants of two quite different Spanish regions (Canary Islands and Catalonia) and to compare the prevalence of health problems between age-sex groups. Methods We use data obtained from the 2006 Health Survey of Catalonia and the 2004 Canary Islands Health Survey. With an ordinal composite variable measuring HRQOL we identify the association of characteristics of individuals with self-reported quality of life and test for differences between the regions. Results The prevalence of problems in the five EQ-5 D dimensions increases with age and is generally higher for women than for men. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems is "anxiety/depression", and there is noteworthy the extent of discomfort and pain among Canary Island women. Education, especially among the elderly, has an important effect on health-related quality of life. Conclusions There are substantial structural and compositional differences between the two regions. Regional context is a significant factor, independent of the compositional differences, and the effects of context are manifest above all in women. The findings show the importance of disease prevention and the need for improving the educational level of the population in order to reduce health inequalities. PMID:20868523

  10. Gender differences in the relation between mothering behaviors and child-behavior problems among Hispanic preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-04-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were correlated with more supportive and less intrusive mothering at 2.5, but only for boys, and increases in externalizing behavior among boys were uniquely predicted by greater maternal intrusiveness. Implications for understanding parental control factors among Hispanic families are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27010364

  11. Gender differences in the relation between mothering behaviors and child behavior problems among Hispanic preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This report examined gender differences in behavior problems and prediction of their changes from 2½ to 3½ years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3½ were correlated with more supportive and less intrusive mothering at 2½ but only for boys, and increases in externalizing behavior among boys were uniquely predicted by greater maternal intrusiveness. Implications for understanding parental control factors among Hispanic families are discussed. PMID:27010364

  12. Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

  13. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21984861

  14. Relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in school for preadolescent children from economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Brian P; Izard, Carroll E; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D; Smith, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The person-centered results showed that children with reading problems in both grades had higher internalizing scores in 5th grade but not in 3rd grade than children with reading problems in 3rd grade or no problems. Child-reported negative emotion experiences varied similarly across grade. The results tie reading problems to emotional distress in school and support conclusions about the direction of effects and the internalization of academic difficulty for disadvantaged children. PMID:17381791

  15. The Role of Marital Quality and Spousal Support in Behaviour Problems of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, N.; Baker, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. Methods: The relationship

  16. Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge of Problem-Solving Strategies and Quality of Childcare Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of early childhood educators' meta-cognitive knowledge on the quality of their childcare curriculum implementation, and to gain insights regarding successful problem-solving strategies associated with early education and care. Early childhood educators' implementation of general problem-solving strategies in…

  17. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  18. The Role of Marital Quality and Spousal Support in Behaviour Problems of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, N.; Baker, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. Methods: The relationship…

  19. Health- related quality of life in diabetic people with different vascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of papers on the health related quality of life of patients with DM has grown in recent years but fewer studies have drawn comparisons between diabetic persons and the general population considering different risk groups. The aim of this study is to examine health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the differences in HRQOL adjusting by vascular risk. Methods The data used in this analysis was obtained from the responses of 15,926 individuals who participated in the 2006 Catalonia Health Survey. Our analysis provides a number of multivariate statistical models designed for studying HRQOL, based on the EQ-5D questionnaire, controlling for demographic factors of survey participants and variables that identify diagnosed illnesses and health problems. Results Our findings suggest there is a significant, moderate negative relationship between DM and HRQOL in comparison with non diabetic people (absolute value of the coefficient ranges between ?0.04 and ?0.054 points on a scale of 1). A further analysis of subgroups reveals that diabetics who have not had vascular risk factors neither vascular diseases do not have a diminished HRQOL when compared to the non-diabetic population in general, when other factors are controlled for. In contrast, a comparison of diabetics and non-diabetics who exhibit vascular disease or risk factors for vascular disease reveals HRQOL is significantly diminished to a greater extent for those with diabetes (between 0.152 and 0.175 points loss when comparing a non-diabetic person with a diabetic with vascular disease). Also, HRQOL in diabetic patients who have additional risk factors or a vascular disease are lower than people non-diabetic who have additional risk factors or a vascular disease. When we focus our analysis to the EQ-5D dimensions, we observe that diabetic persons who are neither at risk for nor have a diagnosed vascular disease are no more likely than non-diabetics to report problems. However, diabetic patients who have additional risk factors for vascular disease or a diagnosed vascular disease are significantly more likely to report moderated or severe problems in 4 of the 5 dimensions of EQ-5D. Conclusions The HRQOL of a person who has diabetes is not necessarily lower than for a non-diabetic. Control of risk factors associated to vascular diseases is a key factor for an enhanced quality of life. Vascular disease or risk factors for vascular disease, on the other hand, are associated with a significantly diminished quality of life for diabetic persons. PMID:22994940

  20. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  1. Health related quality of life assessment in the routine clinical practice of a dermatology unit.

    PubMed

    Tabolli, Stefano; Baliva, Giannandrea; Lombardo, Giuseppe Alfonso; Sampogna, Francesca; Di Pietro, Cristina; Mannooranparampil, T J; Alvetreti, Gabriele; Abeni, Damiano

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study in a Dermatological Research Institution in Rome, Italy, was conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of health related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment in the daily routine. Quality of life, and psychosocial distress evaluations were obtained for each patient. Patients were invited to complete the Skindex-29, GHQ-12, and SF-36. Results were returned to the clinical staff using standardised feed-back forms with: a) "categories" of QoL scores to help interpreting Skindex-29 scores; b) "warnings" pointing out problems that patients experienced "all the time"; c) categories of GHQ-12 scores for minor psychiatric problems; d) the classical SF-36 graph depicting the patient's "QoL profile" with normative references. The clinical staff were trained, and then their attitudes and behaviours were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire. For all 170 participants enrolled (63% males, 35% age > 64 years), feed-back forms were provided within three hours from data collection. For patients with repeated hospitalisations time-trends in HRQoL measurements were also provided. The acceptability, both for patients and the clinical staff, was high but the actual impact on clinical activities was limited. The routine assessment of HRQoL in dermatology is feasible and well accepted both by patients and by the clinical staff. The application of these widely used questionnaires should be implemented in a larger scale and evaluated in different settings. PMID:16935800

  2. Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life among older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wang, Xingzhi; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong; Wang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the association of cognitive dysfunction with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults in China. We analyzed community-based cross-sectional data of 5,557 Chinese individuals aged 60 years and above in the Weitang Geriatric Diseases Study. Cognitive dysfunction and HRQOL were assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D), respectively. We estimated the impacts of cognitive dysfunction on the EQ-5D index and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores using linear regression models, and the association between cognitive dysfunction and self-reported EQ-5D health problems using logistic regression models. The EQ-5D index and VAS scores were significantly lower for individuals with cognitive dysfunction than their counterparts. After controlling for covariates, the differences in EQ-5D index and VAS scores between individuals with and without cognitive dysfunction were −0.016 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.024, −0.008), and −3.4 (95% CI: −4.5, −2.4), respectively. Cognitive dysfunction was associated with reporting of problems in pain/discomfort (odds ration [OR]: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.69), and anxiety/depression (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.23). The negative impact on HRQOL increased with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The results indicate cognitive dysfunction was associated with worse HRQOL in older adults. PMID:26601612

  3. Finding Quality Responses: The Problem of Low-Quality Survey Responses and Its Impact on Accountability Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have addressed the issue of response quality in survey studies, few have looked specifically at low-quality survey responses in surveys of college students. As students receive more and more survey requests, it is inevitable that some of them will provide low-quality responses to important campus surveys and institutional…

  4. Finding Quality Responses: The Problem of Low-Quality Survey Responses and Its Impact on Accountability Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have addressed the issue of response quality in survey studies, few have looked specifically at low-quality survey responses in surveys of college students. As students receive more and more survey requests, it is inevitable that some of them will provide low-quality responses to important campus surveys and institutional

  5. On relative periodic solutions of the planar general three-body problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1975-01-01

    We describe two relatively simple reductions to order 6 for the planar general three-body problem. We also show that this reduction leads to the distinction between two types of periodic solutions: absolute or relative periodic solutions. An algorithm for obtaining relative periodic solutions using heliocentric coordinates is then described. It is concluded from the periodicity conditions that relative periodic solutions must form families with a single parameter. Finally, two such families have been obtained numerically and are described in some detail.

  6. Externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years in prenatally cocaine exposed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T

    2014-04-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β = .15, p = .02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.38-5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive/foster care (n = 44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n = 139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  7. Problem solving in the presence of others: how rank and relationship quality impact resource acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; Pieper, Bridget A; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

  8. Problem Solving in the Presence of Others: How Rank and Relationship Quality Impact Resource Acquisition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

  9. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems. PMID:26515986

  10. Rewarding results: Improving the quality of treatment for people with alcohol and drug problems.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Substance use disorders are the nation's number one health problem, and lie at the root of many public safety and workplace issues. Improving quality of treatment is as important as improving access to treatment. Leadership for improvement must come from many sources: Congress, SAMHSA, state legislatures, state and local treatment agencies, criminal justice, welfare and other public agencies, employers and managed care organizations, providers, and community leaders. We hope that our report helps leaders see ways to improve treatment quality. Our recommendations can be summed up in a single phrase: reward results. We recognize that there are many avenues for treatment quality improvement, including training, credentialing, best practice dissemination, work force development, facility licensing standards, improvement and implementation of new models for treatment of dual diagnosis patients. We believe, however, that rewarding results is essential to motivating action for improvement. We also believe that if providers receive rewards for improved results, they will creatively open new avenues for improvement--a focus on results gives greater freedom than more detailed mandates for change. Finally, we believe that rewards for result may lead to a restructured treatment system with greater stability and correspondingly greater capacity to improve. While we have placed central emphasis on the role of institutional buyers and managers of care, we believe that the voices of patients and families must be heard. People who have progressed to the stage of recovery, and their families, often have essential insight into what did and did not work for them--their personal stories are frequently compelling and persuasive. We also believe that providers of treatment for substance use disorders are profoundly committed to serving their patients, and often have great understanding of what works. Wise managers will listen very carefully and systematically to the voices of consumers, their families, and their providers. We have advocated that buyers reward results as a central strategy for improving quality. We believe that this is the best long-term strategy, not only to effect quality improvement, but also to end stigmatization and increase resources. We wish, in closing, to reemphasize our shared beliefs that adequate resources are essential, that treating persons with substance use disorders is always emotionally challenging and often profoundly frustrating and alienating, and that those on the front line deserve our unequivocal support and our profound gratitude for their service. Legislators should adequately fund public treatment and mandate parity in insurance reimbursement for treatment of substance use disorders. PMID:15285207

  11. Relations between quality of urban runoff and quality of Lake Ellyn at Glen Ellyn, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.; Cowan, Ellen A.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of flow and chemical data collected at the principal inlet and at the outlets of Lake Ellynman urban lake in the Chicago metropolitan are--shows that detention storage alters the discharge and the quality of urban runoff. Peak water discharge and variation in the concentration of constituents transported by the runoff are usually reduced. Mass-balance relations based on comparison of measured constituent loads at the inlet and the outlets show that the lake is very efficient in trapping suspended solids, suspended sediment, and sediment-associated metals. Calculated trap efficiencies for many dissolved constituents were negative. However, negative efficiencies appear to be influenced mostly by insufficient sampling in winter. Trap efficiencies for nitrogen and phosphorus are intermediate to those determined for other constituents. Solids accumulate on the lake bottom as organic-rich muds that reduce lake storage and cover potential habitat for aquatic organisms. Lake sediments, particularly fine-grained sediments, have elevated concentrations of metals associated with them. Several organic compounds, not detected in inlet- or outlet-water samples, were detected in a lake-sediment sample collected near the inlet. Concentrations of many constituents dissolved in lake water are seasonally cyclic, with annual concentration peaks occurring during the winter. Establishment and maintenance of desirable benthic invertebrate and fish populations appear to be inhibited by sediment deposition.

  12. Landing quality in artistic gymnastics is related to landing symmetry.

    PubMed

    Cuk, I; Marinšek, M

    2013-03-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  13. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  14. Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.68, p = 0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored. PMID:25010719

  15. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  16. Externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems related to asthma in school children.

    PubMed

    Annesi-Maesano, I; Zhou, C; Baïz, N; Banerjee, S; André Charpin, D; Caillaud, D; de Blay, F; Raherison, C; Lavaud, F

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the relationships of behavioural problems as assessed using the standardized Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to asthma in view of improving asthma management. Six thousand eight hundred and eighty children (mean age 10.4 years, male: 49%) were recruited in the French 6 Cities Study. Children with abnormal or borderline emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) or conduct problems (externalizing problems) were more asthmatic than others (P < 0.01). Compared to being normal, abnormal emotional symptoms or conduct problems were found to be related to mild-to-moderate persistent asthma (logistic model adjusted odds ratio = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.26-1.90) and 1.42 (95% CI = 1.17-1.71), respectively) and to early-onset asthma (Cox's model Adjusted Hazard Risk = 1.60 (95% CI = 1.27-2.01) and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.05-1.70). Borderline conduct problems were found to be negatively related to parents' knowledge on how to prevent asthma attacks, compared to normal conduct problems [adjusted OR = 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85)]. Further data are needed to better understand the involvement of behavioural problems in childhood asthma according to phenotypes. PMID:24351067

  17. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  18. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  19. Emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems: the mediating role of urgency.

    PubMed

    Emery, Noah N; Simons, Jeffrey S; Clarke, C Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M

    2014-10-01

    Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems. This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 and 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest that poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

  20. Emotion Differentiation and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Mediating Role of Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Clarke, C. Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems (Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, & Fiore, 2004; Wiers et al., 2007). This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 to 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

  1. Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

  2. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4

  3. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  4. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  5. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews

  6. Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jun-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,

  7. Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…

  8. Problems and Issues in Relating Research on Teacher Thinking to Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam

    This paper analyzes some of the characteristics of research on teacher thinking as it relates to educational policy. An introductory section discusses the problems inherent in relating research on teacher thinking to educational policy, based on the difference between conclusion-oriented research (which is appropriate for teacher thinking) and…

  9. Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college

  10. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  11. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and

  12. Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jun-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

  13. The Problem of the Particular and its Relation to the General in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Vicenc; Contreras, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Research in the didactics of mathematics has shown the importance of the problem of the particular and its relation to the general in teaching and learning mathematics as well as the complexity of factors related to them. In particular, one of the central open questions is the nature and diversity of objects that carry out the role of particular

  14. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  15. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of

  16. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  17. Road traffic noise and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Welch, David; Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim N; McBride, David; Marsh, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging linking environmental noise to health problems. Noise can affect health directly and indirectly: For example, noise sensitivity moderates the effects of noise annoyance, which in turn mediates the effects of noise exposure. An alternative hypothesis is that noise sensitivity marks the presence of susceptibility to health problems in general, including annoyance from noise. Whether noise sensitivity causes poor health or whether it is a marker of susceptibility to health problems was addressed by comparing the results of a community-based survey of people with similar noise sensitivity profiles but different environmental noise exposures. A questionnaire was delivered to people living in two socio-economically-matched areas: One was within 50 m of a motorway and the other was away from any significant source of environmental noise. The questionnaire contained 58 questions comprised of the World Health Organization health-related quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), and questions about amenity, neighborhood issues, environmental annoyances, demographics, and noise sensitivity. Noise sensitivity did not vary with proximity to the motorway but annoyance with traffic noise and fumes was greater in those living close to the motorway than in those who were not. Scores on the four WHOQOL domains (physical, psychological, social, and environmental) were lower in those living close to the motorway, and the WHOQOL domain scores correlated negatively with noise sensitivity in those who lived near motorways but not in those who lived in the quieter areas. This suggests that noise sensitivity is related to poor health outcomes rather than being a trait marker of susceptibility to health problems in general. PMID:23771420

  18. Nurse-physician relations and quality of nursing care: findings from a national survey of nurses.

    PubMed

    Kenaszchuk, Chris; Wilkins, Kathryn; Reeves, Scott; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Russell, Ann

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the association between nurse-physician working relations and nurse-rated quality of nursing team care.The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of registered nurses working in Canadian hospitals. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between the quality of nurse-physician working relations and nurses' reports of fair or poor nursing team care on the last shift worked. Unfavourable quality of nurse-physician working relations was significantly related to lower quality of nursing team care, controlling for other potential influences. These influences included low nurse co-worker support, job dissatisfaction, and self-rated poor general health, each of which was also related to lower care quality.The analysis highlights the importance of interprofessional working relations to nurse-perceived quality of patient care in Canadian hospitals. PMID:20608240

  19. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    PubMed

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Background Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. Objective In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. Setting General practice in The Netherlands. Method A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Main outcome measure Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Results Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Conclusion Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients. PMID:26830412

  20. Antimicrobial Use-Related Problems and Predictors among Hospitalized Medical In-Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadesa, Tadele Mekuriya; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn

    2015-01-01

    Background The spread of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries is associated with complex and interconnected factors, such as excessive and unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials, increased self-prescribing by the people and poor quality of available antimicrobials. Moreover, the failure to implement infection control practices and the dearth of routine susceptibility testing and surveillance magnify the problems. This may spread the inappropriateness of prescribing, ending up with the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Objective The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial use related problems and associated factors among patients admitted at Jimma University specialized hospital. Methods A hospital based prospective observational study design was employed at medical wards of Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia. Data collected from patient medication charts and from the patients was analyzed using SPSS, version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. Results Out of 152 study participants, at least one antimicrobial use problem was identified among 115(75.7%). Accordingly, additional antimicrobials were needed by 45(29.6%) of the patients, whereas they were unnecessary among 44(28.9%). Similarly, 17% of the patients were noncompliant to at least one antimicrobial therapy, while 8.6% experienced at least one type of adverse drug reaction. On the other hand, the coverage of the infectious medical condition in the national guidelines (AOR = 4.888) and the duration of hospital stay (AOR = 3.086) were the determinants of the antimicrobial use problems. Conclusion Most of the antimicrobial use problems identified were related to delay of initiation of effective antimicrobials and excessive use; use without indication or using duplicates of broad spectrum antimicrobials or use for longer duration than recommended. The coverage of the infectious medical condition in the national treatment guidelines and the duration of hospital stay were the determinants of the antimicrobial use problems. PMID:26649431

  1. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  5. Prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Lensing, S; Horton, J A; Lovejoy, J; Zaghloul, S; Forrester, I; McGee, B B; Bogle, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess demographic and geographic differences in prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1991 and 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults 18 years or older. RESULTS: Less educated African American women and women of other minority groups who were aged 35 to 64 years reported the highest prevalence of health problems. Geographic differences involved prevalence of hypertension, health status, and insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific demographic subgroups and geographic areas with a high risk of health problems are in particular need of targeted interventions. PMID:10474563

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation programs and health-related quality of life. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Alguacil Diego, Isabel María; Alonso Martín, Joaquín Jesús; Molero Sánchez, Alberto; Miangolarra Page, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in developed countries. Prevention is presented as the most effective and efficient primary care intervention, whereas cardiac rehabilitation programs are considered the most effective of secondary prevention interventions; however, these are underused. This literature review examines the effectiveness and the levels of evidence of cardiac rehabilitation programs, their components, their development and role in developed countries, applications in different fields of research and treatment, including their psychological aspects, and their application in heart failure as a paradigm of disease care under this type of intervention. It is completed by a review of the impact of such programs on measures of health-related quality of life, describing the instruments involved in studies in recent scientific literature. PMID:22015019

  7. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; OHara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, angerbut not discrimination-specific angerwas a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  8. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2016-05-01

    The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.

  9. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  11. Health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem in Malaysia. However, it is also one of the most treatable cancers, resulting in significant numbers of survivors. Therefore, the impact of surviving treatment for colorectal cancer on health related quality of life is important for the patients, clinicians and policy makers, and may differ in different cultures and populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Malaysian versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life instruments among colorectal cancers patients. Methods/design This is a cross sectional multi centre study. Three hospitals were included, the University of Malaya Medical Centre, the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Tuanku Jaafar Seremban. Malaysian citizens and permanent residence were studied and demographic and clinical information obtained from hospital records. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Core 30, colorectal cancer CR29, and the colorectal cancer liver metastasis LMC 21 were used and an observer assessment of performance obtained with the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Questionnaires were translated into three most commonly spoken languages in Malaysia (Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese and Tamil), then administered, scored and analyzed following the developers’ guidelines. Ethical approval was obtained from the participating centres. Tests of reliability and validity were performed to examine the validity of these instruments. Conclusion The result of pilot testing shows that the use of the Malaysian versions of EORTC QLQ C30, CR29 instruments is feasible in our sample of colorectal cancer patients. Instructions for completion as well as questions were well understood except the questions on the overall quality of life, overall health status and sexual activity. Thus we anticipate obtaining good psychometric properties for the instruments at the end of the study. PMID:22937765

  12. Child psychopathy: theories, measurement, and relations with the development and persistence of conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Julie S; McMahon, Robert J

    2005-12-01

    To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and analysis of (a) the conceptualization and measurement of child and adolescent psychopathy, (b) research on relations between psychopathic traits and a range of conduct problems and associated variables, (c) efforts to utilize data on child and adolescent psychopathy to delineate a subgroup of youth whose conduct problems share a relatively homogenous etiology and developmental trajectory, and (d) current challenges and limitations in the study of youth psychopathy and directions for future research efforts. Specific sections include the origins of the youth psychopathy construct, conceptualization and measurement, relations between psychopathic traits and conduct problems, relations between measures of psychopathy and measures of individual and contextual variables, efforts to identify a unique subgroup of children with conduct problems using psychopathic traits, and finally, challenges that face the field and goals for the next generation of research. PMID:16362257

  13. Improving Teaching Quality and Problem Solving Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning in Differential Equations: A Lesson Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…

  14. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  15. Problems and solutions in calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Luis; Sacristán, José A

    2003-01-01

    The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a measure of the value of health outcomes. Since health is a function of length of life and quality of life, the QALY was developed as an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY calculation is simple: the change in utility value induced by the treatment is multiplied by the duration of the treatment effect to provide the number of QALYs gained. QALYs can then be incorporated with medical costs to arrive at a final common denominator of cost/QALY. This parameter can be used to compare the cost-effectiveness of any treatment. Nevertheless, QALYs have been criticised on technical and ethical grounds. A salient problem relies on the numerical nature of its constituent parts. The appropriateness of the QALY arithmetical operation is compromised by the essence of the utility scale: while life-years are expressed in a ratio scale with a true zero, the utility is an interval scale where 0 is an arbitrary value for death. In order to be able to obtain coherent results, both scales would have to be expressed in the same units of measurement. The different nature of these two factors jeopardises the meaning and interpretation of QALYs. A simple general linear transformation of the utility scale suffices to demonstrate that the results of the multiplication are not invariant. Mathematically, the solution to these limitations happens through an alternative calculation of QALYs by means of operations with complex numbers rooted in the well known Pythagorean theorem. Through a series of examples, the new calculation arithmetic is introduced and discussed. PMID:14687421

  16. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  17. Tobacco-Related Mortality among Persons with Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population. PMID:25807109

  18. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  19. Behavioral approaches to managing severe problem behaviors in children with autism spectrum and related developmental disorders: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Doehring, Peter; Reichow, Brian; Palka, Tamara; Phillips, Cara; Hagopian, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as aggression, self-injury, and property destruction can result in injury, and require specialized and expensive treatment. This article reviews outcome research published since 1995 that used behavioral techniques to decrease severe problem behaviors among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability. Many relatively simple interventions were reported to significantly reduce severe problem behavior, which offers hope for practitioners. Nonetheless, these studies also reveal a risk for injury and a need for specialized assessment and placement, careful tracking, and high-quality treatment that few agencies could likely replicate without increases in training and support. PMID:24231165

  20. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments among adults diabetic: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Achhab, Youness; Nejjari, Chakib; Chikri, Mohamed; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2008-05-01

    This paper provides a systematic review on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures in diabetic patients. For each included study, a description of the measure and its psychometric findings is provided. To evaluate these measures, a databases search (Medline, Scopus and Proqolid) was undertaken to identify relevant publications. Instruments were assessed according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixteen instruments met the inclusion criteria among 1049 references produced: appraisal of diabetes scale (ADS), audit of diabetes-dependent quality of life (ADDQoL), diabetes-39 (D-39), diabetes care profile (DCP), diabetes distress scale (DDS), diabetes health profile (DHP-1, DHP-18), diabetes impact measurement scales (DIMS), diabetes quality of life measure (DQOL), diabetes quality of life clinical trial questionnaire-revised (DQLCTQ-R), diabetes-specific quality of life scale (DSQOLS), elderly diabetes burden scale (EDBS), insulin delivery system rating questionnaire (IDSRQ), quality of life with diabetes questionnaire (LQD), problem areas in diabetes scale (PAID), questionnaire on stress in diabetic patients-revised (QSD-R) and well-being enquiry for diabetics (WED). All those instruments have been developed in northern countries. The shortest instrument (ADS) has seven items and the longest (IDSRQ) has 67 items. ADDQoL was widely translated followed by DHP and PAID. Only authors of ADS and DIMS have not involved patients in the construction of instruments. The authors of instruments: ADS, ADDQoL, DHP, D-39, and PAID reported the item-total correlation which is ranged from 0.28 to 0.84. The ADS, DQOL, EDBS, IDSRQ, LQD, PAID, QSD-R, and WED have been assessed for test-retest reliability which varies between 0.27 and 0.99. The DQLCTQ-R, DQOL and IDSRQ were not subjected to factor analysis. Responsiveness was assessed in PAID with effect sizes and ranged from 0.32 to 0.65 for interventions. Four domains were responsive to clinical change in metabolic control in DQLCTQ-R. The other instruments were not been formally assessed for responsiveness. This review found evidence that the instruments: ADDQoL, D-39, DDS, DHP1/18, DSQOLS, EDBS and QSD-R had adequate psychometric properties. For future research, responsiveness should be a priority and further study is also required to examine the effect of ethnicity and to determine the validity of these scales in developing countries. PMID:18279993

  1. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover. PMID:23600246

  2. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732

  3. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha

    2013-06-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child's medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively). The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of mealtimes, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed. PMID:23904965

  4. Feeding Problems in Healthy Young Children: Prevalence, Related Factors and Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively). The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of mealtimes, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed. PMID:23904965

  5. Influences of Motivational Contexts on Prescription Drug Misuse and Related Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems. PMID:25115134

  6. LIFE QUALITY RELATED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT IN PATIENTS AFFLICTED BY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM METASTATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Jabbar; Jafari, Hedayat; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spiritual health is of the basic elements in chronic patients. This concept can be considered as an important approach in promoting physical & spiritual health & life quality Goal: The present study has been planned aiming to study life quality related to metastatic phase gastrointestinal (digestive) cancer referring to Mazandaran Medical Science University Educational Center in Iran. Material and Methods: This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method with 250 patients through available sampling method. The data has been collected via spiritual health & life quality questionnaire. The data analysis has been performed by calculating X², T Test, variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean & standard deviation of the patients were 12.56 ±94/47. The highest relationship between age & spirituality was related to ages over 60. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between spirituality & life quality scale (p<0.001), between spirituality & respiratory disorder (p<0.047), anorexia (p<0.004), exhaustion (p<0.006), financial problems (p<0.006). Conclusion: regarding the results, we can perceive the necessity behind improving spiritual health aspect as an influencing factor on the patients’ life quality. Through enhancing spiritual beliefs, it is possible to help the patients’ spiritual quality get promoted. PMID:26622196

  7. Attention to pleasant stimuli in early adolescence predicts alcohol-related problems in mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Joshua B B; Allen, Nicholas B; Cheetham, Ali; Simmons, Julian G; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-05-01

    Attenuated responses to natural rewards have been found to predict subsequent substance use among dependent populations, suggesting that this may be a premorbid risk factor for later problematic substance use. However, research on adolescent risk-taking suggests that exaggerated, rather than blunted, reward responsiveness predicts later substance abuse. Acoustic startle-induced event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in a sample of 11-13 year-olds while they viewed affective pictures, and participants were reassessed four years later regarding alcohol use and experience of alcohol-related problems. Increased attenuation of the amplitude of the P300 component of the ERP during viewing of pleasant pictures, relative to amplitude during neutral pictures (an indicator of increased attention to pleasant pictures), predicted increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems at follow-up. These findings further support research indicating that increased reward responsiveness predicts risky behaviours in adolescence, with anhedonia primarily a consequence of substance dependence. PMID:25818044

  8. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  9. Biochemistry of lipoxygenase in relation to food quality.

    PubMed

    Eskin, N A; Grossman, S; Pinsky, A

    1977-04-01

    A renewed interest in lipoxygenase has led to detailed studies of its isoenzymes, substrate specificity, and the nature of its reaction products. Lipoxygenase is highly specific for cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene systems such as linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid (or ester) and catalyzes the formation of the corresponding hydroperoxides with a cis,-trans-conjugated diene system. The hydroperoxides can then undergo enzymic or spontaneous degradation, producing a range of carbonyl compounds. This review will discuss the biochemical properties of this enzyme and its contribution to the quality of raw and processed food products. An attempt has been made to discuss both the desirable and undesirable effects associated with the action of lipoxygenase, citing specific food examples where appropriate. PMID:411628

  10. Diet-related practices and BMI are associated with diet quality in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged $74 years. Design: Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regres...

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related

  12. Green's functions and trace formulas for generalized Sturm-Liouville problems related by Darboux transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2010-05-15

    We study Green's functions of the generalized Sturm-Liouville problems that are related to each other by Darboux -equivalently, supersymmetrical - transformations. We establish an explicit relation between the corresponding Green's functions and derive a simple formula for their trace. The class of equations considered here includes the conventional Schroedinger equation and generalizations, such as for position-dependent mass and with linearly energy-dependent potential, as well as the stationary Fokker-Planck equation.

  13. Functional assessment of geriatric patients in regard to health-related quality of life (HRQoL)

    PubMed Central

    Muszalik, Marta; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Zieli?ska-Wi?czkowska, Halina; K?dziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Dijkstra, Ate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of our research was to evaluate general health, functioning, and performance parameters, as well as care problems of Geriatric Clinic inpatients in relation to deficits in fulfilling needs. The assessment of health-related quality of life was also performed. Patients and methods The research subjects were patients attending the Clinic of Geriatrics: 149 women and 78 men; 227 persons in total. The research was carried out using a diagnostic poll method, with the application of the Activities of Daily Living questionnaire of assessment of daily efficiency on the basis of the Katz index, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire, the Care Dependency Scale used to measure the level of care dependency and human needs, and the Nottingham Health Profile scale. Results The results showed that the majority of respondents achieved high and medium levels of functional capability. The main problems associated with the fulfillment of needs were difficulties with the adoption of appropriate body posture, movement restrictions, and problems related to participating in unassisted leisure activities outside the home. The general deficit in fulfilling the needs of the patients was low. The most significant problems were related to sleep disorders, restrictions in freedom of movement, loss of vital energy, and ailments resulting in the observable presence of pain. Conclusion Good daily functioning of elderly patients significantly depended on their intellectual and mental efficiency. Elderly patients require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. PMID:25565788

  14. How number line estimation skills relate to neural activations in single digit subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, I; Man, G; Booth, J R

    2015-02-15

    The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated with differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved in numerical magnitude and spatial processes. PMID:25497398

  15. How number line estimation skills relate to neural activations in single digit subtraction problems

    PubMed Central

    Berteletti, I.; Man, G.; Booth, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated to differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved numerical magnitude and spatial processes. PMID:25497398

  16. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  17. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to

  18. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

  19. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  20. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  1. Dollars and Directives: Issues and Problems Related to Financial Support and Legal Authorizations of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.; And Others

    This monograph is concerned with the issues and problems raised by recent trends in state legislative activity related to community and junior colleges and in patterns of funding these institutions. The first of two parts discusses legislation directly or indirectly affecting policies for financing postsecondary education in general and community…

  2. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  3. Relations Between Social Self-Perceptions, Time Use, and Prosocial or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; Vernon, Margaret K.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between social self-perceptions, time use, and later involvement in prosocial or problem behaviors during early, middle, and later adolescence. The authors used an idiographic approach to identify four different patterns of social self-perceptions (confident, anxious, unconcerned, desperate) and then examined…

  4. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  5. The Role of Substance Use Initiation in Adolescent Development of Subsequent Substance-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  7. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  8. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  9. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five

  10. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  11. Effects of Logo Computer Programming Experience on Problem Solving and Spatial Relations Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raymond B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 174 fifth- and sixth-grade students from two public elementary schools was conducted to determine the effects of Logo programing experience on students' problem solving and spatial relations abilities. Results indicate that LOGO programing contributes to student abilities in the two areas under observation. (TJH)

  12. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.

  13. Predicting Adolescent Peer Problems and Antisocial Activities: The Relative Roles of Aggression and Dysregulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alice W.; Bierman, Karen L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relative roles of aggression and other dysregulated behaviors in predicting adolescent peer problems and antisocial behavior. Found that aggression and withdrawal were stable and linked to peer difficulties in elementary school and adolescence, but indicated significant risk for adolescent rejection, victimization, and antisocial activity…

  14. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  15. Longitudinal examination of physical and relational aggression as precursors to later problem behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W

    2009-01-01

    Research has addressed the consequences of being a victim of physical and relational aggression but less so the consequences of being an aggressor during adolescence. Consequently, relatively little is known about the extent to which aggression in early adolescence increases the risk of later aggression and other psychosocial problems. This study involves a representative sample of seventh- and ninth-grade students from Washington State (N = 1,942). Students were surveyed on recruitment and then again 1 and 2 years later to learn about ongoing behavior problems, substance use, depression, and self-harm behaviors. Surveys also included measures of several hypothesized promotive factors: attachment to family, school commitment, and academic achievement. Findings suggest that being physically and/or relationally aggressive in grades 7 to 9 increases the risk of aggression and possibly other problem behaviors after accounting for age, gender, race, and a prior measure of each outcome. Independent promotive effects were observed in most analyses, although family attachment appeared a less robust predictor overall. Implications for prevention include acting on the behavior itself and enhancing promotive influences to lessen the risk of agression and other related problems. PMID:19297882

  16. The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

  17. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  18. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament

  19. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco

  20. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

  1. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey

  2. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  3. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  4. Epistemic Profiles and Self-Regulated Learning: Examining Relations in the Context of Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Relations were examined between epistemic profiles, regulation of cognition, and mathematics problem solving. Two hundred sixty-eight students were sampled from undergraduate mathematics and statistics courses. Students completed inventories reflecting their epistemic profiles and learning strategies, and were profiled as rational, empirical, or…

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. Relations between Secondary Pupils' Conceptions about Functions and Problem Solving in Different Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti; Eracleous, Anastasia; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores pupils' constructed definitions of the concept of function in relation to their abilities in dealing with tasks of functions involving different forms of representations and problem solving tasks. A major concern is also to examine the interrelations between these three ways of thinking about or dealing with the concept…

  7. Relations between local and global perceptual image quality and visual masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Mushfiqul; Patil, Pranita; Hagan, Martin T.; Chandler, Damon M.

    2015-03-01

    Perceptual quality assessment of digital images and videos are important for various image-processing applications. For assessing the image quality, researchers have often used the idea of visual masking (or distortion visibility) to design image-quality predictors specifically for the near-threshold distortions. However, it is still unknown that while assessing the quality of natural images, how the local distortion visibilities relate with the local quality scores. Furthermore, the summing mechanism of the local quality scores to predict the global quality scores is also crucial for better prediction of the perceptual image quality. In this paper, the local and global qualities of six images and six distortion levels were measured using subjective experiments. Gabor-noise target was used as distortion in the quality-assessment experiments to be consistent with our previous study [Alam, Vilankar, Field, and Chandler, Journal of Vision, 2014], in which the local root-mean-square contrast detection thresholds of detecting the Gabor-noise target were measured at each spatial location of the undistorted images. Comparison of the results of this quality-assessment experiment and the previous detection experiment shows that masking predicted the local quality scores more than 95% correctly above 15 dB threshold within 5% subject scores. Furthermore, it was found that an approximate squared summation of local-quality scores predicted the global quality scores suitably (Spearman rank-order correlation 0:97).

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  10. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both formulations are solved as initial value problems. As such, no Kutta condition is required at the trailing edge of the airfoil.

  11. The Longitudinal Relation Between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood Method Participants were 221 children (120 boys, 101 girls) who participated in a longitudinal study from age 3 to 6 Results A reciprocal relation (Model 3) was observed only between inattention and academic achievement; this relation remained controlling for SES and family stress. The relation between inattention and cognitive ability was consistent with Model 1 (cognitive skills predicting later inattention) with controls. For hyperactivity and aggression, there was some support for Model 2 (early behavior predicting later academic/cognitive ability), but this model was no longer supported when controlling for family functioning. Conclusion These results suggest that the relation between academic achievement/cognitive ability and externalizing problems may be driven primarily by inattention. These results also suggest that this relation is evident early in development, highlighting the need for early assessment and intervention. PMID:24039280

  12. Factors related to oral health related quality of life in TMD patients.

    PubMed

    Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Celebić, Asja; Mehulić, Ketij; Petricević, Nikola

    2013-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the impact of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) on self-percieved oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to compare OHRQoL of patients with TMD with a control group. A total of 81 TMD patients participated in a study group and 400 adults served as the control group. The mean OHIP summary scores were computed for all patients with the same diagnosis and the same subgroup of axis I according to the RDC/TMD exam form. The mean OHIP subscores for all seven domains of the OHIP questionnaire were compared between the study and the control group. The hierarchical linear regression model was used to assess the most important variables according to the RDC/TMD protocol that contribute to OHRQoL in TMD patients with the OHIP summary score as dependent variable. According to this study, TMD had a high association with reduced OHRQoL (p < 0.001). More diagnoses of axis I according to the RDC/TMD protocol (p < 0.001), higher age of TMD patients (p < 0.001) and diagnoses associated with limited jaw movements contributed to more impaired OHRQoL (p = 0.008 and p = 0.030, respectively). Female TMD patients had no significantly different OHRQoL compared to male patients (p = 0.436). According to regression analysis, higher age (p < 0.001), more physical diagnoses (p = 0.018) and diagnosis Ib (p = 0.169) explained 39.1% of the variability (p < 0.001) of the OHIP summary score in TMD patients. PMID:23940982

  13. [Intercultural nursing: analysis of changes in the perception of relational problems with foreign patients].

    PubMed

    Manara, Duilio F; Isernia, Ilaria; Buzzetti, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Today's society is highly impacted by immigration, as well as healthcare system. It is becoming increasingly common and frequent to establish relationships with patients with different cultural backgrounds. The aim of this study is analyzing Italian nurses' perception of the relational dynamics with foreign patients, to determine its evolution, and to identify the variables which can affect the quality of care. The study is both qualitative and quantitative with descriptive aim, using a questionnaire that assesses the theoretical-practical level of preparation, both perceptive and effective, of nurses when assisting foreign patients. To evaluate the emotional and experiential impact of the relationship with foreign patients, the difficulties encountered while establishing such relationship, and the resolution strategies - both effective and potential. The sample, composed of 101 Italian nurses employed at SanRaffaele Hospital in 6 specific Operational Units, resulted in a total of 91 returned questionnaires during the period May-June 2011. The data was analyzed through statistical instruments and compared to the results of a similar study done in 2004. The experience of intercultural nursing is seen by the sample as interesting and rewarding. The vast majority of nurses have positive responses. The more frequent issues are those connected with communication with foreign patients, and those connected with the increase workload due the presence of foreign patients. Nurses responded to difficulties more with human skills than with specific abilities, and tend to delegate the problem to the Cultural Mediation service. This new issue has a very high impact on nurses. The emerged difficulties have not decreased over time, this due to the lack of a proper policy within health care facilities in recent years, with the exception of a little improvement on the academic education. However the current academic education does not provide solutions useful in the everyday routing. This study, despite the small sample and a rather narrow degree of analysis, likes to draw attention on the topic both of nurses and on health care facilities managerial team in order to develop a effective startegie to deal with the emerged issues. PMID:24083494

  14. [Relating briefly the natural resources and the population problems of China].

    PubMed

    Lian, Y

    1983-01-29

    Problems in population, manifested primarily as either "over" or "under" population, are ultimately related to the development of natural resources. Land is the most basic of natural resources. China's land mass is largely mountainous, with 56% of its more than 2000 counties, 1/3 of its population, 40% of its cultivated land and a majority of its forests, situated in mountainous regions. The quality and the distribution of the various kinds of land are complex and uneven. Although China is rich in forests, grazing, and arable land compared to the rest of the world, its 1 billion population makes the land a limited resource. The limitations of the land are also seen in soil erosion, soil that is increasingly turning into sand, and deforestation. Water resources are not considered scarce, yet compared to the rest of the world, it is limited. Its distribution is very uneven, with more water in the east and west, and less in the north and south. In the southwest mountainous border regions, for instance, water is abundant, but the population and arable land there is such that the demand for water is low. Moreover, droughts and heavy precipitation make the annual water supply unpredicatable. The demand for water becomes increasingly greater as agricultural production develops further, the population increases and as the cities continue to expand. living matter as a resource includes all the animal and plant life that is necessary for livelihood, but only forests and grasslands are discussed here. China's forests, if their use is not abused, can serve as a continuous supply for manufactured products. But its distribution is uneven and sparse. Population control will be ineffective if the forests are not replenished and developed. Grasslands are the primary source for animal products. The natural grasslands, found mainly in the north and west, are not as productive as that of other nations due to the nature of China's topography, the vagaries of climate, and deterioration. Energy, the source for fuel, includes such natural resources as coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydraulic, and solar power. China is among the world's richest in energy resources, yet the supply is sometimes insufficient when spread among 1 billion people. PMID:12312933

  15. Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

  16. Longitudinal Examination of Physical and Relational Aggression as Precursors to Later Problem Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Research has addressed the consequences of being a victim of physical and relational aggression, but less so the consequences of being an aggressor during adolescence. Consequently, relatively little is known about the extent to which aggression in early adolescence increases the risk of later aggression and other psychosocial problems. This study involves a representative sample of 7th- and 9th-grade students from Washington State (N = 1,942). Students were surveyed upon recruitment, and then again 1 and 2 years later, to learn about ongoing behavior problems, substance use, depression, and self-harm behaviors. Surveys also included measures of several hypothesized promotive factors: attachment to family, school commitment, and academic achievement. Findings suggest that being physically and/or relationally aggressive in Grades 7–9 increases the risk of aggression and possibly other problem behaviors after accounting for age, gender, race, and a prior measures of each outcome. Independent promotive effects were observed in most analyses, although family attachment appeared a less robust predictor overall. Implications for prevention include reducing aggression and enhancing promotive influences to lessen the risk of ongoing problems. PMID:19297882

  17. Potential problems relative to TDRS/IUS tilt table elevation with failed VRCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J.

    1980-01-01

    Operational concerns and preliminary solution alternatives related to elevating the inertial upper stage/tracking and data relay satellite (IUS/TDRS) with a failed orbiter vernier reaction control system (VRCS) are presented. Problems arise from the combination of TDRS thermal constraints and tilt table constraints (the primary reaction control system (PRCS) cannot be used to hold attitude while the tilt table is being elevated), and the problems are compounded by the minimum PRCS attitude deadband. The potential solution options are affected by the launch window, flight profile, crew procedures, vehicle capability and constraints, and flight rules.

  18. [Foreigner workers in Lombardy. Occupational, relational and cultural problems at work places].

    PubMed

    Dorso, M I; Riva, M; Gallo, E; Messa, A; Cesana, G

    2011-01-01

    Our research included 1359 foreigner citizens actually working in Lombardy. To better evaluate the eventual presence of relational, cultural and work related problems in their daily work experience we used a specific questionnaire, directly filled in by Occupational Doctors during occupational medical surveillance enforced by law, composed by different items concerning occupational and relational single worker's life. We evidenced that foreigner workers' population changed significantly in these last years loosing the characteristics of an homogeneous group. A foreigner workers' complete socio cultural integration in our country and specifically in working environments seems far to be really achieved. PMID:23393827

  19. Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical and Demographic Related Factors in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Sezen; Erermis, Serpil; Ozturk, Onder; Ozbaran, Burcu; Demiral, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Aydin, Cahide

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the Health Related Quality of Life and related clinical variables (HRQoL) of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We included 102 children with ASD (46 with autism, 38 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 18 with Asperger's syndrome (AS)) and 39 typically developing children…

  20. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  1. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  2. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of

  3. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  4. Quality of Work Life: Theoretical and Methodological Problems, and Presentation of a New Model and Measuring Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Ever since the concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) was first used over 30 years ago, a range of definitions and theoretical constructs have succeeded each other with the aim of mitigating the many problems facing the concept. A historical overview of the concept of QWL is presented here. Given the lack of consensus concerning the…

  5. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  6. Analysing the Relationship between the Problem-Solving-Related Beliefs, Competence and Teaching of Three Cypriot Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of…

  7. Analysing the Relationship between the Problem-Solving-Related Beliefs, Competence and Teaching of Three Cypriot Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of

  8. Satellite remote sensing of particulate matter air quality: the cloud-cover problem.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Sundar A; Gupta, Pawan

    2010-05-01

    Satellite assessments of particulate matter (PM) air quality that use solar reflectance methods are dependent on availability of clear sky; in other words, mass concentrations of PM less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) cannot be estimated from satellite observations under cloudy conditions or bright surfaces such as snow/ice. Whereas most ground monitors measure PM2.5 concentrations on an hourly basis regardless of cloud conditions, space-borne sensors can only estimate daytime PM2.5 in cloud-free conditions, therefore introducing a bias. In this study, an estimate of this clear-sky bias is provided from monthly to yearly time scales over the continental United States. One year of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 550-nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from Terra and Aqua satellites, collocated with 371 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground monitors, have been analyzed. The results indicate that the mean differences between PM2.5 reported by ground monitors and PM2.5 calculated from ground monitors during the satellite overpass times during cloud-free conditions are less than +/- 2.5 microg m(-3), although this value varies by season and location. The mean differences are not significant as calculated by t tests (alpha = 0.05). On the basis of this analysis, it is concluded that for the continental United States, cloud cover is not a major problem for inferring monthly to yearly PM2.5 from space-borne sensors. PMID:20480859

  9. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

  10. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526

  11. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  12. Vision-related problems among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Urmi Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: American Optometric Association defines Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) as “complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experienced during or related to computer use.” This happens when visual demand of the tasks exceeds the visual ability of the users. Even though problems were initially attributed to computer-related activities subsequently similar problems are also reported while carrying any near point task. Jewellery manufacturing activities involves precision designs, setting the tiny metals and stones which requires high visual attention and mental concentration and are often near point task. It is therefore expected that the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing may also experience symptoms like CVS. Aim: Keeping the above in mind, this study was taken up (1) To identify the prevalence of symptoms like CVS among the workers of the jewellery manufacturing and compare the same with the workers working at computer workstation and (2) To ascertain whether such symptoms have any permanent vision-related problems. Setting and Design: Case control study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Zaveri Bazaar region and at an IT-enabled organization in Mumbai. The study involved the identification of symptoms of CVS using a questionnaire of Eye Strain Journal, opthalmological check-ups and measurement of Spontaneous Eye Blink rate. The data obtained from the jewellery manufacturing was compared with the data of the subjects engaged in computer work and with the data available in the literature. Statistical Analysis: A comparative inferential statistics was used. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that visual demands of the task carried out in jewellery manufacturing were much higher than that of carried out in computer-related work. PMID:26023269

  13. A comparative study of the course-related family and financial problems of mature nursing students in Scotland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Philip; Lauder, William; Steele, Rebekah; Cleary, Sonja; Bradshaw, Julie

    2004-07-01

    This study reports a comparative survey of mature students undertaking pre-registration undergraduate nursing education in Australia and Scotland. The study aimed to explore comparisons between the course-related and course-related financial difficulties faced by mature students in two very different educational and funding systems. Financial stress is a predictor of both physical and mental health problems. A similar pattern of course-related problems were reported by both Australian and Scottish students with the exception that Scottish students experienced more problems with childcare and caring for elderly relatives. Course-related problems may be inherent in the nature of undergraduate nursing education although the relatively time-intensive nature of Scottish curricula may explain the childcare and elderly relatives difference. Scottish students reported higher overall financial-related problems but Australian students reported more problems with funding placements. These findings have implications for both curriculum designers and policy makers. PMID:15245860

  14. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans. PMID:12321722

  15. Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

  16. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  17. Changes in Body Weight and Health-Related Quality of Life: 2 Cohorts of US Women

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; Kawachi, Ichiro; Luo, Nan; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that body weight is a determinant of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, few studies have examined long-term weight change with changes in HRQoL. We followed 52,682 women aged 4671 years in the Nurses' Health Study (in 19922000) and 52,587 women aged 2946 years in the Nurses Health Study II (in 19932001). Body weight was self-reported, HRQoL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and both were updated every 4 years. The relationship between changes in weight and HRQoL scores was evaluated at 4-year intervals by using a generalized linear regression model with multivariate adjustment for baseline age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and changes in comorbidities and lifestyle factors. Weight gain of 15 lbs (1 lb = 0.45 kg) or more over a 4-year period was associated with 2.05-point lower (95% confidence interval: 2.14, 1.95) physical component scores, whereas weight loss of 15 lbs or more was associated with 0.89-point higher (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.03) physical component scores. Inverse associations were also found between weight change and physical function, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, general health, and vitality. However, the relations of weight change with mental component scores, social functioning, mental health, and role limitations due to emotional problems were small. PMID:24966215

  18. Cancer Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Kouta, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common and debilitating symptom that can influence quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients. The increase in survival times stresses for a better understanding of how CRF affects patients' QoL. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with 148 randomly recruited prostate cancer patients aiming to explore CRF and its impact on QoL. Assessments included the Cancer Fatigue Scale, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-PR25. Additionally, 15 in-depth structured interviews were performed. Quantitative data were analyzed with simple and multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed with the use of thematic content analysis. The 66.9% of the patients experienced CRF with higher levels being recorded for the affective subscale. Statistically significant differences were found between the patients reporting CRF and lower levels of QoL (mean = 49.1) and those that did not report fatigue and had higher levels of QoL (mean = 72.1). The interviews emphasized CRF's profound impact on the patients' lives that was reflected on the following themes: “dependency on others,” “loss of power over decision making,” and “daily living disruption.” Cancer related fatigue is a significant problem for patients with advanced prostate cancer and one that affects their QoL in various ways. PMID:26981530

  19. Disordered Eating and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Crystal S.; Clifford, Lisa M.; Janicke, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine disordered eating and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural overweight/obese (OW/OB) children. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with 272 rural OW/OB children aged 8–12 years (M = 10.36; SD = 1.39). Child anthropometrics, demographics, disordered eating attitudes, unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs), and HRQOL were measured. Relationships between these variables were analyzed using bootstrapped multiple linear regressions. Results Clinically significant disordered eating attitudes were endorsed by 17% of the sample, and the majority endorsed UWCBs. Disordered eating attitudes and weight status were the most common predictors of HRQOL. Disordered eating attitudes and UWCBs were negatively related to emotional HRQOL but were unrelated to social, school, or physical HRQOL. Conclusions Disordered eating is a serious and relevant problem in OW/OB children living in rural areas and may be indicative of impairments in emotional functioning. Early intervention may reduce the risk for eating disorders and associated negative sequelae. PMID:24676798

  20. Assessing and referring adolescents' health-related social problems: qualitative evaluation of a novel web-based approach.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Sarah A; Hassan, Areej; Krull, Emily G; Pikcilingis, Aaron B; Corliss, Heather L; Woods, Elizabeth R; Fleegler, Eric W

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to examine users' perceptions of a web-based screening and referral system for young adults with health-related social problems. The first 50 patients who used the system also took part in semi-structured interviews. There were 20 patients aged 15-17 years and 30 aged 18-25 years. Completing the web-based screening process took an average of 25 min. Ninety percent of participants reported at least one major health-related social problem and a total of 134 referrals were selected for further assistance. Ninety-six percent of participants said they would recommend the system to a friend or peer, and 80% supported its use for annual screening. Perceived strengths of the system were novelty, privacy, ease of use, relevance, motivation, variety and proximity of referrals, and clinic staff support. Perceived shortcomings were length, sensitivity, navigation challenges and agency availability. The system complemented provider visits and preserved privacy while improving attention to patient needs. Computerized screening and referral tools have potential to improve the quality of care in vulnerable young adults. PMID:23045724

  1. Differentiating between sensation seeking and impulsivity through their mediated relations with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Magid, Viktoriya; MacLean, Michael G.; Colder, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Disinhibition is a strong correlate of alcohol use, yet limited alcohol research has examined the facets of this personality construct. Recent work suggests that sensation seeking and impulsivity show differential relations with alcohol outcomes, indicating unique mechanisms of risks associated with each of these dimensions of disinhibition. The goal of the study was to examine sensation seeking and impulsivity as unique predictors of alcohol use and problems, and to test a broad range of drinking motives as potential mediators of these relations. Self-reported data from college students (N=310) were utilized for the study. Results suggested that sensation seeking and impulsivity were associated with alcohol use and problems through different mediational pathways. There was some evidence for gender moderating these pathways. The findings indicate that alcohol prevention and intervention programs should be tailored to specifically target individuals elevated on impulsivity versus sensation seeking. PMID:17331658

  2. Application of the method of integral relations to unsteady fluid flow problems with shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadia, A. R.; Payne, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    A mixed method using both the method of integral relations and the finite difference technique is developed for the solution of unsteady flow problems. The integral relations method is based upon a chosen interpolating function dependent only on the time domain. The resulting local semidiscrete finite element equations obtained are assembled into a global form. The spatial derivatives at the nodes are replaced by finite difference operators and the discretized nonlinear algebraic system is solved by an iterative scheme. Solutions are obtained for the one-dimensional gasdynamics equation, the one-dimensional wave equation and Burger's model of turbulence. Agreement with other numerical and analytical solutions is excellent for the gasdynamics problem and satisfactory for the Burger equation in cases of small viscous effects.

  3. Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

  4. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  5. Classification and stability of relative equilibria for the two-body problem in the hyperbolic space of dimension 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Marrero, Juan C.; Pérez-Chavela, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Olmos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    We classify and analyze the stability of all relative equilibria for the two-body problem in the hyperbolic space of dimension 2 and we formulate our results in terms of the intrinsic Riemannian data of the problem.

  6. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p < .001) or their parents (p < .001), although disagreement (intra-class coefficient = -.075) between children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. PMID:24212259

  7. Health-related quality of life and quality of care in specialized medicare-managed care plans.

    PubMed

    Grace, Susan C; Elliott, Marc N; Giordano, Laura A; Burroughs, James N; Malinoff, Rochelle L

    2013-01-01

    Special needs plans (SNPs) were created under the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 to focus on Medicare beneficiaries who required more coordination of care than most beneficiaries served through the Medicare Advantage program. This research indicates that beneficiaries in 3 types of SNPs show evidence of worse health-related quality of life. Special needs plans demonstrated worse plan performance on the HEDIS osteoporosis testing in older women measure compared with non-SNP Medicare Advantage beneficiaries, but better plan performance on the HEDIS fall risk management measure. Future research should consider broader measures of plan performance, quality of care, and cost. PMID:23222014

  8. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Before and After Military Combat Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Isabel G.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Tyler C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Wells, Timothy S.; Bell, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    Context High rates of alcohol misuse after deployment have been reported among personnel returning from past conflicts, yet investigations of alcohol misuse after return from the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are lacking. Objectives To determine whether deployment with combat exposures was associated with new-onset or continued alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. Design, Setting, and Participants Data were from Millennium Cohort Study participants who completed both a baseline (July 2001 to June 2003; n=77 047) and follow-up (June 2004 to February 2006; n=55 021) questionnaire (follow-up response rate=71.4%). After we applied exclusion criteria, our analyses included 48 481 participants (active duty, n=26 613; Reserve or National Guard, n=21 868). Of these, 5510 deployed with combat exposures, 5661 deployed without combat exposures, and 37 310 did not deploy. Main Outcome Measures New-onset and continued heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems at follow-up. Results Baseline prevalence of heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems among Reserve or National Guard personnel who deployed with combat exposures was 9.0%, 53.6%, and 15.2%, respectively; follow-up prevalence was 12.5%, 53.0%, and 11.9%, respectively; and new-onset rates were 8.8%, 25.6%, and 7.1%, respectively. Among active-duty personnel, new-onset rates were 6.0%, 26.6%, and 4.8%, respectively. Reserve and National Guard personnel who deployed and reported combat exposures were significantly more likely to experience new-onset heavy weekly drinking (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–1.96), binge drinking (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24–1.71), and alcohol-related problems (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.33–2.01) compared with nondeployed personnel. The youngest members of the cohort were at highest risk for all alcohol-related outcomes. Conclusion Reserve and National Guard personnel and younger service members who deploy with reported combat exposures are at increased risk of new-onset heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. PMID:18698065

  9. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L

    2005-01-01

    While a substantial amount is known about some of the risk factors for alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men, major gaps in knowledge exist. Epidemiological studies focusing on alcohol use rarely ask about sexual orientation, and broad-based studies of sexual minority population groups have only occasionally assessed alcohol use. Although the AIDS crisis has stimulated substantial research on alcohol and other substance use among gay men, only a handful of studies have systematically explored lesbians' use of alcohol. Further, existing research on sexual orientation and alcohol use is characterized by a plethora of methodological problems. Nevertheless, when viewed as a whole, this research suggests that lesbians and gay men are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to drink alcohol and to report alcohol-related problems; differences based on sexual orientation are more pronounced for women than for men. Risks related to alcohol use do not stem from sexual orientation per se, but are more likely a consequence of cultural and environmental factors associated with being part of a stigmatized and marginalized population. Much of the research on alcohol use among sexual minorities has focused on White, middle-class, and well-educated lesbians and gay men. There is a clear need for more research with bisexual women and men and with sexual minority members of color. Longitudinal studies, including those that focus on treatment effectiveness, are particularly lacking. PMID:16353369

  10. End-State Relative Equilibria in the Sphere-Restricted Full Three-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Travis; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    The Sphere-Restricted Full Three-Body Problem studies the motion of three finite density spheres as they interact under surface and gravitational forces. When accounting for the dissipation of energy, full-body systems may achieve minimum energy states that are unatainable in the classic treatment of the N-Body Problem. This serves as a simple model for the mechanics of rubble pile asteroids, interacting grains in a protoplanetary disk, and potentially the interactions of planetary ring particles. Previous studies of this problem have been performed in the case where the three spheres are of equal size and mass, with all possible relative equilibria and their stability having been identified as a function of the total angular momentum of the system. These studies uncovered that at certain levels of angular momentum there exists more than one stable relative equilibrium state. Thus a question of interest is which of these states a dissipative system would preferentially settle in provided some domain of initial conditions, and whether this would be a function of the dissipation parameters. Using perfectly-rigid dynamics, three-equal-sphere systems are simulated in a purpose-written C-based code to uncover these details. Results from this study are relevant to the mechanics and dynamics in small solar system bodies where relative forces are not great enough to compromise the rigidity of the constituents.

  11. Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Sixma, Herman J.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Eijk, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems. PMID:15042232

  12. Recurrence relation for the 6j-symbol of suq(2) as a symmetric eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor

    2015-08-01

    A well-known recurrence relation for the 6j-symbol of the quantum group suq(2) is realized as a tridiagonal, symmetric eigenvalue problem. This formulation can be used to implement an efficient numerical evaluation algorithm, taking advantage of existing specialized numerical packages. For convenience, all formulas relevant for such an implementation are collected in Appendix A. This realization is a byproduct of an alternative proof of the recurrence relation, which generalizes a classical (q = 1) result of Schulten and Gordon and uses the diagrammatic spin network formalism of Temperley-Lieb recoupling theory to simplify intermediate calculations.

  13. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to

  14. Rural-Urban Analyses of Health-Related Quality of Life among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert J.; Zhu, Li; Schiffer, Randolph; Radin, Dagmar; James, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional construct including aspects of life quality or function that are affected by physical health and symptoms, psychosocial factors, and psychiatric conditions. HRQOL gives a broader measure of the burden of disease than physical impairment or disability levels. Purpose: To…

  15. A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

  16. How Logical Reasoning Mediates the Relation between Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of…

  17. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  18. Quality of Parental Homework Involvement: Predictors and Reciprocal Relations with Academic Functioning in the Reading Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both

  19. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  20. Web-Based Student Evaluations of Professors: The Relations between Perceived Quality, Easiness and Sexiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, James; Mitchell, John; Stinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    College students critique their professors' teaching at RateMyProfessors.com, a web page where students anonymously rate their professors on Quality, Easiness, and Sexiness. Using the self-selected data from this public forum, we examine the relations between quality, easiness, and sexiness for 3190 professors at 25 universities. For faculty with

  1. Quality of Parental Homework Involvement: Predictors and Reciprocal Relations with Academic Functioning in the Reading Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both…

  2. Web-Based Student Evaluations of Professors: The Relations between Perceived Quality, Easiness and Sexiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, James; Mitchell, John; Stinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    College students critique their professors' teaching at RateMyProfessors.com, a web page where students anonymously rate their professors on Quality, Easiness, and Sexiness. Using the self-selected data from this public forum, we examine the relations between quality, easiness, and sexiness for 3190 professors at 25 universities. For faculty with…

  3. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with

  4. Capture-recapture methods to size alcohol related problems in a population

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, G.; Bagnardi, V.; Vittadini, G.; Favilli, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVETo investigate the utility of capture-recapture methods to estimate prevalence of subjects with alcohol related disorders using multiple incomplete lists.?DESIGNThis was a cross sectional study of alcohol related disorders in a large community.?SETTINGDuring 1997identified cases with known alcohol related disorders were independently flagged by four sources (self help volunteering groups; psychiatric ambulatory; public alcohology service; hospital discharges).?PATIENTS381 records were flagged, corresponding to 349individual cases from a target population resident in a northern Italy area.?MAIN RESULTSThe two sample capture-recapture estimates were clearly biased because of dependencies among sources. Estimates based on log-linear models showed prevalent counts ranged from 2297(95% confidence intervals: 1524,3794) to 2523(95% confidence intervals: 1623,4627) after adjustment for dependence among sources only or also for heterogeneity in catchability among age categories (<50and ?50years), respectively.?CONCLUSIONSThe study suggests that capture-recapture is an appropriate approach for estimating prevalence of subjects with alcohol related problems who seek or need treatment and assistance when different lists of alcoholics can be obtained from different types of agencies involved with problematic use of alcohol. Critical factors are the complexity in case definition and the analysis of heterogeneity among people. Accurate estimates are needed to plan and evaluate public health interventions.???Keywords: alcohol related problems; capture-recapture; log-linear models PMID:10890872

  5. Polymorphisms in epigenetic and meat quality related genes in fourteen cattle breeds and association with beef quality and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  6. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  7. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    PubMed Central

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior problems); the Strange Situation (child attachment). Direct relations were significant linking: 1) maternal depression with both EE and child functioning; 2) Child-Criticism with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms; 3) Self-Criticism with child attachment. Significant indirect relations were found linking maternal depression with: 1) child externalizing behaviors via Child-Criticism; 2) child internalizing behaviors via Self- and Child-Criticism; and 3) child attachment via Self-Criticism. Findings are consistent with a conceptual model in which maternal EE mediates relations between maternal depression and toddler socio-emotional functioning. PMID:22146899

  8. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

  9. An Analysis of Teacher Quality, Evaluation, Professional Development and Tenure as It Relates to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Jim; Sparks, Tara J.; Taylor-Johnson, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Educational leaders nationwide have been challenged by ineffective tenured teachers who continue to impact student learning. In the era of No Child Left Behind, educational leaders struggle to ensure that students receive high quality education. This problem-based research project attempted to support state, district and building educational…

  10. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a

  11. The Asymmetrical Quality of Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Common versus Rare Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Morse, Laura; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    The Internet provides a new means of obtaining psychological health care, but Internet site quality varies widely. To help in the search for reliable information in cyberspace, a ratings scale, which assesses six dimensions of site quality (accuracy, practicality, normalization, sense of belonging, referral, and feedback mechanisms) is offered

  12. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  13. Representational and questionnaire measures of attachment: A meta-analysis of relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Brumariu, Laura E; Villani, Vanessa; Atkinson, Leslie; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2016-04-01

    Although the quality of the attachment relationship is often cited as an important determinant of development, the extent of impact of this environmental influence in shaping behavioral outcomes has been a matter of considerable debate. This may, in part, be because of the variability in methodologies used for assessing attachment across infancy, childhood, and adolescence, including behavioral, representational, and questionnaire measures of attachment. Previous meta-analyses of the relations between attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems have focused on the behavioral measures of attachment used primarily in infancy. The current meta-analysis is a comprehensive examination of the literature on attachment and behavioral problems in children aged 3-18 years, focusing on the representational and questionnaire measures most commonly used in this age range. When secure attachment was compared with insecure attachment, modest associations with internalizing behavior (165 studies; 48,224 families; d = .58; 95% confidence interval [CI] [.52-.64]) were found. Multivariate moderator analyses were used to disentangle the unique influence of each significant univariate moderator more precisely, and results revealed that effect sizes decreased as the child aged, and were larger in studies in which the participants were ethnically White, where the child was the problem informant, and when the internalizing measure was depressive symptoms. Attachment and externalizing behavior were also associated (116 studies; 24,689 families; d = .49; 95% CI [42-.56]), and effect sizes were larger in ethnically White samples, and in those where the child was the problem informant. Avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized attachment classifications were associated with internalizing behavior, but only disorganized attachment was associated with externalizing behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619212

  14. Motivational pathways from reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity to gambling frequency and gambling-related problems.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Quilty, Lena C; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to have an important role in gambling behavior, consistent with the literature on motives for substance use. While studies have demonstrated that traits related to sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) are predictive of substance use motives, little research has examined the role of these traits in gambling motives. This study investigated motivational pathways from SR and SP to gambling frequency and gambling problems via specific gambling motives, while also taking into account history of substance use disorder (SUD). A community sample of gamblers (N = 248) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SR, SP, gambling frequency, gambling-related problems, and motives for gambling (social, negative affect, and enhancement/winning motives). Lifetime SUD was also assessed with a structured clinical interview. The results of a path analysis showed that SR was uniquely associated with all 3 types of gambling motives, whereas SP and SUD were associated with negative affect and enhancement/winning motives but not social motives. Also, both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives were associated with gambling problems, but only enhancement/winning motives were significantly related to gambling frequency. Analyses of indirect associations revealed significant indirect associations from SR, SP, and SUD to gambling frequency mediated through enhancement/winning motives and to gambling problems mediated through both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives. The findings highlight the importance of SR and SP as independent predictors of gambling motives and suggest that specific motivational pathways underlie their associations with gambling outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25915690

  15. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  16. The Intervening Role of Relational Aggression between Psychological Control and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…

  17. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ≥30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ≥20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  19. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention. PMID:27132120

  20. Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148