Science.gov

Sample records for quality problems related

  1. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  2. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  3. Power quality problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atputharajah, A.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.; Pasupuleti, J.

    2013-06-01

    This paper addresses the power quality problems and solutions related to (i) wind power generation and (ii) large industrial customers. Intermittent nature of wind power affects the quality of its electrical power output. The usage of low cost energy saving equipments also generates harmonics and voltage flicker thus affects the quality of supply voltage. A wide rang of solutions are being already proposed with the development on power electronic devices and electrical machines. This paper is organized to discuss the (i) power quality problems in brief, (ii) four major developments in wind generator technologies and (iii) solutions to large industrial customers using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Active Power Filter (APF) and Static Compensator (STATCOM). Finally development in power electronic devices' control is briefed in each of the devices, which has utilizes these power electronic devices with integrated solutions to solve number of power quality problems.

  4. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  5. Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Doyle, Kathryn W

    2002-08-01

    This study examines whether fear of abandonment mediates the prospective relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and adjustment problems of children of divorce. Participants were 216 children, ages 8-12, and their primary residential mothers. Children reported on divorce stressors and fear of abandonment; mothers and children reported on mother-child relationship quality and internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation models indicated that Time 1 fear of abandonment mediated the relation between Time 1 divorce stressors and Time 2 internalizing and externalizing problems. Time 1 fear of abandonment also mediated the relation between Time 1 mother-child relationship quality and Time 2 internalizing and externalizing problems. Implications of these results for understanding variability in children's postdivorce adjustment problems and interventions for divorced families are discussed. PMID:12108768

  6. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  7. [Quality and quality assurance, a European problem].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H

    1994-01-01

    The problem of quality and quality assurance for the free exchange of blood and blood products in Europe is discussed. The background of all discussion of quality is the categorical theory of Aristoteles. The philosophical basis is described. The fundamental law of the daily work of a blood center has to be a philosophy of quality which depends on the sociodemographic situation in the region. This basic varies from country to country in Europe. The importance of the supranational bodies in Europe is mentioned. The weightness of the Code of Ethics is discussed. Virus safety, purity and validity of blood and blood products are described as parameters of the quality aspects. Finally it is confirmed that a well running blood program is a multicategorical problem. PMID:9480130

  8. Production quality control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Thomas A.

    1991-02-01

    The food industry offers many automated inspection challenges that are not readily solved using commercial industrial vision systems. A discussion of these challenges includes a package inspection involving a variable " good" package color analysis of a baked product high speed verification of a coating process and a high speed printed web inspection. Solutions for these problems are solicited.

  9. Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving: The Quality of Evidence for Strategy Instruction Priming the Problem Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…

  10. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines of clinical governance that ensure adherence to evidence-based guidelines and attention should be paid to service users' physical health through regular screening. PMID:19735562

  11. "They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic emplotment that incorporates patients and parents' contributions in recognizing SPs and related sequelae in designing appropriate treatment and care. PMID:23305724

  12. Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154485.html Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's Brain scans revealed changes in white and gray ... Sept. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many people with Parkinson's disease have memory problems, researchers report. The study ...

  13. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  14. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  15. Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Denise D.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

  16. Scientific Symposium “Small Solution for Big Water-Related Problems: Innovative Microarrays and Small Sensors to Cope with Water Quality and Food Security”

    PubMed Central

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Spurio, Roberto; Cimarelli, Lucia; Tito, Duarte; Mancini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents the conclusive results of two European Commission funded Projects, namely Universal Microarrays for the Evaluation of Fresh-water Quality Based on Detection of Pathogens and their Toxins (MicroAQUA) and Rationally Designed Aquatic Receptors (RADAR). These projects focused their activities on the quality of drinking water as an extremely important factor for public health of humans and animals. The MicroAQUA Project aimed at developing a universal microarray chip for the detection of various pathogens (cyanobacteria, bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa) and their toxins in waters. In addition, the project included the detection of select species of diatoms, which represent reliable bio-indicators to assess overall water quality. Large numbers of compounds are released into the environment; some of these are toxins such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and can affect the endocrine, immune and nervous systems of a wide range of animals causing alterations such as reproductive disorders and cancer. Detection of these contaminants in water systems is important to protect sensitive environmental sites and reduce the risk of toxins entering the food chain. A modular platform for monitoring toxins in water and food production facilities, using biosensors derived from aquatic organisms, was the main goal of RADAR Project.

  17. An Investigation Into HPLC Data Quality Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; VanHeukelem, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the analyses and results produced by a five-member investigative team of Government, university, and industry experts, established by NASA HQ. The team examined data quality problems associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of pigment concentrations in seawater samples produced by the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS). This report shows CHORS did not validate the methods used before placing them into service to analyze field samples for NASA principal investigators (PIs), even though the HPLC literature contained easily accessible method validation procedures, and the importance of implementing them, more than a decade ago. In addition, there were so many sources of significant variance in the CHORS methodologies, that the HPLC system rarely operated within performance criteria capable of producing the requisite data quality. It is the recommendation of the investigative team to a) not correct the data, b) make all the data that was temporarily sequestered available for scientific use, and c) label the affected data with an appropriate warning, e.g., "These data are not validated and should not be used as the sole basis for a scientific result, conclusion, or hypothesis--independent corroborating evidence is required."

  18. Quality assurance strategies for investigating IAQ problems

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, C.W.; Ross, J.A.; Sterling, E.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Thousands of buildings have now been investigated throughout North America and western Europe. The evaluative strategies and protocols used by various investigators have been described in the scientific and protocols used by various investigators have been described in the scientific and technical literature, including those used by government agencies, private consultants, researchers, and physicians. Review of these strategies shows a consistency and commonly in approach, despite differences in terminology and organization. Most of the published protocols recognize the need to employ a multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation of indoor environmental problems, an approach that views buildings as complex, dynamic systems. The multidisciplinary approaches advocated by investigators gather information about the physical building (architectural), the mechanical systems that control indoor environmental conditions (engineering), the type and extent of occupant health and comfort concerns (medical), the objective quality of the air (industrial hygiene) and the occupants subjective perceptions of conditions in their work environment (social science). These components have generally been organized into a series of steps or phases, with each phase extending the information gathered from the preceding phase until a point when the causes of problems may be identified.

  19. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  20. [Alcohol-related problems in primary care].

    PubMed

    Ban, Nobutaro

    2015-09-01

    The approach to treating alcohol-related problems in primary care settings needs: 1) to recognize the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care settings; 2) to know the way of screening; 3) to know how to help patients; and 4) to know enough about treating alcoholism to appropriately refer patients for additional help. This article looks research evidence about the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care and recognition of incidence and way of screening of alcohol-related problems by primary care physicians in Japan. Then this article describes evidence-based as well as author's experience-based approach to treat the alcohol-related health problems in primary care settings. In line with the newly introduced law to prevent the alcohol-related health problems and the anticipating introduction of new specialty of general medicine, early intervention to alcohol-related problems in primary care settings will be much appreciated. To do so, enough amounts of education and research are needed. PMID:26394515

  1. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  2. Teaching about Race Relations: Problems and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenhouse, Lawrence; And Others

    This is a report on the work of two linked research projects into teaching about race relations that were mounted at the Centre for Applied Research in Education (CARE) of the University of East Anglia, England, between 1972 and 1975. The projects sought to throw light on the problems and effects of teaching adolescents about race relations by…

  3. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

  4. Impact of Pharmaceutical Care interventions in the identification and resolution of drug-related problems and on quality of life in a group of elderly outpatients in Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira; Kheir, Nadir; Abriata, Juliana Palma; da Rocha, Chiara Ermínia; dos Santos, Cláudia Benedita; Pelá, Irene Rosemir

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a Pharmaceutical Care service in the identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs) and in quality of life (QoL) of a group of elderly outpatients with chronic health conditions. Methods 30 outpatients (aged 60–75-years old) were followed between August 2003 and July 2004 at a primary health care unit in Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil. Patients were scheduled monthly to meet with the researcher, who provided Pharmaceutical Care service (the intervention). Through Pharmaceutical Care, the pharmacist worked with the patient and other care providers to improve outcomes of drug therapy through focused education, care planning, and monitoring. Intervention outcomes were the number of DRPs prevented or resolved, and the impact on QoL. The Short Form-36 health survey was used to measure changes in QoL. Results The mean age of patients was 66 ± 5 years, 21 of whom had low literacy. During the study, 92 DRP were identified, 3.0 ± 1.5 problems per patient. By the end of the study, the interventions solved 69% of actual DRP and prevented 78.5% potential DRP. In addition, QoL showed improvement in 22 patients after DRP resolution or prevention. Conclusion Despite the limitations in this study that may affect generalizability of the results, this study demonstrates that humanistic and behavioral interventions based on the Pharmaceutical Care model were capable in reducing DRPs, and improve QoL in patients. PMID:18516258

  5. PAS365/PAS6022 Industrial Statistical Modelling Quality Control Problems

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Jonathan

    PAS365/PAS6022 Industrial Statistical Modelling Quality Control Problems 1. A chemical company it is rejected. Suppose the manufacturer regards batches with proportion of defectives 0.01 as of good quality and batches with proportion of defectives 0.06 as of poor quality. If the manufacturer requires no more than

  6. The rocket problem in general relativity

    E-print Network

    Henriques, Pedro G

    2011-01-01

    We derive the covariant optimality conditions for rocket trajectories in general relativity, with and without a bound on the magnitude of the proper acceleration. The resulting theory is then applied to solve two specific problems: the minimum fuel consumption transfer between two galaxies in a FLRW model, and between two stable circular orbits in the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  7. The rocket problem in general relativity

    E-print Network

    Pedro G. Henriques; Jose Natario

    2012-04-17

    We derive the covariant optimality conditions for rocket trajectories in general relativity, with and without a bound on the magnitude of the proper acceleration. The resulting theory is then applied to solve two specific problems: the minimum fuel consumption transfer between two galaxies in a FLRW model, and between two stable circular orbits in the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  8. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

  9. TECHNICAL REPORTS Although water quality problems associated with agricultural

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1798 Although water quality problems associated with agricultural nonpoint source in reducing NPS pollution. This study used the Variable Source Loading Function (VSLF) model, a distributed University Agricultural activity clearly contributes nonpoint source (NPS) contaminants to streams, lakes

  10. Graduate Lectures and Problems in Quality Control and Engineering Statistics

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    Graduate Lectures and Problems in Quality Control and Engineering Statistics: Theory and Methods To Accompany Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers by Vardeman and Jobe Stephen B. Vardeman V2;Chapter 3 An Introduction to Discrete Stochastic Control Theory/Minimum Variance Control Section 3.6 of V

  11. Instructional Qualities of a Successful Mathematical Problem-Solving Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Describes activities that have been successfully implemented by an expert during a mathematical problem-solving course. Focuses on the identification of the qualities of these problems used to promote the development of student strategies and values that reflect mathematical practice in the classroom. Contains 17 references. (ASK)

  12. Quality of sleep and health-related quality of life in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xia; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wallace, Linda; Teng, Sha; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Hao, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients after renal transplantation and to explore the relationship between the quality of sleep and the HRQOL. Background: Sleep disorders are still an important clinical problem after renal transplantation. Previous studies mainly focused on patients’ sleep quality before kidney transplant. More studies are needed to document sleep quality after renal transplantation. Design: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods: A convenience sample of renal transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure quality of sleep. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (MOS SF-36) was used to measure health-related quality of life. Results: The average PSQI score of the 204 renal transplant recipients was 5.81±3.52, significantly lower than the norm. Fifty (24.5%) recipients were classified as having poor sleep quality (global PSQI > 7). The mean scores of renal transplant recipients for SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) were 47.57±6.71 and 48.26±9.66 respectively. Compared with residents in Sichuan province, recipients’ scores for SF-36 dimensions were statistically lower except the dimension of mental health. SF-36 scores of poor sleepers (PSQI > 7) were significantly lower than the good sleepers (PSQI ? 7) in both the MCS and PCS. Significant differences exist between the groups in physical function, bodily pain, vitality, and mental health dimensions. Conclusions: Sleep quality and HRQOL of patients after renal transplantation were lower than the norm. Poor sleep is associated with lower HRQOL. Relevance to clinical practice: Health professionals need to pay attention to sleep quality and HRQOL in renal transplant recipients and take appropriate measures to improve patients’ sleep quality and HRQOL. PMID:26629133

  13. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

    2011-10-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies Emacro much larger than MP. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order Emacro/N·MP.

  14. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E{sub macro} much larger than M{sub P}. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E{sub macro}/N{center_dot}M{sub P}.

  15. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    E-print Network

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Laurent Freidel; Jerzy Kowalski-Glikman; Lee Smolin

    2011-04-11

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality, which is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. These lead to the addition of non-linear terms to the energy-momentum relations and conservation laws, which are suppressed by powers of ratio between the energy E of the particles involved and the Planck mass M_P. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets and stars, with energies E_{macro} much larger than M_P. We show that this "soccer-ball problem" does not arise within the framework of relative locality, because the non-linear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E_{macro}/ N M_{P}.

  16. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    E-print Network

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

    2011-01-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality, which is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. These lead to the addition of non-linear terms to the energy-momentum relations and conservation laws, which are suppressed by powers of ratio between the energy E of the particles involved and the Planck mass M_P. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets and stars, with energies E_{macro} much larger than M_P. We show that this "soccer-ball problem" does not arise within the framework of relative locality, because the non-linear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E_{macro}/ N M_...

  17. On Problems Related to Primes: Some Ideas

    E-print Network

    Dhananjay P. Mehendale

    2015-11-23

    We present some new ideas on important problems related to primes. The topics of our discussion are: simple formulae for primes, twin primes, Sophie Germain primes, prime tuples less than or equal to a predefined number, and their infinitude; establishment of a kind of similarity between natural numbers and numbers that appear in an arithmetic progression, similar formulae for primes and the so called generalized twin primes in an arithmetic progression and their infinitude; generalization of Bertrand postulate and a Bertrand like postulate for twin primes; some elementary implications of a simple primality test, the use of Chinese remainder theorem in a possible proof of the Goldbach conjecture; Schinzel Sierpinski conjecture; and the Mersenne primes and composites, Fermat primes and their infinitude. Lastly we define other twin primes and provide a simple argument in support of their infinitude.

  18. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  19. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  20. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  1. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  2. [Doping-related problems in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Villiger, B; Monnat, A

    2001-04-01

    The complexity of the new antidoping regulations of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Federations (IF) and the National Olympic Committees (NOC) rises a lot of problems in handling the prescriptions of medication in athletes in the daily practice. In addition, several countries have passed antidoping laws which makes the prescription and the delivery of doping agens illegal. This may have severe consequences for the prescribing doctors. It is therefore the goal of the article to inform the practitioning doctors about the new antidoping regulations and their impact on prescribing or delivering potential doping agens to athletes. It will focus on the new dopinglists, the different doping control systems, the problems with the pharmacological treatment of certain diseases as asthma and the necessary reports which have to be sent to the NOC's or the IF's after prescribing certain medications or methods. PMID:11344955

  3. ICTs and Employment: The Problem of Job Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubery, Jill; Grimshaw, Damian

    2001-01-01

    The impact of information and communications technologies on jobs is not yet known and no outcome is inevitable. Technology-driven changes in organizational structures, employment relations, worker autonomy, and work organization will not automatically result in higher job quality. (Contains 92 references.) (SK)

  4. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  5. Misdiagnosing the Teacher Quality Problem. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs summarizes the findings on issues related to teacher quality in the chapter by the author in the book, "The State of Education Policy Research" (Cohen, Fuhrman, Mosher, Eds., 2007). This report also draws on discussions that took place during a summer, 2006, policy briefing on teacher labor-market issues held in…

  6. The Gum nebula and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.; Brandt, J. C.; Stecher, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Papers were presented in conference sessions on the Gum nebula, the Vela X remnant, the hot stars gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis, the B associations in the Vela-Puppis complex, and pulsars. Ground-based optical and radio astronomy; rocket and satellite observations in the radio, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray regions; and theoretical problems in the physical state of the interstellar medium, stellar evolution, and runaway star dynamics were considered.

  7. Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).

    PubMed

    E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

    1998-06-01

    Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information. PMID:23605062

  8. Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

    2014-02-01

    In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (? = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (? = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life. PMID:24431407

  9. Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

    This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

  10. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  11. Anomalous head posture related to visual problems.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Paolo; Curiel, Batya; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    The cause of the anomalous head posture (AHP) has been mainly assigned to ocular, orthopedic, and neurologic causes. The AHP can take the form of head tilt, face turn, chin up, chin down, or combined, depending on the specific etiology. However, there are many variations, and the type of the head posture cannot reliably predict the underlying cause. Ocular AHP is usually an attempt to improve visual acuity or binocularity. Since the etiology is not always obvious, we stress that these patients must be carefully evaluated by ophthalmologists. Our effort here is to offer the neurologist a thorough insight in the specific head posture pattern primarily related to visual disorders. PMID:24719022

  12. Calculus students' ability to solve geometric related-rates problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tami

    2000-09-01

    This study assessed the ability of university students enrolled in an introductory calculus course to solve related-rates problems set in geometric contexts. Students completed a problem-solving test and a test of performance on the individual steps involved in solving such problems. Each step was characterised as primarily relying on procedural knowledge or conceptual understanding. Results indicated that overall performance on the geometric related-rates problems was poor. The poorest performance was on steps linked to conceptual understanding, specifically steps involving the translation of prose to geometric and symbolic representations. Overall performance was most strongly related to performance on the procedural steps.

  13. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  14. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    PubMed

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  15. Relational Knowledge and Successful Problem Solving in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnappan, Mohan

    2004-01-01

    The quality of knowledge underlying students' algebraic thinking is a major concern of K-12 mathematics teaching and reform-driven curriculum documents. In this paper the author examines this issue by characterizing a group of high school students' algebraic knowledge and patterns of use of that knowledge during the solution of selected problems.…

  16. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  17. Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

  18. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Ji?í; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  19. Optimization Problems Related to Zigzag Pocket Machining \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Arkin, Estie

    Optimization Problems Related to Zigzag Pocket Machining \\Lambda Esther M. Arkin (1) y Martin Held (2) z Christopher L. Smith (1) x (1) Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics State A fundamental problem of manufacturing is to produce mechanical parts from billets by clearing areas within

  20. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

  1. PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS FRANCOIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE

    E-print Network

    Alouges, François

    PLASTIC TORSION AND RELATED PROBLEMS FRANC¸OIS ALOUGES AND ANTONIO DESIMONE Abstract. A simple buckling of thin film blisters are also discussed. 1. Introduction A classical problem in Plasticity (more of Matlab code provided herein will entice many to experiment with plastic torsional loads, isotropic thin

  2. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. A COMPENDIUM OF SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual primarily provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the prevention and control of analytical procedures which arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. The sections dealing with inter- and intra-laboratory quality control, the evaluati...

  3. Quality analysis of the solution produced by dissection algorithms applied to the traveling salesman problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cesari, G.

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to analyze experimentally the quality of the solution obtained with dissection algorithms applied to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem. Starting from Karp`s results. We apply a divide and conquer strategy, first dividing the plane into subregions where we calculate optimal subtours and then merging these subtours to obtain the final tour. The analysis is restricted to problem instances where points are uniformly distributed in the unit square. For relatively small sets of cities we analyze the quality of the solution by calculating the length of the optimal tour and by comparing it with our approximate solution. When the problem instance is too large we perform an asymptotical analysis estimating the length of the optimal tour. We apply the same dissection strategy also to classical heuristics by calculating approximate subtours and by comparing the results with the average quality of the heuristic. Our main result is the estimate of the rate of convergence of the approximate solution to the optimal solution as a function of the number of dissection steps, of the criterion used for the plane division and of the quality of the subtours. We have implemented our programs on MUSIC (MUlti Signal processor system with Intelligent Communication), a Single-Program-Multiple-Data parallel computer with distributed memory developed at the ETH Zurich.

  4. Perturbed Kepler-problem in general relativity with quaternions

    E-print Network

    F. Nemes; B. Mikóczi

    2012-10-08

    The motion of binary star systems is re-examined in the presence of perturbations from the theory of general relativity. The Kepler problem is regularized and linearized with quaternions. In this way first order perturbation results are derived.

  5. The Cauchy problem in general relativity: an algebraic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we shall analyse the structure of the Cauchy problem for general relativity by applying the theory of first-order symmetric hyperbolic systems. The role of harmonic coordinates will be discussed.

  6. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS RELATED TO BLENDING WATERS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blending two or more waters of different quality and to relate their composition to the corrosive effects and calcium carbonate deposition tendency of the water on distribution systems. The EPA mobile water quality monitoring la...

  7. The Friendship Quality of Overtly and Relationally Victimized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines links between overt and relational victimization and the quality of children's best friendships. Third-grade through fifth-grade children completed measures in the fall (n = 675) and spring (n = 620). There were strong concurrent associations between both types of victimization and friendship quality. Controlling for…

  8. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19 Section 26.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  9. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information relating to quality aspects. 26.19 Section 26.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL...

  10. Teacher Unions and TQE: Building Quality Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streshly, William A.; DeMitchell, Todd A.

    This book is designed to provide school administrators and labor leaders with ideas about how to improve school district labor relations by incorporating the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM). In schools that apply the principles of Total Quality Education (TQE)--that is TQM as it modified to school practice--labor and management can…

  11. RELATING AIR CLEANER EFFICIENCY TO INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of a single-story office building, relating air cleaner efficiency to indoor air quality. redicting the improvement in indoor air quality due to in-duct air cleaners is an important aspect of ventilation system design. he effects of percentage o...

  12. Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

  13. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  14. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  15. Health-related quality of life profiles among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Bakar, Zanariah Abu

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to determine and compare health-related quality of life profiles of schizophrenia family caregivers on the basis of their sociodemographic characteristics. Thirty outpatient family caregivers completed the generic 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (male = 53.5%; mean age = 51 years; married = 76.7%). The highest mean score was reported for social functioning while role limitation-emotional was rated the worst. Significantly better health-related quality of life profiles were demonstrated by caregivers who were male, younger than 50 years, adequately educated, employed, and without health problems and were receiving monthly income. Understanding of on health-related quality of life matters for family caregivers is crucial to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:21881420

  16. GEE-WIS Anchored Problem Solving Using Real-Time Authentic Water Quality Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M.; Wlodarczyk, M. S.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

    2002-05-01

    GEE-WIS scientific problem solving consists of observing, hypothesizing, synthesis, argument building and reasoning, in the context of analysis, representation, modeling and sense-making of real-time authentic water quality data. Geoscience Environmental Education - Web-accessible Instrumented Systems, or GEE-WIS, an NSF Geoscience Education grant, has established a set of companion websites that stream real-time data from two campus retention ponds for research and use in secondary and undergraduate water quality lessons. We have targeted scientific problem solving skills because of the nature of the GEE-WIS environment, but further because they are central to state and federal efforts to establish science education curriculum standards and are at the core of performance-based testing. We have used a design experiment process to create and test two Anchored Instruction scenario problems. Customization such as that done through a design process, is acknowledged to be a fundamental component of educational research from an ecological psychology perspective. Our efforts have shared core design elements with other NSF water quality projects. Our method involves the analysis of student written scenario responses for level of scientific problem solving using a qualitative scoring rubric designed from participation in a related NSF project, SCALE (Synergy Communities: Aggregating Learning about Education). Student solutions of GEE-WIS anchor problems from Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 will be summarized. Implications are drawn for those interested in making secondary and high education geoscience more realistic and more motivating for students through the use of real-time authentic data via Internet.

  17. Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs Boting Yang Department of Computer Science University of Regina May 27, 2012 1GRASCan 2012, Ryerson University #12;Outline Fast searching and mixed searching Induced-path cover Fast-mixed searching vs fast searching Fast-mixed searching vs mixed

  18. Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal

    E-print Network

    Biasutti, Michela

    Quantitative Thermo-acoustics and related problems Guillaume Bal Department of Applied Physics of Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 E-mail: tzhou@math.washington.edu Abstract. Thermo-acoustic in tissues with the good resolution properties of ultrasounds. Thermo-acoustic imaging may be decomposed

  19. Water Entry and Related Problems James Mark Oliver

    E-print Network

    Breward, Chris J W

    Water Entry and Related Problems James Mark Oliver St Anne's College University of Oxford A thesis, reconcile and generalize some existing mathematical models for deep- and shallow-water entry at small this thesis builds and discuss our main modelling assumptions. In Chapter 2, the small-deadrise-angle deep-water

  20. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  1. A NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEM RELATED TO FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    A NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEM RELATED TO FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS PIERRE A. GREMAUD Abstract. Similarity solutions for the flow of granular materials are constructed. Unlike pre- vious work, the present. Introduction. This paper is about the determination of the flow of granular material under gravity in hoppers

  2. A NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEM RELATED TO FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    A NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEM RELATED TO FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS PIERRE A. GREMAUD #3; Abstract plastic, cohesionless Coulomb powder with a yield surface of von Mises type. Further, the eigenvectors to the variables under study. A study of some of the mathematical properties of the model corresponding

  3. Open problem: Dynamic Relational Models for Improved Hazardous Weather Prediction

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Amy

    Open problem: Dynamic Relational Models for Improved Hazardous Weather Prediction Amy McGovern1 dis- covery methods for use on mesoscale weather data. Severe weather phenomena such as tornados, thun, current techniques for predicting severe weather are tied to specific characteristics of the radar systems

  4. Some statistical problems related to Big-Data Boaz Nadler

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    problems related to Big-Data Boaz Nadler The Weizmann Institute of Science Israel Joint works with Jonathan. 2015 Boaz Nadler Statistical Challenges in Big-Data 1 #12;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Talk Overview 2 parts: Boaz Nadler Statistical Challenges in Big-Data 2 #12

  5. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  6. Health-related quality of life following podiatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P J; Patterson, C; Dunne, M P

    2001-04-01

    This 6-month prospective study investigated the outcomes of foot surgery performed by Fellows of the Australian College of Podiatric Surgeons. The study recruited 140 patients who were treated for orthopedic, neurological, or integumentary diseases of the foot. The majority of subjects who underwent podiatric surgery experienced significant postoperative improvements in a range of health-related quality-of-life dimensions as measured by the disease-specific Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Subjects reported a reduction in foot pain, increased levels of physical function, improved general foot health perception, and improved footwear-related quality of life. No significant adverse outcomes or unplanned re-admissions to the hospital were reported. This study demonstrates the advantage of assessing health-related quality of life as opposed to patient satisfaction. PMID:11319246

  7. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  8. On Evaluation Problem of the Quality of Educational Models Vladimir A. Testov,

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    . This approach is most vividly presented in the concept of the Total Quality Management (TQM), International545 On Evaluation Problem of the Quality of Educational Models Vladimir A. Testov, Ph.D., Professor to assessing the educational quality applicable to assessing objects and processes formed and realized

  9. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  10. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; Fátima Andrade, María.; Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs making a greater contribution during the 2000-2008 period, whereas HDVs made a greater contribution during the 2009-2013 period, and decreases in NOx emissions resulted in increases in O3 observations.

  11. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  12. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  15. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1-28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:23471477

  16. Quality of Life in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Morisse, Filip; Vandemaele, Eleonore; Claes, Claudia; Claes, Lien; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The field of intellectual disability (ID) is strongly influenced by the Quality of Life paradigm (QOL). We aimed at investigating whether or not the QOL paradigm also applies to clients with ID and cooccurring mental health problems. This paper aims at stimulating a debate on this topic, by investigating whether or not QOL domains are universal. Focus groups with natural and professional network members were organized to gather qualitative data, in order to answer two questions: (1) Are the QOL dimensions conceptualized in the model of Schalock et al. applicable for persons with ID and mental health problems? (2) What are indicators relating to the above-mentioned dimensions in relation to persons with ID and mental health problems? The results offer some proof for the assumption that the QOL construct seems to have universal properties. With regard to the second question, the study revealed that the natural and professional network members are challenged to look for the most appropriate support strategies, taking specific indicators of QOL into account. When aspects of empowerment and regulation are used in an integrated manner, the application of the QOL paradigm could lead to positive outcomes concerning self-determination, interdependence, social inclusion, and emotional development. PMID:23476137

  17. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how indoor air quality can be built into new construction projects through early planning. Advises planners to address the building design on two levels: consider long-range plans for the building, and scrutinize the building's systems. Suggests that building products be reviewed, target products be screened, and testing be conducted.…

  18. Health-related quality of life in patients with insomnia treated with zopiclone.

    PubMed

    Leger, D; Quera-Salva, M A; Philip, P

    1996-01-01

    Insomnia can cause impaired productivity and absenteeism from work, increased risk of accidents, and impaired quality of family and social life. Thus, it can compromise quality of life in affected individuals and result in costs to society as a whole. The nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic zopiclone is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of insomnia. Importantly, it also has minimal effects on next-day performance and psychological function. 458 patients treated with zopiclone for 14 days showed significantly greater improvement compared with placebo recipients in sleep evaluation questions and scores for activity, social and professional quality-of-life aspects. After 8 weeks, the improvement in scores for sleep, activity and social questions remained significantly higher in patients who had received zopiclone compared with placebo recipients. No significant differences were observed between 167 patients who had been taking zopiclone for at least 12 months and a control group of 381 persons with no sleep problems in virtually all of the 5 aspects of the quality-of-life questionnaire. Some important aspects such as relationships and professional life were not modified by zopiclone. When insomnia is treated appropriately, compared with no treatment, patients' feelings about their quality of life are improved and, furthermore, do not appear to differ significantly from perceptions of quality of life in those without sleep-related problems. PMID:10163426

  19. Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

    1972-01-01

    Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

  20. [The assessment of bone quality in lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)and other lifestyle-related diseases are associated with an increased risk of bone quality deterioration-type osteoporosis. The deterioration of bone quality in type 2 DM involves factors such as qualitative changes of collagens, reduction in bone turnover, narrow cortical bone diameter, increased cortical bone porosity, and destruction of trabecular bone microarchitecture. In mild to moderate chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the factors involved are thought to be hyperhomocysteinemia and deterioration of trabecular bone microarchitecture as well as cortical bone structure. Investigations of the usefulness of bone quality assessment using approaches such as the following are under way:biocheminal markers such as pentosidine and homocysteine, bone structure assessment methods such as hip structure analysis, trabecular bone score, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. PMID:26728532

  1. Sleep quality as a mediator between technology-related sleep quality, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sue K; Kisler, Tiffani S

    2013-01-01

    This study examines (a) relations among technology use during sleep time, sleep quality, and depression/anxiety and (b) time awake due to technology use. Two hundred thirty-six college students completed self-report questionnaires and week-long sleep diaries. Results revealed that 47 percent of students reported night-time waking to answer text messages and 40 percent to answer phone calls. Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of technology use after the onset of sleep predicted poorer sleep quality, and poorer sleep quality predicted symptoms of depression/anxiety. Finally, sleep quality is a mediator between technology use after the onset of sleep and depression/anxiety. College students who have difficulty setting boundaries around technology use may be at increased risk for psychological health concerns. PMID:23320870

  2. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  3. PARALLEL SOLUTION OF SVD-RELATED PROBLEMS, WITH

    E-print Network

    Higham, Nicholas J.

    and Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3 Two-sided Procrustes-type problems 40 3 Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3 The Two-Sided Orthogonal Procrustes Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.4 The Two-sided Rotation Procrustes Problem

  4. Differential Susceptibility Effects: The Interaction of Negative Emotionality and Sibling Relationship Quality on Childhood Internalizing Problems and Social Skills

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children’s emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory. PMID:22366882

  5. Relationships between Undergraduates' Argumentation Skills, Conceptual Quality of Problem Solutions, and Problem Solving Strategies in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebello, Carina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…

  6. Negative affectivity and educational attainment as predictors of newlyweds' problem solving communication and marital quality.

    PubMed

    Woszidlo, Alesia; Segrin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of negative affectivity and educational attainment in newlywed couples' mutual problem solving and marital quality (i.e., personal commitment and divorce proneness). The vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model of marital development was used as a framework to explain the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities, adaptive processes, and marital quality. Dyadic analyses and tests of indirect effects were performed on data from 186 couples who had been married on average for 1.5 years. Spouses' negative affectivity and educational attainment were significantly associated with their own and their partner's mutual problem solving, personal commitment, and propensity to divorce. In addition, there was evidence supporting the assumption that the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities and marital quality can be explained, in part, by mutual problem solving for husbands. This study highlights the important role that enduring vulnerabilities have on mutual problem solving communication and marital quality. PMID:23472443

  7. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed. PMID:15211822

  8. Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.…

  9. Temperament in Context: Infant Temperament Moderates the Relationship between Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colder, Craig R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Fite, Paula J.; Mott, Joshua A.; Bush, Nicole R.

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were…

  10. PROSPECTS FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT TO ADDRESS WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS

    E-print Network

    ABSTRACT The Black Sea is one of the world's most polluted bodies of water. Many years of unsustainablei PROSPECTS FOR INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN THE BLACK SEA CATCHMENT TO ADDRESS WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS PROJECT TITLE: Prospects for Institutional Change in the Black Sea Catchment to Address Water Quality

  11. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely related to the issue of singularities in general relativity. Finally, we discuss the topic of stability of solutions to Einstein's equations. This is not only an important and active area of research, it is also one that only became meaningful thanks to the work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat.

  12. Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

  13. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  14. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for…

  15. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  16. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related

  17. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ?CDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, ?, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big Bang singularity, to appeal to the need for a quantum theory of gravity. This thesis takes a very different approach to the problem, in hypothesising that, because our physical model really does appear to do a very good job of describing the observed cosmic expansion rate, and all the data indicate that our Universe might well expand precisely according to the flat ?CDM scale-factor, it may not be the model, but our basic expectations that need to be modified in order to derive a physical theory that stands in reasonable agreement with the empirical results; i.e., that it may actually be that we need to re-examine, and rationally modify our expectations of what should theoretically be, so that we might derive a theory to explain the empirical results of cosmology, which would be based solely on reasonably acceptable first principles. Therefore, a self-consistent theory is constructed here, upon re-consideration of the cosmological foundations of relativity theory, which eventually does afford an explanation of the cosmological problem, as it provides good reason to actually expect observations in the fundamental rest-frame to be described precisely by the flat ?CDM scale-factor which has been empirically constrained.

  18. A radiation detector design mitigating problems related to sawed edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

    2014-12-01

    In pixelated silicon radiation detectors that are utilized for the detection of UV, visible, and in particular Near Infra-Red (NIR) light it is desirable to utilize a relatively thick fully depleted Back-Side Illuminated (BSI) detector design providing 100% Fill Factor (FF), low Cross-Talk (CT), and high Quantum Efficiency (QE). The optimal thickness of such detectors is typically less than 300?m and above 40?m and thus it is more or less mandatory to thin the detector wafer from the backside after the front side of the detector has been processed and before a conductive layer is formed on the backside. A TAIKO thinning process is optimal for such a thickness range since neither a support substrate on the front side nor lithographic steps on the backside are required. The conductive backside layer should, however, be homogenous throughout the wafer and it should be biased from the front side of the detector. In order to provide good QE for blue and UV light the conductive backside layer should be of opposite doping type than the substrate. The problem with a homogeneous backside layer being of opposite doping type than the substrate is that a lot of leakage current is typically generated at the sawed chip edges, which may increase the dark noise and the power consumption. These problems are substantially mitigated with a proposed detector edge arrangement which 2D simulation results are presented in this paper.

  19. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  20. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  1. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time. PMID:12639034

  2. Resolving the Southern African Large Telescope's image quality problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Crause, Lisa A.; O'Connor, James; Strümpfer, Francois; Strydom, Ockert J.; Sass, Craig; Brink, Janus D.; Plessis, Charl du; Wiid, Eben; Love, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Images obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its commissioning phase in 2006 showed degradation due to a large focus gradient, astigmatism, and higher order optical aberrations. An extensive forensic investigation exonerated the primary mirror and the science instruments before pointing to the mechanical interface between the telescope and the spherical aberration corrector, the complex optical subassembly which corrects the spherical aberration introduced by the 11-m primary mirror. Having diagnosed the problem, a detailed repair plan was formulated and implemented when the corrector was removed from the telescope in April 2009. The problematic interface was replaced, and the four aspheric mirrors were optically tested and re-aligned. Individual mirror surface figures were confirmed to meet specification, and a full system test after the re-alignment yielded a root mean square wavefront error of 0.15 waves. The corrector was reinstalled in August 2010 and aligned with respect to the payload and primary mirror. Subsequent on-sky tests revealed spurious signals being sent to the tracker by the auto-collimator, the instrument that maintains the alignment of the corrector with respect to the primary mirror. After rectifying this minor issue, the telescope yielded uniform 1.1 arcsec star images over the full 10-arcmin field of view.

  3. Health-related Quality of Life Assessment & Application

    Cancer.gov

    One of the main objectives of the Outcomes Research Branch (ORB) is to enhance the conceptualization and measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to increase the application of HRQOL data for decision-making in research, practice, and policy. While there are many definitions of HRQOL, within the context of cancer outcomes research HRQOL can be understood as including physical and psychosocial well-being that are affected by cancer and its treatments as perceived by individuals throughout the cancer care continuum.

  4. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  5. Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or…

  6. Fatigue, Sleep Quality, and Disability in Relation to Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Moloud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) in part due to physical disability. MS-associated fatigue and poor sleep are common and treatable features of MS that affect QOL. We assessed the association between fatigue, sleep quality, and QOL in people with MS. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 217 patients with MS. Health-related QOL (MS Quality of Life-54), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory [PSQI]) were assessed. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were also provided by a qualified neurologist. Results: The mean ± SD age of the 217 patients was 32.6 ± 8.6 years, and 79% were female. One hundred fifty-two patients (70.0%) were classified as poor sleepers based on PSQI scores; 122 (56.2%) had significant fatigue based on FSS results. The mean ± SE physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health composite scores of the MSQOL-54 were 40.12 ± 1.27 and 43.81 ± 1.61, respectively. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between PCS scores and MCS (r = 0.58), FSS (r = 0.49), and PSQI (r = 0.52) scores. MCS scores were strongly correlated with FSS (r = 0.53) and PSQI (r = 0.35) scores. Age exhibited statistically significant negative correlations with PCS (r = ?0.21) and MCS (r = ?0.58) scores, and was statistically significantly correlated with FSS (r = 0.23) and PSQI (r = 0.21) scores. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were strongly correlated with FSS scores. Conclusions: These findings support screening of fatigue severity and sleep quality and their effects on QOL. PMID:26664332

  7. Health-related quality of life in women after cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Cancer survivorship is the term used to represent the state or process of living with cancer or living after diagnosis of cancer. Living with cancer or living after cancer--are conditions characteristic to an increasing number of long-term survivors ("society of remission"); health-related quality of life in these individuals is an important indicator of successful treatment and patient's satisfaction. Health-related quality of life in oncological patients has remained one of the main topic of research. The present paper reviews psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer (female disease) and gender-related differences in health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors. Breast cancer diagnosis is usually associated with several expected psychosocial consequences like psychosocial distress. Specific psychological variables like body image, fear, satisfaction with treatment and cosmetic evaluation may improve general will to live. Women who perceive support from family and friends have better coping and psychological adjustment, while lack of social support is a risk factor for anxiety and depression. Colon cancer remains an important medical and social problem in Poland; polish data showed the following gender-related differences: in patients with stoma, women reported lower level of psychological well-being than men, reported increasing level of stress and loss of control over emotions and behaviours. PMID:22768416

  8. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  9. Benchmarking Strategies for Measuring the Quality of Healthcare: Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, increasing attention has been directed toward the problems inherent to measuring the quality of healthcare and implementing benchmarking strategies. Besides offering accreditation and certification processes, recent approaches measure the performance of healthcare institutions in order to evaluate their effectiveness, defined as the capacity to provide treatment that modifies and improves the patient's state of health. This paper, dealing with hospital effectiveness, focuses on research methods for effectiveness analyses within a strategy comparing different healthcare institutions. The paper, after having introduced readers to the principle debates on benchmarking strategies, which depend on the perspective and type of indicators used, focuses on the methodological problems related to performing consistent benchmarking analyses. Particularly, statistical methods suitable for controlling case-mix, analyzing aggregate data, rare events, and continuous outcomes measured with error are examined. Specific challenges of benchmarking strategies, such as the risk of risk adjustment (case-mix fallacy, underreporting, risk of comparing noncomparable hospitals), selection bias, and possible strategies for the development of consistent benchmarking analyses, are discussed. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of the illustrated benchmarking strategies, an application focused on determining regional benchmarks for patient satisfaction (using 2009 Lombardy Region Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) is proposed. PMID:22666140

  10. Instance compression of parametric problems and related hierarchies 

    E-print Network

    Chakraborty, Chiranjit

    2014-06-27

    We define instance compressibility ([13, 17]) for parametric problems in the classes PH and PSPACE.We observe that the problem ?iCIRCUITSAT of deciding satisfiability of a quantified Boolean circuit with i-1 alternations ...

  11. Health related quality of life in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: psychosocial and cognitive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Daliento, L; Mapelli, D; Russo, G; Scarso, P; Limongi, F; Iannizzi, P; Melendugno, A; Mazzotti, E; Volpe, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the health related quality of life of patients who were operated on during childhood for total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, focusing on the psychosocial and cognitive outcomes. Patients: 54 patients (24 men and 30 women, mean (SD) age 32 (4) years), operated on for total correction of tetralogy of Fallot at mean age of 8.2 years, underwent a cardiological examination, psychological assessment (semistructured interview, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory), evaluation of quality of life (36 item short form health survey), and neuropsychological assessment with an extensive neuropsychological battery of tests. Results: Psychological characteristics—(1) a lower than normal academic level, (2) a job inadequate for educational level, (3) a preference for an overprotective familiar setting, and (4) a difficulty communicating own corporal image. Denial of the cardiopathy was found to be a common behaviour to normalise functioning. Very few patients had a deficit in memory, learning, or attention functions; rather, patients had a deficit in the executive functions, problem solving, and planning strategies. Conclusions: Despite a satisfactory health related quality of life, there are residual psychological and social problems in addition to impaired cognitive outcomes in the presence of a normal intelligence quotient. PMID:15657236

  12. Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

  13. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    PubMed

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p < .01 with affect balance; r = -.26, p < .01 with life satisfaction) and subtle discrimination (r = -.28, p < .01 with affect balance; r = -.27, p < .01 with life satisfaction) were negatively linked with subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p < .01). Additionally, it was found that overt discrimination was a mediator variable in the relationship between physical health-related quality of life and subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people. PMID:26054408

  14. Traffic Related Air Quality Trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    An air quality based approach is used to determine pollutant-trends of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ozone (O3) and particle matter (PM10) mostly from road transport sources in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) for the years 2000-2013. Road transport sources included flex (gasoline and ethanol) cars and motorcycles and diesel trucks and buses. Air pollutant concentrations for the transport sources were measured and related with the fuel sales by the emission factors (EFs) expressed in grams of pollutant per kilometer driven or unit of fuel consumed. Over the 14- year time period, pollutant concentrations of NOX, CO and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37 and 0.71% month-1, respectively. Oppossitely during this time, fuel sales of gasoline, ethanol and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96 and 0.38% month-1. Flex engines are the prevalent road source of CO, oppositely to diesel ones which appear to be the major source of NOX and PM10. Decrease in air pollutants are partially offset by the increment of fuel sales and related transport activity. For CO, there have been steep decreases in pollutant concentrations (rate of -5 parts per billion, ppb, month-1) for gasoline and ethanol engines between 2000 and 2013. Similarly, diesel related NOX and PM10 concentrations decreased but at slower time rates (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1). Rates uncertainties are larger for diesel pollutants (coefficient of determination R of -0.47 and -0.41) than for gasoline and ethanol related CO (R equal to -0.72). This paper led to the following conclusions: (1) concentrations of gasoline and ethanol related CO, estimated by air quality network measurements, decreased at steeper rate than diesel pollutants NOX and PM10, (2) transport source contributions to the O3 formation differ significantly through the time period focus of this work, with higher contributions coming from gasoline and ethanol engines at the beinning of the reviewed period (2000-2007) and from diesel engines at the end (2008-2013).

  15. Social determinants of health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kivits, J; Erpelding, M-L; Guillemin, F

    2013-08-01

    The concept of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) considers patient's perspective as an essential component of the health care relationship. HRQoL is often assimilated to a set of existing tools aimed at measuring the perspective of patient, more particularly the consequences of ill-health condition on patient's everyday life. Patients' reports of their health is however diverse, as social factors such as age, gender, professional status are likely to impact on health self-perception and reporting. Social aspects of HRQoL are somehow underexplored. This paper presents a secondary analysis of epidemiological HRQoL data issued from two national surveys (Baromètre Santé 2005; Enquête Décennale Santé 2002-2003). The data analysis showed the existence of social determinants of HRQoL. It more specifically demonstrated that four social indicators are determinants of HRQoL namely living in couple, level of education, occupational status and net income per household, independently of age and gender known effect. Social mechanisms governing the impact of social determinants on quality of life could be further explored by adopting a multidisciplinary and mutilevel research approach of HRQoL as well as considering the ability of individuals to engage with social aspect of their health conditions. PMID:23849946

  16. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that agricultural chemicals may have contributed to the reduction in semen quality in fertile men from mid-Missouri we reported previously. PMID:12948887

  17. Contributions on secretary problems, independent sets of rectangles and related problems

    E-print Network

    Soto, José Antonio, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    We study three problems arising from different areas of combinatorial optimization. We first study the matroid secretary problem, which is a generalization proposed by Babaioff, Immorlica and Kleinberg of the classical ...

  18. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-09-13

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection-diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  19. Longitudinal evaluation of health-related quality of life after osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Simon N; D'Souza, Jacob J; Lowe, Derek; Kanatas, Anastasios

    2015-11-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal data on the effect of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We report data on HRQoL across groups of patients with ORN at different stages of disease and reconstruction. We identified 71 patients treated for ORN of the mandible, and cross-referenced the data with their medical records. They were divided into 4 groups according to the Notani classification and patients who did not have ORN were used for comparison. Patients with ORN reported the most pain, and rates were relatively high for problems concerning appearance, activity, recreation, swallowing, and chewing. There were significant differences for pain, appearance, swallowing, and chewing between patients who had ORN and those who did not and had not had radiotherapy. On the University of Washington quality of life questionnaire (UWQoL), patients with ORN reported similar levels of morbidity to those who had had radiotherapy but did not have ORN, particularly on the physical and social-emotional subscales. Those with grade III ORN were particularly affected, and the UWQoL scores after mandibular resection and reconstruction were disappointing. HRQoL after composite resection for Notani grade III disease is relatively poor. In patients whose symptoms can be managed without an operation, it seems appropriate to defer resection and reconstruction until there is an appreciable drop in the quality of life, and pain is difficult to control. PMID:26316016

  20. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas apply to both new construction and existing buildings. Nearly all of the recommended priority R&D project areas include tasks intended to facilitate the communication and implementation of the research results. In addition, the priority agenda includes several projects specifically designed to facilitate or stimulate the use of existing energy-efficient technologies and practices for improving IEQ. To assure that the research program continues to meet the needs of stakeholders and to facilitate the coordination of research among sponsors, the core team recommends an annual meeting attended by sponsors, a balanced group of stakeholders, and a selection of researchers implementing the agenda.

  1. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Instructor's Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the instructor's manual for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. It is designed so a program may be designed for a specific facility. The problem structures are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs and/or drawings representing familiar data forms contain the necessary information to…

  2. A Problem-Based Learning Project Focused on the Missouri Teacher Quality Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott A.; Cotter, Joshua C.; Long, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    This team project was a requirement for the Saint Louis University Executive Doctor of Education program. It was a problem-based learning project focused on the teacher quality standards adopted by the Missouri State Board of Education in June 2011. In the earliest stages prior to adoption of the standards, the researchers hired by the state…

  3. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  4. MESH QUALITY CONTROL FOR INDUSTRIAL NAVIERSTOKES PROBLEMS VIA A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES

    E-print Network

    Bank, Randolph E.

    MESH QUALITY CONTROL FOR INDUSTRIAL NAVIER­STOKES PROBLEMS VIA A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES R. E criterion. Numerical simulations of viscous flows of industrial interest around aerodynamic shapes Aviation DGT/DEA B.P. 300 92214 St Cloud Cedex France; x Dassault Aviation DGT/DEA B.P. 300 92214 St Cloud

  5. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  6. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions, Relationship Quality and Socio-Emotional Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karos, Leigh Karavasilis; Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin

    2007-01-01

    Associations between reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, sibling relationship quality, and children's socio-emotional problem solving were examined in 40 grade 5-6 children (M age = 11.5 years) from middle class, Caucasian, Canadian families using a multi-method approach (i.e. interviews, self-report questionnaires, daily diary…

  7. Lignocellulosic Biomass Quality Changes in Relation to Available Feedstock Tonnage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compositional and functional quality of lignocellulosic biomass impacts their utilization as feedstocks for ethanol production. However, these compositional and functional qualities are in turn skewed by the assembly system used for the biomass feedstock retrieval and delivery. Accessing differe...

  8. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  9. Comparison of health-related quality of life and emotional distress among Chinese cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    So, Winnie K W; Ling, Gigi C C; Choi, Kai-chow; Chan, Carman W H; Wan, Rayman W M; Mak, Suzanne S S; Sit, Janet W H

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and emotional distress among diverse cancer survivors who had completed all treatment within the previous year. A convenience sample of 353 cancers survivors (lung, head and neck, breast and prostate cancers) were recruited to complete a survey, which consisted of (i) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales; (ii) Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General version; and (iii) demographic and clinical data. The HRQoL scores were similar among the four types of survivors. Mild anxiety and depression levels were reported, but no significant difference was noted. Younger females with financial burdens and uncertain prognosis were particularly associated with HRQoL and emotional distress. Further studies are essential to identify specific problems that cancer patients experience after cancer diagnosis that might lead to the early detection of those most at risk of ongoing problems. PMID:23730863

  10. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  11. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life in Asian patients with total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kimie; Xia, Zhenlan; Liu, Xueqin; Mawatari, Masaaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2014-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty reduces pain and restores physical function in patients with hip joint problems. This study examined lifestyle and health-related quality of life before and after total hip arthroplasty in Japanese and Chinese patients. Two hospitals in China recruited 120 patients and 120 Japanese patients matched by age and operative status were drawn from a prospective cohort database. Oxford Hip Score, EuroQol, and characteristics of Asian lifestyle and attitudes toward the operation were assessed. There were no differences between patients from the two countries in quality-of-life-scale scores: postoperative patients had significantly better quality-of-life scores than preoperative patients in both countries. In China, patients who reported that living at home was inconvenient had significantly worse Oxford Hip Scores than those who did not. Mean scores for anxiety items concerning possible dislocation and durability of the implant were significantly higher in Japanese than in Chinese subjects. Our findings suggest that providing information about housing conditions and lifestyles would result in improved quality of life and reduced anxiety in patients with implanted joints. PMID:24845456

  12. Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality constraint was imposed on the full order AOTV point mass equations of motion, using a simple aerodynamic heating rate model.

  13. Drug-related problems (DRPs) identified from geriatric medication safety review clinics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Hau; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; We, Chiung-Jung; Lu, I-Shu; Chiu, Lee-Shu; Wu, Shwu-Chong

    2012-01-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) were identified from baseline data of 193 Medication Safety Review Clinic (MSRC) patients. MSRCs enroll older adults (? 65 years) with either (1) prescriptions of ? 8 chronic medications (drugs prescribed for ? 28 days) or (2) a visit to ? 3 different physicians at the two participating hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from August to October 2007. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) Classification Version 5.01 was used to report DRPs. Mean age was 76.2 ± 6.2 years and 53% of participants were male. Participants had, on average, 9.0 ± 2.6 chronic conditions and took 8.9 ± 3.1 chronic medications and 1.7 ± 1.8 dietary supplements. Eighty-seven percent had at least one DRP. Being older, having orthostatic hypotension and taking more chronic medications were associated with higher likelihood of having at least one DRP. For the 1713 medications and 331 diet supplements reviewed, 427 DRPs were found, 490 causes (1.1 ± 0.4 per problem) identified and 1067 interventions proposed (2.5 ± 0.6 per problem). The most common DRP category was "drug not taken/administered" (35%), and the most common offending drug category was cardiovascular agents (33%). Prevalence of DRPs was high among geriatric outpatients prescribed multiple medications. Careful medication review is needed in routine clinical practice to improve prescription quality. PMID:21353318

  14. Intelligence-policy relations and the problem of politicization

    E-print Network

    Rovner, Joshua Randall

    2008-01-01

    A growing literature in international relations theory explores how domestic institutions filter and mediate international signals. The study of intelligence-policy relations fits naturally into this mold, because intelligence ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Clinical Endoscopy Does cancer risk affect health-related quality of life in patients

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Clinical Endoscopy Does cancer risk affect health-related quality of life. Goldstein, MD, MS Stanford and Palo Alto, California, USA Background: Health-related quality of life-state utility values, quality of life in reflux and dyspepsia (QOLRAD), and Medical Outcomes Survey short form

  16. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  17. Geriatric oncology: comparing health related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population ageing is increasing the number of people annually diagnosed with cancer worldwide, once most types of tumours are age-dependent. High-quality healthcare in geriatric oncology requires a multimodal approach and should take into account stratified patient outcomes based on factors other than chronological age in order to develop interventions able to optimize oncology care. This study aims to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life in head and neck cancer patients and compare the scores in geriatric and younger patients. Methods Two hundred and eighty nine head and neck cancer patients from the Oncology Portuguese Institute participated in the Health Related Quality of Life assessment. Two patient groups were considered: the geriatric (? 65 years old, n = 115) and the younger (45-60 years old, n= 174). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires were used. Results Head and neck cancer patients were mostly males, 77.4% within geriatric group and 91.4% among younger patients group. The most frequent tumour locations were similar in both groups: larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx - base of the tongue. At the time of diagnosis, most of younger male patients were at disease stage III/IV (55.9%) whereas the majority of younger female patients were at disease stage I/II (83.4%). The geriatric patient distribution was found to be similar in any of the four disease stages and no gender differences were observed. We found that age (geriatrics scored generally worse), gender (females scored generally worse), and tumour site (larynx tumours denounce more significant problems between age groups) clearly influences Health Related Quality of Life perceptions. Conclusions Geriatric oncology assessments signalize age-independent indicators that might guide oncologic geriatric care optimization. Decision-making in geriatric oncology must be based on tumour characteristics and chronological age but also on performance status evaluation, co-morbidity, and patient reported outcomes assessment. PMID:21232097

  18. FISHES IN THEIR RELATION TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM By William P. Seal

    E-print Network

    FISHES IN THEIR RELATION TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM oJ'- By William P. Seal .:I- Paper presentedbefore page retained for pagination #12;FISHES IN THEIR RELAT~ON TO THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM. .:A By WILLIAM P. SEAL· .:A Some phases of the mosquito problem are extremely simple and easy of solution

  19. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  20. Measuring health-related quality of life in men with osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that worsens the quality of life and the survival rate of individuals with this disease on account the osteoporotic fractures. Studies have long focused on women, and its presence in men has been underestimated. While many studies conducted in different countries mainly assess health-related quality of life and identify fracture risks factors in women, few data are available on a Spanish male population. Methods/Design Observational study. Study population Men ? 40 years of age with/without diagnosed osteoporosis and with/without osteoporotic fracture included by their family doctor. Measurements The relationship between customary clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and health-related quality of life in a Spanish male population. A telephone questionnaire on health-related quality of life is made. Statistical analysis The association between qualitative variables will be assessed by the Chi-square test. The distribution of quantitative variables by Student's t-test. If the conditions for using this test are not met, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's U test will be used. The validation of the results obtained by the FRAX™ tool will be performed by way of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and by calculating the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). All tests will be performed with a confidence intervals set at 95%. Discussion The applicability and usefulness of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies are well documented in many countries. These studies allow implementing cost-effective measures in cases of a given disease and reducing the costly consequences derived therefrom. This study attempts to provide objective data on how quality of life is affected by the clinical aspects involved in osteoporosis in a Spanish male population and can be useful as well in cost utility analyses conducted by health authorities. The sample selected is not based on a high fracture risk group. Rather, it is composed of men in the general population, and accordingly comparisons should not lead to erroneous interpretations. A possible bias correction will be ensured by checking reported fractures against healthcare reports and X-rays, or by consulting health care centers as applicable. PMID:21981790

  1. NUMERICAL MODELING OF WATER QUALITY AND SEDIMENT RELATED PROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-dimensional water quality model was developed for simulating temporal and spatial variations of water quality with respect to phytoplankton, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen. Four major interacting systems were simulated, including phytoplankton dynamics, the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, a...

  2. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  3. Problem solving skills predict quality of life and psychological morbidity in ALS caregivers.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Virginia; Felgoise, Stephanie H; Walsh, Susan M; Simmons, Zachary

    2009-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often is associated with a particularly intensive caregiving experience, and the well-being of caregivers impacts that of patients. Thus, identification of factors leading to distress in caregivers may provide avenues for intervention that will help both the caregiver and the patient. We prospectively examined caregivers' social problem solving skills, the quality of the patient-caregiver relationship, caregivers' spirituality and religiousness, and the ways in which these impact caregivers' quality of life (QoL) and psychological morbidity in 75 caregivers of ALS patients. Data were analyzed through correlational and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Social problem solving and spirituality were the best predictors of caregivers' QoL, accounting for 15.6% and 7.8% of the variance in QoL, respectively (F (2, 69) = 11.83, p<.001). Social problem solving also predicted and accounted for 25.4% of the variance in psychological morbidity (F (1, 71) = 25.571, p<.001). Level of care provided did not predict either QoL or psychological morbidity in caregivers. In conclusion, the problem-solving skills of ALS caregivers are an important determinant of caregiver well-being. Developing interventions to teach ALS caregivers effective methods of problem solving would probably be beneficial to this population. PMID:18618351

  4. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  5. The Problem of Colliding Networks and its Relation to Cancer

    E-print Network

    Alexei A. Koulakov; Yuri Lazebnik

    2012-01-13

    Complex systems, ranging from living cells to human societies, can be represented as attractor networks, whose basic property is to exist in one of allowed states, or attractors. We noted that merging two systems that are in distinct attractors creates uncertainty, as the hybrid system cannot assume two attractors at once. As a prototype of this problem, we explore cell fusion, whose ability to combine distinct cells into hybrids was proposed to cause cancer. By simulating cell types as attractors, we find that hybrids are prone to assume spurious attractors, which are emergent and sporadic states of networks, and propose that cell fusion can make a cell cancerous by placing it into normally inaccessible spurious states. We define basic features of hybrid networks and suggest that the problem of colliding networks has general significance in processes represented by attractor networks, including biological, social, and political phenomena.

  6. Problem-based medical education in general practice and health care quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Foldevi, M; Sommansson, G; Trell, E

    1996-01-01

    States that health systems globally are in transition, for which also a correspondingly reformed education is required, involving new--and renewed--basic sciences, principles, skills and methods. To that end, demonstrates how problem-based learning in general practice is almost ideal, although still sparsely implemented, and has much in common with health care quality assurance. Contends that primary care in many ways comprises the most important platform and vehicle of modern health services and their interaction with the population. Uses the example of the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, where all curricula are integrated, community-oriented, problem-based and have a focus on primary care and general practice. Represents a useful and hitherto insufficiently recognized widening of the overall field of health care quality assurance, and summarizes some of the experiences therein. Also provides a brief overview of the literature. PMID:10156541

  7. Relations between strictly robust optimization problems and a nonlinear scalarization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbis, Elisabeth; Tammer, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    We study a strictly robust optimization problem in the context of a nonlinear scalarization method. We introduce a strictly robust multicriteria optimization problem and discuss its relation to a well-known scalar strictly robust optimization problem by using the nonlinear scalarization concept. Furthermore, we propose an unrestricted multicriteria optimization problem and note that its set of weakly Pareto optimal solutions contains all solutions of the scalar strictly robust optimization problem.

  8. Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

  9. Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life among older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wang, Xingzhi; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong; Wang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the association of cognitive dysfunction with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults in China. We analyzed community-based cross-sectional data of 5,557 Chinese individuals aged 60 years and above in the Weitang Geriatric Diseases Study. Cognitive dysfunction and HRQOL were assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D), respectively. We estimated the impacts of cognitive dysfunction on the EQ-5D index and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores using linear regression models, and the association between cognitive dysfunction and self-reported EQ-5D health problems using logistic regression models. The EQ-5D index and VAS scores were significantly lower for individuals with cognitive dysfunction than their counterparts. After controlling for covariates, the differences in EQ-5D index and VAS scores between individuals with and without cognitive dysfunction were ?0.016 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.024, ?0.008), and ?3.4 (95% CI: ?4.5, ?2.4), respectively. Cognitive dysfunction was associated with reporting of problems in pain/discomfort (odds ration [OR]: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.69), and anxiety/depression (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.23). The negative impact on HRQOL increased with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The results indicate cognitive dysfunction was associated with worse HRQOL in older adults. PMID:26601612

  10. Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life among older Chinese.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wang, Xingzhi; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong; Wang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the association of cognitive dysfunction with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults in China. We analyzed community-based cross-sectional data of 5,557 Chinese individuals aged 60 years and above in the Weitang Geriatric Diseases Study. Cognitive dysfunction and HRQOL were assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D), respectively. We estimated the impacts of cognitive dysfunction on the EQ-5D index and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores using linear regression models, and the association between cognitive dysfunction and self-reported EQ-5D health problems using logistic regression models. The EQ-5D index and VAS scores were significantly lower for individuals with cognitive dysfunction than their counterparts. After controlling for covariates, the differences in EQ-5D index and VAS scores between individuals with and without cognitive dysfunction were -0.016 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.024, -0.008), and -3.4 (95% CI: -4.5, -2.4), respectively. Cognitive dysfunction was associated with reporting of problems in pain/discomfort (odds ration [OR]: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.69), and anxiety/depression (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.23). The negative impact on HRQOL increased with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The results indicate cognitive dysfunction was associated with worse HRQOL in older adults. PMID:26601612

  11. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0?years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  12. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0?years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  13. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  14. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. PMID:26187685

  15. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  17. Rationality Problems of the Principles of Equivalence and General Relativity

    E-print Network

    Mei Xiaochun

    2006-09-06

    It is pointed out that at present we only prove that inertial static mass and gravitational static mass are equivalent. We have not proved that inertial moving mass and gravitational moving mass are also equivalent. It is proved by the dynamic effect of special relativity that inertial moving mass and gravitational moving mass are not equivalent. Besides, it can be proved that the principle of general relativity is untenable. It is only an apparent felling of mankind actually. Therefore, there exists serious defect in the foundation of the Einsteins theory of gravitation. We need to renovate our basic idea of space-time and gravity.

  18. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  19. General Relativity Problem of Mercury's Perihelion Advance Revisited

    E-print Network

    Anatoli A. Vankov

    2010-08-10

    The work is devoted to the critical analysis of theoretical prediction and astronomical observation of GR effects, first of all, the Mercury's perihelion advance. In the first part, the methodological issues of observations are discussed including a practice of observations, a method of recognizing the relativistic properties of the effect and recovering it from bulk of raw data, a parametric observational model, and finally, methods of assessment of the effect value and statistical level of confidence. In the second part, the Mercury's perihelion advance and other theoretical problems are discussed in relationship with the GR physical foundations. Controversies in literature devoted to the GR tests are analyzed. The unified GR approach to particles and photons is discussed with the emphasis on the GR classical tests. Finally, the alternative theory of relativistic effect treatment is presented.

  20. Geotechnical problems related with loess deposits in Northern France

    E-print Network

    Delage, Pierre; Antoine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Special problems were encountered in some areas in Northern France where the high speed railways (TGV Nord) crossed some loess deposits that appeared to be specially sensitive to change in water content and susceptible to collapse. Numerous sinkholes appeared along some sections of the line following wet climatic periods. After a general geological and geotechnical presentation of loess deposits and collapse susceptibility, in which some tools of the mechanics of unsaturated soils are reconsidered with special application to loess collapsibility, this paper describes the results of a geotechnical study carried out on block samples of intact loess. Collapse susceptibility is examined in the light of microstructure observation. The dependence of collapse to water content changes is examined and the validity of various existing collapse criteria is investigated.

  1. A note on static spaces and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jie; Yuan, Wei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study static spaces introduced in Hawking and Ellis (1975) [1], Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] and Riemannian manifolds possessing solutions to the critical point equation introduced in Besse (1987) [11], Hwang (2000) [12]. In both cases, on the manifolds there is a function satisfying a particular Ricci-Hessian type equation (1.6). With an idea similar to that used in Cao et al. (2012) [15,16], we have made progress in solving the problem raised in Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] of classifying vacuum static spaces and in proving the conjecture proposed in Besse (1987) [11] concerning manifolds admitting solutions to the critical point equation in general dimensions. We obtain even stronger results in dimension 3.

  2. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M. )

    1994-11-28

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

  3. Problems related to alcohol use: a cross-cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Gureje, O; Mavreas, V; Vazquez-Barquero, J L; Janca, A

    1997-06-01

    The assessment, diagnosis, and classification of mental disorders are embedded in social and cultural norms. In view of their Anglo-Saxon origins, the prevailing diagnostic criteria and instruments for their assessment have a strong Western influence. Yet they are used internationally with the implied assumption of their cross-cultural applicability. The WHO Cross-Cultural Applicability Research (CAR) study was designed to test this assumption as it applies to disorders relating to the use of alcohol and drugs. This multi-disciplinary research project was conducted in nine countries having different patterns of alcohol and drug use. The results suggest that, even though some similarities exist with respect to the definition of problematic use of alcohol in these ethnically diverse societies, very substantial differences also exist. A number of core concepts underpinning diagnosis of disorders relating to the use of alcohol have no equivalence in the local languages of the various cultures, while some others lacked cultural applicability because of their relative 'distance' from cultural and ethnic norms of drinking. This distance often relates to the difficulties of adapting descriptors of drinking norms in a 'wet' culture to one that is decidedly 'dry'. PMID:9248678

  4. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G". PMID:25850288

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to Obesity Grade, Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; van Beek, André P.; Keers, Joost C.; Lutgers, Helen L.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) may be compromised in obese individuals, depending on the presence of other complications. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of obesity-related conditions on HR-QoL. These conditions are i) grade of obesity with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), ii) metabolic syndrome (MetS), and iii) level of inflammation. Methods From the Dutch LifeLines Cohort Study we included 13,686 obese individuals, aged 18–80 years. HR-QoL was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey which encompasses eight health domains. We calculated the percentage of obese individuals with poor HR-QoL, i.e. those scoring below the domain and sex specific cut-off value derived from the normal weight population. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the probability of having poor domain scores according to the conditions under study. Results Higher grades of obesity and the additional presence of T2D were associated with lower HR-QoL, particularly in the domains physical functioning (men: odds ratios (ORs) 1.48–11.34, P<0.005, and women: ORs 1.66–5.05, P<0.001) and general health (men: ORs 1.44–3.07, P<0.005, and women: ORs 1.36–3.73, P<0.001). A higher percentage of obese individuals with MetS had a poor HR-QoL than those without MetS. Furthermore, we observed a linear trend between inflammation and the percentage of obese individuals with poor scores on the HR-QoL domains. Individuals with MetS were more likely to have poor scores in the domains general health, vitality, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems. Obese women with increased inflammation levels were more likely to have poor scores on all domains except role limitations due to emotional problems and mental health. Conclusions The impact of obesity on an individual’s quality of life is enhanced by grade of obesity, T2D, MetS and inflammation and are mainly related to reduced physical health. The mental well-being is less often impaired. PMID:26474291

  6. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  7. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  8. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  9. Relation of Social Support and Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior: Investigation of Differing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Benjamin L.; DuBois, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Relations of social support and self-esteem to problem behavior were investigated among young adolescents. Three models were evaluated, and the mediated and direct effects model was found best fitting. Social support and self-esteem predicted less involvement in problem behavior, and unique variance in peer self-esteem predicted greater problem

  10. Theory of Quantum Pulse Position Modulation and Related Numerical Problems

    E-print Network

    G. Cariolaro; G. Pierobon

    2009-11-13

    The paper deals with quantum pulse position modulation (PPM), both in the absence (pure states) and in the presence (mixed states) of thermal noise, using the Glauber representation of coherent laser radiation. The objective is to find optimal (or suboptimal) measurement operators and to evaluate the corresponding error probability. For PPM, the correct formulation of quantum states is given by the tensorial product of m identical Hilbert spaces, where m is the PPM order. The presence of mixed states, due to thermal noise, generates an optimization problem involving matrices of huge dimensions, which already for 4-PPM, are of the order of ten thousand. To overcome this computational complexity, the currently available methods of quantum detection, which are based on explicit results, convex linear programming and square root measurement, are compared to find the computationally less expensive one. In this paper a fundamental role is played by the geometrically uniform symmetry of the quantum PPM format. The evaluation of error probability confirms the vast superiority of the quantum detection over its classical counterpart.

  11. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  12. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  13. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  14. LIFE QUALITY RELATED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT IN PATIENTS AFFLICTED BY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM METASTATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Jabbar; Jafari, Hedayat; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spiritual health is of the basic elements in chronic patients. This concept can be considered as an important approach in promoting physical & spiritual health & life quality Goal: The present study has been planned aiming to study life quality related to metastatic phase gastrointestinal (digestive) cancer referring to Mazandaran Medical Science University Educational Center in Iran. Material and Methods: This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method with 250 patients through available sampling method. The data has been collected via spiritual health & life quality questionnaire. The data analysis has been performed by calculating X², T Test, variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean & standard deviation of the patients were 12.56 ±94/47. The highest relationship between age & spirituality was related to ages over 60. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between spirituality & life quality scale (p<0.001), between spirituality & respiratory disorder (p<0.047), anorexia (p<0.004), exhaustion (p<0.006), financial problems (p<0.006). Conclusion: regarding the results, we can perceive the necessity behind improving spiritual health aspect as an influencing factor on the patients’ life quality. Through enhancing spiritual beliefs, it is possible to help the patients’ spiritual quality get promoted. PMID:26622196

  15. Adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style: a mediational model of sexual coercion in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed. PMID:23329647

  16. Prescribing Scalar Curvature on Sn and Related Problems, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.

    Let ( Sn, g0) be the standard n-sphere. The following question was raised by L. Nirenberg. Which function K( x) on S2 is the Gauss curvature of a metric g on S2 conformally equivalent to g0? Naturally one may ask a similar question in higher dimensional case, namely, which function K( x) on Sn is the scalar curvature of a metric g on Sn conformally equivalent to g0? We give some apriori estimates for solutions of the prescribed scalar curvature equations for n ? 3 and some existence results which are quite natural extensions of previous results of Chang and Yang ([CY2]) and Bahri and Coron ([BC2]) for n = 2, 3. For n = 3 such estimates have been obtained by Schoen and Zhang (see [Sc2] and [Z]). As a byproduct of the blow up analysis completed here for n ? 3 we have essentially extended all the results in [Lil-3] for n = 3, 4 to higher dimensional cases. In [Lil-3], a procedure of gluing approximate solutions into genuine solutions has been completed for subcritical equations corresponding to the scalar curvature equations. This procedure is an adaptation of some "gluing technique" for periodic ode's and periodic subcritical pde's via variational methods originally introduced by Séré ([Se]) and Coti-Zelati and Rabinowitz ([CR1-2]). See also an earlier related paper by Coti-Zelati et al. ([CES]). Now we can pass to limit and obtain our results for n ? 3. In particular we show that C? scalar curvature functions are C0 dense among functions which are positive somewhere. This extends the Lp density result of Bourguignon and Ezin in [BoE]. The related critical exponent equations -? u = K( x) u( n+2)/( n-2) in Rn with K( x) being periodic in one of the variables are also studied and infinitely many positive solutions (module translations by its periods) are obtained under some additional mild hypotheses on K( x). The main results in this paper have been announced in [Li5].

  17. TECHNICAL REPORTS Water quality concerns have arisen related to rice (Oryza sativa

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 304 Water quality concerns have arisen related to rice (Oryza sativa L.) field applications. Water quality concerns have arisen in relation to the potential increase in DOC concentration drain water, which has the potential to contribute large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC

  18. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National...' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was formed (1) to develop a more consistent and...

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related

  20. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Eickhoff, Mark; Ma, Mark; Pas, Sylvia

    2005-06-01

    Progressive mask defect problems such as crystal growth or haze are key yield limiters for DUV lithography, especially in 300mm fabs. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So, a high-resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but the big question is: "how often do fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? This re-inspection frequency should ideally be the most cost-effective frequency at which there is minimum threat for a yield loss. Previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. Other related recent work was done 2004 BACUS conference which is dedicated to DRAM fab data. In this paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on a large volume of data from an advanced logic fab. This work will compliment previous work in this area done with the data from a DRAM fab. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  1. The association between direct and relational bullying and behaviour problems among primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wolke, D; Woods, S; Bloomfield, L; Karstadt, L

    2000-11-01

    The prevalence of direct and relational bullying and their differential relationship to behaviour problems in young primary school children was investigated. Individual interviews were conducted with 1982 children aged 6 9 years (mean age 7.6 years) and 1639 parents completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire regarding behaviour problems of their children. Of the 1639 children with both data sets, 4.3% were direct bullies, 39.8 % victims, and 10.2% both bullied and were victimised frequently (bully/victims). The rates for relational bullying were 1.1% bullies, 37.9% victims, and 5.9% bully/victims. All children involved in direct bullying had significantly increased total behaviour problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, and peer problem scores, and lower prosocial behaviour scores compared to those not involved in bullying (neutrals). Findings were similar for relational bullying involvement and behaviour problems for bully/victims and victims but less pronounced. Relational bullies had the lowest behaviour problem scores while being rated the least prosocially inclined children, consistent with the concept of a cool manipulator. Overall, direct bully/victims and children who were involved in both direct and relational bullying behaviour had the highest rates of behaviour problems. No relationship between victimisation and increased emotional problems were found. Those involved in bullying behaviour who show externalising and hyperactivity problems in primary school may be at increased risk for persistent conduct problems. Different interventions may be needed for those involved in relational bullying only, both direct and relational bullying, and those with additional behaviour problems. PMID:11099116

  2. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-08-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons.

  3. Relations between local and global perceptual image quality and visual masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Mushfiqul; Patil, Pranita; Hagan, Martin T.; Chandler, Damon M.

    2015-03-01

    Perceptual quality assessment of digital images and videos are important for various image-processing applications. For assessing the image quality, researchers have often used the idea of visual masking (or distortion visibility) to design image-quality predictors specifically for the near-threshold distortions. However, it is still unknown that while assessing the quality of natural images, how the local distortion visibilities relate with the local quality scores. Furthermore, the summing mechanism of the local quality scores to predict the global quality scores is also crucial for better prediction of the perceptual image quality. In this paper, the local and global qualities of six images and six distortion levels were measured using subjective experiments. Gabor-noise target was used as distortion in the quality-assessment experiments to be consistent with our previous study [Alam, Vilankar, Field, and Chandler, Journal of Vision, 2014], in which the local root-mean-square contrast detection thresholds of detecting the Gabor-noise target were measured at each spatial location of the undistorted images. Comparison of the results of this quality-assessment experiment and the previous detection experiment shows that masking predicted the local quality scores more than 95% correctly above 15 dB threshold within 5% subject scores. Furthermore, it was found that an approximate squared summation of local-quality scores predicted the global quality scores suitably (Spearman rank-order correlation 0:97).

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  5. Problems and Comments on Relations Section 9.1, Problems: 1, 26, 32, 49, 55

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Klaus

    . Notice that a,b Rn iff there are c1,c2,, ,cn 1 such that aRc1,c1Rc2, ,cn 1Rb R Rn | n 1 is called if and only if Rn R,n 1. Thus R is transitive iff R R. (Notice that R R ) That the relation R is reflexive the diagonal makes it reflexive. R is called the reflexive closure of A. To make R symmetric, one needs to add

  6. Comparing Health-Related Quality of Life of Cancer Patients under Chemotherapy and of Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Vrettos, Ioannis; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Pappa, Evelina; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Haritos, Dionysios; Papadopoulos, Angelos A.; Niakas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Cancer is a major disorder physically and psychologically affecting both patients and their caregivers. In this study, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patient-caregiver dyads during the period of chemotherapy was assessed. Material and Methods. Two hundred twenty-two cancer patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled in the study, which was conducted from October 2008 to March 2009. HRQoL was evaluated with EQ-5D. Results. The mean age of the sample was 57.4 and 48.9 for patients and caregivers, respectively. The EQ-5D descriptive system indicates that female patients more frequently experience anxiety and depression than male patients. Male and higher-education caregivers had higher VAS scores, while demographic factors did not seem to influence patients' HRQoL. Anxiety and depression of caregivers were correlated with patients' problems in self-care and usual activities. Conclusions. Quality of life is highly influenced during the period of chemotherapy for both patients and caregivers and is often under reported. Interventions that can improve HRQoL, especially in the domain of mental health for both cancer patients and their caregivers, need to be implemented. PMID:22619584

  7. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere. PMID:12676211

  8. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  9. The Role of Attachment Styles and Interpersonal Problems in Suicide-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Reed, L. Ian; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N= 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific interpersonal problems differentially mediated the relations between attachment style and type of suicide-related behaviors. These findings suggest the importance of distinguishing between these groups of behaviors in terms of etiological pathways, maintenance processes, and treatment interventions. PMID:19014310

  10. Inferring the Relative Quality of Reanalysis Data from a Historical Reforecast Using a Vorticity Equation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, C. A.; Herrmann, M.; Huang, H.

    2011-12-01

    The improvement of numerical weather prediction models in recent decades has led to a measurable decrease in forecast error, for instance as quantified by the 500-hPa geopotential height anomaly correlation. This improvement can be attributed in part to the refinements in the numerical architecture and the representation of physical processes in the model. It is more difficult to attribute the reduction in forecast error to improvements in the accuracy of the models' initial conditions, not least because of the complexity of the data assimilation process. As a contribution to this problem that will also be pedagogically useful, a reforecast experiment was conducted using a simple regional vorticity equation model for the 500-hPa flow over North America. This model is comparable in complexity to the Charney-Fjörtoft-von Neumann model used for the first numerical weather prediction experiment in 1949. Six-hourly predictions are made out to 36 hours for the period from 1948-2010, using the NCEP Reanalysis dataset for the initial conditions. Because initialization is trivial for this "filtered" model, one can clearly attribute the change in forecast skill to the changing quality of the initial state. The choice of the 500 hPa level is relevant since it will reflect the effect of the significant change in the density of upper-air observations from the mid- to late 20th Century. As an important byproduct of this exercise, a trend of improved forecast over time will imply an improved relative quality of the reanalysis data for the mid-troposphere. Therefore, the experiment serves two purposes of studying the forecast error and checking the quality of the reanalysis. An analysis of selected cases indicates that the predictions made for the 21st century have smaller errors compared to those made for the 1950s. A comprehensive analysis for the whole set of forecast is underway and the outcome will be discussed.

  11. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    health effects and related risk factors for workers in indoor environments,health effects (e.g. , asthma) of indoor work environments.health effects, and evidence of occurrence in either residential, educational, or occupational indoor environments.

  12. Working Memory and Impulsivity Predict Marijuana-Related Problems Among Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the US, only a small portion of users go on to develop dependence, suggesting that there are substantial individual differences in vulnerability to marijuana-related problems among users. Deficits in working memory and high trait impulsivity are two factors that may place marijuana users at increased risk for experiencing related problems. Methods Using baseline data from an experimental study that recruited 104 frequent marijuana users (M=71.86% of prior 60 days, SD=22%), we examined the associations of working memory and trait impulsivity with marijuana-related problems. Results Lower working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test B, but not short-term memory capacity, predicted more marijuana-related problems. Higher trait impulsivity scores were independently associated with greater number of problems. Conclusions Results suggest that marijuana users with reduced executive cognitive ability are more susceptible to developing problems related to their use. Trait impulsivity and executive working memory appear to be independent risk factors for experiencing marijuana-related problems. PMID:23312340

  13. Factors Associated With Problems for Adolescents Returning to the Classroom After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; Leddy, John J; Darling, Scott R; Rieger, Brian P; Mashtare, Terry L; Sharma, Tania; Willer, Barry S

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine factors in the clinic setting associated with concussion-related problems in the school setting. A total of 91 student athletes, 13 to 19 years old, completed the SCAT2 and computerized testing during their initial visit to the clinic. During a follow-up telephone interview, one-third reported problems with return to school. The presence of problems reported in school was associated with severity of concussion as represented by recovery time and the overall number of symptoms at the first clinic visit. Gender, age, and previous concussions were not associated with school problems. Athletes with computerized test scores below the ninth percentile were more likely to report school problems. The current study offers some descriptive information for clinicians and ideas for future research related to adolescent athletes with concussion and problems with return to the classroom. PMID:26084537

  14. Relating Fiber Quality to Yarn Quality Utilizing Data from Multiple Years.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year collaborative effort was undertaken at both the Cotton Quality Research Station and the Southern Regional Research Center to assess leading cotton varieties. The two locations independently measured fiber properties for the same cottons for five years. The fiber from each year was proc...

  15. Effects of Modality Change on Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Patricia; Krasnoff, Joanne B.; Kuskowski, Michael; Frassetto, Lynda; Johansen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with ESRD requiring renal replacement have impaired quality of life (HRQoL), and there is general consensus that HRQoL improves with successful transplant and evidence of improvement with frequent hemodialysis. This study reports changes in HRQoL associated with changes in treatment modality to daily hemodialysis (DHD) and transplant among patients requiring renal replacement. Methods This cohort study had assessments at baseline and 6-months following modality change. Subjects were non-diabetic individuals receiving conventional hemodialysis who a) remained on conventional hemodialysis (n=13), b) changed to daily hemodialysis (DHD) (n=10), or c) received a living donor transplant (n=20). Thirty-four healthy controls were assessed once for comparison. HRQoL was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument. The Physical Functioning and Physical Composite Scale Scores were primary outcomes. Results Transplantation resulted in significant improvements in six of eight generic scales and the physical composite scale (PCS). Those changing to DHD had significant improvements in Physical Function and PCS scales. Those remaining on dialysis remained lower than controls on all scales except for Vitality; the transplant group remained lower than controls only on the Vitality and General Health scales. Transplant resulted in significant improvements in 4 of the 7 disease-specific scales (symptoms, effects and burden of kidney disease, work). DHD resulted in improvements in the effects of kidney disease. Conclusions Modality change to transplant results in significant improvement in HRQoL, achieving levels similar to controls. Change to daily hemodialysis improves only select HRQoL domains, and remains low in disease-specific domains. PMID:22413899

  16. Child Reactivity Moderates the Over-Time Association between Mother-Child Conflict Quality and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    Constructive parent-child conflict interactions that teach children to problem-solve and negotiate can enhance children's social adjustment. This paper identifies constructive and destructive qualities of mother-child conflict and explores whether child temperament moderated associations with changes in externalizing problems over time. One…

  17. Are attitudes the problem, and do psychologists have the answer? Relational cognition underlies intergroup relations.

    PubMed

    Waldzus, Sven; Schubert, Thomas W; Paladino, Maria-Paola

    2012-12-01

    The focus on negative attitudes toward other groups has led to a dichotomy between the prejudice reduction and the collective action approach. To solve the resulting problems identified by Dixon et al., we suggest analyzing the psychological processes underlying the construction of relationships (and their alternatives) between own and other groups. PMID:23164371

  18. Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Frances L; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems, alcohol problems and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms co-occur at a high rate and are heritable in adolescence. The ?-aminobutyric acid A receptor, ?2 gene (GABRA2) is associated with a broad spectrum of externalizing problems and disinhibitory-related traits. The current study tested whether two important forms of disinhibition in adolescence, impulsivity and sensation seeking, mediated the effects of GABRA2 on hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, conduct problems, and alcohol problems. Participants were assessed at two waves (11-17 and 12-18 years old; N = 292). Analyses used the GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, which tags the two complementary (yin-yang) GABRA2 haplotypes. Multiple informants reported on adolescents' impulsivity and sensation seeking and adolescents self-reported their hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, conduct problems and lifetime alcohol problems. Impulsivity mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems, hyperactive-inattentive symptoms, and conduct problems, whereas sensation seeking mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems (AA/AG genotypes conferred risk). GABRA2 directly predicted adolescent alcohol problems, but the GG genotype conferred risk. Results suggest that there may be multiple pathways of risk from GABRA2 to adolescent externalizing problems, and suggest important avenues for future research. PMID:25804982

  19. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

  20. Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who…

  1. Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki

    2010-12-15

    The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

  2. Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

  3. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  4. Selected aspects of absence at work and work-related health problems in Polish enterprises

    PubMed Central

    P?ci??o, Ma?gorzata

    2015-01-01

    Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. PMID:26647948

  5. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the findings highlight the significant variability in drinking patterns among Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:22686146

  6. Interpretation of air quality in relation to monitoring station's surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W. T.; Cheung, C. S.

    This study explores the appropriateness of the locality of air monitoring stations which are meant to indicate air quality in the area. Daily variations in NO 2 and PM 10 concentrations at 14 monitoring stations in Hong Kong are examined. The daily variations in NO 2 at a number of background monitoring stations exhibit patterns similar to variations in traffic volume while variations in PM 10 concentration exhibit less discernible pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are applied to analyse NO 2 and PM 10 measurements between January 2001 and December 2005. The results show that NO 2 concentrations at background stations within the urban area are highly influenced by vehicle emissions. The effect vehicle emission has on NO 2 at stations within new towns is smaller. CA results also show that variations in PM 10 concentrations are distinguished by the area the station is located in. PCA results show that there are two principal components (PC's) associated with variations in roadside concentration of PM 10. The strong influence of roadside emissions towards concentrations of NO 2 and PM 10 at a number of urban background stations may be due to their close proximity to busy roadways and the high density of surrounding tall buildings, which creates an enclosure that hinders dispersion of roadside emissions and results in air pollution behaviour that reflects variation in traffic.

  7. Quality of Parental Homework Involvement: Predictors and Reciprocal Relations with Academic Functioning in the Reading Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both…

  8. A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

  9. Age-related decrease in male reproductive success and song quality in Drosophila montana

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    Age-related decrease in male reproductive success and song quality in Drosophila montana Anneli of aging on male reproductive success and song quality in Drosophila montana. We analyzed the reproductive of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland In the present paper, we have studied the effects

  10. Web-Based Student Evaluations of Professors: The Relations between Perceived Quality, Easiness and Sexiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, James; Mitchell, John; Stinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    College students critique their professors' teaching at RateMyProfessors.com, a web page where students anonymously rate their professors on Quality, Easiness, and Sexiness. Using the self-selected data from this public forum, we examine the relations between quality, easiness, and sexiness for 3190 professors at 25 universities. For faculty with…

  11. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  12. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  13. Rural-Urban Analyses of Health-Related Quality of Life among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert J.; Zhu, Li; Schiffer, Randolph; Radin, Dagmar; James, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional construct including aspects of life quality or function that are affected by physical health and symptoms, psychosocial factors, and psychiatric conditions. HRQOL gives a broader measure of the burden of disease than physical impairment or disability levels. Purpose: To…

  14. Relations among Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Classroom Quality, and Children's Language and Literacy Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among preschool teachers' self-efficacy (n = 67), classroom quality (instructional and emotional support), and children's (n = 328) gains in print awareness and vocabulary knowledge over an academic year in the US. Results indicated that teachers' self-efficacy and classroom quality served as significant and…

  15. Treatment-related problems experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wagland, R; Richardson, A; Armes, J; Hankins, M; Lennan, E; Griffiths, P

    2015-09-01

    Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy experience a range of treatment-related problems, and variations in prevalence exist between treatment centres. A scoping review was undertaken to map reported rates of problem prevalence in the literature. This will inform development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to monitor prevalence and severity of problems over time and assist service providers optimise supportive care provision. Two databases (Embase and Medline) were searched from 2002 to 2013. Fifty one published papers and conference abstracts reporting problem prevalence rates were identified. The papers reported 98 different problems, from which a typology of 27 problem domains was developed, including both physical symptoms and psychosocial issues. The problem domains most often studied were nausea, vomiting and fatigue. This review reflects the chemotherapy-associated problems to which researchers attach the most importance. The range in reported prevalence across studies was very broad (e.g. nausea: 9-74%), with even less frequently studied problems showing high prevalence in some studies (e.g. gynaecological problems: up to 94%). The wide variation in prevalence and range of problems experienced raises challenges for PROM development. Patients should therefore be involved in consensus exercises to assist selection of items to ensure any instrument is complete and robust. PMID:25296389

  16. On relative periodic solutions of the planar general three-body problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1975-01-01

    We describe two relatively simple reductions to order 6 for the planar general three-body problem. We also show that this reduction leads to the distinction between two types of periodic solutions: absolute or relative periodic solutions. An algorithm for obtaining relative periodic solutions using heliocentric coordinates is then described. It is concluded from the periodicity conditions that relative periodic solutions must form families with a single parameter. Finally, two such families have been obtained numerically and are described in some detail.

  17. The Relation Between Reporting Quality and Financing and Investment: Evidence from Changes in Financing Capacity

    E-print Network

    Balakrishnan, Karthik

    We use changes in the value of a firm's real estate assets as an exogenous change in a firm's financing capacity to examine (1) the relation between reporting quality and financing and investment conditional on this change, ...

  18. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age=22.95, SD=5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  19. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  20. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  1. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21984861

  2. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  3. [Health-quality problems of paddy soil in the Taihu region].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochang; Cao, Zhihong

    2002-02-01

    The concept of soil health quality was discussed from the angle of sustainable and safe agricultural production and nutritive agricultural products. Based on the data of 13 higher-yield rice-farms and its corresponding irrigated rivers in the Taihu region, problems of health quality occurred in paddy soil were discussed. Owing to the high application of inorganic fertilizers in those farms, high available P and N were observed in paddy soil and river sediments. The contents of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni and Co in paddy soil were still at the level of background values. However, it was found that some rivers were seriously polluted by Cu, Zn and Pb. Several cases of point-source pollution of heavy metal were found in paddy soil in the region. The contents of DDT and HCH in soils and river sediments were lower than their maximum allowable concentrations. The results of lower selenium content in agricultural product owing to lower content in paddy soil indicted that the Taihu region is a selenium-deficient area. PMID:11993127

  4. Antimicrobial Use-Related Problems and Predictors among Hospitalized Medical In-Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadesa, Tadele Mekuriya; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn

    2015-01-01

    Background The spread of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries is associated with complex and interconnected factors, such as excessive and unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials, increased self-prescribing by the people and poor quality of available antimicrobials. Moreover, the failure to implement infection control practices and the dearth of routine susceptibility testing and surveillance magnify the problems. This may spread the inappropriateness of prescribing, ending up with the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Objective The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial use related problems and associated factors among patients admitted at Jimma University specialized hospital. Methods A hospital based prospective observational study design was employed at medical wards of Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia. Data collected from patient medication charts and from the patients was analyzed using SPSS, version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. Results Out of 152 study participants, at least one antimicrobial use problem was identified among 115(75.7%). Accordingly, additional antimicrobials were needed by 45(29.6%) of the patients, whereas they were unnecessary among 44(28.9%). Similarly, 17% of the patients were noncompliant to at least one antimicrobial therapy, while 8.6% experienced at least one type of adverse drug reaction. On the other hand, the coverage of the infectious medical condition in the national guidelines (AOR = 4.888) and the duration of hospital stay (AOR = 3.086) were the determinants of the antimicrobial use problems. Conclusion Most of the antimicrobial use problems identified were related to delay of initiation of effective antimicrobials and excessive use; use without indication or using duplicates of broad spectrum antimicrobials or use for longer duration than recommended. The coverage of the infectious medical condition in the national treatment guidelines and the duration of hospital stay were the determinants of the antimicrobial use problems. PMID:26649431

  5. Effects of qigong training on health-related quality of life, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Louisa M Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Joanne W Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

  6. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality.

  7. Oral health-related quality of life in children with orofacial clefts.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jared A; Vig, Katherine W L; Firestone, Allen R; Mercado, Ana; da Fonseca, Marcio; Johnston, William

    2013-03-01

    Objectives : To determine the impact of orofacial clefts on the oral health-related quality of life of affected children and whether the oral health-related quality of life of children with orofacial clefts differs among different age groups. To assess whether the responses of children with orofacial clefts differ from the caregivers' perceptions of their child's oral health-related quality of life and compare with data from a control group. Design : Cross-sectional study. Patients/Setting : A total of 75 subjects with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (mean age, 13.0 years) from the Nationwide Children's Hospital Craniofacial Anomalies Clinic, as well as their caregivers, and 75 control subjects (mean age, 13.9 years). Main Outcome Measure : Self-reported oral health-related quality of life measured with the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a reliable and valid questionnaire designed for use with children and teenagers. Results : Children with orofacial clefts had statistically significant lower quality of life scores than control subjects had for overall oral health-related quality of life, Functional Well-being, and Social Emotional Well-being. There was a statistically significant difference in the interaction of age group and Social-Emotional Well-being between children with orofacial clefts and control children. No statistically significant differences were found between the responses of children with orofacial clefts and their caregivers' reports. Conclusions : Presence of an orofacial cleft significantly decreases overall oral health-related quality of life, Functional Well-being, and Social-Emotional Well-being in children and adolescents. The negative impact of orofacial clefts on Social-Emotional Well-being is greater in 15- to 18-year-olds than in younger age groups. Children with orofacial clefts and their caregivers had very similar evaluations of the child's oral health-related quality of life. PMID:22236323

  8. Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jun-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

  9. General relativity problem sheet 8 1. For the linearised theory, show that

    E-print Network

    Dettmann, Carl

    symmetric mass M. Show that proper time is related to coordinate time t by /t = 1 - 3M/R. Hint: use a black hole. It is perturbed so that the angular momentum is the same, but the energy is slightlyGeneral relativity problem sheet 8 1. For the linearised theory, show that (a) gµ = µ - hµ (b) Rµ

  10. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  11. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  12. Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

  13. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  14. [Current situations and problems of quality control for medical imaging display systems].

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Setojima, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Katsumi; Takada, Katsumi; Okuno, Teiichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging has been shifted rapidly from film to monitor diagnostic. Consequently, Japan medical imaging and radiological systems industries association (JIRA) have recommended methods of quality control (QC) for medical imaging display systems. However, in spite of its need by majority of people, executing rate is low. The purpose of this study was to validate the problem including check items about QC for medical imaging display systems. We performed acceptance test of medical imaging display monitors based on Japanese engineering standards of radiological apparatus (JESRA) X-0093*A-2005 to 2009, and performed constancy test based on JESRA X-0093*A-2010 from 2010 to 2012. Furthermore, we investigated the cause of trouble and repaired number. Medical imaging display monitors had 23 inappropriate monitors about visual estimation, and all these monitors were not criteria of JESRA about luminance uniformity. Max luminance was significantly lower year-by-year about measurement estimation, and the 29 monitors did not meet the criteria of JESRA about luminance deviation. Repaired number of medical imaging display monitors had 25, and the cause was failure liquid crystal panel. We suggested the problems about medical imaging display systems. PMID:25892423

  15. An Analysis of Teacher Quality, Evaluation, Professional Development and Tenure as It Relates to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Jim; Sparks, Tara J.; Taylor-Johnson, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Educational leaders nationwide have been challenged by ineffective tenured teachers who continue to impact student learning. In the era of No Child Left Behind, educational leaders struggle to ensure that students receive high quality education. This problem-based research project attempted to support state, district and building educational…

  16. MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL FOR PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with a systematic protocol for the quality control of analytical procedures and the problems that arise in the analysis of human or environmental media. It also serves as a guide to the latest and most reliable methodology available for ...

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality of the Tatlicay aquifer and relation to the adjacent evaporitic formations (Cankiri, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Apayd?n, Ahmet; Akta?, Sibel Demirci

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important hydrogeologic problems in and adjacent areas of evaporitic formations is severe quality degradation of groundwaters. These kinds of groundwaters contain high content of dissolved solids and generally have some limitations for use. Tatlicay basin (north-central Turkey) is an example to effects of the evaporites on groundwater quality in the adjacent alluvium aquifer. Gypsum and anhydrites in the two evaporite formations (Bayindir and Bozkir) effect of the groundwater quality in the alluvium adversely, by dissolution of the evaporites by surface drainage and infiltration into the alluvium aquifer (widespread effect) and by infiltration of low quality gypsum springs (local effect) into the aquifer. Evaporitic formations significantly increased EC, TDS, Ca and SO(4) parameters in the alluvium aquifer in the central and downstream regions. EC has increased roughly from 500-800 to 1,700-2,000 ?S/cm, Ca has roughly increased from 3-4 to 10 meq/l, SO(4) has increased 0.5-1 to 11-12 meq/l. Consequently, three clusters were distinguished in the basin; (1) nonevaporitic waters in low TDS, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO(4), (2) diluted waters in high TDS and relatively high Cl, moderate-relatively high Na, Ca, Mg, SO(4), (3) gypsum springs in highest TDS, Ca, SO(4), but moderate Mg and low Na, Cl. PMID:21573710

  18. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  19. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  20. Health-related quality of life measurement in oncology: advances and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cella, David; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-related quality of life has a long history in the field of oncology treatment and research. We present a brief history of how the concept has evolved in oncology and the sentinel events in that process. We then focus on advances in measurement science as applied to health-related quality of life measures and argue that a compelling new set of measurement tools is now available, including brief, generic measures with good psychometric qualities (exemplified by the new PROMIS measures and the possibility of a common metric spanning all diseases). The last section of the paper turns to emerging opportunities for these measures, including in clinical trials, healthcare reform, and regulatory deliberations. Our conclusion is that health-related quality of life is more important today than it has ever been, and that the time has come for an even wider adoption of the new measures. PMID:25730723

  1. Funding Source and Research Report Quality in Nutrition Practice-Related Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Esther F.; Parrott, J. Scott; Cummins, Deborah S.; Splett, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background The source of funding is one of many possible causes of bias in scientific research. One method of detecting potential for bias is to evaluate the quality of research reports. Research exploring the relationship between funding source and nutrition-related research report quality is limited and in other disciplines the findings are mixed. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether types of funding sources of nutrition research are associated with differences in research report quality. Design A retrospective study of research reporting quality, research design and funding source was conducted on 2539 peer reviewed research articles from the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library® database. Results Quality rating frequency distributions indicate 43.3% of research reports were rated as positive, 50.1% neutral, and 6.6% as negative. Multinomial logistic regression results showed that while both funding source and type of research design are significant predictors of quality ratings (?2?=?118.99, p<0.001), the model's usefulness in predicting overall research report quality is little better than chance. Compared to research reports with government funding, those not acknowledging any funding sources, followed by studies with University/hospital funding were more likely to receive neutral vs positive quality ratings, OR?=?1.85, P <0.001 and OR?=?1.54, P<0.001, respectively and those that did not report funding were more likely to receive negative quality ratings (OR?=?4.97, P<0.001). After controlling for research design, industry funded research reports were no more likely to receive a neutral or negative quality rating than those funded by government sources. Conclusion Research report quality cannot be accurately predicted from the funding source after controlling for research design. Continued vigilance to evaluate the quality of all research regardless of the funding source and to further understand other factors that affect quality ratings are warranted. PMID:22163017

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ?30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ?20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ?20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ?20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  3. Health-related quality of life and its determinants in children with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of new therapeutics has led to progress in the early management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their family. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CDH treated according to the most recent concepts and methods outlined above on child survivors’ QoL and their parents’ QoL. Patients and methods This study incorporated a cross-sectional design performed in two PICU (Marseille, France). Families of CDH survivors born between 1999 and 2008 were eligible. The following data were recorded: socio-demographics, antenatal history and delivery, initial hospitalization history. Self-reported data were collected by mail, including current clinical problems of the children (13-symptom list), children’s QoL (Kidscreen-27 questionnaire), and parents’ QoL (Short-Form 36 questionnaire). Children’s QoL score was compared with controls and QoL of survivors of childhood leukemia. Parent’s QoL was compared with controls. Non-parametric statistics were employed. Results Forty-two families agreed to participate and questionnaires were completed by 32 of them. Twenty-one children had a current clinical problems related to CDH. All the QoL scores of CHD survivors were significantly lower compared with controls. The physical well-being dimension was significantly higher for CHD survivors compared with survivors of childhood leukemia. Gastro-esophageal reflux at discharge, antenatal diagnosis, length of stay in the PICU, and neuropsychological and respiratory issues significantly impacted QoL scores of children. The parents of CHD survivors had significantly poorer score in emotional role dimension compared with controls. Conclusion The impact of CDH on QoL seems to be important and must be understood by clinicians who treat these children and their parents. PMID:23786966

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Korfage, Ida J. Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Mols, Floortje; Poll-Franse, Lonneke van de; Kruitwagen, Roy; Ballegooijen, Marjolein van

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. Methods and Materials: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive after Jan 2006 were identified through the cancer registry. Generic HRQoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, EQ-5D), cervical cancer-specific HRQoL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module), and anxiety (6-item State Trait Anxiety Inventory) were assessed and compared with a reference population (n = 349). Data for tumor characteristics at diagnosis and disease progression were available. Results: A total of 291 women responded (69%), with a mean age of 53 {+-} 13 (SD) years (range, 31-88 years). Treatment had consisted of surgery (n = 195) or a combination of therapies (n = 75); one woman had not been treated. Of all women, 85% were clinically disease free, 2% had a recurrence/metastasis, and in 13%, this was unknown. After controlling for background characteristics (age, education, job and marital status, having children, and country of birth), generic HRQoL scale scores were similar to the reference population, except for worse mental health in survivors. The most frequent symptoms were crampy pain in the abdomen or belly (17%), urinary leakage (15%), menopausal symptoms (18%), and problems with sexual activity. Compared with the 6-10-year survivors, more sexual worry and worse body image were reported by the 2-5-year survivors. Compared with surgery only, especially primary radiotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of treatment-related side effects, also after controlling for age and disease stage at diagnosis and follow-up. Conclusions: Most cervical cancer survivors were coping well, although their mental health was worse than in the reference population. Even after 2-10 years, radiotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of treatment-related side effects.

  5. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  6. Long Term Health-Related Quality of Life in Survivors of Sepsis in South West Wales: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Ceri E.; Davies, Gareth; Evans, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Survivors of sepsis report persistent problems that can last years after hospital discharge. The main aim of this study was to investigate long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of SIRS and sepsis compared with Welsh normative data, controlling for age, length of stay and pre-existing conditions. The second aim was to investigate any differences in long-term health-related quality of life specifically with the patients categorised into three groups; SIRS, uncomplicated sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods A prospective study design was used in order to investigate all sepsis patients either presenting to the Emergency Department or admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a regional trauma centre. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected and surviving patients were sent a SF-12v2 survey at between six months to two years post-hospital discharge. Results Quality of life was significantly reduced in all patients when compared to local normative data (all p<0.0001). Reductions in the physical components of health-related quality of life were more pronounced in severe sepsis/septic shock patients when compared to uncomplicated sepsis and SIRS patients, when controlling for age, pre-existing conditions, hospital and ICU length of stay. Conclusions This is the first observational study to specifically focus on the different groups of SIRS and sepsis patients to assess long-term quality of life. Local population norms were used for comparison, rather than UK-wide norms that fail to reflect the intricacies of a country’s population. PMID:25549097

  7. Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josué; Witte, Claudia; Lange, Benjamin; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; von Steinbüchel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. Methods The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations), functional status (developmental status), developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional) behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education). Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3–5 years old) participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. Results Model fit was ?2?=?5.5; df?=?6; p?=?0.48; SRMR ?=?0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located) and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. Conclusions The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations. PMID:25415751

  8. Impact of Short-Stay Urethroplasty on Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient's Perception of Timing of Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Henry; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate health-related quality of life in patients after a short-stay or outpatient urethroplasty. Methods. Over a 2-year period a validated health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, EuroQol (EQ-5D), was administered to all patients after urethroplasty. Postoperatively patients were offered to be sent home immediately or to stay overnight. Within 24 hours after discharge they were assessed for mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety and depression. An additional question assessing timing of discharge was added to the survey. Clinical and operative characteristics were examined. Results. Forty-eight patients after anterior urethroplasty completed the survey. Mean age and mean stricture length were 51.6 years (21–78) and 60?mm (5–200?mm), respectively. Most etiologies were idiopathic (50% n = 24), trauma (19%, n = 9), and iatrogenic (19%, n = 9). Forty-one patients (85%) stayed overnight, while 7 patients (15%) chose to be discharged the same day. Overall, ninety-six percent were discharged within 23 hours of surgery. In the short-stay and the outpatient cohorts, 90% and 86%, respectively, felt they were discharged on time. No patient reported a severe problem with postoperative pain or mobility. Conclusions. The majority of patients discharged soon after their procedure felt that discharge timing was appropriate and their health-related quality of life was only minimally affected. PMID:26494996

  9. The Problem of Time and Quantum Cosmology in the Relational Particle Mechanics Arena

    E-print Network

    Edward Anderson

    2013-02-12

    This article contains a local solution to the notorious Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle. The Problem of Time is that `time' in GR and `time' in ordinary quantum theory are mutually incompatible notions, which is problematic in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of Quantum Gravity. Four frontiers to this resolution in full GR are identified, alongside three further directions not yet conquered even for the relational triangle. This article is also the definitive review on relational particle models originally due to Barbour (2003: dynamics of pure shape) and Barbour and Bertotti (1982: dynamics of shape and scale). These are exhibited as useful toy models of background independence, which I argue to be the `other half' of GR to relativistic gravitation, as well as the originator of the Problem of Time itself. Barbour's work and my localized extension of it are shown to be the classical precursor of the background independence that then manifests itself at the quantum level as the full-blown Problem of Time. In fact 7/8ths of the Isham--Kuchar Problem of Time facets are already present in classical GR; even classical mechanics in relational particle mechanics formulation exhibits 5/8ths of these! In addition to Isham, Kuchar and Barbour, the other principal authors whose works are drawn upon in building this Problem of Time approach are Kendall (relational models only: pure-shape configuration spaces), Dirac, Teitelboim and Halliwell (Problem of Time resolving components). The recommended scheme is a combination of the Machian semiclassical approach, histories theory and records theory.

  10. Prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Lensing, S; Horton, J A; Lovejoy, J; Zaghloul, S; Forrester, I; McGee, B B; Bogle, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess demographic and geographic differences in prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1991 and 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults 18 years or older. RESULTS: Less educated African American women and women of other minority groups who were aged 35 to 64 years reported the highest prevalence of health problems. Geographic differences involved prevalence of hypertension, health status, and insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific demographic subgroups and geographic areas with a high risk of health problems are in particular need of targeted interventions. PMID:10474563

  11. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    The physicists of the early 20th century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: 1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and 2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early 20th century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause self-ionization. Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has prov...

  12. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; O’Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger—but not discrimination-specific anger—was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  13. Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between sexual abuse and behavior problems in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Cossette, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Maltreated children show poor emotion regulation competencies compared to non-maltreated children. Emotion regulation has been found to mediate the association between maltreatment and behavior problems in children. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion regulation (ER), and internalized and externalized behavior problems in preschoolers using conditional process analyses. ER competencies were assessed in 127 children aged 41-79 months (62 abused, 65 non-abused) by their parents (N=124) and early childhood educators (N=88) using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (Shields & Cicchetti, 1995, 1997). Behavior problems were evaluated by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000, 2001). ER was found to completely mediate the relation between CSA and internalized behavior problems and partially mediate the relation between CSA and externalized behavior problems. Parents' and educators' evaluations of ER were also found to differ as a function of child gender. The discussion focuses on the relationships among CSA, ER, behavior problems, and child gender. The clinical implications of these findings are also examined. Promoting the optimal development of ER could prevent the emergence and exacerbation of behavior problems in these at-risk children and, in turn, foster resilience. PMID:25712046

  14. Quality of Object Relations and Security of Attachment as Predictors of Early Therapeutic Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Gregory A.; Anderson, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Security of attachment and quality of object relations were measured as predictors of initial impressions of the therapeutic alliance as well as dropout. Fifty-five individual psychotherapy clients were administered the Revised Adult Attachment Scale and the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory prior to their initial therapy…

  15. Quality Analysis of Vehicle-Based Sequence Images Relative Orientation Based on Computer Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.

    2012-08-01

    Analyzed the quality and its influence factors of relative orientation of vehicle-based sequence images by comparing with the result obtained from Position & Orientation System using Direct Geo-referencing. Studies have shown that, under normal circumstances, the image Relative Orientation based on Computer vision is more robust, and under special conditions, it is more practical for analyzing and increasing the quality of vision measurement. Besides these, the method can be borrowed by many surveying and mapping related fields, taking indoor robot mobile environment awareness and unmanned automobile for instance.

  16. Relationships between feeding problems, behavioral characteristics and nutritional quality in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cynthia R; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiqitious in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime behaviors and social, communication, and cognitive levels as well repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, sensory behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, we examined whether feeding habits were predictive of nutritional adequacy. In this sample, we found strong associations between parent reported feeding habits and (1) repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, (2) sensory features, and (3) externalizing and internalizing behavior. There was a lack of association between feeding behaviors and the social and communication deficits of ASD and cognitive levels. Increases in the degree of problematic feeding behaviors predicted decrements in nutritional adequacy. PMID:24664635

  17. Pain and Health-Related Quality of Life in War Veterans with Bilateral Lower Limb Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Abolfazl; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Masumi, Mehdi; Montazeri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background Amputation and pain may have considerable impact on health-related quality of life. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pain on health-related quality of life in a population of war related bilateral lower limb amputees. Materials and Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affairs Foundation (VMAF) database documented 578 patients with bilateral lower limb amputation; 335 consented to the study (response rate = 58%). The majority of participants in the sample were males (96.7%). Types of pain were investigated using a questionnaire. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was investigated using the sf-36 questionnaire. Results About two third of amputees reported phantom pain 66.7% (n = 223) and vertebral column pain 60.9% (n = 204). The most common type of pain was lumbosacral pain 52.8 % (n = 177) followed by neck 18.2 % (n = 61) and thoracic pain 9.6% (n = 32). Back pain affected on vitality, social function, mental health and mental component scale in our cases (P < 0.05). Neck pain affected all components of health-related quality of life (P < 0.05). Thoracic pain affected quality of life significantly (P < 0.05). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that none of the three spinal column pains including neck, thoracic and lumbosacral pain resulted in poor physical or mental component scales. Conclusions This study revealed that bilateral lower limb amputees suffer from different types of pain and poor health-related quality of life. Therefore, the assessment and management of all types of pain are necessary to improve quality of life in veterans. PMID:24350107

  18. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight. PMID:21853339

  19. Quality of Life and Related Factors Among People With Spinal Cord Injuries in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghimian, Maryam; Kashani, Fahimeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the biggest health problems. Disabilities resulting from injuries such as spinal disability requires special attention because of their potential reduced to cause adverse effects in different systems of the body. Today, improving the Quality of Life (QOL) in patients with SCIs is an important goal of treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the QOL and related factors among people with SCIs. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 106 patients with SCI were selected through sampling based on census. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a Short-Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire for measuring the QOL among patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software and descriptive and inferential statistics. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean QOL in these patients was 37.1 ± 1.7 years (21 - 65 years) and mean disease duration was 7.3±6 years. The most common injury was paraplegia. Most of the patients have moderate QOL (54.7 %). The results showed a significant relationship between QOL and marital status and employment status (P < 0.05). Also, results showed a significant relationship between QOL and education levels (P = 0.002), age (P = 0.001), and duration of illness (P = 0.001).The highest and lowest scores were 64 ± 7.1 and 36 ± 5.3 for understanding General Health (GH) and role physical, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that patients with SCI have a moderate health-related QOL Determining the QOL is needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses of patients with spinal cord injuries. Planning principles is recommended in order to reform the disability. PMID:26557639

  20. Determinants for a low health-related quality of life in asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Leander, Mai; Lampa, Erik; Janson, Christer; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Uddenfeldt, Monica

    2012-01-01

    People with asthma suffer from impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL), but the determinants of HRQL among asthmatics are not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to study determinants of low HRQL in asthmatics and to study whether the determinants of HRQL differ between sexes and age groups. A cohort of three age groups in Sweden was investigated in 1990 using a questionnaire with focus on respiratory symptoms. To study quality of life, the generic instrument Gothenburg Quality of Life was used. The participants were also investigated with interviews, spirometry, and allergy testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 616 subjects. Fifty-eight per cent (n = 359) of the subjects were women; and 24% were smokers, 22% ex-smokers, and 54% were non-smokers. Women were more likely than men to report poor health-related quality of life. Respiratory symptoms severity was another independent determinant of a lower quality of life as well as airway responsiveness to irritants. Current and former smokers also reported lower quality of life. Finally, absenteeism from school and work was associated with lower quality of life. Factors such as sex, smoking habits, airway responsiveness to irritants, respiratory symptom severity, allergy, and absenteeism from school and work were associated with low HRQL in asthmatics. PMID:22200102

  1. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population. PMID:25807109

  2. Analysis of Postsurgical Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Voice of Patients With Laryngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jieli; Lv, Kexing; Li, Kaichun; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Yihui; Li, Xiaoling; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Aiyun; Wang, Zhangfeng; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the postsurgical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and quality of voice (QOV) of patients with laryngeal carcinoma with an expectation of improving the treatment and HRQOL of these patients.Based on the collection of information of patients with laryngeal carcinoma regarding clinical characteristics (age, TNM stage, with or without laryngeal preservation and/or neck dissection, with or without postoperative irradiation and/or chemotherapy, etc.), QOV using Voice Handicap Index (VIH) scale and HRQOL using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTCQLQ-H&N35 scales, the differences of postsurgical HRQOL related to their clinical characteristics were analyzed using univariate nonparametric tests, the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were analyzed using regression analyses (generalized linear models) and the correlation between QOV and HRQOL analyzed using spearman correlation analysis.A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study, on whom the use of EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and VHI scales revealed that: the differences of HRQOL were significant among patients with different ages, TNM stages, and treatment modalities; the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth; and QOV was significantly correlated with HRQOL.For the patients with laryngeal carcinoma included in our study, the quality of life after open surgeries were impacted by many factors predominated by pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth. It is suggested that doctors in China do more efforts on the patients' postoperative pain and xerostomia management and speech rehabilitation with the hope of improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:26735538

  3. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  4. Drinking patterns and drinking-related problems of Mexican-American husbands and wives.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K; Mora, J; Ames, G

    1991-05-01

    The present research builds on previous studies' findings of alcohol-related gender differences between Mexican-American men and women, through examination of drinking levels, norms and related problems within the context of marriage and family. A survey of husbands and wives in 206 married couples randomly selected from eligible households in East San Jose, California, was carried out. Highlights in our findings include significant gender differences in reports of drinking patterns, frequency of heavier drinking, tangible consequences of drinking and expectancies regarding alcohol. Most notably, correlations were found between husbands' and wives' quantity-frequency drinking measures, the frequency of heavier drinking, tangible consequences of drinking and expectancies regarding alcohol. Although men have higher levels of drinking and greater drinking-related problems, husbands' and wives' patterns are correlated with one another. These links between spouses' drinking-related variables have important implications for family prevention and education about alcohol use. PMID:2046371

  5. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  6. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  7. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality

  8. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  9. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  10. PROBLEMS IN DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND RELATED TOPICS RAISED IN CONNECTION WITH THE CLAY

    E-print Network

    Katok, Anatole

    PROBLEMS IN DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND RELATED TOPICS RAISED IN CONNECTION WITH THE CLAY MATHEMATICS References 45 1. INTRODUCTION At the Clay Mathematics Institute/Mathematical Sciences Research In- stitute these contributions. Thanks are due, therefore, to the Clay Mathematics Insti- tute and the the Mathematical Sciences

  11. The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

  12. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  13. [The course of historical development of treatment approaches to rotator cuff-related problems].

    PubMed

    Akalin, Yilmaz; Atalar, Ata Can

    2003-01-01

    Rotator cuff-related issues and problems first appeared in the medical literature in the eighteenth century. A significant amount of knowledge was obtained on diagnosis and treatment over the twentieth century, most of which is the result of pioneering work of Codman and Neer. In this review, a chronological course of development is tracked to better understand future venues. PMID:14578659

  14. A SINGULAR LIMIT PROBLEM FOR CONSERVATION LAWS RELATED TO THE CAMASSA-HOLM SHALLOW WATER EQUATION

    E-print Network

    A SINGULAR LIMIT PROBLEM FOR CONSERVATION LAWS RELATED TO THE CAMASSA-HOLM SHALLOW WATER EQUATION GIUSEPPE MARIA COCLITE AND KENNETH HVISTENDAHL KARLSEN Abstract. We consider a shallow water equation balance between these two parameters, smooth solutions of the shallow water equation converge

  15. A SINGULAR LIMIT PROBLEM FOR CONSERVATION LAWS RELATED TO THE CAMASSAHOLM SHALLOW WATER EQUATION

    E-print Network

    A SINGULAR LIMIT PROBLEM FOR CONSERVATION LAWS RELATED TO THE CAMASSA­HOLM SHALLOW WATER EQUATION and phrases. shallow water equation, Burgers equation, conservation law, entropy condition, singular limit GIUSEPPE MARIA COCLITE AND KENNETH HVISTENDAHL KARLSEN Abstract. We consider a shallow water equation

  16. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  17. Applications of dynamic scheduling technique to space related problems: Some case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the applications of 'Dynamic Scheduling' technique, which has been invented for the scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing System, to two space related scheduling problems: operation scheduling of a future space transportation system, and resource allocation in a space system with limited resources such as space station or space shuttle.

  18. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  19. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  20. Asymptotic Analysis 52 (2007) 259297 259 On slender shells and related problems

    E-print Network

    Díaz, Jesús Ildefonso

    2007-01-01

    Asymptotic Analysis 52 (2007) 259­297 259 IOS Press On slender shells and related problems phenomenon for several thin slender bodies or shells, with a small curvature in the transversal direction-shaped" structure formed by two slender plates pasted together along two long edges forming a small angle between

  1. Epistemic Profiles and Self-Regulated Learning: Examining Relations in the Context of Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Relations were examined between epistemic profiles, regulation of cognition, and mathematics problem solving. Two hundred sixty-eight students were sampled from undergraduate mathematics and statistics courses. Students completed inventories reflecting their epistemic profiles and learning strategies, and were profiled as rational, empirical, or…

  2. Effective-One-Body approach to the Two-Body Problem in General Relativity

    E-print Network

    Damour, Thibault

    1 Effective-One-Body approach to the Two-Body Problem in General Relativity Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques (Bures-sur-Yvette, France) Thibault Damour #12;2 Renewed importance of 2-body Image: NASA/GSFC #12;Templates for GWs from BBH coalescence Merger: highly nonlinear dynamics

  3. NP-hardness of Deciding Convexity of Quartic Polynomials and Related Problems

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    NP-hardness of Deciding Convexity of Quartic Polynomials and Related Problems Amir Ali Ahmadi, Alex of polynomials of even degree four or higher is strongly NP-hard. By contrast, we show that quasiconvexity in this paper (Theorem 2.1 in Section 2.3) is to show that deciding convexity of polynomials is strongly NP-hard

  4. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  5. Fundamental Problems on Liquids and Related Topics J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81 (2012) SA004

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    the surface tension of a liquid-liquid interface in the presence of ions. We show that can be decreased­4,13­15]. In aqueous systems, the salt effect on the surface tension has been examined extensively for an airFundamental Problems on Liquids and Related Topics J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81 (2012) SA004 c 2012

  6. Problem of the Love-Gannon relation between the asymmetric disturbance field and Dst

    E-print Network

    Problem of the Love-Gannon relation between the asymmetric disturbance field and Dst G. L. Siscoe,1 J. J. Love,2 and J. L. Gannon2 Received 27 April 2012; revised 28 June 2012; accepted 17 July 2012; published 15 September 2012. [1] Love and Gannon (2009) discovered that statistically, over a fifty year

  7. Longitudinal examination of physical and relational aggression as precursors to later problem behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W

    2009-01-01

    Research has addressed the consequences of being a victim of physical and relational aggression but less so the consequences of being an aggressor during adolescence. Consequently, relatively little is known about the extent to which aggression in early adolescence increases the risk of later aggression and other psychosocial problems. This study involves a representative sample of seventh- and ninth-grade students from Washington State (N = 1,942). Students were surveyed on recruitment and then again 1 and 2 years later to learn about ongoing behavior problems, substance use, depression, and self-harm behaviors. Surveys also included measures of several hypothesized promotive factors: attachment to family, school commitment, and academic achievement. Findings suggest that being physically and/or relationally aggressive in grades 7 to 9 increases the risk of aggression and possibly other problem behaviors after accounting for age, gender, race, and a prior measure of each outcome. Independent promotive effects were observed in most analyses, although family attachment appeared a less robust predictor overall. Implications for prevention include acting on the behavior itself and enhancing promotive influences to lessen the risk of agression and other related problems. PMID:19297882

  8. Why Health Behaviour Change (HBC)? Many health problems are related to lifestyle

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Why Health Behaviour Change (HBC)? Many health problems are related to lifestyle factors and motivation. Traditionally health practitioners have encouraged patients to make changes through the provision in facilitating health and lifestyle behaviour changes (eg diet, exercise, medication use), with specific health

  9. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  10. FINAL REPORT ON THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME Free Boundary Problems and Related Topics

    E-print Network

    FINAL REPORT ON THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME Free Boundary Problems and Related Topics Isaac Newton, and other areas have arisen. The Isaac Newton Institute programme (in Spring 2014) was aimed at keeping programme at the Newton Institute has made a significant impact on the development of FBPs from all points

  11. THE DE GIORGI MEASURE AND AN OBSTACLE PROBLEM RELATED TO MINIMAL SURFACES IN

    E-print Network

    Kinnunen, Juha

    THE DE GIORGI MEASURE AND AN OBSTACLE PROBLEM RELATED TO MINIMAL SURFACES IN METRIC SPACES JUHA of a set with minimal perime- ter that separates two disjoint sets in a metric measure space equipped with a doubling measure and supporting a Poincar´e in- equality. A measure constructed by De Giorgi is used

  12. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Czerwi?ska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:26327826

  13. Workplace responsibility, stress, alcohol availability and norms as predictors of alcohol consumption-related problems among employed workers.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert; Munro, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and problems among employed individuals in Alberta, Canada (N = 1,890), and to conduct a multivariate examination of predictors of alcohol consumption-related problems. General alcohol problems were identified by 10%, although very few workers described any specific work-related alcohol problems (1%). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as hypothesized, workplace alcohol availability predicted general alcohol problems. Job responsibility and workplace norms also predicted alcohol problems but only for men. Perceived work stress did not predict alcohol problems. Results support the development of interventions that focus on re-shaping alcohol use norms. PMID:20001695

  14. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  15. [Intercultural nursing: analysis of changes in the perception of relational problems with foreign patients].

    PubMed

    Manara, Duilio F; Isernia, Ilaria; Buzzetti, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Today's society is highly impacted by immigration, as well as healthcare system. It is becoming increasingly common and frequent to establish relationships with patients with different cultural backgrounds. The aim of this study is analyzing Italian nurses' perception of the relational dynamics with foreign patients, to determine its evolution, and to identify the variables which can affect the quality of care. The study is both qualitative and quantitative with descriptive aim, using a questionnaire that assesses the theoretical-practical level of preparation, both perceptive and effective, of nurses when assisting foreign patients. To evaluate the emotional and experiential impact of the relationship with foreign patients, the difficulties encountered while establishing such relationship, and the resolution strategies - both effective and potential. The sample, composed of 101 Italian nurses employed at SanRaffaele Hospital in 6 specific Operational Units, resulted in a total of 91 returned questionnaires during the period May-June 2011. The data was analyzed through statistical instruments and compared to the results of a similar study done in 2004. The experience of intercultural nursing is seen by the sample as interesting and rewarding. The vast majority of nurses have positive responses. The more frequent issues are those connected with communication with foreign patients, and those connected with the increase workload due the presence of foreign patients. Nurses responded to difficulties more with human skills than with specific abilities, and tend to delegate the problem to the Cultural Mediation service. This new issue has a very high impact on nurses. The emerged difficulties have not decreased over time, this due to the lack of a proper policy within health care facilities in recent years, with the exception of a little improvement on the academic education. However the current academic education does not provide solutions useful in the everyday routing. This study, despite the small sample and a rather narrow degree of analysis, likes to draw attention on the topic both of nurses and on health care facilities managerial team in order to develop a effective startegie to deal with the emerged issues. PMID:24083494

  16. A test of vegetation-related indicators of wetland quality in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Newton, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This study was part of an effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantitatively assess the environmental quality or 'health' of wetland resources on regional and national scales. During a two-year pilot study, we tested selected indicators of wetland quality in the U.S. portion of the prairie pothole region (PPR). We assumed that the amount of cropland versus non-cropland (mostly grassland) in the plots containing these basins was a proxy for their quality. We then tested indicators by their ability to discriminate between wetlands at the extremes of that proxy. Amounts of standing dead vegetation were greater in zones of greater water permanence. Depth of litter was greater in zones of greater water permanence and in zones of basins in poor-quality watersheds. Amounts of unvegetated bottom were greater in basins in poor-quality watersheds; lesser amounts occurred in all wetlands during a wetter year. Greater amounts of open water occurred during a wetter year and in zones of greater water permanence. When unadjusted for areas (ha) of communities, plant taxon richness was higher in wet-meadow and shallow-marsh zones in good-quality watersheds than in similar zones in poor-quality watersheds. Wet-meadow zones in good-quality watersheds had greater numbers of native perennials than those in poor-quality watersheds. This relation held when we eliminated all communities in good-quality watersheds larger than the largest communities in poor-quality watersheds from the data set. We conclude that although amounts of unvegetated bottom and plant taxon richness in wet-meadow zones were useful indicators of wetland quality during our study, the search for additional such indicators should continue. The value of these indicators may change with the notoriously unstable hydrological conditions in the PPR. Most valuable would be indicators that could be photographed or otherwise remotely sensed and would remain relatively stable under various hydrological conditions. An ideal set of indicators could detect the absence of stressors, as well as the presence of structures or functions, of known value to major groups of organisms.

  17. Assessing the status of research on violence-related problems among youth.

    PubMed

    Acosta, O M; Albus, K E; Reynolds, M W; Spriggs, D; Weist, M D

    2001-06-01

    Presents results of a systematic review of abstracts on studies related to violence and youth in an effort to identify areas that have received little attention in the psychological literature and to present recommendations for future research. A total of 1,168 empirical articles on violence-related problems in youth were identified by a PsycINFO (American Psychological Association, 1980-1999) search. These articles were then classified in a multidimensional grid, allowing for comparisons among different types of articles. A review of abstracts from these articles indicated that most of the research activity has been descriptive (e.g., reviewing correlates or predictors of violence involvement) or assessment related (e.g., evaluating specific measures). Fewer articles examined the treatment or prevention of violence-related problems among youth. Further, the majority of studies pertained to direct exposure to violence (as a victim or perpetrator), with very few studies looking at the effects of witnessing violence, knowing individuals exposed to violence, or being exposed to violence through the media. Comparing treatment and prevention articles, we found that the least empirical attention was paid to the prevention of violence-related problems in youth, and not a single study was identified through this search that sought to examine the prevention of youth witnessing violence. Implications for future research agendas are discussed. PMID:11393916

  18. Assessing and referring adolescents' health-related social problems: qualitative evaluation of a novel web-based approach.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Sarah A; Hassan, Areej; Krull, Emily G; Pikcilingis, Aaron B; Corliss, Heather L; Woods, Elizabeth R; Fleegler, Eric W

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to examine users' perceptions of a web-based screening and referral system for young adults with health-related social problems. The first 50 patients who used the system also took part in semi-structured interviews. There were 20 patients aged 15-17 years and 30 aged 18-25 years. Completing the web-based screening process took an average of 25 min. Ninety percent of participants reported at least one major health-related social problem and a total of 134 referrals were selected for further assistance. Ninety-six percent of participants said they would recommend the system to a friend or peer, and 80% supported its use for annual screening. Perceived strengths of the system were novelty, privacy, ease of use, relevance, motivation, variety and proximity of referrals, and clinic staff support. Perceived shortcomings were length, sensitivity, navigation challenges and agency availability. The system complemented provider visits and preserved privacy while improving attention to patient needs. Computerized screening and referral tools have potential to improve the quality of care in vulnerable young adults. PMID:23045724

  19. Project Evaluation During Inflation, Revisited: A Solution to Turvey's Relative Price Change Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Steve H.; Wentworth, Roland W.

    1981-12-01

    Recent literature on benefit-cost analysis has dealt with the general problem of project evaluation during inflation. This report extends an earlier analysis in order to illustrate the correct manner for dealing with cases in which relative prices change during the life of a project. A problem posed by Ralph Turvey illustrates the nature of the difficulties which can arise if one fails to account properly for relative price changes. These difficulties can be overcome if one gives explicit attention to the choice of the numeraire to be used in conducting the benefit-cost analysis. Also, unlike cases in which all prices change in the same proportion, correct analyses in the presence of relative price changes require a forecast of general price inflation.

  20. Measuring health-related quality of life for public health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, C H; Moriarty, D G; Zack, M M; Scherr, P A; Brackbill, R

    1994-01-01

    In public health research and practice, quality of life is increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of service need and intervention outcomes. Health-related quality of life measures, including objective and subjective assessments of health, are particularly useful for evaluating efforts in the prevention of disabling chronic diseases. Such data can inform health policy, planning, and practice. Mechanisms for routinely monitoring quality of life of populations at the State and local levels are currently lacking, however. This article discusses the rationale for and concepts measured by four quality of life questions developed for the 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a State-based telephone surveillance system. To encourage quality of life surveillance by States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion held two related workshops, one in December 1991 and the other in June 1992. The workshops convened experts in quality of life and functional status measurement and resulted in the formulation of items for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System on self-perceived health, recent physical and mental health, and recent limitation in usual activities. The criteria, including feasibility and generalizability, considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the workshop participants in the selection and development of these items are discussed. A model that conceptualizes the relationship of quality of life domains measured by the four survey items is presented and validated with preliminary data from the 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Finally, how States can use these measures to track progress towards the Year 2000 goal of improving quality of life is discussed. PMID:7938388

  1. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Methods In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child’s behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. Results ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Conclusion Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children. PMID:26244898

  2. Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

  3. Problems with Using the Normal Distribution – and Ways to Improve Quality and Efficiency of Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Limpert, Eckhard; Stahel, Werner A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Gaussian or normal distribution is the most established model to characterize quantitative variation of original data. Accordingly, data are summarized using the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation, by ± SD, or with the standard error of the mean, ± SEM. This, together with corresponding bars in graphical displays has become the standard to characterize variation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we question the adequacy of this characterization, and of the model. The published literature provides numerous examples for which such descriptions appear inappropriate because, based on the “95% range check”, their distributions are obviously skewed. In these cases, the symmetric characterization is a poor description and may trigger wrong conclusions. To solve the problem, it is enlightening to regard causes of variation. Multiplicative causes are by far more important than additive ones, in general, and benefit from a multiplicative (or log-) normal approach. Fortunately, quite similar to the normal, the log-normal distribution can now be handled easily and characterized at the level of the original data with the help of both, a new sign, x/, times-divide, and notation. Analogous to ± SD, it connects the multiplicative (or geometric) mean * and the multiplicative standard deviation s* in the form * x/s*, that is advantageous and recommended. Conclusions/Significance The corresponding shift from the symmetric to the asymmetric view will substantially increase both, recognition of data distributions, and interpretation quality. It will allow for savings in sample size that can be considerable. Moreover, this is in line with ethical responsibility. Adequate models will improve concepts and theories, and provide deeper insight into science and life. PMID:21779325

  4. A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL) of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measuring HRQL in general injury populations with a generic health state measure to summarize existing knowledge. Methods Injury studies (1995-2009) were identified with main inclusion criteria being the use of a generic health status measure and not being restricted to one specific type of injury. Articles were collated by study design, HRQL instrument used, timing of assessment(s), predictive variables and ability to detect change over time. Results Forty one studies met inclusion criteria, using 24 different generic HRQL and functional status measures (most used were SF-36, FIM, GOS, EQ-5D). The majority of the studies used a longitudinal design, but with different lengths and timings of follow-up (mostly 6, 12, and 24 months). Different generic health measures were able to discriminate between the health status of subgroups and picked up changes in health status between discharge and 12 month follow-up. Most studies reported high prevalences of health problems within the first year after injury. The twelve studies that reported HRQL utility scores showed considerable but incomplete recovery in the first year after discharge. Conclusion This systematic review demonstrates large variation in use of HRQL instruments, study populations, and assessment time points used in studies measuring HRQL of general injury populations. This variability impedes comparison of HRQL summary scores between studies and prevented formal meta-analyses aiming to quantify and improve precision of the impact of injury on population health over time. PMID:21182775

  5. Psychosocial aspects of temporomandibular disorders and oral health-related quality-of-life

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Ossi; Lahti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between psychosocial aspects of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) and, secondly, to investigate the gender differences in these associations using patient and non-patient groups. Materials and methods. The sample of the study consisted of 79 patients with TMD and 70 non-patients. The data was collected by Finnish versions of the RDC/TMD Axis II profile and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The associations between Axis II profile sub-scales and OHIP prevalence were evaluated using chi-square tests, as stratified by group status (TMD patients and non-patient controls) and by gender. The association between OHIP prevalence and Axis II profile sub-scales were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender and group. Results. OHIP prevalence (those reporting at least one problem) was 90.9% in the patient group and 33.3% in the non-patient group (p < 0.001, chi-squared test). OHIP prevalence was higher among those scoring higher on all RDC/TMD Axis II profile sub-scales, i.e. graded chronic pain status, depression and non-specific physical symptoms with pain items included and with pain items excluded. The associations were significant in the non-patient group. Women showed statistically significant associations of OHIP prevalence with all Axis II sub-scales. Among men, OHIP prevalence associated with GCPS and somatization. The logistic regression analysis showed that OHIP prevalence associated significantly with somatization and depression. Conclusions. TMD associate with OHRQoL through multiple ways, linked with depression and somatization. These findings emphasize the importance of early and effective treatment of TMD. PMID:22300221

  6. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  7. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both formulations are solved as initial value problems. As such, no Kutta condition is required at the trailing edge of the airfoil.

  8. Potential problems relative to TDRS/IUS tilt table elevation with failed VRCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J.

    1980-01-01

    Operational concerns and preliminary solution alternatives related to elevating the inertial upper stage/tracking and data relay satellite (IUS/TDRS) with a failed orbiter vernier reaction control system (VRCS) are presented. Problems arise from the combination of TDRS thermal constraints and tilt table constraints (the primary reaction control system (PRCS) cannot be used to hold attitude while the tilt table is being elevated), and the problems are compounded by the minimum PRCS attitude deadband. The potential solution options are affected by the launch window, flight profile, crew procedures, vehicle capability and constraints, and flight rules.

  9. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This second external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volumes I-III (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) r...

  10. A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This first external review draft of the Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Ozone Criteria Document) is being released in January 2005 for public comment and for review by EPA's Clean A...

  12. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  13. Health-related quality of life in overweight youth in the Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is associated with overweight youth seen in clinic settings. However, community-based samples have found more variability in HRQOL, possibly due to sociocultural differences. The Delta Nutrition Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) study investigates ...

  14. Quality of Life, Disability, and Body Mass Index Are Related in Obese Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirtori, Anna; Brunani, Amelia; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Villa, Valentina; Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between health-related quality of life (QoL), disability, and degree of obesity. Adult obese patients (BMI greater than 30) were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II) and the short version of the impact of weight…

  15. Baseline physical health-related quality of life and subsequent depression outcomes in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Gillian L; Mastromauro, Carol A; Seabrook, Rita C; Celano, Christopher M; Rollman, Bruce L; Huffman, Jeff C

    2013-08-15

    Among 137 depressed cardiac patients, lower baseline physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was independently associated with greater depression persistence at 6 months among patients randomized to collaborative care, but not usual care. Low physical HRQoL may impact collaborative care effectiveness and indicate a need for alternate depression treatment. PMID:23747159

  16. Health-related quality of life in obese youth in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is associated with overweight youth seen in clinic settings. However, community-based samples have found more variability in HRQOL, possibly due to sociocultural differences. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta N...

  17. Translating Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Measures: Are There Alternative Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brondani, Mario; He, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Translating existing sociodental indicators to another language involves a rigorous methodology, which can be costly. Free-of-charge online translator tools are available, but have not been evaluated in the context of research involving quality of life measures. To explore the value of using online translator tools to develop oral health-related

  18. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  19. Health-related quality of life with lymphoedema: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip A; Franks, Peter J; Moffatt, Christine J

    2005-03-01

    This article reviews qualitative and quantitative studies that evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in lymphoedema. Qualitative studies reveal a number of factors that can affect HRQoL. These include a lack of understanding of lymphoedema by health professionals and poor information provided to patients. Emotional responses include shock, fear, annoyance, frustration and negative body image. Treatment can be costly in terms of time and disruption to lifestyle. Quantitative studies show that patients with lymphoedema experience greater levels of functional impairment, poorer psychological adjustment, anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased limb volume is poorly related to the impact of lymphoedema on the patient. Factors leading to deficits in quality of life include the frequency of acute inflammatory episodes, the presence of pain, skin quality, lymphoedema in the dominant hand and reduced limb mobility. There is some evidence that the adoption of patient-centred guidelines can improve quality of life in patients with breast-cancer-related lymphoedema. HRQoL is an important outcome in the management of patients with lymphoedema. Further studies must examine how lymphoedema impacts on patients other than those with breast-cancer-related lymphoedema and the consequences to patients of different approaches to care. PMID:16722853

  20. Impact of Arts-Related Activities on the Perceived Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived or experienced quality of life. In the fall of 2006 a questionnaire was mailed out to a random selection of 2000 households in each of five British Columbia communities, and 1027 were returned completed. The total and individual community samples…

  1. Sperm traits in relation to male quality in colonial spawning bluegill

    E-print Network

    Montgomerie, Bob

    Sperm traits in relation to male quality in colonial spawning bluegill S. J. CASSELMAN AND R 2003, Accepted 24 March 2004) Sperm traits (morphology, motility and concentration within ejaculates, Ontario, Canada. Sperm traits varied significantly more among than within males suggesting that some

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  3. Social Indicators Research and Health-Related Quality of Life Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to build a bridge between two intersecting areas of research, social indicators research on the one hand and health-related quality of life research on the other. The first substantive section of the paper introduces key concepts and definitions in the social indicators research tradition, e.g., social indicators,…

  4. Application of an IRT Polytomous Model for Measuring Health Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Antonio J. Rojas; Rojas, Oscar M. Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Item Response Theory (IRT) has advantages for measuring Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) as opposed to the Classical Tests Theory (CTT). Objectives: To present the results of the application of a polytomous model based on IRT, specifically, the Rating Scale Model (RSM), to measure HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30. Methods: 103…

  5. The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale for Higher Education Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…

  6. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  7. Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality

    E-print Network

    Nitrogen enrichment potential of biochar in relation to pyrolysis temperature and feedstock quality, and its release from, biochar made at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 C from three feedstocks:C) decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature irrespective of the feedstock used, both pH and EC slightly

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in the Family Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yangkun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of family caregivers of Chinese stroke patients. One hundred and twenty-three stroke patients consecutively admitted to a stroke clinic and their 123 family caregivers were recruited. The caregivers' HRQOLs were assessed…

  9. Factorial validity of the Delta Healthy Eating Attitudes Scale related to diet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish factorial validity of decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE) and social support (SS) psychosocial constructs and convergent validity related to diet quality. A sample (N=319) of predominantly African American women from the Mississippi Communities fo...

  10. Self-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents Following Traumatic Injury: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Herz, Susanne P.; Zatzick, Douglas F.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper comprehensively reviews the published literature investigating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following general traumatic injury in individuals between birth and 18 years. Studies were not considered if they primarily compared medical treatment options, evaluated physical function but not other aspects of HRQOL, or focused on…

  12. Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that the persistence of atmospheric patterns can be used as precursor for wine quality forecast.

  13. Treatment patterns, treatment satisfaction, severity of disease problems, and quality of life in patients with psoriasis in three Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Hjortsberg, Catharina; Bjarnason, Anton; Gniadecki, Robert; Heikkilä, Hannele; Jemec, Gregor B E; Kragballe, Knud; Miller, Iben M; Svensson, Åke

    2013-07-01

    Biological drugs are expensive, but can reduce symptoms and increase quality of life for patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine quality of life, disease severity and treatment satisfaction in Danish, Finnish and Swedish patients with psoriasis. Based on 12 months' data from patient surveys and chart reviews, 3 treatment groups were identified: topical, systemic and/or biological <12 months, and biological for 12 months. Regression analyses were performed to investigate influence on treatment satisfaction, disease problems and quality of life. Patients treated with biological drugs for 12 months showed the highest treatment satisfaction and the lowest Dermatology Life Quality Index score. A number of patients with topical treatment reported low quality of life, severe or very severe disease problems, and low treatment satisfaction. Some patients with psoriasis may be under-treated and might benefit from a more aggressive treatment strategy. It is important, however, that resource utilization is optimized and patients are not treated with more advanced agents than necessary. PMID:23138500

  14. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526

  15. Health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Montazeri, Ali; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing attention to the concept of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) health-related quality of life has led to the development of tool that aims to measure this concept. Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of psychometric properties of the PCOS health-related quality of life questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A search of database (Pubmed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Scopus and SID) from January1998 to December 2013 yielded 6152 references of which 27 papers remained after review of the titles and abstracts. The reviewers used structural tools to analyze the articles, critically appraise papers, and extract the data. Finally, eight papers met the full inclusion criteria. Results: Studies suggested that the PCOS health-related quality of life questionnaire (PCOSQ)/or its modified version (MPCOSQ) have partial known groups validity. The convergent/divergent validity of the questionnaire also was found to be relatively acceptable. The PCOSQ/MPCOSQ reached acceptable benchmarks for its reliability coefficients. Regarding structural validity, some studies suggested that the PCOSQ/MPCOSQ have an extra dimension (related to menstruation) in addition to its existing dimensions for original or modified versions. Conclusion: The PCOSQ/MPCOSQ showed acceptable content and construct validity, reliability and internal consistency. However, some other properties, particularly those related to factor and longitudinal validity, absolute error of measurement, minimal clinically important difference and responsiveness still need to be evaluated. PMID:26568749

  16. Improved solution methods for an inverse problem related to a population balance model in chemical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Andreas; Krebs, Jochen

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a population balance equation, originating from applications in chemical engineering, is considered and novel solution techniques for a related inverse problem are presented. This problem consists in the determination of the breakage rate and the daughter drop distribution of an evolving drop size distribution from time-dependent measurements under the assumption of self-similarity. We analyze two established solution methods for this ill-posed problem and improve the two procedures by adapting suitable data fitting and inversion algorithms to the specific situation. In addition, we introduce a novel technique that, compared to the former, does not require certain a priori information. The improved stability properties of the resulting algorithms are substantiated with numerical examples.

  17. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment. PMID:26122567

  18. Clinical and technical problems related to acquisition of high-resolution videofluorographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, David M.; Edmonds, Ernest W.; Rowlands, John A.; Toth, B. D.; Porter, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    Teleradiology has been discussed for many years yet its use to thte has been limited. An important factor is the need for adequate image quality so that a diagnosis can be made with confidence. We have developed several generations of digital fluoroscopic units. We now operate four digital fluoroscopic x-ray rooms using large field-ofview intensifiers (40 cm) pulsed progressive readout TV technology and matrix sizes of 1024 X 1024 pixels. This paper will describe how the problems have been addressed. Fluoroscopy is a key component of the imaging armamentarium and digitization of the fluoroscopic image was a major image acquisition problem which has been overcome. The necessary technology with some examples of clinical reluctance will be presented to demonstrate that the digital fluorographic image (videofluorograph) is now ready for teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). We believe that this technology is appropriate for the front-end of a practical teleradiology system. We also briefly discuss the problems in telefluoroscopy. 1.

  19. Biomonitoring of blood heavy metals and reproductive hormone level related to low semen quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Jen; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-12-30

    Reproductive hormones and exposure to environmental metals are correlated with low-quality semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals and reproductive hormones in the blood in addition to other relevant factors to clarify the relationship between these factors and semen quality. We recruited 154 male participants from a reproductive medical center. All participants were provided with a questionnaire on lifestyle implementation. The levels of metals in the blood were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The levels of hormones in the blood were determined using an automatic gamma counter. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the effects of statistically significant risk factors on semen quality by adjusting for relevant confounders and modifiers. After adjusting for the age, education level, and related factors in the multiple logistic regression analyses, we observed that the increased blood Pb levels were significantly and positively associated with low semen quality. High blood Pb levels (>50?g/L) had an 11-fold risk of low semen quality. Our results suggest that progressive motility sperm may be a sensitive indicator of the semen quality among all the semen parameters in Taiwan. PMID:26340548

  20. Relative importance of male and territory quality in pairing success of male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    We studied pairing success in male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in northern Alaska to learn whether males obtaining more females possessed phenotypic traits that influenced female choice directly, whether these traits permitted males to obtain territories favored by females, or whether both processes occurred. The number of females per male varied from zero to three. Several male and territory traits were significantly correlated with number of females per male. We used multiple regression to obtain a single measure of male quality and a single measure of territory quality. These measures of male and territory quality correlated with each other and with male pairing success. We used path analysis to separate direct effects of male quality on pairing success from indirect effects due to high-quality males obtaining high-quality territories. Both direct and indirect pathways had significant effects on pairing success, and direct and indirect effects of male traits on pairing success were about equal. This study illustrates an analytical approach for estimating the relative importance of direct and indirect causal relationships in natural systems.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life (Hr-Qol) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishakha; Shivkumar, Saumya; Gupta, Omprakash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quality of life is an important aspect in diabetes because poor quality of life leads to diminished self-care, which in turn leads to worsened glycemic control, increased risks for complications, and exacerbation of diabetes overwhelming in both the short run and the long run. Aims: The aim of our study is to examine the health-related quality of life of diabetic patients in rural India. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Medicine Outpatient department of a 780-bedded rural medical college located in central India. We used the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire — short version (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess quality of life. Results: The HRQOL among diabetics and non-diabetic controls is comparable to each other with bad physical health, bad psychological health, deteriorating social relationships, and bad environmental conditions affecting the HRQOL of both the groups equally. The overall HRQOL of the total study population (cases and controls) was poor. Conclusion: The finding of this study will help in health promotion in rural medical practice in India. It would beckon the much awaited avenue of holistic care of a diabetic patient with equal importance to the mental wellbeing and quality of life, as compared to physical well being. PMID:24696831

  2. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (?1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), ‘Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health’ (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:24812311

  4. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (?25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning. PMID:26097643

  5. Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol-use disorders and alcohol-related problems in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Clements, R

    1999-11-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related problems among college students have failed to include a diagnostic measure based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Applying the DSM-IV standards would facilitate an analysis of the prevalence of alcohol-use disorders and individual symptoms of those disorders. A structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV criteria (the alcohol section of the Substance Abuse Module) and several alcohol screening instruments were administered to 306 undergraduate students at an urban commuter campus. The prevalence of current and lifetime alcohol-use disorders, individual symptoms of those disorders, and other alcohol-related problems are reported, as well as data regarding alcohol consumption patterns and binge drinking. The data are analyzed in terms of demographic variables, including sex, ethnicity, year in school, age, and marital status of those in the sample. PMID:10584445

  7. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  8. Adolescents' emotional engagement in friends' problems and joys: Associations of empathetic distress and empathetic joy with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rhiannon L

    2015-12-01

    Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms. PMID:26419007

  9. Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Most literature on the relationship between video gaming and sleep disturbances has looked at children and adolescents. There is little research on such a relationship in adult samples. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of video game volume with sleep quality in adults via face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Adults (n = 844, 56.2% women), aged 18-94 years old, participated in the study. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and gaming volume was assessed by asking the hours of gaming on a regular weekday (Mon-Thurs), Friday and weekend day (Sat-Sun). Adjusting for gender, age, educational level, exercise and perceived stress, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video gaming volume was a significant predictor of sleep quality (? = 0.145), fatigue (? = 0.109), insomnia (? = 0.120), bedtime (? = 0.100) and rise time (? = 0.168). Each additional hour of video gaming per day delayed bedtime by 6.9 min (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.9 min) and rise time by 13.8 min (95% confidence interval 7.8-19.7 min). Attributable risk for having poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5) due to gaming >1 h day was 30%. When examining the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using multinomial regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals), gaming volume significantly predicted sleep latency, sleep efficiency and use of sleep medication. In general, findings support the conclusion that gaming volume is negatively related to the overall sleep quality of adults, which might be due to underlying mechanisms of screen exposure and arousal. PMID:25358428

  10. PROBLEMS IN THE DESIGN AND INTERPRETATION OF RESEARCH ON HUMAN RELATIONS TRAINING. EXPLORATIONS, HUMAN RELATIONS TRAINING AND RESEARCH, NUMBER 1, 1967. REVISED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRISON, ROGER

    WRITTEN TO PROVIDE INVESTIGATORS OR ADMINISTRATORS WITH A REVIEW OF THE PROBLEMS OF PLANNING, CONDUCTING, OR INTERPRETING STUDIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS TRAINING, THIS PAPER DISCUSSES RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND WAYS TO OVERCOME THEM. PROBLEMS OF SELECTION OF CONTROL GROUPS, TEMPORAL CHANGE IN TRAINING OUTCOME, DESIGN RESTRICTIONS IN OBSERVATION OF…

  11. A Proposed New Test of General Relativity and a Possible Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem

    E-print Network

    Özer, M

    2001-01-01

    Following a conjecture of Feynman, we explore the possibility that only those energy forms that are associated with (massive or massless) particles couple to the gravitational field, but not others. We propose an experiment to deflect electrons by a small charged sphere to determine if the standard general relativity or this modified one corresponds to reality. The outcome of this experiment may also solve the cosmological constant problem.

  12. A Proposed New Test of General Relativity and a Possible Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem

    E-print Network

    Murat Özer

    2001-03-20

    Following a conjecture of Feynman, we explore the possibility that only those energy forms that are associated with (massive or massless) particles couple to the gravitational field, but not others. We propose an experiment to deflect electrons by a small charged sphere to determine if the standard general relativity or this modified one corresponds to reality. The outcome of this experiment may also solve the cosmological constant problem.

  13. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  14. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life in Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David P.; Savas, Lara; White, Donna; El-Serag, Rola; Laday-Smith, Shirley; Tan, Gabriel; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The status and determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in female veterans with and without irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown. Aim To compare HRQOL in female veterans with and without IBS symptoms and examine the contribution of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety to HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study of 339 female veterans. Self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate IBS symptoms, PTSD, depression, anxiety, and HRQOL. Results Symptoms consistent with IBS were present in 33.5% of participants. Female veterans with IBS symptoms had significant reductions in physical component score (PCS) and 5 of 8 Health Related Quality of Life subscales, and on 7 of 8 Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality Of Life subscales, than female veterans without IBS symptoms. Compared to the US general female population, female veterans had significantly lower Health Related Quality of Life PCS and mental component scores (MCS) irrespective of IBS symptom status. Differences in the MCS score was most explained by depression; while the PCS score was most explained anxiety. Conclusions IBS symptoms in female veterans are associated with considerable reduction in HRQOL. However, female veterans regardless of IBS symptom status have lower HRQOL compared to the general US female population. PMID:19814746

  15. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

  16. Analytical performance specifications: relating laboratory performance to quality required for intended clinical use.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Daniel A; Schryver, Patricia G; Klee, George G

    2013-03-01

    This article proposes analytic performance goals for five quality indicators: precision, trueness, linearity, detection limits, and consistency across instruments and time. We defined our goals using methods linked to clinical practice data. Goals for desirable precision and trueness are based on biological variation. Linearity goals are related to total error recommendations. Detection limit goals are derived from 0.1 percentile of patient values. Goals for consistency are derived from the variability of distributions of patient test values. Data were collected and evaluated for each of these quality indicators for 46 chemistry tests measured on the Roche cobas 8000 analyzer. PMID:23331729

  17. Morningness-eveningness and health-related quality of life among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Delgado Prieto, Pedro; Diaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Barreno Cristina; Collado Mateo, M José; Randler, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that evening-type adolescents are exposed to a number of determinants that might have a negative impact on their health condition. Given that few studies have investigated the association between chronotype and quality of life measures in large samples of adolescents, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between morningness-eveningness and health-related quality of life among 1600 adolescents (aged 12-16 years). Adolescents completed the Veçu et Santé Perçue de L'adolescent (VSP-A) and the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC). Girls and older adolescents reported worse health indicators and were more evening oriented. Evening-type adolescents obtained lower scores on vitality, physical and psychological well-being, body image, relations with parents, relations with teachers, school work and global health scale. PMID:22774435

  18. Energy-Momentum Problem of Bell-Szekeres Metric in General Relativity and Teleparallel Gravity

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Kanwal Nazir

    2008-01-12

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in two theories, i.e., General Relativity and teleparallel gravity. We use Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Bergmann-Thomson and M\\"{o}ller's prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution of Bell-Szekeres metric in both the theories. It is shown that these prescriptions give the same energy-momentum density components in both General Relativity and teleparallel theory. M\\"{o}ller's prescription yields constant energy in both the theories.

  19. Problems underlying the use of referential integrity mechanisms in relational database management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, V.M.

    1990-12-01

    Referential integrity is used in relational data-bases for expressing existence dependencies between tuples. Relational database management systems (RDBMS) provide diverse referential integrity capabilities. Thus, is some RDBMSs referential integrity constraints can be specified non-procedurally (declaratively), while in other RDBMSs they must be specified procedurally. Moreover, some RDBMSs restrict the class of allowed referential integrity constraints. We examine in this paper the main problems underlying the use of referential integrity mechanisms in three representative RDBMSs, DB2, SYBASE, and INGRES. 11 refs.

  20. The Mediating Role of Rumination in the Relation between Quality of Attachment Relations and Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruijten, Tamara; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Rood, Lea

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between indices of the quality of attachment relationships of adolescents with parents and peers, rumination, and symptoms of depression. More specifically, a mediation model was investigated in which rumination was hypothesized to mediate the relation between quality of attachment relations and symptoms of…

  1. [Evaluation and validation of quality care indicators relative to empowerment in complex chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Johanne; Grenier, Raymond

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, validate and rank, through multi-attribute hierarchical analysis, indicators of quality of care related to the empowerment of patients having a chronic complex illness, or their natural care givers. This methodological study was carried within case management and was theoretically based on the quality model of Donabedian (1980) and the empowerment theory of Zimmerman (1995), while also drawing from values underlying nursing practise described by the health promotion model of Allen (1977). Two groups of professional and one group of non professional were considered. Using the DELPHI technique and interviews, the study has 1) provided an evaluation model for quality of care comprising 239 elements (12 main attributes, 75 secondary attributes and 152 indicators), 2) allowed its validation, and 3) its ranking by experts. The discussion encompasses theoretical, empirical and methodological considerations. PMID:15085567

  2. Agricultural and water-quality conflicts. Economic dimensions of the problem. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.; Hansen, L.; Ribaudo, M.

    1993-07-01

    Modern farm production practices, which use agricultural chemicals, benefit consumers through lower prices and increased output. Consequences of agricultural production, however, such as soil erosion, chemical runoff and leaching, and wetlands conversion, may impair surface and ground water quality. These off-farm water-quality effects impose costs on society, including damage to fish and wildlife resources, costs of avoiding potential health hazards and preserving natural environments, and lost recreational opportunities. The report summarizes conflicts between agricultural production and water quality and discusses policies that stress the use of economic and technical assistance incentives to encourage adoption of pollution-reducing farming practices.

  3. Testing the applicability of a model of oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila Mello Dos; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model of the direct and mediated pathways between clinical and non-clinical variables in relation to oral health-related quality of life. A random sample of 578 older people was evaluated. Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model was tested using structural equations modeling including: biological variables, symptom status, functional health, oral health perceptions, oral health-related quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). In the final model, edentulism was negatively correlated to dissatisfaction of appearance of their dental prostheses (r = -0.25). Worse functional status was correlated with poor oral health perception (r = 0.24). Being aged over 68 (r = 0.25), being a female (r = 0.39) and living in rural areas (r = 0.15) had a direct effect on the edentulism. Age had a direct effect on OHIP-14 (r = -0.15). There was an indirect effect of sex on OHIP-14 via functional status (r = 0.12). The present findings partially support Wilson & Cleary's model framework. PMID:26578012

  4. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    SciTech Connect

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  5. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km 2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically prioritize areas for improvement of local habitat quality, with areas not meeting minimum thresholds being deemed inappropriate for pursuit of restoration activities. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (?9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (?3h/wk) were 4.3% (?30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (?30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, ?2.42% (?6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (?12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  7. At the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), Dr. Aaron Katzenstein works on climate change, energy, and air quality related

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    , , , , : - : A S C : , , . At the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), Dr. Aaron Katzenstein works on climate change, energy, and air quality related regulations, policies, research, and demonstration projects focused on the Southern California urban air shed. He has worked at SCAQMD for over 12

  8. Differences in Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Adults with Allergies and Asthma and Their Healthy Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molzon, Elizabeth S.; Bonner, Margaret S.; Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Ramsey, Rachelle R.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants: Participants were 501 undergraduate students with allergies (167), asthma + allergies (167), or with no history of a chronic illness (167) completed study measures from August 2011 to April 2012. Methods: The…

  9. Motivators for seeking gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Cunningham, John A

    2012-06-01

    A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers' motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers' trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers. PMID:21932112

  10. Office-Based Intracordal Hyaluronate Injections Improve Quality of Life in Thoracic-Surgery-Related Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Tuan-Jen; Hsin, Li-Jen; Chung, Hsiu-Feng; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Wong, Alice M.K.; Pei, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic-surgery-related unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) may cause severe morbidity and can cause profound functional impairment and psychosocial stress in patients with pre-existing thoracic diseases. In-office intracordal hyaluronate (HA) injections have recently been applied to improve voice and quality of life in patients with vocal incompetence, but their effect on thoracic-surgery-related UVFP remains inconclusive. We therefore conducted a prospective study to clarify the effect of early HA injection on voice and quality of life in patients with thoracic-surgery-related UVFP. Patients with UVFP within 3 months after thoracic surgery who received office-based HA injection were recruited. Quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice-related life quality (voice outcome survey), laboratory voice analysis, and health-related quality of life (SF-36) were evaluated at baseline, and at 1 month postinjection. A total of 104 consecutive patients accepted office-based HA intracordal injection during the study period, 34 of whom were treated in relation to thoracic surgery and were eligible for inclusion. Voice-related life quality, voice laboratory analysis, and most generic quality of life domains were significantly improved at 1 month after in-office HA intracordal injection. No HA-related complications were reported. Single office-based HA intracordal injection is a safe and effective treatment for thoracic-surgery-related UVFP, resulting in immediate improvements in patient quality of life, voice quality, and swallowing ability. PMID:26448034

  11. The Longitudinal Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Quality of Indonesian Children’s Socioemotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Liew, Jeffrey; Pidada, Sri Untari

    2005-01-01

    Data regarding individual differences in children’s regulation, emotionality, quality of socioemotional functioning, and shyness were obtained from teachers and peers for 112 Indonesian 6th graders. Similar data (plus parents’ reports) also were collected when these children were in 3rd grade. For boys, regulation and low negative emotionality generally predicted positive socioemotional functioning (e.g., social skills, adjustment, prosocial tendencies and peer liking, sympathy) within and across time and across reporters, even at the follow-up when initial levels of regulation or negative emotionality were controlled. For girls, relations were obtained primarily for concurrent teacher reports, probably because girls tended to be fairly well regulated and socially competent and variability in their scores was relatively low. Shyness for both sexes tended to be associated with concurrent measures of low regulation, high negative emotionality, and low quality of social competence. PMID:15355166

  12. Grey Relational Analysis on Factors of the Quality of Web Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao-Cong; Wang, Xiang-Qun; Fu, Kai-Yao; Zhao, Yi-Jiang

    Using the grey relational analysis theory, this exploratory study was to find the principal factors of Quality of Service of Web Sevice and its contributions. The paper utilized a real Quality of Web Service data sets:QWS Dataset (1.0) to grey relational analysis. The results indicate: (1) the sequence of influencing factors of Web Service selection is Best Practices, Compliance, Availability, Successability, Reliability, Latency, Response Time, Throughput, Documentation; (2) nine factors can be classified into four kinds: the first important factors are Best Practices, Compliance, and Availability; the second important factors are Successability, Reliability; the third important kind factors are Latency, Response Time; the less important factors are Throughput, Documentation; (3) the percent contributions of four kinds factors to the QoS of Web Service is 36.68%, 22.96%, 20.6%, 19.77%.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life as a Predictor of Mortality among Survivors of AKI

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark W.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Unruh, Mark L.; Siroka, Andrew M.; O’Connor, Theresa Z.; Palevsky, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life and subsequent mortality among AKI survivors treated with renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) and ambulation, emotion, cognition, and pain scores at 60 days and all-cause mortality at 1 year in 60-day AKI survivors (n=439 with evaluable HUI3 assessments) from a randomized multicenter study comparing less- with more-intensive renal replacement therapies. Results The median 60-day HUI3 index score was 0.32. Patients with evaluable HUI3 data who died between 60 days and 1 year (n=99) were more likely to have lower 60-day median HUI3 scores, higher comorbidity scores, and longer initial hospital stays, and they were more likely to be dialysis-dependent. A 0.1 higher HUI3 index score was associated with a 17% decrease (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.89) in all-cause mortality after controlling for clinical risk factors. Similar associations were observed for HUI3 ambulation, emotion, cognition, and pain attribute scores. Conclusions Health-related quality of life measured by HUI3 is an independent predictor of mortality among survivors of AKI after adjusting for clinical risk variables. Poor ambulation and other health-related quality of life attributes are also associated with increased risk of death. Health-related quality of life may provide clinicians with additional information to help identify patients at high risk of mortality after AKI that required renal replacement therapy. PMID:22595826

  14. Health-related quality of life in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gee, Abigail; Challapalli, Amarnath; Bahl, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (MCRPC) is a chronic disease with several therapeutic options. By definition, all approaches to treatment are palliative in intent and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important goal of therapy. Several tools exist for the assessment of HRQoL in MCRPC enabling cross-trial comparisons. In this article agents currently used in the management of MCRPC are reviewed from a HRQoL perspective. PMID:26512743

  15. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (? = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (? = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (? = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  16. Health related quality of life after conservative or invasive treatment of inducible postinfarction ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, O; Madsen, J; Haghfelt, T; Grande, P; Saunamaki, K; Haunso, S; Hjelms, E; Arendrup, H; study, g

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess health related quality of life in patients with inducible postinfarction ischaemia.?DESIGN—A questionnaire based follow up study on patients randomised to conservative or invasive treatment because of postinfarction ischaemia.?SETTING—Seven county hospitals in eastern Denmark and the Heart Centre, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.?PATIENTS—113 patients with inducible postinfarction ischaemia: 51 were randomised to conservative treatment and 62 to invasive treatment. Average follow up time was three years (19-57 months).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—SF-36, Rose angina and dyspnoea questionnaire, drug use, lifestyle, and cognitive function.?RESULTS—Invasively treated patients scored better on the SF-36 scales of physical functioning (p = 0.03) and on role-physical (p = 0.04) and physical component scales (p = 0.05) and took significantly less anti-ischaemic drug treatment. Angina occurred in 18% of the invasively treated patients and 31% of the conservatively treated patients (p = 0.09). However, more invasively treated patients suffered from concentration difficulties (18% v 4%; p = 0.04).?CONCLUSIONS—Patients who were treated invasively had better health related quality of life scores in the physical variables compared with conservatively treated patients. However, a larger proportion of invasively treated patients had concentration difficulties.???Keywords: SF-36; health related quality of life; postinfarction ischaemia PMID:11040017

  17. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068...1068.535 How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems...useful life, you may not use a voluntary recall or other alternate means to meet...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068...1068.535 How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems...useful life, you may not use a voluntary recall or other alternate means to meet...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068...1068.535 How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems...useful life, you may not use a voluntary recall or other alternate means to meet...

  20. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068...1068.535 How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems...useful life, you may not use a voluntary recall or other alternate means to meet...

  1. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068...1068.535 How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems...useful life, you may not use a voluntary recall or other alternate means to meet...

  2. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  3. The usefulness of circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems

    PubMed Central

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2008-01-01

    Because the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, one of the key targets of public health is obesity and its associated pathological conditions. Obesity occurs as a result of white adipose tissue enlargement, caused by adipocyte hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. Recently, endocrine aspects of adipose tissue have become an active research area and these adipose tissue-derived factors are referred to as adipokines. These adipokines interact with a range of processes in many different organ systems and influence a various systemic phenomena. Therefore, dysregulated production of adipokines has been found to participate in the development of metabolic and vascular diseases related to obesity. The obese state is also known to be associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Adipokines influence not only systemic insulin resistance and have pathophysiological roles in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, but also contribute toward an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Thus, circulating levels of adipokines can be used as high-throughput biomarkers to assess the obesity-related health problems, including low grade inflammation. This review focuses on the usefulness of measuring circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems. PMID:18773088

  4. A priori mesh quality estimation via direct relation between truncation error and mesh distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Kallinderis, Y. Kontzialis, C.

    2009-02-20

    The purpose of the present work is the derivation and evaluation of a priori mesh quality indicators for structured, unstructured, as well as hybrid grids. Emphasis is placed on deriving direct relations between the indicators and mesh distortion. The work is based on use of the finite volume discretization for evaluation of first order spatial derivatives. The analytic form of the truncation error is derived and applied to elementary types of mesh distortion including typical hybrid grid interfaces. The corresponding analytic expressions provide direct relations between computational accuracy and the degree of stretching, skewness, shearing and non-alignment of the mesh.

  5. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life Among an Older Population in a Largely Rural Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Aday, Lu Ann; Xu, Ke Tom

    2004-01-01

    As elderly people become a larger proportion of the rural population, it is important to identify those at risk for poor health. Predictors of health-related quality of life can be useful in designing interventions. Purpose: One objective of the present study was to profile the health-related quality of life of community-dwelling, elderly people…

  6. Symptom Clusters and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Laura P.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Weintraub, William S.; McGuire, Deborah B.; Manzo, Sharon F.; Strickland, Ora L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This paper reports findings of a study to examine the independent contribution of chest pain, fatigue, and dyspnea to health-related quality of life in patients with chronic stable angina. Background Patients with chronic stable angina experience poorer quality of life in multiple areas including physical and emotional health. Emerging evidence suggests the presence of concomitant symptoms, yet there are no systematic studies examining the impact of symptom clusters on quality of life in chronic angina patients. Method Outpatients (n=134), recruited over a 16 month period in 2000 and 2001, with confirmed coronary heart disease and chronic angina completed reliable and valid questionnaires measuring chest pain frequency, fatigue, dyspnea and quality of life. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to examine the symptom cluster of chest pain frequency, fatigue, and dyspnea in predicting quality of life. Results The sample was predominantly white (74.6%), males (59.7%) with a mean age of 63.4 (SD 12.12) years. Controlling for age, gender, social status, and comorbidities, the symptom cluster of chest pain frequency, dyspnea, and fatigue accounted for significant increase in unadjusted R2, (F of ?, p < .05) for the models predicting physical limitation (R2 ? 24.1%), disease perception (R2 ? 24.6%), Short Form-36 Physical Component Score (R2 ? 24.3%) and Mental Component Score (R2 ? 07.0%). Conclusion Symptom assessment and management of patients with chronic stable angina should involve multiple symptoms. Greater fatigue predicted poorer quality of life in multiple areas. As a possible indicator of depression, it warrants further assessment and follow-up. PMID:21352270

  7. Modification of special relativity and the divergence problem in quantum field theory

    E-print Network

    Jian-Miin Liu

    1999-01-11

    The root of the divergence problem in the current quantum field theory seems to be in the special theory of relativity. Here we propose a modified special relativity theory by introducing the primed inertial coordinate system, in addition to the usual inertial coordinate system, for each inertial frame of reference, assuming the flat structures of gravity-free space and time in the primed inertial coordinate system and their generalized Finslerian structures in the usual inertial coordinate system, and combining this assumption with the two fundamental postulates, (i) the principle of relativity and (ii) the constancy of the one-way speed of light in all inertial frames of reference. The modified special relativity theory involves two versions of the light speed, infinite speed c-prime in the primed inertial coordinate system and finite speed c in the usual inertial coordinate system. The physical principle is: the c-prime-type Galilean invariance in the primed inertial coordinate system plus the transformation from the primed to the usual inertial coordinate systems. The modified special relativity theory and the quantum mechanics theory together found a convergent and invariant quantum field theory.

  8. Geometric problem solving related to differences in sex and mathematical interests.

    PubMed

    Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H

    1979-06-01

    Sex differences in Einstellung Effects were confounded by attitudinal factors. Hypothesizing that this was the case for spatial visualization and restructurization, we compared male and female college students' solutions of three elementary geometric problems. Used by Max Wertheimer to study productive thinking, they call for a Gestalt, spatial approach. In group administration to 86 calculus students, males did somewhat better than females, but the reverse held in classes where most women majored in mathematics. Individual administration to 200 Ss, balanced for sex and major, showed that female mathematics majors had more solutions than other females: e.g., 51 percent more compared to 26 percent sex differences. Four hints were available for restructuring each problem. The percentage needing all four hints was highest for male nonmathematics major and next highest for female mathematics majors (e.g., 75 and 23 percent, respectively). Embarrassment at needing hints in such "easy problems" and ego-involvement were factors. Thus, sex differences were less pronounced than differences related to mathematical abilities and interests and to task-and ego-concerns. PMID:469505

  9. Overview of the 1995 NATO ARW on nuclear submarine decommissioning and related problems

    SciTech Connect

    LeSage, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations.

  10. On geometric problems related to Brown-York and Liu-Yau quasilocal mass

    E-print Network

    Miao, Pengzi; Tam, Luen-Fai

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some geometric problems related to the definitions of quasilocal mass proposed by Brown-York \\cite{BYmass1} \\cite{BYmass2} and Liu-Yau \\cite{LY1} \\cite{LY2}. Our discussion consists of three parts. In the first part, we propose a new variational problem on compact manifolds with boundary, which is motivated by the study of Brown-York mass. We prove that critical points of this variation problem are exactly static metrics. In the second part, we derive a derivative formula for the Brown-York mass of a smooth family of closed 2 dimensional surfaces evolving in an ambient three dimensional manifold. As an interesting by-product, we are able to write the ADM mass \\cite{ADM61} of an asymptotically flat 3-manifold as the sum of the Brown-York mass of a coordinate sphere $S_r$ and an integral of the scalar curvature plus a geometrically constructed function $\\Phi(x)$ in the asymptotic region outside $S_r $. In the third part, we prove that for any closed, spacelike, 2-surface $\\Sigma$ in the Minkowski spa...

  11. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Blackbody Radiation Revisited

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    The physicists of the early 20th century were unaware of two ideas which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two ideas are: 1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and 2) the importance of special relativity. In classes of modern physics today, the problem of blackbody radiation within classical physics is still described in the historical context of the early 20th century. However, the inclusion of classical zero-point radiation and of relativity now allows a completely satisfactory classical understanding of blackbody radiation with the Planck spectrum, as well as of some other aspects of modern physics. Here we sketch the current classical understanding of blackbody radiation, pointing out that thermodynamics allows the presence of classical zero-point radiation, and that use of nonrelativistic physics leads to the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum while relativistic physics gives the Planck spectrum. The current textbooks of modern physic...

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Related Factors in Children and Adolescents With Epilepsy in Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Maryam; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Bidabadi, Elham; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2015-12-01

    The effects of epilepsy may disturb the ability of the child and family to function and has detrimental effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We determined HRQOL and related factors in children and adolescents with epilepsy in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed in a private neurology pediatric clinic in Guilan Province (North of Iran). We evaluated 108 children and adolescents with epilepsy. Data were collected by interview with parents and review of medical records. Generic and specific HRQOL was evaluated by Child Health Questionnaire and QOL in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire, respectively. The mean of overall generic HRQOL score was 71.05 ± 11.31. The lowest score was related to parental impact: emotional (52.59 ± 15.49). The average total specific HRQOL score was 71.95 ± 11.16. The lowest score dedicated to general health (51.21 ± 18.25). In multivariate regression analysis, duration of epilepsy (p < .016) was independently associated with generic HRQOL scores. Variables were independently associated with specific HRQOL scores including gender (p < .003), duration of epilepsy (p < .011), and family history of epilepsy (p < .005). We found that epilepsy duration was the strongest predictor of both generic and specific HRQOL in children and adolescents with epilepsy. This will be useful for clinicians in epilepsy management, which will enhance HRQOL. PMID:26528952

  13. Body checking and avoidance in women: associations with mental and physical health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M; Vallance, Joanna K; Gleaves, David H; Buckett, Geoffrey

    2012-12-01

    Body checking and body avoidance have demonstrated clinical significance in a number of populations. However, the associations between these behaviors and mental and physical health-related quality of life have not been examined. This study investigated the associations between body checking and avoidance and quality of life in 214 community women. Body checking and body avoidance were significantly correlated with mental and physical quality of life, as well as with eating disturbances. Frequency of body checking significantly predicted impairment in mental quality of life, and frequency of body avoidance significantly predicted impairment in physical quality of life, over and above the contributions of depressive symptoms and related demographic characteristics. Targeting checking and avoidance in prevention and treatment programs may improve quality of life and reduce health-related functional impairment. PMID:23121794

  14. Generic health-related quality of life amongst patients employing different voice restoration methods following total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Farrand, Paul; Duncan, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    Three methods of voice restoration--tracheosophageal speech (TEP), oesophageal speech, electrolarynx--are available following total laryngectomy. TEP produces better voice quality compared with other methods and is assumed to result in better quality of life. Little evidence exists to support the relationship between voice quality and quality of life, however. Advertising this study through several leading laryngectomy charities resulted in the completion of 226 questionnaires (TEP = 147; oesophageal speech = 42; electrolarynx = 37) comprising the Short Form 36 (SF-36) quality of life measure and questions examining perceived voice intelligibility. Additionally, 89 questionnaires comprising only the SF-36 were completed by participants who reported having no serious medical problems, to form a healthy control group. Results indicate that improved voice quality does not result in widespread benefits to quality of life. On only a few dimensions were there differences between voice restoration method: electrolarynx and TEP better than oesophageal speech with respect to pain, TEP better than oesophageal speech with respect to role limitation: physical problems. Additionally whilst widespread differences between voice restoration methods did not occur, all three groups had a worse quality of life compared with the healthy control group. Implications of the results for the selection of voice restoration method to maximize quality of life are discussed. PMID:17510895

  15. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems in college students: correlates and preferred resources.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R

    2010-12-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students' history of help-seeking for alcohol problems, as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  16. Hypertension in the Lebanese adults: Impact on health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Malak; Salameh, Pascale; Hajje, Amal Al; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Bawab, Wafa

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, hypertension being one of their most prevalent risk factors. Information on health related quality of life (QOL) of hypertensive individuals in Lebanon is lacking. Our objectives were to evaluate QOL of hypertensive patients compared with non-hypertensive subjects and to suggest possible predictors of QOL in Lebanon. We conducted a case control study among individuals visiting outpatient clinics. Quality of life was assessed using the eight item (SF-8) questionnaire administered face to face to the study population, applied to hypertensive (N=224) and non-hypertensive control (N=448) groups. Hypertensive patients presented lower QOL scores in all domains, particularly in case of high administration frequency and occurrence of drug related side effects. Among hypertensive patients, QOL was significantly decreased with the presence of comorbidities (?=-13.865, p=0.054), daily frequency of antihypertensive medications (?=-8.196, p<0.001), presence of drug side-effects (?=-19.262, p=0.031), older age (?=-0.548, p<0.001), female gender (?=-21.363, p=0.05), lower education (?=-22.949, p=0.006), and cigarettes smoked daily (?=-0.726, p<0.001); regular sport activity (?=23.15, p<0.001) significantly increased quality of life. These findings indicate the necessity for health professionals to take these factors into account when treating hypertensive patients, and to tackle special subgroups with attention to their deteriorated QOL. PMID:25772067

  17. Health-related Quality of Life Assessment after Antiretroviral Therapy: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gakhar, Harleen; Kamali, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for HIV infection has resulted in significant improvement in immunologic and virologic parameters, as well as a reduction in AIDS-defining illnesses and death. Over 25 medications are approved for use, usually in combination regimens of three or four ARVs. Several ARVs are now available as combinatorial products, which have been associated with better adherence. However, while ARV therapy has prolonged life, ARVs also pose a challenge for quality of life as they can cause significant side effects in addition to the potential for drug toxicity and interaction. Given the many complications, side effects and symptoms of HIV/AIDS in addition to associated medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, the need to understand and assess how these interactions may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has grown. Numerous instruments (some validated, others not) are available and have been applied to understanding how ARV treatment affects HRQOL in those with HIV infection, both in clinical trials and clinical practice. In general, ARV treatment improves HRQOL, but this is dependent on the population being studied, the HRQOL instrument being used and the timeframe during which HRQOL has been studied. This article provides a review of the literature on quality of-life assessment as it relates to ARV treatment in developed countries and briefly reviews the HRQOL instruments used, how they have been applied to ARV utilization, and where future research should be applied in HRQOL assessment and HIV infection. PMID:23591907

  18. Health-related quality of life and happiness within an internal medicine residency training program: a longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While undergoing a hospital residency training program, residents often suffer anxiety and stress. This study aims to evaluate the change in health-related quality of life and happiness among internal medicine residents, and identify prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-eight residents in the Ramathibodi Hospital internal medicine training program completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF and happiness Measures questionnaires at three time points: commencement, day 100, and the end of the second year of training. Confidence, expectations, anxiety, and general health were rated. Analyses were performed with mixed linear regression. Results: Financial problems were reported for 16 residents (42.1%). At baseline, most residents had moderate-to-very high confidence, expectations, and general health but also moderate-to-very high anxiety. The health-related quality of life score was highest in the social domain followed by the environmental, psychological, and physical domains. Their psychological, physical, social, and environmental scores significantly decreased after enrollment. Their happiness and general health scores were significantly reduced after enrollment. The training program duration was negatively associated with all domains. Residents with greater confidence had higher health-related quality of life scores in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. Moreover, their general health was positively associated with the social and environmental domains. Conclusion: A reduction in health-related quality of life and happiness under the internal medicine residency program is reported. High confidence and good physical health may counterbalance the decline in health-related quality of life and happiness. PMID:25748482

  19. Silvicultural Activities in Relation to Water Quality in Texas: An Assesment of Potential Problems and Solutions 

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, W. H.; Hickman, C. A.; deSteiguer, J. E.; Jackson, B. D.; Blume, T. A.; DeHaven, M. G.

    1978-02-01

    Southern forests are expected to supply a large portion of the Nation's future timber requirement. Projected demands on southern forests continue to exceed allowable cut. As an outgrowth of this demand, intensive management ...

  20. Effects of comprehensive intervention on health-related quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis B in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant global health problem, especially in China. Chronic liver disease affects health related quality of life (HRQOL). The intervention method to improve HRQOL in patients with hepatitis B has been one-dimensional with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention on health-related quality of life and provide guidance on improving HRQOL for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods Patients with chronic hepatitis B eligible for our study were randomly selected in three model regions of Jiangsu Province in June 2010. 272 patients were invited and 254 took part, with a refusal rate of 6.62%. Comprehensive intervention included government support, technical guidance from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, standardised medical care, and community involvement. HRQOL before and 1 year after intervention was measured with the Short Form 36 and HBV-specific health surveys. Chi-square test, t-test and multiple linear regressive analyses were used. Results After comprehensive intervention, the HRQOL in patients with chronic hepatitis B showed significantly improvements in bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, and mental, as well as physical and mental component score (p < 0.05). Family and social support increased, and financial concerns decreased (p < 0.05). Marital status, duration of illness-related absence from work, education level, family financial status, and health insurance type were important factors affecting HRQOL change between the baseline and final assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Conclusion The comprehensive intervention was effective in improving the HRQOL of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Trial registration ChiCTR-OCH-12001882 PMID:24093163

  1. Microbial symbionts: a resource for the management of insect?related problems

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Balloi, Annalisa; Hamdi, Chadlia; Sansonno, Luigi; Marzorati, Massimo; Gonella, Elena; Favia, Guido; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Summary Microorganisms establish with their animal hosts close interactions. They are involved in many aspects of the host life, physiology and evolution, including nutrition, reproduction, immune homeostasis, defence and speciation. Thus, the manipulation and the exploitation the microbiota could result in important practical applications for the development of strategies for the management of insect?related problems. This approach, defined as ‘Microbial Resource Management’ (MRM), has been applied successfully in various environments and ecosystems, as wastewater treatments, prebiotics in humans, anaerobic digestion and so on. MRM foresees the proper management of the microbial resource present in a given ecosystem in order to solve practical problems through the use of microorganisms. In this review we present an interesting field for application for MRM concept, i.e. the microbial communities associated with arthropods and nematodes. Several examples related to this field of applications are presented. Insect microbiota can be manipulated: (i) to control insect pests for agriculture; (ii) to control pathogens transmitted by insects to humans, animals and plants; (iii) to protect beneficial insects from diseases and stresses. Besides, we prospect further studies aimed to verify, improve and apply MRM by using the insect–symbiont ecosystem as a model. PMID:22103294

  2. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for quadratic programming problems.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55?K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study identified several quality related key genes including many other genes, their interactions (quality x development) and temporal and spatial distributions. Conclusions The candidate genes identified for processing quality and information on temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions would be useful for designing wheat improvement programs for processing quality either by changing their expression or development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers. PMID:24433256

  4. Impact of Psychological Problems and Marital Adjustment of Iranian Veterans on Their Children's Quality of Life and Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063

  5. Drug-related problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug-Related Problems (DRPs) commonly occur among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, few studies have been performed on T2DM patients with dyslipidemia. This purpose of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and factors associated with its occurrence. Methods The retrospective study involved 208 T2DM in-patients and out-patients with dyslipidemia, and was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2011. The identification and assessment of DRPs were based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) tool version 5.01. The potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults was assessed based on the American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria. Results A total of 406 DRPs were identified. Among these patients, 91.8% had at least one DRP, averaging 1.94?±?1.10 problems per patient. The majority of T2DM patients with dyslipidemia (91.8%) had at least one DRP. The most frequent types of DRP were potential drug-drug interaction (18.0%), drug not taken or administered (14.3%) and insufficient awareness of health and diseases (11.8%). Anti-hypertensive, lipid-modifying and anti-diabetic agents were the drug classes that were most likely to be associated with DRPs. Male gender, renal impairment, polypharmacy and poor lipid control were factors that were significantly associated with DRP in diabetic dyslipidemia patients. Conclusion Early identification of DRPs and factors associated with them are essential to prevent and resolve DRPs in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:24341672

  6. An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention

    PubMed Central

    Togas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population. PMID:25093161

  7. Risk Factors on Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjie; Han, Qizheng

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate how epilepsy affected the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with epilepsy, as well as the risk factors for poor HRQOL. Parents of epileptic children (n = 223) and parents of healthy children (n = 216) were enrolled. The Child Epilepsy Questionnaire-Parental form was given to all parents. Children with epilepsy had significantly lower HRQOL scores for overall QOL and all subscales. Seizure types were not associated with HRQOL, but the age of the child with epilepsy, disease courses and seizure frequency did influence the quality of life. Epilepsy has a severe impact on children's HRQOL, and age, increased seizure frequency and longer duration of epilepsy are associated with poor HRQOL. PMID:25857728

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Primary Cutaneous Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Sheng; Shen, Xiao; Chen, Ai-Jun; Li, Shuang; Shan, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a relatively rare and itchy skin disorder characterized by amyloid deposits in the superficial dermis. The cosmetic disfigurement and severe pruritus dramatically affects the patient’s quality of life. In spite of the prevalence of the disease in China, the quality of life (QoL) impact of the PCA has not been well defined and is the focus of this study. Objective To examine the HRQoL of patients with PCA and to evaluate the association between HRQoL scores, disease, and socio-demographic determinants. Methods A total of 104 PCA patients and 101 healthy participants completed the questionnaires. HRQoL was measured using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) and SF-36. The socio demographic and clinical data such as age, sex, duration of disease and distribution of lesion pattern were analyzed mainly by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results Patients with PCA experienced significantly impaired health-related quality of life. The mean DLQI score was 9.05. Younger age, female gender, more pruritus and distribution pattern were independent predictor correlates of the high DLQI scores. The PCA group showed significantly decreasing average scores in several aspects of psychological symptoms, including SF, RE and MH. Conclusions PCA disease has a negative impact on the HRQoL of patients, and the HRQoL is associated with various disease characteristics. In conjunction with medical interventions, psychological and sociocultural assessment and intervention should be an essential part of the management of these cases. PMID:25799390

  9. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID:24653767

  10. Assessing the nutritional stress hypothesis: Relative influence of diet quantity and quality on seabird productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Turco, K.R.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Piatt, J.F.; Shultz, M.T.; Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Anthony, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Food availability comprises a complex interaction of factors that integrates abundance, taxonomic composition, accessibility, and quality of the prey base. The relationship between food availability and reproductive performance can be assessed via the nutritional stress (NSH) and junkfood (JFH) hypotheses. With respect to reproductive success, NSH posits that a deficiency in any of the aforementioned metrics can have a deleterious effect on a population via poor reproductive success. JFH, a component of NSH, posits specifically that it is a decline in the quality of food (i.e. energy density and lipid content) that leads to poor reproductive success. We assessed each in relation to reproductive success in a piscivorous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We measured productivity, taxonomic composition, frequency, size, and quality of meals delivered to nestlings from 1996 to 1999 at 6 colonies in Alaska, USA, 3 each in Prince William Sound and Lower Cook Inlet. Productivity varied widely among colony-years. Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus comprised ca. 80% of the diet among colony-years, and each was characterized by relatively high energy density. Diet quality for kittiwakes in this region therefore remained uniformly high during this study. Meal delivery rate and meal size were quite variable among colony-years, however, and best explained the variability in productivity. Parent kittiwakes appeared to select prey that were energy dense and that maximized the biomass provisioned to broods. While these results fail to support JFH, they do provide substantial support for NSH. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  11. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  12. The Relation Between Family Functioning, Health-related Quality of Life, and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Kelly Ann

    2011-10-21

    variable in all regression analyses. Child-reported general family functioning accounted for a significant amount of variance in child reported general health-related quality of life. Parent score on the non-supportive scale for diabetes specific family...

  13. Omega-3 Supplementation and Loneliness-Related Memory Problems: Secondary Analyses Of A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Derry, Heather M.; Bornstein, Robert; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Loneliness enhances risk for episodic memory declines over time. Omega-3 supplementation can improve cognitive function for people experiencing mild cognitive difficulties. Accordingly, we explored whether omega-3 supplementation would attenuate loneliness-related episodic memory problems. Methods Participants (N=138) from a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT) were randomized to the placebo, 1.25 grams/day of omega-3, or 2.50 grams/day of omega-3 conditions for a 4-month period. They completed a baseline loneliness questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests both at baseline and at the end of the RCT. Results Controlling for baseline verbal episodic memory scores, lonelier people within the placebo condition had poorer verbal episodic memory post-supplementation, as measured by immediate (b = ?0.28, t(117) = ?2.62, p = .010) and long-delay (b = ?.06, t(116) = ?2.07, p = .040) free recall, than their less lonely counterparts. This effect was not observed in the 1.25 grams/day and 2.50 grams/day supplementation groups, all p values > .10. The plasma omega-6:omega-3 ratio data mirrored these results. There were no loneliness-related effects of omega-3 supplementation on short-delay recall or the other cognitive tests, all p values > .32. Conclusion These results suggest that omega-3 supplementation attenuates loneliness-related verbal episodic memory declines over time and support the utility of exploring novel interventions for treating episodic memory problems among lonely people. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723 PMID:25264972

  14. Exploratory Study on Drug Users' Perspectives on Quality of Life: More than Health-Related Quality of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Maeyer, Jessica; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Broekaert, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In drug treatment outcome literature, a focus on objective and socially desirable indicators of change (e.g. no drug use) has predominated, while outcome indicators that are important for drug users themselves (e.g. quality of life, satisfaction with treatment) have largely been neglected. Nonetheless, Quality of Life (QoL) has become an important…

  15. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

  16. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  17. A Structural Model of Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, JuHee; Choi, MoonKi; Jung, Dukyoo; Sohn, Young H; Hong, JinYong

    2015-08-01

    Disability-adjusted life expectancy is focused on more than just extending life span; thus, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has emerged as an important issue for elderly patients with chronic disease. The number of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is predicted to grow along with the aging population, so it is essential to identify the predictors of HRQOL. This study utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) to predict the HRQOL of patients with PD. Participants (N = 217) were patients diagnosed with PD (M age = 66.01). Demographic and disease-related characteristics, sleep quality, pain, depression, and HRQOL were investigated via a structured questionnaire. Participants' functional factors were measured using physical function evaluations. The hypothetical model verified disease-related factors, depression, and pain as direct factors that significantly predicted HRQOL of patients with PD (Goodness of Fit Index = 0.93 and Comparative Fit Index = 0.96). These findings are useful for developing comprehensive interventions to improve the HRQOL of patients with PD. PMID:24718037

  18. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  19. Protozoan colonization on artificial substrates in relation to water quality in a tropical Indian harbour.

    PubMed

    Bharati, V R; Khan, R N; Kalavati, C; Raman, A V

    2001-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the protozoan colonization patterns on artificial substrates in relation to organic pollution within a tropical harbour. The composition of protozoans and their succession rates on artificial substrates(polyurethane foam units) were compared between two field stations(A and B), and their presence were considered with regards to the prevailing water quality conditions at the study sites. Altogether 44 genera of flagellates and ciliates were documented. The common genera of flagellates encountered included Monas, Polytoma, and Chromalina. Among the ciliates, the predominant genera were Tetrahymena, Vorticella, Lagymophyra, and Heloiphyra. These groups exhibited characteristic successional patterns in relation to ambient water quality. At Station A, located close to the sewage outfall, the water quality parameters included poor Secchi-disc transparency(0.48 m), dissolved oxygen of 1.93 mg/ml, salinity of 18 psu, and temperature 31.3 degrees C. Here, the nanoflagellates (spumella) colonized first, followed by microcilliate(Tetrahymena) and sessile form(Vorticella). Station B, located on the seaward side, was characterized by relatively less-stressed environmental conditions with transparency 1.85 m and dissolved oxygen value of 6.04 mg/ml. Salinity of 27.27 psu, and mean temperature of 30 degrees C were recorded at "B". At this station, the nanoflagellate Polytoma was first documented to colonize on the substrates, followed by microcilliate(Lagynophrya) and suctorid(Heliophyra). These findings support the use of protozoans as indicator species for evaluating the hazards posed by organic pollution to natural estuarine communities. PMID:11590731

  20. Dynamical Scaling Relations and the Angular Momentum Problem in the FIRE Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Denise; Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Keres, Dusan; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2015-01-01

    Simulations are an extremely important tool with which to study galaxy formation and evolution. However, even state-of-the-art simulations still fail to accurately predict important galaxy properties such as star formation rates and dynamical scaling relations. One possible explanation is the inadequacy of sub-grid models to capture the range of stellar feedback mechanisms which operate below the resolution limit of simulations. FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) is a set of high-resolution cosmological galaxy simulations run using the code GIZMO. It includes more realistic models for various types of feedback including radiation pressure, supernovae, stellar winds, and photoionization and photoelectric heating. Recent FIRE results have demonstrated good agreement with the observed stellar mass-halo mass relation as well as more realistic star formation histories than previous simulations. We investigate the effects of FIRE's improved feedback prescriptions on the simulation "angular momentum problem," i.e., whether FIRE can reproduce observed scaling relations between galaxy stellar mass and rotational/dispersion velocities.

  1. Functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in people with asbestos related pleural disease: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional exercise capacity in people with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) is unknown and there are no data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary aims were to determine whether functional exercise capacity and HRQoL were reduced in people with ARPD. The secondary aim was to determine whether functional exercise capacity was related to peak exercise capacity, HRQoL, physical activity or respiratory function. Methods In participants with ARPD, exercise capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and incremental cycle test (ICT); HRQoL by the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and physical activity by an activity monitor worn for one week. Participants also underwent lung function testing. Results 25 males completed the study with a mean (SD) age of 71 (6) years, FVC 82 (19)% predicted, FEV1/FVC 66 (11)%, TLC 80 (19)% predicted and DLCO 59 (13)% predicted. Participants had reduced exercise capacity demonstrated by six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 76 (11)% predicted and peak work rate of 71 (21)% predicted. HRQoL was also reduced. The 6MWD correlated with peak work rate (r=0.58, p=0.002), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total score (r=-0.57, p=0.003), metabolic equivalents from the activity monitor (r=0.45, p<0.05), and FVC % predicted (r=0.52, p<0.01). Conclusions People with ARPD have reduced exercise capacity and HRQoL. The 6MWT may be a useful surrogate measure of peak exercise capacity and physical activity levels in the absence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and activity monitors. Trial registration ANZCTR12608000147381 PMID:23305075

  2. Relative effects of nutrient emission from intensive cage aquaculture on the semiarid reservoir water quality.

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; do Monte, Thiago Maia; Vasconcellos, George Harrison; de Souza Barroso, Hortência; Moreira, Maria Odete Parente; Becker, Helena; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Franco, Marcos Alberto Lima; de Farias, Eduardo Guilherme Gentil; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    The effects of cage aquaculture on freshwater ecosystems are determined by multiple farming and environmental variables, and thus, the assessment of a wide range of abiotic and biotic variables enables better understanding of the impacts generated by this nutrient source. This study was carried out at Castanhão reservoir located in the State of Ceará, which is the largest Brazilian producer of Nile tilapia in cage systems, wherein about 8000 reservoirs provide a vast area to expand not only this important socio-economic but also pollution-prone activity. Nutrient mass budget, water quality monitoring, hydrodynamic characterization, and elemental/stable isotopic composition of end-member products were measured in cage aquaculture and other reservoir areas in order to determine the relative effects on reservoir conditions. Nutrient budgets showed that 34% of the artificial feed was lost to the water column but water quality monitoring and isotopic composition analysis suggested that the cages were not extensively impacting the water quality probably because of the physiographic and hydrodynamic features of the cage site. PMID:26502728

  3. Exploring the health-related quality of life among children with moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi

    2005-03-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases, impacting more than 10 % of children in Taiwan. The recurrent signs and symptoms and complexity of disease management impact the life quality of children with asthma. The purpose of this study was to describe the content and dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with moderate asthma by descriptive qualitative research based on in-depth interviews. Eleven children, aged 6-12 years, and their mothers from two medical centers in central Taiwan were interviewed and tape recorded. The transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Six themes relevant to the children's QOL with asthma were identified: 1. physical disturbances of signs/symptoms, 2. limitations of activity, 3. emotional distress, 4. discord in parent-child relationships, 5. restrictions in school social life and 6. daily inconvenience of managing the disease. These findings highlight the ways in which the overall quality of life of children is impacted by asthma including the physiological and psychosocial domains. The breadth of these findings may lead to greater insights into the nursing care of children with asthma. PMID:15977133

  4. Relation between urbanization and water quality of streams in the Austin area, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Veenhuis, J.E.; Slade, R.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Selected water quality properties and constituents of stormflow and base flow at 18 sites on 11 streams in the Austin area, Texas, were compared to determine the relation between degree of urbanization and water quality. Sample sites were grouped into four development classifications based on percentage of impervious cover of the drainage basin. For each site and development classification, concentrations and densities of water quality properties and constituents in samples collected during base flow were compared. Except for dissolved solids, concentrations during the rising stage of stormflow generally were larger than during the falling stage. The concentrations in stormflow were larger than in base flow. For the five sites that had sufficient samples from each flow category for statistical comparisons, median concentrations in stormflow were significantly larger than in base flow. Concentrations in the rising stage were more variable and significantly larger than in the falling stage. Except for dissolved solids, median concentrations in samples collected during stormflow increased with increasing urbanization. Medians for base flow also were larger for more urban classifications. The ratio of the number of samples with detectable concentrations to total sample analyzed of 18 minor inorganic constituents and the concentrations of many of these constituents increased with increasing urbanization. Twenty-two of 42 synthetic organic compounds investigated were detected in one or more samples and were detected more frequently and in larger concentrations at sites with more urban classifications.

  5. On geometric problems related to Brown-York and Liu-Yau quasilocal mass

    E-print Network

    Pengzi Miao; Yuguang Shi; Luen-Fai Tam

    2009-06-30

    We discuss some geometric problems related to the definitions of quasilocal mass proposed by Brown-York \\cite{BYmass1} \\cite{BYmass2} and Liu-Yau \\cite{LY1} \\cite{LY2}. Our discussion consists of three parts. In the first part, we propose a new variational problem on compact manifolds with boundary, which is motivated by the study of Brown-York mass. We prove that critical points of this variation problem are exactly static metrics. In the second part, we derive a derivative formula for the Brown-York mass of a smooth family of closed 2 dimensional surfaces evolving in an ambient three dimensional manifold. As an interesting by-product, we are able to write the ADM mass \\cite{ADM61} of an asymptotically flat 3-manifold as the sum of the Brown-York mass of a coordinate sphere $S_r$ and an integral of the scalar curvature plus a geometrically constructed function $\\Phi(x)$ in the asymptotic region outside $S_r $. In the third part, we prove that for any closed, spacelike, 2-surface $\\Sigma$ in the Minkowski space $\\R^{3,1}$ for which the Liu-Yau mass is defined, if $\\Sigma$ bounds a compact spacelike hypersurface in $\\R^{3,1}$, then the Liu-Yau mass of $\\Sigma$ is strictly positive unless $\\Sigma$ lies on a hyperplane. We also show that the examples given by \\'{O} Murchadha, Szabados and Tod \\cite{MST} are special cases of this result.

  6. Health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of disease specific instruments

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, J; Ramaker, C; van Hilten, J J; Stiggelbout, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast disease-specific quality of life instruments in Parkinson's disease and assess their clinimetric properties. Methods: Two reviewers independently evaluated both thoroughness and results of studies regarding clinimetric characteristics of identified scales. Results: Twenty studies were found reporting on the clinimetric properties of four scales. The content validity of the Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39), the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQL), and the "Fragebogen Parkinson LebensQualität" (Parkinson Quality of Life questionnaire; PLQ) was adequate to good, but for the Parkinson's impact scale (PIMS) it was insufficient. Construct validity of both the PDQ-39 and the PDQL was good, but for the PLQ and the PIMS this was insufficiently evaluated. Internal consistency of all scale totals and of subscale totals of the PDQL were good, whereas for the social support subscale of the PDQ-39 and four subscales of the PLQ this was inadequate. Test-retest reliability was not evaluated for the PDQL and was adequate in the other scales. Responsiveness was partially established for the PDQ-39, and not assessed for the other scales. The number of available translations, as well as the number of studies in which these instruments were used, differed considerably. Conclusions: The selection of an instrument partially depends on the goal of the study. In many situations however, the PDQ-39 will probably be the most appropriate HRQoL instrument. The PDQL may be considered as an alternative, whereas the PLQ may be considered in studies involving German speaking patients with Parkinson's disease. Use of the PIMS should be considered only as a means of identifying areas of potential problems. PMID:11796776

  7. Residential Exposure to Traffic Noise and Health-Related Quality of Life—A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Roswall, Nina; Høgh, Vibeke; Envold-Bidstrup, Pernille; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the association between objectively measured traffic noise and health-related quality of life. However, as traffic noise has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and health-issues including sleeping problems, annoyance, and stress, it seems plausible that traffic noise is associated with health-related quality of life. Methods Between 1999 and 2002, a cohort of 38,964 Danes filled in the short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all historical addresses for 10 years preceding the SF-36, using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between noise exposure and SF-36 summary scales and the eight sub-scales were calculated using general linear models, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle. Results Models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic factors showed that a 10 dB higher road traffic noise 1 year preceding SF-36 assessment was associated with a 0.14 lower mental component summary (MCS) score (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.26, -0.01). However, further adjustment for lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol, and waist circumference) attenuated the association: (-0.08 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.04)). Exposure to more than 55 dB of railway noise in the same time period was borderline significantly associated with lower MCS. The physical component summary was not associated with traffic noise. Conclusion The present study suggests a weak association between traffic noise exposure and the mental health component score of SF-36, which may operate through lifestyle. The magnitude of effect was, however, not clinically relevant. PMID:25768919

  8. CKD in an Electronic Health Record Problem List: Quality of Care, ESRD, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Schold, Jesse D.; Arrigain, Susana; Sharp, John W; Jain, Anil K; Schreiber, Martin J.; Simon, James F.; Nally, Joseph V

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether CKD recognition in an electronic health record (EHR) problem list improves processes of care or clinical outcomes of ESRD and death is unclear. Methods We identified patients who had at least 1 year of follow up (2005–2009) in our EHR based CKD registry (n=25,742). CKD recognition was defined by having ICD-9 codes for CKD, diabetic kidney disease, or hypertensive kidney disease in the problem list. We calculated proportions of patients with and without CKD recognition and examined differences by demographics, clinical factors, and development of ESRD or mortality. We evaluated differences in the proportion of patients with CKD specific labs checked before and after recognition among cases and propensity-matched controls. Results Only 11% (n=2735) had CKD recognition in the problem list and they were younger (68 vs. 71 yrs), a higher proportion were male (61% vs. 37%) and African-American (21% vs. 10%) compared to those unrecognized. CKD-specific labs for patients with eGFR 30–59 including iPTH (23% vs. 6%), Vitamin D (22% vs. 18%), phosphorus (29% vs. 7%), and a urine check for proteinuria (55% vs. 36%) were significantly more likely to be done among those with CKD recognition. (all p<0.05) Similar results were found for eGFR<30 except for proteinuria and in our propensity score matched control analysis. There was no independent association of CKD recognition with ESRD or mortality. Conclusions CKD recognition in the EHR problem list was low, but translated into more CKD specific processes of care; however ESRD or mortality were not affected. PMID:24714513

  9. Back and neck pain are related to mental health problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models. PMID:21609488

  10. Unchanged direction motion in general relativity: The problems of prescribing acceleration and the extensibility of trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente, Daniel; Romero, Alfonso; Torres, Pedro J.

    2015-11-01

    The notion of unchanged direction (UD) motion in general relativity is introduced, extending widely the concept of uniformly accelerated motion. An observer which obeys an UD motion is characterized as a pointing future unit timelike curve with all its curvatures identically zero up to the first one. The initial value problem when the acceleration of the motion is prescribed is analysed. It is also studied that the completeness of inextensible UD motions, that can be physically interpreted saying that the observers which obey an UD motion lives forever. For certain spacetimes with relevant symmetries that includes the generalized Robertson-Walker spacetimes, a geometric approach leads to the completeness. On the other hand, a more analytical approach permits to prove completeness of inextensible UD motions in a plane wave spacetime.

  11. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  12. Massively parallel solution of the inverse scattering problem for integrated circuit quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Leland, R.W.; Draper, B.L.; Naqvi, S.; Minhas, B.

    1997-09-01

    The authors developed and implemented a highly parallel computational algorithm for solution of the inverse scattering problem generated when an integrated circuit is illuminated by laser. The method was used as part of a system to measure diffraction grating line widths on specially fabricated test wafers and the results of the computational analysis were compared with more traditional line-width measurement techniques. The authors found they were able to measure the line width of singly periodic and doubly periodic diffraction gratings (i.e. 2D and 3D gratings respectively) with accuracy comparable to the best available experimental techniques. They demonstrated that their parallel code is highly scalable, achieving a scaled parallel efficiency of 90% or more on typical problems running on 1024 processors. They also made substantial improvements to the algorithmics and their original implementation of Rigorous Coupled Waveform Analysis, the underlying computational technique. These resulted in computational speed-ups of two orders of magnitude in some test problems. By combining these algorithmic improvements with parallelism the authors achieve speedups of between a few thousand and hundreds of thousands over the original engineering code. This made the laser diffraction measurement technique practical.

  13. Understanding urban vehicular pollution problem vis-a-vis ambient air quality--case study of a megacity (Delhi, India).

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Ghatge, S V; Nema, P; M Tamhane, S

    2006-08-01

    Air pollution has become a growing problem in megacities and large urban areas through out the globe, and transportation is recognized as the major source of air pollution in many cities, especially in developing countries. Contribution of automobiles is reported in the range of 40 to 80% of the total air pollution. The challenge facing megacities is how to reduce the adverse environmental impacts and other negative effects of transportation without giving up the benefits of mobility. The dilemma becomes most pressing under conditions of rapid urban growth, which is likely to increase travel demand significantly. The paper is aimed at understanding the problem of vehicular pollution vis-a-vis ambient air quality for a highly traffic affected megacity, Delhi, wherein, the contribution of transport sector was estimated to be as high as 72%. An effort has been made to review and evaluate the benefits (in terms of improved air quality) of the technological interventions/policies adopted for vehicular pollution control in Delhi. It also highlights the outcome of the efforts and suggests further improvements thereon. The importance of public participation and awareness are also discussed. The paper focuses on deriving the benefits of the implementation of management strategies, supported by scientific and technical data/interpretation, so that the people can realize and participate in the government's endeavor for clean city drive in a more effective manner. PMID:16741810

  14. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low-k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Son, Kong; Eynon, Benjamin G., Jr.; Gudmundsson, Dadi; Jaehnert, Carmen; Uhlig, Doris

    2004-12-01

    DUV lithography has introduced a progressive mask defect growth problem widely known as crystal growth or haze. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So a high- resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but then the big question is: "how often the fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? A previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done by Vince Samek et al. of IBM and Dadi Gudmundsson et al. of KLA-Tencor in 1999 [1], but this work was prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. In this present paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on the data from an advanced DRAM fab environment that is using low k1 lithography. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  15. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the ‘VI Reparto Mobile’, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand–Control–Support (DCS) and the Effort–Reward–Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288

  16. Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ražnatovi? Djurovi?, Milena; Jankovi?, Janko; Tomi? Spiri?, Vesna; Jankovi?, Slavenka

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disease in children that may affect their quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess QoL in children in Montenegro with moderate to severe AD. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology, Clinical Center of Montenegro, Podgorica, between January and December 2014. The study group included 200 children (97 boys and 103 girls) with the diagnosis of AD. The Infants' Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (IDQOL) and the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were used to determine QoL for 90 infants (<4 years old) and 110 children (4-16 years old), respectively. Severity of disease was measured by the three-item severity (TIS) score. The mean scores were 14.38±5.57 for IDQOL and 18.43±4.88 for CDLQI. A positive correlation was observed between AD clinical severity (TIS) and all the items of IDQOL with Spearman's correlation coefficient (?) ranging from 0.31 to 0.74, and between AD clinical severity and all domains of CDLQI (?=0.31-0.69). The impact of AD on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was more severe for younger girls, but only in some domains (IDQOL), and for older boys (CDLQI). The linguistically validated Serbian versions of both IDQOL and CDLQI questionnaires showed good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha values of 0.88 and 0.73, respectively. In conclusion, our r. PMID:26476901

  17. Health-related profile and quality of life among nursing home residents: does pain matter?

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to explore the health-related profile and quality of life among older persons living with and without pain in nursing homes. Ten nursing homes were approached, and 535 older persons were invited to join the study from 2009 to 2011. The nursing home residents' demographic information and information regarding their pain situation and the use of oral analgesic drug and nondrug therapy among the older residents with chronic pain were also collected. Residents' physical health (using the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Elderly Mobility Scores); psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and loneliness (using the Happiness Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale); and quality of life were investigated. Among the 535 nursing home residents, 396 (74%) of them suffered from pain, with mean pain scores of 4.09 ± 2.19, indicating medium pain intensity a remaining 139 (26%) reported no pain. The location of pain was mainly in the knees, back and shoulders. Our results demonstrated that, with the exception of the no-pain group (p < .05), nursing home residents' pain affected both their psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, and depression, and their physical quality of life. Nevertheless, only one-half of the older persons with pain used oral analgesic drug or nondrug therapy to relieve their pain. Pain had a significant impact on their mobility and ADL, was positively correlated with happiness and life satisfaction, and was negatively correlated with loneliness and depression. Pain management is a high priority in elderly care; as such, innovative and interdisciplinary strategies are necessary to enhance quality of life particularly for older persons living in nursing homes. PMID:24315270

  18. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  19. Strategies for Solving Three Fraction-Related Word Problems on Speed: A Comparative Study between Chinese and Singaporean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Chunlian; Chua, Boon Liang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study comparing the strategies used by 1,070 Chinese students and 1,002 Singaporean students from primary grade 6 to secondary year 2 in solving three fraction-related problems. It is part of the author's Ph.D. study, which involves more word problems on speed. The Chinese students performed better…

  20. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  1. Reliability and Validity of the "FITNESSGRAM"[R]: Quality of Teacher-Collected Health-Related Fitness Surveillance Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Martin, Scott B.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality (reliability and validity) of large-scale fitness testing in Texas and determine if reliabilities and validities were related to potential confounding variables. Four test administration scenarios were conducted to investigate the quality of data collected statewide as part of the Texas…

  2. PROJECT WORK PLAN FOR REVISED AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The previous ozone (O3 ) criteria document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemi...

  3. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  4. Relative influence of plant quality and natural enemies on the seasonal dynamics of bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance and distribution of insect herbivores is determined by, among other things, plant quality and natural enemies. These two factors vary temporally and spatially, subsequently affecting seasonal population dynamics. The relative influence of plant quality and natural enemies on the season...

  5. PROJECT WORK PLAN FOR REVISED AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS (CASAC REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The previous ozone (O3) criteria document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Phot...

  6. General relativity problem sheet 3 1. State Kepler's second law, and give its physical significance. Do you

    E-print Network

    Dettmann, Carl

    General relativity problem sheet 3 1. State Kepler's second law, and give its physical significance at rest decays with half-life 1/2, what is its observed half-life? * (c) Show that the proper acceleration

  7. Relations between hydrology, water quality, and taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds in Lake Houston, Texas, April 2006-September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beussink, Amy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Houston is a surface-water-supply reservoir and an important recreational resource for the city of Houston, Texas. Growing concerns over water quality in Lake Houston prompted a detailed assessment of water quality in the reservoir. The assessment focused on water-quality constituents that affect the aesthetic quality of drinking water. The hydrologic and water-quality conditions influencing the occurrence of taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds in Lake Houston were assessed using discrete and continuously monitored water-quality data collected during April 2006–September 2008. The hydrology of Lake Houston is characterized by rapidly changing conditions. During inflow events, water residence time can change by orders of magnitude within a matter of hours. Likewise, the reservoir can stratify and destratify over a period of several hours, even during non-summer and at relatively short water residence times, given extended periods with warm temperatures and little wind. The rapidly changing hydrology likely influences all other aspects of water quality in Lake Houston, including the occurrence of taste-and-odor causing organisms and compounds. Water quality in Lake Houston varied with respect to season and water residence time but typically was indicative of turbid, eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. In general, turbidity and nutrient concentrations were largest during non-summer (October–May) and when water residence times were relatively short (less than 100 days), which reflects the influence of inflow events on water-quality conditions. Large inflow events can cause substantial changes in water-quality conditions over relatively short periods of time (hours). The taste-and-odor causing organisms cyanobacteria and actinomycetes bacteria were always present in Lake Houston. Cyanobacterial biovolume was largest during summer (June–September) and when water residence time was greater than 100 days. Annual maxima in cyanobacterial biovolume occurred during July-September of each year, when temperatures were larger than 27 degrees Celsius and water residence times were longer than 400 days. In contrast, actinomycetes bacteria were most abundant during non-summer and when water residence times were less than 100 days, reflecting the close association between these organisms and transport of suspended sediments. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the taste-and-odor causing compounds most commonly produced by cyanobacteria and actinomycetes bacteria. Geosmin was detected more frequently (62 percent of samples) than 2-methylisoborneol (29 percent of samples) in Lake Houston. Geosmin exceeded the human detection threshold (10 nanograms per liter) only once during the study period and 2-methylisoborneol exceeded the human detection threshold twice. Manganese is a naturally occurring trace element that can occasionally cause taste-and-odor problems in drinking water. Manganese concentrations exceeded the human detection threshold (about 50 micrograms per liter) in about 50 percent of samples collected near the surface and 84 percent of samples collected near the bottom. The cyanotoxin microcystin was detected relatively infrequently (16 percent of samples) and at small concentrations (less than or equal to 0.2 micrograms per liter). The abundance of the taste-and-odor causing organisms cyanobacteria and actinomycetes bacteria in Lake Houston was coupled with inflow events and subsequent changes in water-quality conditions. Cyanobacterial biovolume (biomass) in Lake Houston was largest during warm periods with little inflow and relatively small turbidity values. In contrast, actinomycetes bacteria were most abundant following inflow events when turbidity was relatively large. Severe taste-and-odor problems were not observed during the study period, precluding quantification of the hydrologic and water-quality conditions associated with large concentrations of taste-and-odor causing compounds and

  8. Integrated storage and querying of spatially varying data quality information in a relational spatial database

    E-print Network

    Duckham, Matt

    than storing global data quality statements, the system enables data quality information recognized as an endemic feature of geographic information (Chrisman 1984; Blakemore 1984; Fisher 1989 been proposed that enable data quality information to be referenced to geographic space, individual

  9. A multi-harmonic amplitude and relative-phase controller for active sound quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera-Sánchez, Jaime A.; de Oliveira, Leopoldo P. R.

    2014-04-01

    Current active sound quality control systems aim at dealing with the amplitude level of the primary disturbance, e.g. sound pressure, forces, velocities and/or accelerations, which implicitly leads to Loudness control, regardless of the spectral structure of the disturbance. As far as multi-harmonic disturbances are concerned, auditory Roughness, arguably the most related psychoacoustic metric with rumbling perception in passenger cars, can be tackled not merely by dealing with magnitudes but also with the relative-phase of the narrowband components. This paper presents an adaptive control scheme conceived for dealing with multi-harmonic disturbances, which features the independent amplitude and/or relative-phase control of the input periodic components and an improved robustness to impulsive events. The adaptive control scheme is based on a frequency-domain delayless implementation of the complex-domain, least mean squares algorithm, whereof its convergence process is improved by using a forgetting factor. The control capabilities are evaluated numerically for single- and multiple-harmonic disturbances, including realistic internal combustion engine sound contaminated with noise and by impulsive events. By using long transfer paths obtained from a real vehicle mock-up, sound pressure level reductions of 39 dBSPL and the ability to displacing the relative-phase of a number of narrowband components between [-?,?] are accomplished by the proposed control scheme. The assessment of the results by using Zwicker-Loudness and auditory Roughness models shows that the proposed adaptive algorithm is able to accomplish and stably preserve various sound quality targets, after completion of the robust convergence procedure, regardless of impulsive events that can occur during the system operation.

  10. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, D.; Holterhues, C.; van de Poll-Franse, L. V.; Coebergh, J. W.; Nijsten, T.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma can be considered an emerging chronic disease that may considerably affect patients’ lives. The authors systematically reviewed the available literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and melanoma. Of reviews and the selected studies, reference lists were hand-searched. The quality of the eligible studies was appraised based on 14 previously published criteria. Of the 158 abstracts, 44 articles were appraised, resulting in 13 selected studies written in English (published between 2001 and 2008). Most studies assessed patients from specialised centres with varying, but relatively advanced, disease stages. The most commonly used instruments were the SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-C30. Recently, a melanoma-specific HRQOL questionnaire [FACT-Melanoma (FACT-M)] was introduced for clinical trial purposes. It showed that approximately one-third of melanoma patients experienced considerable levels of distress, mostly at the time of diagnosis and following treatment. Systemic therapies affected HRQOL negatively in the short term, but to a lesser extent in the long term. Health status and patients’ psychological characteristics are associated with higher levels of HRQOL impairment. The authors found that the impact of melanoma on patients’ HRQOL is comparable to that of other cancers. Accurately assessing HRQOL impairment in melanoma patients is pivotal, as it may affect disease management, including therapy and additional counselling, future preventive behaviour and perhaps even prognosis. PMID:19617298

  11. Health-related quality of life of students from a private medical school in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernando M.; Menezes, Marta S.; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to describe factors associated with its variation among undergraduate medical students at a Brazilian private medical school. Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample (n=180) of medical students at a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, stratified by year of medical course. Data about age, sex, year of course, physical activity, sleepiness, headaches, participation in a student loan program supported by the Brazilian government (FIES) and living arrangements were collected using a self-administered form. HRQOL was assessed by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 form. The eight domains of SF-36 and the Physical Component (PCS) and Mental Component (MCS) Summaries scales were calculated. Results The medical students showed poor HRQOL, mainly because of the mental component. Lower mean scores were found among those with FIES support, females, those suffering from sleepiness, headaches and lacking physical activity. No clear trend was observed in the variation of the SF-36 mean scores according to the year of medical school. However, students in the fifth year of the course had the highest HRQOL mean scores. Conclusions Health-related quality of life of students at this private medical school was poor, mainly because of its mental component. Lower HRQOL was associated with FIES support, females, sleepiness, headaches and lack of regular physical activity. Higher scores were found among fifth year students. PMID:26547925

  12. Voice-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Farhat, Sahar; Saadeh, Rami; El-Dahouk, Iyad; Sibai, Abla; Yamout, Bassem

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the voice-related quality of life in a group of patients with multiple sclerosis. Participants. A total of 87 subjects (59 MS subjects and 28 controls) participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures. Variables included presence or absence of phonatory symptoms, duration of the disease, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the severity of fatigue, and depression. All patients were asked to fill the Voice Handicap Index. Results. The average age was 35.47 years + 10.92 with 39% being males. The average duration of the disease was 77.93 months. The EDSS score was 1.94 + 1.84, the FSS score was 4.07 + 2.09, and the HRSD was 7.28 + 7.70. Only 7 subjects out of the 59 had vocal symptoms compared to 3 in the control group. There was no significant difference in the VHI total score between cases (5.9 + 15.5) and controls (5.4 + 8.2). There was a positive correlation between VHI total score, FSS score, and HRSD (P values of 0.011 and <0.01. Conclusion. The voice-related quality of life in MS is within normal with no disability. PMID:23082246

  13. Engineering-Based Problem Solving Strategies in AP Calculus: An Investigation into High School Student Performance on Related Rate Free-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieken, John

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…

  14. Preliminary examination of polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTZ1 in relation to semen quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Environmental, lifestyle, and occupational exposures on semen quality have been investigated in epidemiological studies with inconsistent results. Genetic factors involved in toxicant activation and detoxification have been examined in relation to the risk of outcomes...

  15. 78 FR 16474 - Extension of the Period for Comments on the Enhancement of Quality of Software-Related Patents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office [Docket No. PTO-P-2012-0052...the Enhancement of Quality of Software-Related Patents AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION:...

  16. Disease-Specific Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 

    E-print Network

    Vaughan-Dark, Chelsea Ann

    2013-07-17

    This study assesses generic and disease-specific Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). More specifically, the purpose of the study is to address the relationship between disease...

  17. Frequency and Clinical Correlates of Sleep-Related Problems Among Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Joshua M; Arnold, Elysse B; Keene, Amanda C; Collier, Amanda B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are common and problematic among anxious youth but have not been investigated in anxious youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 102 youth (ages 7-16 years) with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Youth and their primary caregiver were administered the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale. Parents completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-Parent (MASC-P) Report, Social Responsiveness Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A measure of SRPs was created from items from the CBCL and MASC-P. Results suggest SRPs were relatively common among youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety. The number of SRPs endorsed directly associated with parent ratings of social deficits, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, as well as with clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. Parent-rated internalizing symptoms predicted frequency of SRPs over and above social deficits, externalizing symptoms, and parent- and clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. A subset of 40 participants who completed family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experienced reduced SRPs following treatment. Implications, study limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25239284

  18. Towards High-Quality Reflective Learning amongst Law Undergraduate Students: Analysing Students' Reflective Journals during a Problem-Based Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rué, Joan; Font, Antoni; Cebrián, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    There is wide agreement that problem-based learning is a key strategy to promote individual abilities for "learning how to learn". This paper presents the main contributions that reflective journals and the problem-based learning approach can make to foster professional knowledge and quality learning in higher education. Thirty-six…

  19. Heath-related quality of life in Spanish breast cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the oncological diseases in which health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been most studied. This is mainly due to its high incidence and survival. This paper seeks to: review published research into HRQL among women with breast cancer in Spain; analyse the characteristics of these studies; and describe the instruments used and main results reported. Methods The databases consulted were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Dialnet, IBECS, CUIDEN, ISOC and LILACS. The inclusion criteria required studies to: 1) include Spanish patients, and a breakdown of results where other types of tumours and/or women from other countries were also included; and, 2) furnish original data and measure HRQL using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. Results Spain ranked midway in the European Union in terms of the number of studies conducted on the HRQL of breast cancer patients. Of the total of 133 papers published from 1993 to 2009, 25 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, only 12 were considered as having good or excellent quality. A total of 2236 women participated in the studies analysed. In descending order of frequency, the questionnaires used were the EORTC, FACT-B, QL-CA-Afex, SF-12, FLIC, RSCL and CCV. Five papers focused on validation or adaptation of questionnaires. Most papers examined HRQL in terms of type of treatment. Few differences were detected by type of chemotherapy, with the single exception of worse results among younger women treated with radiotherapy. In the short term, better results were reported for all HRQL components by women undergoing conservative rather than radical surgery. Presence of lymphedema was associated with worse HRQL. Three studies assessed differences in HRQL by patients' psychological traits. Psychosocial disorder and level of depression and anxiety, regardless of treatment or disease stage, worsened HRQL. In addition, there was a positive effect among patients who reported having a "fighting spirit" and using "denial" as a defence mechanism. One study found that breast cancer patients scored worse than did healthy women on almost all SF-12 scales. Conclusion Research into health-related quality of life of breast-cancer patients is a little developed field in Spain. PMID:21235770

  20. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

    2014-01-01

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?2 = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test – Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism PMID:24653767

  1. Cognition and Physical Disability in Predicting Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoogs, Marietta; Kaur, Sukhmit; Smerbeck, Audrey; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but the relative contributions of physical versus cognitive disability are not well established. Most studies have relied on HRQOL outcomes that depend largely on patient mood, life satisfaction, and personal happiness. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a measure of HRQOL known for its relatively strong emphasis on task completion and activities of daily living. As such, the SIP may be less influenced by depression. We sought to determine the relative influence of physical disability and cognition, above and beyond demographic and disease variables, in predicting HRQOL. Patients (n = 132) and healthy controls (n = 26) underwent complete neuropsychological evaluation using the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) battery and a series of self-report measures assessing depression, fatigue, and HRQOL. The SIP was also administered. Correlation analysis and group comparisons revealed significant associations between cognition and HRQOL outcomes. Logistic regression models comparing the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and cognitive tests in predicting poor physical HRQOL retained both EDSS and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) performance, while models predicting poor psychosocial and poor overall HRQOL retained only the SDMT. These findings support cognition as a significant predictor of overall HRQOL, psychosocial HRQOL, and, interestingly, physical HRQOL. PMID:24453706

  2. Application of EREP imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards and environmental problems in mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R. (principal investigators)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous fracture traces were detected on both the color transparencies and black and white spectral bands. Fracture traces of value to mining hazards analysis were noted on the EREP imagery which could not be detected on either the ERTS-1 or high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. Several areas of mine subsidence occurring in the Busseron Creek area near Sullivan, Indiana were successfully identified using color photography. Skylab photography affords an increase over comparable scale ERTS-1 imagery in level of information obtained in mined lands inventory and reclamation analysis. A review of EREP color photography permitted the identification of a substantial number of non-fuel mines within the Southern Indiana test area. A new mine was detected on the EREP photography without prior data. EREP has definite value for estimating areal changes in active mines and for detecting new non-fuel mines. Gob piles and slurry ponds of several acres could be detected on the S-190B color photography when observed in association with large scale mining operations. Apparent degradation of water quality resulting from acid mine drainage and/or siltation was noted in several ponds or small lakes and appear to be related to intensive mining activity near Sullivan, Indiana.

  3. Changes of vision-related quality of life in retinal detachment patients after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingming; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Xu, Xian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Rhegmatenous retinal detachment (RRD) is one of the most serious complications after phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. It has been reported that vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), as well as visual acuity rapidly decreased when RRD developed. However, little is known of the VRQoL in those RRD patients after anatomical retinal re-attachment, especially whether or not the VRQoL is higher than that before cataract surgery. In this prospective case series study, we use the Chinese-version low vision quality of life questionnaire (CLVQOL) to assess the changes of VRQoL in age-related cataract patients who suffered from RRD after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (phaco-IOL) implantation. All participants were asked to complete questionnaires in face- to-face interviews one day before and two weeks after cataract surgery, as well as one day before and three months after RRD surgery. A total of 10,127 consecutive age-related cataract patients were followed up to one year after phaco-IOL implantation; among these patients, 17 were diagnosed as RRD. The total CLVQOL scores and subscale scores except "Mobility" decreased significantly when RRD developed. After retinal surgery, only the score of "General vision and lighting" in the CLVQOL questionnaires improved when compared to the scores two weeks after cataract surgery, although the best corrected visual acuity of all patients significantly raised up. However, the mean CLVQOL scores and subscale scores were still considerably higher than the level prior to cataract surgery. Our study suggests that cataract patients at high risk of postoperative RRD should not deny the opportunity to undergo phaco-IOL implantation, even though potential VRQoL impairment induced by RRD exists. PMID:25764367

  4. Health related quality of life and mental distress after PCI: restoring a state of equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient self reported measures for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and mental distress are frequently used to evaluate outcome of therapeutic strategies in cardiac patients. Our study aims to describe changes in HRQOL and mental distress after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) focusing on temporal pattern of change and interdependences between both outcome measures. Method 163 PCI patients recruited at 7 cardiovascular care units in Austria answered MacNew Health Related Quality of Life and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires during hospital stay after intervention and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results Improvement of MacNew HRQOL was found up to 6 month after PCI. Mental distress declined during the first month of the follow-up period. MacNew HRQOL is negatively correlated to mental distress. The relationship could be well described by a linear regression with MacNew HRQOL as dependent and HADS Total score as independent variable. The explained variance (R2) of the regression equation increases drastically from 45% at the baseline to a level between 67% and 77% in the follow up. Conclusion Our data suggest that the regression equation describing the relation between MacNew HRQOL and HADS-Total score six month after PCI defines a state of equilibrium: In absence of actual symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) both measures reflect the general health status and the general attitude underlying the self-assessment of health. At the baseline this equilibrium is imbalanced because the symptoms of CAD have a more pronounced impact on the disease specific MacNew HRQOL measure than on the non-disease specific HADS measure for mental distress. In order to use the MacNew questionnaire as a monitoring and/or prognostic tool it seems promising to refer to the state of equilibrium to define expectancy values for successful treatment. PMID:23981730

  5. I.31, a new combination of probiotics, improves irritable bowel syndrome-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Llop, Elba; Suárez, Cristina; Álvarez, Beatriz; Abreu, Luis; Espadaler, Jordi; Serra, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the dose-related effects of a novel probiotic combination, I.31, on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-related quality of life (IBS-QoL). METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention clinical trial with three parallel arms was designed. A total of 84 patients (53 female, 31 male; age range 20-70 years) with IBS and diarrhea according to Rome-III criteria were randomly allocated to receive one capsule a day for 6 wk containing: (1) I.31 high dose (n = 28); (2) I.31 low dose (n = 27); and (3) placebo (n = 29). At baseline, and 3 and 6 wk of treatment, patients filled the IBSQoL, Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI), and global symptom relief questionnaires. RESULTS: During treatment, IBS-QoL increased in all groups, but this increment was significantly larger in patients treated with I.31 than in those receiving placebo (P = 0.008). After 6 wk of treatment, IBS-QoL increased by 18 ± 3 and 22 ± 4 points in the high and the low dose groups, respectively (P = 0.041 and P = 0.023 vs placebo), but only 9 ± 3 in the placebo group. Gut-specific anxiety, as measured with VSI, also showed a significantly greater improvement after 6 wk of treatment in patients treated with probiotics (by 10 ± 2 and 14 ± 2 points, high and low dose respectively, P < 0.05 for both vs 7 ± 1 score increment in placebo). Symptom relief showed no significant changes between groups. No adverse drug reactions were reported following the consumption of probiotic or placebo capsules. CONCLUSION: A new combination of three different probiotic bacteria was superior to placebo in improving IBS-related quality of life in patients with IBS and diarrhea. PMID:25024629

  6. Health-related quality of life in Moroccan patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Amine, Bouchra; Laatiris, Assia; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to assess the aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Moroccan patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the disease-related parameters influencing it. Two hundred fifty-five patients with RA were consecutively included. We assessed sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status, disease duration, diagnosis delay, joint pain intensity (on a 0-100-mm visual analogue scale), disease activity (by the disease activity score (DAS 28) and biological tests), structural damage (by radiographs scored using the Sharp's method as modified by Van der Heijde), functional disability (by the Health Assessment Questionnaire), extra-articular manifestations, immunological status, and treatments. The Arabic version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) was applied to assess HRQoL. All domains of SF-36 were deteriorated in a significant way comparing to the general population. The most affected subgroups of SF-36 were role limitation, role emotional, vitality, and social functioning. Women had significantly lower scores of SF-36 compared to men. Patients with decreased levels of education and low socioeconomic status had significantly lower scores of SF-36 (for all p ? 0.01). Current and ex-smokers had lower scores in physical domains of quality of life. Patients treated with methotrexate had better scores of mental health. Furthermore, patients receiving biologic agents had better scores of physical and social domains. Decreased scores of SF-36 were significantly correlated with disease duration, joint pain intensity, clinical and biological disease activity, functional disability, and radiographic damage. The level of antibodies against citrullinated peptides had significant correlations with the impairment of physical domains of SF-36. Physical as well as mental aspects of HRQoL in our RA patients were significantly deteriorated. Recognizing complicated relationships between HRQoL and disease-related variables among our RA patients can help to develop further management strategies to improve patients' daily living particularly with the advent of new treatments. PMID:22903698

  7. Entropy stability theory for difference approximations of nonlinear conservation laws and related time-dependent problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    We study the entropy stability of difference approximations to nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, and related time-dependent problems governed by additional dissipative and dispersive forcing terms. We employ a comparison principle as the main tool for entropy stability analysis, comparing the entropy production of a given scheme against properly chosen entropy-conservative schemes.To this end, we introduce general families of entropy-conservative schemes, interesting in their own right. The present treatment of such schemes extends our earlier recipe for construction of entropy-conservative schemes, introduced in Tadmor (1987b). The new families of entropy-conservative schemes offer two main advantages, namely, (i) their numerical fluxes admit an explicit, closed-form expression, and (ii) by a proper choice of their path of integration in phase space, we can distinguish between different families of waves within the same computational cell; in particular, entropy stability can be enforced on rarefactions while keeping the sharp resolution of shock discontinuities.A comparison with the numerical viscosities associated with entropy-conservative schemes provides a useful framework for the construction and analysis of entropy-stable schemes. We employ this framework for a detailed study of entropy stability for a host of first- and second-order accurate schemes. The comparison approach yields a precise characterization of the entropy stability of semi-discrete schemes for both scalar problems and systems of equations.We extend these results to fully discrete schemes. Here, spatial entropy dissipation is balanced by the entropy production due to time discretization with a suffciently small time-step, satisfying a suitable CFL condition. Finally, we revisit the question of entropy stability for fully discrete schemes using a different approach based on homotopy arguments. We prove entropy stability under optimal CFL conditions.

  8. Control methods for mitigating biomass ash-related problems in fluidized beds.

    PubMed

    Vamvuka, D; Zografos, D; Alevizos, G

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment of biomass combustion technologies in the Cretan energy system will play an important role and will contribute to the local development. The main biomass fuels of Crete are the agricultural residues olive kernel and olive tree wood. Future applications of these biofuels may create, among others, operational problems related to ash effects. In this regard, the thermal behavior of the ashes during lab-scale fluidized bed combustion tests was examined, in terms of slagging/fouling and agglomeration of bed material. Control methodologies for mitigating ash problems were applied, such as leaching the raw fuels with water and using different mineral additives during combustion. The ashes and the bed material were characterized in terms of mineralogical, chemical and morphological analyses and the slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities were determined. The results showed that fly ashes were rich in Ca, Si and Fe minerals and contained substantial amounts of alkali, falling within the range of "certain or probable slagging/fouling". Leaching of the raw fuels with water resulted in a significant reduction of the problematic elements K, Na, Cl and S in the fly ashes. The use of fuel additives decreased the concentrations of alkali and iron minerals in the fly ashes. With clay additives calcium compounds were enriched in the bottom ash, while with carbonate additives they were enriched in the fly ash. Fuel additives or water leaching reduced the slagging/fouling potential due to alkali. Under the conditions of the combustion tests, no signs of ash deposition or bed agglomeration were noticed. PMID:17826986

  9. Effects of acupuncture and massage on pain, quality of sleep and health related quality of life in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mooventhan, A.; Nivethitha, L.

    2014-01-01

    A 41-years-old woman diagnosed of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in 2006 came to our hospital - outpatient department with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints associated with disturbed sleep/sleeplessness and poor quality of life since seven years. She received acupuncture (20 minutes) and massage (20 minutes) daily for the period of 30 days with 7 days of rest period in between after first 15 days. After intervention we observed reduction of pain in Visual Analog Scale score; improvement in day time sleepiness, and quality of sleep in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively; improvement in health related quality of life in Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Health Survey. These results showed that acupuncture and massage can be considered as an integrative approach for symptomatic management of SLE. PMID:25336852

  10. Effects of acupuncture and massage on pain, quality of sleep and health related quality of life in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2014-07-01

    A 41-years-old woman diagnosed of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in 2006 came to our hospital - outpatient department with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints associated with disturbed sleep/sleeplessness and poor quality of life since seven years. She received acupuncture (20 minutes) and massage (20 minutes) daily for the period of 30 days with 7 days of rest period in between after first 15 days. After intervention we observed reduction of pain in Visual Analog Scale score; improvement in day time sleepiness, and quality of sleep in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively; improvement in health related quality of life in Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Health Survey. These results showed that acupuncture and massage can be considered as an integrative approach for symptomatic management of SLE. PMID:25336852

  11. Problems in transition and quality of care: perspectives of breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Roundtree, Aimee Kendall; Giordano, Sharon H.; Price, Andrea; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a qualitative study to explore breast cancer survivors’ perceptions and attitudes about their current healthcare utilization, screening, and information needs. Methods We completed eight focus groups of breast cancer survivors. We included women, adult survivors, with an initial diagnosis of breast cancer in the year 2000, treated, and without a recurrence as per medical record. To analyze transcripts, we used grounded theory methods, wherein unexpected themes and direct answers emerged from consensus between co-coders. Results Focus groups included 33 participants, the majority of whom were white (84.8%), college-educated (66.7%), and covered by private medical insurance (75.7%) or Medicare (27.3%). Participants’ perceptions and attitudes about care were framed in terms of personal experiences (including facing barriers to screening, feeling in limbo in the healthcare system, having problems with communication with and between physicians, confusion about symptoms, and using self-prescribe remedies), personal attitudes (including strong opinions about what survivorship means, concerns about recurrence, and changes in self-perception and agency), and social influences (including modeling others’ behaviors, changes in social life, and listening to family). Conclusion Survivorship attitudes, recurrence fears, memories, and self-perceptions were influential personal factors in addition to self-efficacy. Solutions such as providing a cancer treatment summary might resolve many of the problems by consolidating and making readily available the numerous medical history and recommendations that survivors accrue over time, switching from provider to provider. Clinicians must also implement communication changes in their interactions with patients to enhance positive attitudes and behaviors, and leverage social influences. PMID:21140173

  12. Injury-related characteristics and quality-of-life among Iranian individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Soltani, Zahra; Latifi, Sahar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Arman, Farid; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) may be affected by various factors including injury-related characteristics among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the impact of the influence of these variables has not yet been fully described in Iranian population. Here, we assessed the relationships between injury-related characteristics and HR-QOL among Iranian people with SCI. Methods: HR-QOL was assessed using short-form health survey (SF-36). Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center between 2010 and 2012 were invited to participate in this investigation. Injury-related characteristics including injury level and completeness, time since injury, plegia type, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale were evaluated. Results: Total of 104 patients (85 men and 19 women) entered the study. The majority of patients had a complete injury (77.9%). The most frequent ASIA score was A (75%), and the most common level of injury was at thoracic sections (61.5%). Lower injury levels were associated with higher scores in physical component summary (P = 0.040), mental component summary (P = 0.010) and subsequently total score (P = 0.006). Mean age and time since injury were 52.58 ± 12.69 and 10.88 ± 16.68 years, respectively, and were not related with HR-QOL (P = 0.70 and 0.220, respectively). There was no difference in terms of HR-QOL between patients with complete and incomplete injury. Paraplegic individuals had significantly higher scores in the domain of physical functioning compared to patients with tetraplegia (P = 0.007). Conclusion: lower injury level is a significant predictor of better QOL among individuals with SCI whereas other injury-related characteristics including completeness, time since injury and plegia type may not influence HR-QOL. PMID:26622978

  13. Domain-specific physical activity and health-related quality of life in university students.

    PubMed

    Pediši?, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Juraki?, Danijel; Oja, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (? = 0.08 for females and ? = 0.10 for males, P < 0.05). Domain-specific PA levels were not significantly related to the Mental Component Summary score. To get a more comprehensive insight in the relationship between PA and HRQoL, future studies should not only analyse total PA levels but also domain-specific PA levels. The evidence on the positive relationship of leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships. PMID:24088048

  14. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children’s Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children’s externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. Children’s experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children’s externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children’s coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  15. Adopted Children's Problem Behavior Is Significantly Related to Their Ego Resiliency, Ego Control, and Sociometric Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffer, Femmie; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many studies have documented that adopted children are at higher risk for behavior problems, but less is known about the correlates of their problem behavior. Method: The correlates of parent-reported and teacher-reported problem behavior in 7-year-old internationally adopted children (N = 176) were investigated by examining these…

  16. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  17. Life Events and Peer Substance Use and Their Relation to Substance Use Problems in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    Substance use disorders among college students are not well understood, and the present study examined the relationship of two environmental factors to alcohol and drug use problems in 616 (316 women) college students. Participants completed measures assessing substance use problems, life events, and substance use among peers. Alcohol use problems

  18. Space Mathematics, A Resource for Teachers Outlining Supplementary Space-Related Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Thomas D.; And Others

    This compilation of 138 problems illustrating applications of high school mathematics to various aspects of space science is intended as a resource from which the teacher may select questions to supplement his regular course. None of the problems require a knowledge of calculus or physics, and solutions are presented along with the problem

  19. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.

  20. Green's functions for dislocations in bonded strips and related crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Luo, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Green's functions are derived for the plane elastostatics problem of a dislocation in a bimaterial strip. Using these fundamental solutions as kernels, various problems involving cracks in a bimaterial strip are analyzed using singular integral equations. For each problem considered, stress intensity factors are calculated for several combinations of the parameters which describe loading, geometry and material mismatch.