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Sample records for quality sbs symptoms

  1. The effects of outdoor air supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, P; Wyon, D P; Sundell, J; Clausen, G; Fanger, P O

    2000-12-01

    Perceived air quality, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity were studied in a normally furnished office space (108 m3) ventilated with an outdoor airflow of 3, 10 or 30 L/s per person, corresponding to an air change rate of 0.6, 2 or 6 h-1. The temperature of 22 degrees C, the relative humidity of 40% and all other environmental parameters remained unchanged. Five groups of six female subjects were each exposed to the three ventilation rates, one group and one ventilation rate at a time. Each exposure lasted 4.6 h and took place in the afternoon. Subjects were unaware of the intervention and remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing. They assessed perceived air quality and SBS symptoms at intervals, and performed simulated normal office work. Increasing ventilation decreased the percentage of subjects dissatisfied with the air quality (P < 0.002) and the intensity of odour (P < 0.02), and increased the perceived freshness of air (P < 0.05). It also decreased the sensation of dryness of mouth and throat (P < 0.0006), eased difficulty in thinking clearly (P < 0.001) and made subjects feel generally better (P < 0.0001). The performance of four simulated office tasks improved monotonically with increasing ventilation rates, and the effect reached formal significance in the case of text-typing (P < 0.03). For each two-fold increase in ventilation rate, performance improved on average by 1.7%. This study shows the benefits for health, comfort and productivity of ventilation at rates well above the minimum levels prescribed in existing standards and guidelines. It confirms the results of a previous study in the same office when the indoor air quality was improved by decreasing the pollution load while the ventilation remained unchanged. PMID:11089327

  2. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-02-07

    This paper provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation system types in office buildings with sick building syndrome symptoms and discusses potential explanations for the associations. Relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidification, was consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of one or more SBS symptoms. Prevalences were typically higher by approximately 30% to 200% in the air conditioned buildings. In two of three assessments from a single study, symptom prevalences were also significantly higher in air conditioned buildings than in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation and no humidification. In approximately half of assessments, SBS symptom prevalences were significantly higher in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation than in buildings with natural ventilation. Insufficient information was available for conclusions about the potential increased risk of SBS symptoms with humidification. The statistically significant associations of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning with SBS symptoms are much more frequent than expected from chance and also not likely to be a consequence of confounding by several potential personal, job, or building related confounders. The reasons for the increases in symptom prevalences with mechanical ventilation and particularly with air conditioning remain unclear. Multiple deficiencies in HVAC system design, construction, operation, or maintenance, including some which cause pollutant emissions from HVAC systems, may contribute to the increases in symptom prevalences.

  3. Influence of indoor air quality and personal factors on the sick building syndrome (SBS) in Swedish geriatric hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, K; Norbäck, D; Akselsson, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Sick building syndrome (SBS) involves symptoms such as irritation to the eyes, skin, and upper airways, headache, and fatigue. The relations between such symptoms and both personal and environmental factors were studied in 225 female hospital workers, working in eight hospital units in the south of Sweden. METHODS--Symptoms of SBS and personal factors were measured by means of a standardised self administered questionnaire. The technical investigation comprised a building survey and measurements of room temperature, supply air temperature, air humidity, and exhaust air flow. RESULTS--The prevalence of symptoms differed from one unit to another. The mean value of weekly complaints of fatigue was 30%, of eye irritation 23%, and of dry facial skin 34%. Eye irritation was related to work stress, self reported exposure to static electricity, and was also more common in buildings with a high ventilation flow and a high noise level (55 dB(A)) from the ventilation system. Nasal symptoms were related to asthma and hay fever only. Throat symptoms were more common in smokers, subjects with asthma or hay fever, new buildings, and in buildings with a high ventilation flow. Facial skin irritation was related to a lack of control of the work conditions, and was more common in new buildings, and buildings with a high ventilation flow and ventilation noise. General symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were related to current smoking, asthma or hay fever, work dissatisfaction, and static electricity. CONCLUSION--As the prevalence of symptoms was high, there is a need to improve the indoor environment as well as the psychosocial environment in hospitals. These improvements could include a reduction of ventilation noise, minimised smoking, and improvements in the psychosocial climate. Further research is needed to identify indoor climatic factors that cause the increased prevalence of symptoms of SBS in new buildings. PMID:7735389

  4. Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of beam quality of SBS compressor with multipass Nd:YAG amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzelis, Rytis; Dement'ev, Alexander S.; Kosenko, E.; Murauskas, E.; Ciegis, R.; Kairyte, G.

    1996-04-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the laser beam quality changes after propagation through the passive and active optical systems with the linear and nonlinear aberrations are presented. The new algorithm for the calculation of the phase conjugation by steady-state SBS is developed. It is found that the parameter M2 of the Stokes beam in the saturation regime is often nearly the same as that of the pump beam. The generation of short (approximately 1.5 nsec) pulses with energies exceeding 4 mJ has been obtained using passive Q-switching of the short (approximately 10 cm) resonator of Nd:YAG laser by GSGG:Cr,Nd crystals. After SBS-compression the pulses with approximately 120 psec duration and with energies of approximately 1 mJ have been obtained. Four-pass Nd:YAG amplifier amplifies the pulses to the energies approximately 500 mJ with the duration of pulses of approximately 170 psec. Experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with the mathematical modelling of short pulse generation and amplification.

  5. [The sick building syndrome (SBS)].

    PubMed

    Ezratty, Véronique

    2003-10-11

    AN INCREASINGLY COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM: Complaints related to indoor environment represent one of the most frequent problems that environmental health practitioners are confronted with. Hence the incidence of the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been increasing since the Seventies. DIFFERING DEFINITIONS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: The WHO defines SBS as an excess of complaints and symptoms occurring in certain occupants of non-industrial buildings. The syndrome can only be evoked after elimination in the person concerned of a disease related to the building, the aetiological agent of which is identifiable. The symptoms described during SBS (headaches, concentration problems, asthenia, irritation of the skin or nasal mucosa, of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.) are non specific and frequently observed in the general population. AN UNKNOWN CASE, BUT NUMEROUS AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS SUSPECTED: There is no unanimously accepted definition nor physio-pathological theory to explain the occurrence of SBS in a particular building. Many favouring factors, including the type and rate of ventilation, volatile organic compounds, particles and humidity have been suspected. TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED: Although the symptoms are benign, they can be uncomfortable or even handicapping and prevent the functioning of workplaces. The SBS, the social and economical costs of which are high, requires multidisciplinary management. PMID:14576597

  6. Optimisation of phase conjugation by SBS in a capillary

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, O V; Rodchenkov, V I

    2001-09-30

    Phase conjugation of laser radiation is studied by SBS in a capillary filled with TiCl{sub 4}. A combination of a relatively low SBS threshold for spatially inhomogeneous radiation, a high quality of phase conjugation, and a wide dynamic range of the phase conjugated radiation energy was obtained. PBr{sub 3} is proposed and investigated as a nonlinear optical medium for further decreasing the SBS threshold. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Angell, W.J.

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  8. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

  9. Binary Stars in SBS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Thirty spectroscopic binary stars were found in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). They show composite spectra - WD(DA)+dM or dC (for example Liebert et al. 1994). They may have red color, if the radiation of the red star dominates, and blue one, if the blue star is brighter and have peculiar spectrum in our survey plate. We obtained slit spectra for most of such objects. But we often see the spectrum of one component, because our slit spectra did not cover all optical range. We examine by eye the slit spectra of all SBS stellar objects (˜700) in SDSS DR7, DR8 or DR9 independent on our observations. We confirmed or discovered the duplicity of 30 stars. Usually they are spectroscopic binaries, where one component is WD (DA) and the second one is a red star with or without emission. There also are other components combinations. Sometimes there are emission lines, probably, indicating variable ones.

  10. Menopausal Symptoms and Sleep Quality During Menopausal Transition and Postmenopause

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yao-Qin; Yan, Mei-Qin; Li, Zhao-Ai; Du, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Xue-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopausal symptoms and sleep difficulty were physiological processes that were affected by genetic and other factors. This study was to investigate the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and sleep quality in menopausal transition (MT) and postmenopause (PM) women in Taiyuan, Shanxi. Methods: A community-based survey of women's menopausal symptoms and sleep quality was conducted between July 2012 and May 2013 at six municipal districts of Taiyuan, Shanxi. A sample of 2429 women aged 40–59 years was divided into four groups: early MT, late MT, early PM, and late PM. Sleep quality in the past 2 weeks before the interview was recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was 49.8%. Mild, moderate, and severe symptoms were observed in 28.9%, 18.5%, and 2.5% of participants, respectively. The highest prevalence of menopausal symptoms occurred in the early postmenopausal stage; the subsequences were the late postmenopausal stage and the early MT stage. Interestingly, among the 13 items of modified Kupperman index, the five most common symptoms were fatigue, arthralgia and myalgia, decreased libido, insomnia, and nervousness. Meanwhile, 55% perimenopausal women had poor sleep. Conclusions: Menopausal symptoms are common but mild among women in Taiyuan, Shanxi during MT and PM. In these stages, the prevalence of poor sleep is high. PMID:26996470

  11. Measurement of SBS physics parameters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    SBS characteristics of the KD{sup *}P crystals were determined by the method of SBS generation excitation in the transverse resonator. Fused silica was utilized as the test medium. Experimental oscillograms of Stokes pulses were processed by the method of pulse form approximation using the four-parametric function of time. The obtained SBS characteristics for these materials are in good agreement with the published literary data and the available theoretical presentation data.

  12. Simulation of phase conjugation for laser radiation upon nonstationary SBS

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, V A; Maslov, N V; Starikov, F A

    2010-06-23

    We report the three-dimensional simulation results of phase conjugation upon nonstationary stimulated Brillouin scattering of a focused laser beam. It is shown that in the case of deep focusing of laser radiation in the SBS cell, the phase conjugation quality decreases with increasing laser power and reflection coefficient, in agreement with experimental results. In calculations, the process of Stokes radiation generation is studied in detail, the reasons for a decrease in the phase conjugation quality are explained, and a means of its improvement is proposed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. Deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deployment of the SBS-4 communications satellite by the STS 41-D crew. The cylindrical spacecraft spins and rises from the its protective shield in the space shuttle payload bay. Behind it is another, closed protective cradle for the Syncom IV communications satllite. The earth's surface can be seen to the left of the frame.

  14. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  15. Monitoring asthma in childhood: symptoms, exacerbations and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brand, Paul L P; Mäkelä, Mika J; Szefler, Stanley J; Frischer, Thomas; Price, David

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice is primarily performed by reviewing disease activity (daytime and night-time symptoms, use of reliever medication, exacerbations requiring frequent use of reliever medication and urgent visits to the healthcare professional) and the impact of the disease on children's daily activities, including sports and play, in a clinical interview. In such an interview, most task force members also discuss adherence to maintenance therapy and the patients' (and parents') views and beliefs on the goals of treatment and the amount of treatment required to achieve those goals. Composite asthma control and quality of life measures, although potentially useful in research, have limited value in clinical practice because they have a short recall window and do not cover the entire spectrum of asthma control. Telemonitoring of children with asthma cannot replace face-to-face follow-up and monitoring because there is no evidence that it is associated with improved health outcomes. PMID:26028631

  16. Amplification of Stokes signals with phase conjugation by combined laser and SBS amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'dyugin, Igor' M; Efimkov, V F; Zubarev, I G; Mikhailov, S I; Sobolev, V B

    2007-01-31

    Various schemes for amplification of Stokes signals are investigated. Some new systems, such as an SBS amplifier in the transient amplification regime and a combined laser amplifier-SBS amplifier, are proposed and realised. Conditions are found under which amplification is accompanied by small distortions of the spatial structure of a signal. A two-pass system for small-signal amplification with phase conjugation is developed by using a PC mirror in the combined amplification system. The gains up to 10{sup 16} were obtained for the phase conjugation quality {approx}80%, the output energy {approx}1 J, and pulse duration {approx}30 ns. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Phase conjugation upon SBS of a focused laser speckle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, V A; Kochemasov, G G; Starikov, F A

    2008-09-30

    The phase conjugation (PC) of a focused Gaussian laser beam with a partial spatial coherence of the wave front is studied numerically and theoretically upon SBS within the framework of a three-dimensional nonstationary SBS model, which takes into account transient processes and SBS saturation. The dependences of the PC coefficient h on the laser radiation power are obtained for different excesses of the angular divergence over the diffraction limit {xi}. It is found that for the given reflectance of laser radiation from the SBS mirror, the PC coefficient monotonically decreases with increasing the divergence. For example, under the near threshold SBS conditions, h decreases from 70% to 30%, when {xi} increases from 1 to 10. For the given divergence, the PC coefficient increases with increasing the reflectance and approaches the ideal one (h > 90%) upon deep SBS saturation, when the reflectance exceeds 90%-95%. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. SBS reduction in nanosecond fiber amplifiers by frequency chirping.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Pavel I; Rose, Todd S

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate a technique for SBS reduction in a nanosecond Yb-fiber amplifier by imposing 1.19 GHz/ns frequency chirp on the seed pulses with a pulse-driven phase modulator. A nearly 9-fold increase in the SBS threshold was observed for 8.4 ns pulses. SBS threshold data and transient SBS gain for various degrees of chirp are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. We further demonstrate the recovery of the input narrowband spectrum by applying an opposite chirp with a second phase modulator after the amplification. PMID:27410540

  19. Depressive Symptoms in 3rd Grade Teachers: Relations to Classroom Quality and Student Achievement

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third grade teachers’ (n = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students’ (n = 523, mean age 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. Teachers’ depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students’ spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students’ fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. Teachers’ depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. Findings point to the importance of teachers’ mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719

  20. Depressive symptoms in third-grade teachers: relations to classroom quality and student achievement.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leigh; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage  = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice. PMID:25676719

  1. The influence of marital quality and attachment styles on traumatic grief and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, C; Kasl, S V; Beery, L C; Jacobs, S C; Prigerson, H G

    1998-09-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between marital quality and adjustment to the impending loss of a terminally ill spouse. Most studies of marital quality and grief have been based on retrospective reports of the marriage rather than pre-loss assessments. Here, we tested the pre-loss cross-sectional effects of having a security-enhancing marriage on traumatic grief and depressive symptoms among 59 caregivers aged 50 and over of terminally ill spouses. We also examined whether insecure attachment styles were associated with traumatic grief and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that security-increasing marriages and insecure attachment styles put spouses at risk for elevated traumatic grief symptoms. Results also indicate that marital quality and attachment style did not interact and that neither was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The differences in the relationship of marital quality and attachment styles to the two outcomes suggest that the etiology of traumatic grief and depressive symptoms may be distinct. PMID:9741563

  2. Intimate Partner Victimization, Poor Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms during Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276

  3. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Dowli, Alexander; Jabbour, Jad; Sabri, Alain; Azar, Sami T

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to report on the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in a group of female patients with goiter who had not been selected for surgery or who had not presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress. A total of 40 patients with goiter and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data included age, sex, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, allergy, smoking, duration of disease, presence or absence of compressive symptoms, presence or absence of thyroid gland nodules, vascular status, presence or absence of calcifications, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Phonatory symptoms included hoarseness, vocal fatigue, vocal straining, lump sensation, and aphonia. The Voice Handicap Index 10 was used to assess the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life. The most common phonatory symptom in the patients with goiter was vocal fatigue followed by lump sensation. The only phonatory symptom that was significantly more present in patients with goiter was vocal straining. As for the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life, 15.8% of goiter patients had a Voice Handicap Index score >7 compared with 7.7% of controls. Phonatory symptoms are common in patients with goiter, with vocal straining occurring significantly more frequently than in controls. In 1 of 6 patients, the presence of phonatory symptoms had an impact on quality of life. PMID:27434485

  4. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR=1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR=1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR=1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR=1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR=1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR=1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR=1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR=1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR=0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration

  5. Relationship Quality Buffers Association Between Co-rumination and Depressive Symptoms Among First Year College Students.

    PubMed

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-03-01

    Co-rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative events and feelings with a relationship partner, is an aspect of relationships that has been associated with socioemotional adjustment tradeoffs and is found to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, depending on the context in which it occurs, co-rumination is not necessarily associated with detriments to mental well-being. Differences in relationship quality within certain relationships may explain why co-rumination is not always associated with depressive symptoms. In the current study, we utilized self-report measures in an ethnically diverse sample (53.5 % non-White) of 307 first term college students (65 % female) in order to elucidate how co-rumination between roommates may be associated with depressive symptoms. We found that the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was moderated by relationship quality such that co-rumination in a high quality relationship was not associated with depressive symptoms whereas the opposite was true in low quality relationships. Moreover, we found moderated mediation, such that the variance in the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was explained via self-esteem, but only for those co-ruminating within a low quality relationship. These results suggest that relationship quality may impact the extent to which co-rumination is associated with depressive symptoms among first year college students. PMID:26649743

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Third-Grade Teachers: Relations to Classroom Quality and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, M[subscript age] = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This…

  8. Spectral study of quasars of the Second Byurakan Survey of the northern sky. I. The quasars SBS 0953 + 549, SBS 1116 + 603, and SBS 1138 + 584

    SciTech Connect

    Levshakov, S.A.; Varshalovich, D.A.; Nazarov, E.A.

    1987-05-01

    The 6-m telescope was used in conjunction with a scanner (IPCS) and the SP-124 spectrograph to make an investigation with resolution approx. 3.5 A of three new quasars: SBS 0953 + 549 (z/sub e/ = 2.580), SBS 1116 + 603 (z/sub e/ = 2.628), and SBS 1138 + 584 (z/sub e/ = 1.699). The spectra of these quasars are analyzed. The emission line L/sub approx./ in the quasar SBS 1116 + 603 may have a two-component structure: a narrow peak (FWHM a 3000 km/sec) and a broad pedestal (FWHM a 19,400 km/sec). In the quasar SBS 0953 + 549, the profile of the emission line L/sub approx./ recalls the profiles of P Cyg type lines, which are observed in the spectra of stars with expanding shells; two strong (tau approx. 1) and broad (FWHM approx. 1700 and 1000 km/sec) absorption lines with z/sub a/ = 2.451 and 2.503 have been found and identified as L/sub approx./ lines. The symmetric profiles of these lines correspond to N(HI) approx. 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -2/ for the cloud with z/sub a/ = 2.541 and 5 x 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/ for the cloud with z/sub a/ = 2.503. The authors have also estimated the line-of-sight densities of heavy elements found at z/sub a/ = 0.3800 (SBS 0953 + 549) and z/sub a/ = 1.4082 (SBS 1138 + 584). The densities of the absorption details in these and other known quasars are compared.

  9. The occupational impact of sleep quality and insomnia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Erica R; Morgan, Kevin; Hall, Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    While the importance of assessing the occupational consequences of insomnia is emphasized in clinical nosologies and research guidelines, there is little consensus on which aspects of occupational performance should be assessed, the most methodologically justifiable measures of insomnia and work performance, and how outcomes should be reported. The present review was designed to summarize and methodologically critique the assessment of those aspects of occupational performance most impacted by (or most frequently associated with) insomnia symptoms. The 30 studies which met the review inclusion criteria broadly addressed six domains of occupational functioning: absenteeism; workplace accidents; productivity; punctuality; job satisfaction and career progression. Collectively, study outcomes support the conclusions that insomnia symptoms: are consistently associated with excess absenteeism; elevate accident risk in the workplace; reduce subjectively experienced workplace productivity (at least in the shorter term); inhibit career progression; and can degrade job satisfaction. Study outcomes do not support the conclusion that people with insomnia are significantly less punctual than other workers. The overall value of the occupational sleep-health literature, however, is limited by a lack of comparability among studies. In particular, there is a clear need to standardize definitions of sleep and occupational outcomes, and to recognize the confounding influence of health variables on occupational performance and sleep. PMID:22401983

  10. Symptoms and quality of life indicators among children with chronic medical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyewon; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Park, Ryoungsun; Askew, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with chronic conditions often experience numerous symptoms, but few research studies examine patterns of symptoms and quality of life (QoL) indicators. Objective To examine if reliable latent classes of children with chronic medical conditions can be identified based on the clustering of symptoms and QoL indicators. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with children ages 9 to 21 living with chronic medical conditions (N = 90). Multiple symptoms (e.g., pain, sleep, fatigue, and depression) and QoL indicators (e.g., life satisfaction and social support) were measured. Physical health and emotional, social, and school functioning were measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Latent class analysis was used to classify each child into a latent class whose members report similar patterns of responses. Results A three-class solution had the best model fit. Class 1 (high-symptom group; n = 15, 16.7%) reported the most problems with symptoms and the lowest scores on the QoL indicators. Class 2 (moderate-symptom group; n = 39, 43.3%) reported moderate levels of both symptoms and QoL indicators. Class 3 (low-symptom group; n = 36, 40.0%) reported the lowest levels of symptoms and the highest scores on the QoL indicators. Conclusions The three latent classes identified in this study were distributed along the severity continuum. All symptoms and QoL indicators appeared to move in the same direction (e.g. worse symptoms with lower QoL). The PedsQL psychosocial health summary score (combining emotional, social, and school functioning scores) discriminated well between children with different levels of disease burden. PMID:24411513

  11. Parenting and Friendship Quality as Predictors of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Alden E.; Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both parents and peers influence child and adolescent adjustment outcomes. Moreover, friendship quality has been found to buffer the influence of parenting on adolescent adjustment, particularly externalizing symptoms. Little to no research, however, has longitudinally examined whether friendship quality moderates the relation…

  12. Relative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Montemagni, Cristiana; Castagna, Filomena; Crivelli, Barbara; De Marzi, Giampiero; Frieri, Tiziana; Macrì, Antonio; Rocca, Paola

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative contributions of negative symptomatology, insight, and coping to quality of life (QOL) in a sample of 92 consecutive outpatients with stable schizophrenia referring to the Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, University of Turin, Struttura Semplice di Coordinamento a Valenza Dipartimentale (SSCVD), Department of Mental Health ASL TO1, Molinette, Italy, in the period between July 2009 and July 2011. In order to assess the specific effect of negative symptoms on QOL and the possible mediating role of insight and coping, two mediation hypotheses were tested, using multiple regression analyses specified by Baron and Kenny (1986). Our findings suggest that (a) higher negative symptoms predict a worse Quality of Life Scale (QLS) intrapsychic foundations (IF) subscale score; (b) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion have a direct and positive association with QLS-IF; (c) patients high in negative symptoms are less likely to use attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion; and (d) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion act as partial mediators in the negative symptoms-QOL relationship. The prediction model accounts for 45.3% of the variance of the QLS-IF subscale score in our sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that insight and coping-social diversion substantially contribute to QOL in patients with higher negative symptoms. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce considerable improvements in the QOL of this population. PMID:25128248

  13. Symptoms and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases Following Palliative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jennifer; Hird, Amanda; Zhang Liying; Tsao, May; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine prospectively patient self-rated symptoms and quality of life (QOL) indicators in patients with brain metastases following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with brain metastases referred for WBRT were approached for this study. Patients were asked to rate their symptoms and QOL using the Spitzer Quality of Life Index questionnaire. Follow-up was at 1, 2, and 3 months following WBRT. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the change in symptom severity over time. Results: Between August 2005 to October 2007, 129 patients with brain metastases were enrolled. The majority of patients (88%) received 20 Gy in five fractions. Median age was 64 years, and median Karnofsky Performance Status at baseline was 70. The most commonly experienced symptoms at baseline were headaches, weakness, balance problems, and fatigue. Thirty-five percent of patients rated neurological functional (NF) status as 1, indicating moderate neurological symptoms and need for assistance. Forty-three percent of patients had stable or decreased fatigue, and 47% had a stable or improved NF status over time (p = 0.0040). Although certain QOL domains improved over time, all other QOL domains and symptom items did not change significantly following WBRT. Conclusion: WBRT may have contributed to symptom stabilization in our study. An alternative goal of WBRT may be the prevention of symptom progression and QOL deterioration. Further research is required to select the most appropriate group of patients with brain metastases who would benefit most from WBRT.

  14. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  15. SBS mitigation with 'two-tone' amplification: a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Shay, T. M.; Dajani, I.; Gavrielides, A.; Robin, C. A.; Lu, C. A.

    2008-02-01

    A new technique for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated with a model that reduces to solving an 8×8 system of coupled nonlinear equations with the gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FMW) incorporated into the model. This technique uses two seed signals, or 'two-tones', with each tone reaching its SBS threshold almost independently and thus increasing the overall threshold for SBS in the fiber amplifier. The wavelength separation of these signals is also selected to avoid FWM, which in this case possesses the next lowest nonlinear effects threshold. This model predicts an output power increase of 86% (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1064nm seed. The model is also used to simulate an SBS-suppressing fiber amplifier to test the regime where FWM is the limiting factor. In this case, an optimum wavelength separation of 3nm to 10nm prevents FWM from reaching threshold. The optimum ratio of the input power for the two seed signals in 'two-tone' amplification is also tested. Future experimental verification of this 'two-tone' technique is discussed.

  16. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  17. Preparation and characterization of heparin-containing SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Jong, Y J; Hsu, K Y; Chang, C H

    1998-01-01

    The grafting of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) membrane was subsequently conducted by UV-radiation induced graft copolymerization without degassing to obtain the SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane. The substituted amino groups on the SBS-g-DMAEMA graft copolymer membrane were quaternized with iodomethane, and then the membrane was treated with heparin to prepare the heparin-containing SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane (SBS-g-DMAEMA-HEP). The graft copolymer membrane (SBS-g-DMAEMA) and the heparin-containing SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane (SBS-g-DMAEMA-HEP) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The heparin content was determined by toluidine blue heparin assay. Contact angle, water content, and protein adsorption of fibrinogen and albumin experiments were also performed to evaluate the effect of graft amount and heparin content on the biocompatibility of SBS-g-DMAEMA and SBS-g-DMAEMA-HEP graft copolymer membranes. By using Kaelble's equation, the surface tension of SBS-g-DMAEMA and SBS-g-DMAEMA-HEP were determined. It was found that with increasing grafting amount and the heparin content, the surface tension and water content of SBS-g-DMAEMA membrane increased, whereas the contact angle decreased. The amount of the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen decreased with increasing graft amount and heparin content. However, there was a minimum for adsorption of proteins in the SBS-g-DMAEMA and SBS-g-DMAEMA-HEP membranes. PMID:9429100

  18. Quality of Life, Family Support, and Comorbidities in Institutionalized Elders With and Without Symptoms of Depression.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2016-06-01

    The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders. PMID:26195233

  19. Symptom clusters and quality of life among patients with advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Doris SF; Chan, Helen YL; Leung, Doris YP; Hui, Elsie; Sit, Janet WH

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify symptom clusters among patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the independent relationships with their quality of life (QoL). Methods This is the secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which interviewed 119 patients with advanced HF in the geriatric unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. The symptom profile and QoL were assessed by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the McGill QoL Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the symptom clusters. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the independent relationships with their QoL, after adjusting the effects of age, gender, and comorbidities. Results The patients were at an advanced age (82.9 ± 6.5 years). Three distinct symptom clusters were identified: they were the distress cluster (including shortness of breath, anxiety, and depression), the decondition cluster (fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, and reduced appetite), and the discomfort cluster (pain, and sense of generalized discomfort). These three symptom clusters accounted for 63.25% of variance of the patients' symptom experience. The small to moderate correlations between these symptom clusters indicated that they were rather independent of one another. After adjusting the age, gender and comorbidities, the distress (β = −0.635, P < 0.001), the decondition (β = −0.148, P = 0.01), and the discomfort (β = −0.258, P < 0.001) symptom clusters independently predicted their QoL. Conclusions This study identified the distinctive symptom clusters among patients with advanced HF. The results shed light on the need to develop palliative care interventions for optimizing the symptom control for this life-limiting disease. PMID:27403150

  20. Non-motor symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease in Northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Bellmann, Ingrid; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Calderon-Hernandez, Hector J; Rocha-Anaya, Jonathan J; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder, and besides the classical motor symptoms it is now known that patients also suffer from a variety of non-motor symptoms that adversely affect quality of life (QOL). Since data on Hispanic populations on this issue are scarce, our aim was to study the association of non-motor symptoms and QOL in patients with PD. This study is a cross-sectional observational study involving patients with PD using the following instruments: Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS part III), and Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS). We included 52 patients, with a median age of 64 years. Sleep/fatigue and mood/cognitive domains were the most common non-motor symptoms. Only sleep/fatigue, mood/cognition and gastrointestinal domains were associated with worse PDQ-8 scores. After adjusting for confounding variables, NMSS scores were significantly associated with a high PDQ-8 score. Higher NMSS scores were associated with and predicted higher PDQ-8 scores. The focus of management in PD should shift to a comprehensive strategy that incorporates care of non-motor symptoms and improves QOL. PMID:26424539

  1. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  2. Symptom Cluster and Quality of Life: Preliminary Evidence in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the symptom cluster of fatigue, pain, and depression as a correlate of reduced quality of life (QOL) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample included 291 individuals with a definite diagnosis of MS who were enrolled in a 6-month longitudinal study of physical activity and QOL. The participants completed baseline measures of fatigue, depression, and pain and follow-up measures of QOL. Cluster analysis initially identified three sub-groups differing in experiences of fatigue, depression, and pain, and analysis of variance then indicated that the three sub-groups differed in QOL. The sub-group with lowest scores on all three symptoms had the highest QOL, whereas the sub-group with the highest scores on the symptoms had the worst QOL. Such findings provide preliminary support for fatigue, pain, and depression as a symptom cluster that correlates with reduced QOL in persons with MS. PMID:20804116

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) among Pupils in Relation to SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in Schools in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zhuohui; Norback, Dan

    2014-01-01

    There are fewer longitudinal studies from China on symptoms as described for the sick building syndrome (SBS). Here, we performed a two-year prospective study and investigated associations between environmental parameters such as room temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10), and health outcomes including prevalence, incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in junior high schools in Taiyuan, China. Totally 2134 pupils participated at baseline, and 1325 stayed in the same classrooms during the study period (2010–2012). The prevalence of mucosal symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms improved when away from school (school-related symptoms) was 22.7%, 20.4% and 39.2%, respectively, at baseline, and the prevalence increased during follow-up (P<0.001). At baseline, both indoor and outdoor SO2 were found positively associated with prevalence of school-related symptoms. Indoor O3 was shown to be positively associated with prevalence of skin symptoms. At follow-up, indoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, mucosal and general symptoms. CO2 and RH were positively associated with new onset of mucosal, general and school-related symptoms. Outdoor SO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin symptoms, while outdoor NO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms. Outdoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms as well as school-related symptoms. In conclusion, symptoms as described for SBS were commonly found in school children in Taiyuan City, China, and increased during the two-year follow-up period. Environmental pollution, including PM10, SO2 and NO2, could increase the prevalence and incidence of SBS and decrease the remission rate. Moreover, parental asthma and allergy (heredity) and pollen or pet allergy (atopy) can be risk factors

  6. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (...

  7. Understanding Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barabino, Stefano; Labetoulle, Marc; Rolando, Maurizio; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common reasons for patients (particularly those over the age of 50) to seek ophthalmic care. There is a wide array of causes for DED that can induce an alteration of the ocular surface system and determine the chronicity of the disease, including low blink rates (eg, computer use), systemic and topical drugs, autoimmune diseases, contact lens wear, and cataract and refractive surgery. Patients with dry eye experience numerous symptoms that can reduce their productivity and overall quality of life. This article presents the results of a roundtable focused on patients' symptoms. The goal was to better understand the symptoms reported by patients, the possible effects on visual function, the consequences on the quality of life, and the methodologies that can be used to measure and monitor symptoms in clinical practice and in clinical studies. The discrepancies between clinical signs and symptoms reported in some cases are considered in the context of the ocular surface system. PMID:27224876

  8. Coping, quality of life and psychological symptoms in three groups of sub-fertile women.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2005-05-01

    The process of assisted reproductive technology (ART), surrogacy and adoption pose different physical and psychological burdens on sub-fertile populations. Sub-fertile women (n = 176) were assessed retrospectively by questionnaire to determine if process (undergoing ART, surrogacy or adoption) or outcome (having a successful versus unsuccessful outcome) affected quality of life, coping style and psychological symptoms. The ART group was significantly younger, had a shorter period of sub-fertility, and was least likely to have a child than the adoptive and surrogate groups. Quality of life and psychological symptoms were not significantly different between groups, although significantly higher Mental Disengagement and Denial coping strategy scores were obtained for the ART group. Social, psychological, health and functioning quality of life, and Denial coping strategies were good predictors of outcome group. Treatment specific counselling of individuals use of coping strategies early on in their in/subfertility career to cope with the reality of prolonged childlessness is indicated. PMID:15911191

  9. Association of Typical versus Atypical Antipsychotics with Symptoms and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Koichiro; Takahashi, Terumichi; Morinobu, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Background Several reports on patients with chronic schizophrenia suggest that atypical versus typical antipsychotics are expected to lead to better quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function. Our aim was to examine the association of chronic treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotics with cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, QOL, and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in long-hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Methodology and Principal Findings The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale, translated into Japanese (JSQLS), and the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) were used to evaluate cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, QOL, and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. We examined the correlation between the dose of antipsychotics and each measure derived from these psychometric tests. The student t-test was used to compare scores obtained from psychometric tests between patients receiving typical and atypical antipsychotics. Results showed significant correlations between chlorpromazine (CPZ)-equivalent doses of typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics, and the total BPRS score and BPRS subscale scores for positive symptoms. CPZ-equivalent doses of typical antipsychotics were correlated with the JSQLS subscale score for dysfunction of psycho-social activity and DIEPSS score. Furthermore, the total BPRS scores, BPRS subscale score for positive symptoms, the JSQLS subscale score for dysfunction of psycho-social activity, and the DIEPSS score were significantly higher in patients receiving typical antipsychotics than atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion and Significance These findings suggest that long-term administration of typical antipsychotics has an unfavorable association with feelings of difficulties mixing in social situations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22615901

  10. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer: The mechanistic role of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Weierich, Mariann R; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    A substantial portion of men treated for prostate cancer report clinically significant sleep problems and disturbance in sleep quality constitutes significant risk for the development of depressive symptoms in survivors. Dysregulation in biological stress processes underlies the impact of poor sleep on the onset and/or progression of depressive symptoms, yet few studies have sought to identify potential neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., HPA axis activation) underlying this association in PC survivors. The present study examines the relationships between sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and indices of diurnal cortisol patterns among men treated for prostate cancer. In total, 66 men (84.8% White; mean age = 65.8 years, SD = 9.04) treated in the prior 2 years for localized prostate cancer were recruited. They completed questionnaires to measure sleep quality and depressive symptoms at study entry (T1) and 4 months later (T2). They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, over 3 days, at T1. Three cortisol indices were computed: diurnal slope, area under the curve (AUCg), and cortisol awakening response (CAR). Analyses indicate that, controlling for body mass index and age, worse sleep quality at T1 was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at T2. Significant indirect effects were observed for cortisol slope (indirect effect = -.17, 95% CI [-.61, -.01]) and AUCg (indirect effect = -.14, 95% CI [-.43, -.01]), but not CAR. Results suggest that dysregulation in HPA activity acts as a neurobiological mechanism of the impact of sleep disruption on depressive symptoms in men with prostate cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820589

  11. Effects of Symptom Perception Interventions on Trigger Identification and Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Thomas; Harver, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Management of individual triggers is suboptimal in practice. In this project, we investigated the impact of symptom perception interventions on asthma trigger identification and self-reported asthma quality of life. Methods. Children with asthma (n = 227) participated in three asthma education sessions and then were randomized first to one of three home monitoring conditions (symptom monitoring and peak flow training with feedback, peak flow training without feedback, or no peak flow training) and then subsequently to one of three resistive load discrimination training conditions (signal detection training with feedback, signal detection training without feedback, or no training). Triggers were reported at enrollment, following home monitoring, and following discrimination training; quality of life was measured after home monitoring and after resistive load testing. Results. Symptom perception interventions resulted in increases in reported triggers, which increased reliably as a function of home monitoring, and increased further in participants who completed discrimination training with feedback. Increases in the number of reported asthma triggers were associated with decreases in quality of life. Discussion. Patients may benefit from strategies that make trigger-symptom contingencies clear. Complementary strategies are needed to address changes in the perceived burden of asthma which comes from awareness of new asthma triggers. PMID:26605084

  12. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    PubMed

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes. PMID:20930179

  13. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  14. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Quality of Parenting and Intimate Relationships in Single Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolomucci, Eileen M.

    This study examines depressive symptoms in economically disadvantaged black single mothers involved in an intimate relationship with a male friend for at least six months. The effects of depressive symptoms on the following three dimensions of family functioning are evaluated: (1) quality of parenting; (2) quality of intimate relationships; and…

  15. Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: A Short-Term Multiwave Investigation of Longitudinal, Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a multiwave design to examine the short-term longitudinal and bidirectional associations between depressive symptoms and peer relationship qualities among a sample of early to middle adolescents (N = 350, 6th-10th graders). Youth completed self-report measures of relationship quality and depressive symptoms at three time points…

  16. SBS of repetitively pulsed radiation and possibility of increasing of the pump average power

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Kulagin, O.; Palashov, O.; Pasmanik, G.; Rodchenkov, V.

    1995-12-31

    The features of liquid purification from molecular and dispersive admixtures are studied. The analysis has revealed the processes (thermal effects, microparticles heating with a subsequent optical breakdown, Stimulated Raman Scattering) limiting pumping pulse energy. These effects complicate also a realization of a high quality phase conjugation at SBS. The data concerning physical properties of liquid tetrachlorides and freons are presented. The picture of a behavior of liquid under conditions of an optical breakdown is described. Some recommendations regarding a choice of nonlinear media are formulated. The two-cell scheme providing a phase conjugation of powerful short laser pulses is proposed. This is important in the field of inertial confinement fusion.

  17. Associations between relationship quality and depressive symptoms in same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Sarah W; Kuryluk, Amanda D

    2014-08-01

    Extending research based on different-sex (i.e., heterosexual) couples, the authors explored associations between romantic relationship quality and depressive symptoms in a geographically diverse sample (N = 571) of U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. The authors also examined whether this association was moderated by individual characteristics (gender, age, and internalized heterosexism) or relationship factors (relationship length, commitment, and interdependence). Results indicated a moderate negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms, echoing findings from different-sex couples. This association was not moderated by gender, age, internalized heterosexism, or relationship length. In contrast, commitment and interdependence did demonstrate moderating effects. Although the negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms was present at all levels of commitment and interdependence, it was amplified at higher commitment and interdependence levels. In general, findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting many commonalities between same-sex and opposite sex couples. Specifically, they suggest the importance of relationship quality to the emotional well-being of LGBT adults, supporting clinical interventions and social policies that promote healthy and stable same-sex relationships. PMID:25000131

  18. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years

    PubMed Central

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A.; Wali, Siraj O.; Merdad, Roah A.; Merdad, Leena A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep. PMID:26837401

  19. Nucleon form factors program with SBS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-12-01

    The physics of the nucleon form factors is the basic part of the Jefferson Laboratory program. We review the achievements of the 6-GeV era and the program with the 12- GeV beam with the SBS spectrometer in Hall A, with a focus on the nucleon ground state properties.

  20. A prospective study of breast lymphedema: frequency, symptoms, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Degnim, Amy C; Miller, Joyce; Hoskin, Tanya L; Boughey, Judy C; Loprinzi, Margie; Thomsen, Kristine; Maloney, Shaun; Baddour, Larry M; Cheville, Andrea L

    2012-08-01

    Although lymphedema of the arm is a well-known complication of breast and axillary surgery, breast lymphedema has received scant attention. We sought to prospectively characterize breast lymphedema's incidence, associated symptoms, clinical course, and impact on quality of life. Subjects were enrolled prospectively from a consecutive sample of patients undergoing non-mastectomy breast procedures (excisional biopsy or wide local excision ± lymph node removal) and followed for signs and symptoms of lymphedema in the operated breast. Symptoms and distress were serially assessed with 11-point linear analog scales. Breast lymphedema was diagnosed independent of symptoms, based on the distribution and degree of edema and erythema. One hundred twenty-four women were followed for a median of 11 months, and breast lymphedema was diagnosed in 38 (31%) women. Breast lymphedema was more frequent after breast surgery with axillary node removal (49%) compared to breast surgery alone (0%), p < 0.0001. Breast lymphedema involved multiple quadrants in most women and was characterized by edema in 100% and erythema in 79%. Patients with breast lymphedema were significantly more likely than women without breast lymphedema to report symptoms of breast heaviness (65% vs 22%, p < 0.0001), redness (62% vs 29%, p = 0.0006), and swelling (59% vs 22%, p < 0.0001), but symptom-associated distress was low overall. Three of 32 breast lymphedema patients with clinical follow-up developed chronic edema. Breast lymphedema occurs in approximately one-half of women who undergo breast surgery with axillary node removal. The condition is characterized by diffuse skin edema and erythema as well as self-reported symptoms with a low level of distress. PMID:22415476

  1. The impact of symptom burden on patient quality of life in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cella, David; Nowinski, Cindy J; Frankfurt, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase are living longer on BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, placing emphasis on issues related to symptom burden and quality of life (QoL). Furthermore, the potential for adverse events with longer-term therapy may result in dose adjustments, treatment discontinuation, or nonadherence, all of which may negatively affect treatment efficacy and QoL. However, instruments to specifically measure the impact of symptom burden and treatment on health-related QoL in patients with CML have not been widely available until recently. The FACT-Leu is a validated tool that measures leukemia-specific and more general QoL concerns. Other tools specific to CML, including the MDASI-CML and the EORTC QLQ-CML24, are undergoing validation. Here, we describe TKI therapy-related symptom burden and its effect on adherence and treatment response, outline instruments to measure symptom burden and QoL in CML, and summarize the available clinical data on QoL of patients on TKI therapy. QoL is an aspect of CML disease management that will continue to gain prominence in the coming years. We believe that the instruments developed now will have a role in informing treatment decisions in routine practice and allowing clinicians to proactively address issues related to symptom burden and QoL. PMID:25012261

  2. Postnatal quality of life, depressive symptoms, and social support among women in southern India.

    PubMed

    Bodhare, Trupti N; Sethi, Pruthwiraj; Bele, Samir D; Gayatri, Dasari; Vivekanand, Achanta

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of postnatal quality of life (QOL) has remained a poorly researched area in India. The present cross-sectional study assessed postnatal QOL, using the Mother Generated Index (MGI) and its associated risk factors, and was conducted during January-March 2013 among 274 mothers, 6-8 weeks postnatally. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and social support. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and QOL using the MGI. The vast majority (90.1 percent) of respondents in our study had a primary MGI score <5, those with significantly higher prevalence of physical problems and psychological distress. A total of 39.8 percent of respondents were screened as having other (not major) depressive symptoms and 4.7 percent as having major depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.033, p = .018) and socioeconomic status (β = 0.156, p < .001) were significantly positively associated with QOL, while increased depressive symptom scores (β = -0.075, p < .001) were significantly negatively associated with QOL. A wide spectrum of QOL aspects were reported, including physical, emotional, social, and economic concerns by the mothers. Prevention, evaluation, and treatment of postnatal depressive symptoms and impaired QOL are warranted, taking into account the role of various biopsychosocial risk factors and specific concerns raised by the mothers. PMID:25719436

  3. Quality of life in Parkinson's disease: the relative importance of the symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shibley; Griffin, Harry J; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2008-07-30

    A body of literature now exists, which demonstrates that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) has a major negative impact on quality of life (QoL), and that depression and cognitive impairment are among the main predictors of poor QoL in this disorder. Relatively little work has been done to assess the differential contribution of the specific symptoms of PD to QoL, which was the aim of this study. One hundred thirty patients with PD completed a booklet of questionnaires, which included the PDQ39 as a disease-specific measure of QoL, a symptom checklist, a mobility checklist, as well as patient ratings of disease stage and disability. The results indicated that the contribution of physical, medication-related, and cognitive/psychiatric symptoms to QoL can be significant. Sudden unpredictable on/off states, difficulty in dressing, difficulty in walking, falls, depression, and confusion were PD symptoms, which significantly influenced QoL scores. Among the mobility problems associated with PD, start hesitation, shuffling gait, freezing, festination, propulsion, and difficulty in turning had a significant effect on QoL scores. In addition to depression and anxiety, the major predictors of QoL were shuffling, difficulty turning, falls, difficulty in dressing, fatigue, confusion, autonomic disturbance particularly urinary incontinence, unpredictable on/off fluctuations, and sensory symptoms such as pain. The implications of these results for the medical management of PD are discussed. PMID:18543333

  4. Frequency and Quality of Social Networking Among Young Adults: Associations With Depressive Symptoms, Rumination, and Corumination.

    PubMed

    Davila, Joanne; Hershenberg, Rachel; Feinstein, Brian A; Gorman, Kaitlyn; Bhatia, Vickie; Starr, Lisa R

    2012-04-01

    Two studies examined associations between social networking and depressive symptoms among youth. In Study 1, 384 participants (68% female; mean age = 20.22 years, SD = 2.90) were surveyed. In Study 2, 334 participants (62% female; M age = 19.44 years, SD = 2.05) were surveyed initially and 3 weeks later. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with quality of social networking interactions, not quantity. There was some evidence that depressive rumination moderated associations, and both depressive rumination and corumination were associated with aspects of social networking usage and quality. Implications for understanding circumstances that increase social networking, as well as resulting negative interactions and negative affect are discussed. PMID:24490122

  5. Secondary Analysis of the "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, Grace; Skybo, Theresa; Carroll, Alisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is preventable; however, an estimated 21-74 per 100,000 children worldwide are victims annually. This study examined the effectiveness of an SBS prevention program in the US. Methods: A descriptive, secondary analysis of the Prevent Child Abuse Ohio (PCAO) "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program…

  6. Molecular Analysis of the Processes of Surface Brown Spot (SBS) Formation in Pear Fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest ‘Dangshansuli’ pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca2+-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca2+ contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca2+ in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments. PMID:24058529

  7. Somatic Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Trauma During the Arab Spring and Quality of Life Among Tunisians.

    PubMed

    Hiar, Soraya; Thomas, Charmaine L; Hinton, Devon E; Salles, Juliette; Goutaudier, Nelly; Olliac, Bertrand; Bui, Eric

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between peritraumatic reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, somatic complaints, and quality of life in Tunisians exposed to the events of the Arab Spring. Participants (n = 60) completed an online survey 1 year after the events, assessing peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, PTSD symptoms, somatic complaints, and physical and mental quality of life. Results showed that peritraumatic dissociation was independently associated with increased PTSD symptoms and somatic complaints 12 months after the events. Multiple mediator mediation analyses revealed that somatic complaints (not PTSD symptoms) were the only independent mediators of the relationships between peritraumatic dissociation and both physical and mental quality of life. Assessing peritraumatic dissociation soon after trauma exposure among the North African population might help identify individuals at risk for PTSD. Furthermore, the impact of trauma on quality of life may be better explained by somatic complaints than PTSD symptoms among North Africans. PMID:26825265

  8. Course of Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life during Specialized Pre-Dialysis Care

    PubMed Central

    de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Ocak, Gurbey; Rotmans, Joris I.; Eijgenraam, Jan-Willem; Dekker, Friedo W.; Halbesma, Nynke

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns are present on the limited value of renal function alone in defining the optimal moment to start dialysis. Disease-related symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may have additional clinical value in defining this moment, but little is known about how these parameters change during pre-dialysis care. The aims of our study were to describe the course of symptoms and HRQOL during pre-dialysis care and to investigate their association with poor health outcomes. Methods In the prospective PREPARE-2 cohort, incident patients starting specialized pre-dialysis care were included when referred to one of the 25 participating Dutch outpatient clinics (2004–2011). In the present analysis, 436 patients with data available on symptoms and HRQOL were included. Clinical data, symptoms (revised illness perception questionnaire), and HRQOL (short form-36 questionnaire; physical and mental summary score) were collected every 6-month interval. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to associate symptoms and HRQOL with the combined poor health outcome (i.e. starting dialysis, receiving a kidney transplant, and death). Results All symptoms increased, especially fatigue and loss of strength, and both the physical and mental summary score decreased over time, with the most pronounced change during the last 6–12 months of follow-up. Furthermore, each additional symptom (adjusted HR 1.04 (95% CI, 1.00–1.09)) and each 3-point lower physical and mental summary score (adjusted HR 1.04 (1.02–1.06) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) respectively) were associated with a higher risk of reaching the combined poor health outcome within the subsequent 6 months. Conclusions The number of symptoms increased and both the physical and mental HRQOL score decreased during pre-dialysis care and these changes were associated with starting dialysis, receiving a kidney transplant, and death. These results may indicate that symptoms and HRQOL are good markers for

  9. Prevalence, work-loss days and quality of life of community dwelling subjects with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-02-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea. PMID:23399785

  10. Prevalence, Work-Loss Days and Quality of Life of Community Dwelling Subjects with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min

    2013-01-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea. PMID:23399785

  11. Effect of sustained release terbutaline on symptoms and sleep quality in patients with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, I C; Rhind, G B; Power, J T; Flenley, D C; Douglas, N J

    1987-01-01

    The effect of an oral sustained release beta 2 agonist on symptoms, sleep quality, and peak flow rates has been studied in nine patients with nocturnal asthma. Patients received oral terbutaline 7.5 mg twice daily or placebo for seven days in a double blind crossover study and spent the last two nights of each limb in a sleep laboratory. Oral terbutaline improved morning peak flow (259 v 213 l min-1) and decreased nocturnal inhaler usage (1.3 v 1.9) with no alteration in sleep quality as assessed electroencephalographically. The study shows that oral sustained release terbutaline can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma without impairment of sleep quality. PMID:3321540

  12. Correlation of quality of life with clinical symptoms and signs at the time of glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, R P

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between clinical measures of visual function and patient-reported measures of symptoms and health status in a large cohort of glaucoma patients at the time of diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The 607 patients in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) received standardized examinations of visual acuity and visual field at enrollment. In addition, they completed a health-related quality-of-life instrument, which included the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a symptom and a comorbidity chart, a question about their degree of worry about becoming blind, and many other items. RESULTS: The SIP total and dimension scores correlated only weakly, and not significantly, with visual acuity and visual field measures. The VAQ total and subscale scores, particularly the peripheral vision subscale, correlated weakly and significantly with visual acuity and visual field scores, especially those from the better eye. Worry about blindness and symptoms attributed to glaucoma correlated weakly but significantly to visual field scores from the worse eye. Attempts to improve correlations by scoring the visual fields differently, including only paracentral and pericentral test locations in the scores, and simulating binocular visual field scores were largely unsuccessful. CONCLUSIONS: At diagnosis, most patients were relatively free of glaucoma-induced impairments, so clinical measures were poor predictors of a patient's perception of health-related quality of life. The vision-specific VAQ and glaucoma-related symptom score correlated better than the generic SIP with clinical measures at the time of enrollment into CIGTS. PMID:10360308

  13. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  14. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, Clifford B.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Symptoms and Quality of Life in Veterans Treated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Paula P.; Hayes, Andrew F.; Lunney, Carole A.; McFall, Miles; Uddo, Madeline

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms relates to change in quality of life. The sample consisted of 325 male Vietnam veterans with chronic PTSD who participated in a randomized trial of group psychotherapy. Latent growth modeling was used to test for synchronous effects of PTSD symptom change on…

  16. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson’s Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carta, MG; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. Methods: This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Results: Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients’ quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Conclusion: Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL. PMID:23049615

  17. Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Jlab SBS Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Persio, F.; Kiprich, S.; Meddi, F.; Urciuoli, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    The INFN group of Rome is developing two silicon microstrip detector planes to be part of the tracking system of the SBS spectrometer, that will be installed in the experimental Hall A of Jefferson Labortatory, in order to improve its resolution. The detector and the PCB design were the results of models simulated using PSPICE. The entire assembly process will be realized in the INFN Roma clean room CL10000 facility.

  18. Abdominoplasty improves quality of life, psychological distress, and eating disorder symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Saariniemi, Kai M M; Salmi, Asko M; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H; Helle, Marjo H; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo's modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799. PMID:25506426

  19. Association of abuse history with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Oh, Terry H

    2015-03-01

    A high prevalence of abuse has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. We aimed to examine the association between self-reported abuse history and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in 962 patients with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. In total, 289 patients (30%) reported a history of abuse. Of those who specified abuse types, 161 patients (59%) reported more than 1 type of abuse (36% emotional, 32% physical, 25% sexual, and 7% verbal). Patients in the abuse group were younger and more likely to be female, unemployed, unmarried, and current smokers compared with patients who reported no abuse. After adjusting for these differences, abuse history was associated with worse symptoms, as indicated by a higher FIQ total score (P < .001) and higher FIQ subscale scores in physical function (P = .001), work missed (P < .001), job ability (P < .001), pain (P = .02), depression (P < .001), and anxiety (P < .001). Similarly, abuse history was associated with worse QOL, with lower SF-36 scores in all domains except the physical component summary. In conclusion, abuse history in patients with fibromyalgia was associated with worse symptoms and QOL compared with those patients without abuse history. Future studies are needed to assess whether additional tailored interventions as part of fibromyalgia treatment are helpful for patients with a history of abuse. PMID:25129032

  20. Radiation-induced graft copolymer SBS-g-VP for biomaterial usage.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Hsiue, G H

    1996-06-01

    The grafting of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) to styrene-butadienestyrene triblock copolymer (SBS) by radiation-induced graft copolymerization was studied. The cohesive properties such as cohesive energy (Ecoh), molar volume (V), solubility parameter (delta), molar molecular weight (WM), specific volume (Vg), and density (1/Vg) of SBS-g-VP graft copolymer were calculated according to the group contribution of Fedors. The morphology of SBS-g-VP was studied by optical polarizing microscopy. We also measured the glass transition temperature and the mechanical properties of SBS-g-VP graft copolymer. Contact angle and blood-clotting time experiments were also performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of SBS-g-VP. A second domain was found in the SBS-g-VP graft copolymer, which resulted in different properties between SBS-g-VP and SBS. The blood compatibility of SBS-g-VP as measured by the Lee-White clotting test was better than that of SBS and polystyrene. PMID:8731218

  1. Preparation and properties of SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Jong, Y J; Hsu, K Y

    1997-05-01

    A styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solvent casting. Grafting of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) to this SBS membrane was subsequently conducted by ultraviolet radiation-induced graft copolymerization without degassing to obtain a SBS-g-DMAEMA copolymer membrane. The graft copolymer was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of grafting and the mechanical properties of SBS and SBS-g-DMAEMA were measured. Contact angle, water content, and protein absorption of fibrinogen and albumin experiments were also performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of SBS-g-DMAEMA graft copolymer membranes. It was found that the degree of grafting was related to the irradiation time, DMAEMA concentration, and temperature. The tensile strength of the SBS-g-DMAEMA membrane increased with an increase in the degree of grafting. By using Kaelble's equation and the contact angle data, the surface tension of SBS-g-DMAEMA was determined. It was found that with an increase in the degree of grafting, the surface tension and water content of SBS-g-DMAEMA membrane increased, whereas the contact angle decreased. The amount of absorption of albumin and fibrinogen decreased with an increase in amount of grafting. However, there was a minimum for the adsorption of proteins in the SBS-g-DMAEMA membrane. PMID:9135166

  2. Vitamin D Supplements Improve Urticaria Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boonpiyathad, Tadech; Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Sangasapaviriya, Atik

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune system; decreased serum vitamin D concentrations have been linked to dysregulated immune function. Low vitamin D status is probably associated with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We evaluated the prevalence of low vitamin D status, and the clinical response and quality of life following vitamin D supplementation, in a prospective case-control study with 60 CSU patients and 40 healthy individuals. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks. For patients with 25(OH)D concentrations < 30 ng/ml, treatment included 20,000 IU/day of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and non-sedative antihistamine drugs for 6 weeks. Urticaria symptom severity and quality of life were assessed based on the Urticaria Activity Score over 7 days (UAS7) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Of the 100 participants, 73% were female; the mean age was 39 ± 16 years. Vitamin D deficiency (measured as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml) was significantly higher in the CSU group than the control group. The median 25(OH)D concentration for the CSU group, 15 (7 - 52) ng/ml was significantly lower than for control group, 30 (25 - 46) ng/ml. Overall, 83% (50/60) of CSU patients (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) were treated with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) supplementation; after 6 weeks, these patients showed significant improvements in UAS7 and DLQI scores compared with the non-vitamin D supplement group. This study revealed a significant association of lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations with CSU. Vitamin D supplements might improve symptoms and quality of life in CSU patients. PMID:25346784

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Re-employment Quality on Internalizing Symptoms and Job-Search Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, Samuel S.; Howe, George W.; Nettles, Christopher D.; Weihs, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Underemployed workers—those receiving less pay, working fewer hours, or using fewer skills than they would prefer—appear to experience negative mental health outcomes similar to the unemployed. Prior cross-sectional research provides mixed empirical evidence for this conclusion, however. The current study sought to clarify the impact of underemployment longitudinally, assessing mental health five times over eight months following job loss. In addition to the commonly used indicators of underemployment, we designed a measure of cognitive complexity using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), an extensive government database used to organize and categorize occupational information. Replicating past research, we found concurrent associations between all indexes of re-employment job quality and internalizing symptoms in the period immediately after re-employment. However, when controlling for quality of prior employment, all indicators except our measure for cognitive complexity became non-significant. As participants transitioned from unemployment to re-employment, only reductions in cognitive complexity were associated with sustained general internalizing symptoms. We also found that although changes in cognitive complexity had an immediate impact on the well-being of the recently re-employed, only the number of available weekly hours (full-time vs. part-time status) was relevant 6-12 weeks later. Our longitudinal model thus provides significant nuance to the current understanding of underemployment and mental health. PMID:25151465

  4. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  5. A longitudinal examination of re-employment quality on internalizing symptoms and job-search intentions.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Samuel S; Howe, George W; Nettles, Christopher D; Weihs, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Underemployed workers-those receiving less pay, working fewer hours, or using fewer skills than they would prefer-appear to experience negative mental health outcomes similar to the unemployed. Prior cross-sectional research provides mixed empirical evidence for this conclusion, however. The current study sought to clarify the impact of underemployment longitudinally, assessing mental health 5 times over 8 months after job loss. In addition to the commonly used indicators of underemployment, we designed a measure of cognitive complexity using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), an extensive government database used to organize and categorize occupational information. Replicating past research, we found concurrent associations between all indexes of reemployment job quality and internalizing symptoms in the period immediately after reemployment. However, when controlling for quality of prior employment, all indicators except our measure for cognitive complexity became nonsignificant. As participants transitioned from unemployment to reemployment, only reductions in cognitive complexity were associated with sustained general internalizing symptoms. We also found that although changes in cognitive complexity had an immediate impact on the well-being of the recently reemployed, only the number of available weekly hours (full-time vs. part-time status) was relevant 6 to 12 weeks later. Our longitudinal model thus provides significant nuance to the current understanding of underemployment and mental health. PMID:25151465

  6. Menopausal symptoms and quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlDughaither, Aida; AlMutairy, Hind; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their impact on the quality of life among Saudi women visiting primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010. In total, 119 women aged 45–60 years were randomly interviewed using a questionnaire. Participants were divided into three categories: premenopausal (n=31), perimenopausal (n=49), and postmenopausal (n=39). The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) assessed the prevalence and severity of eleven menopausal symptoms. Mean scores of menopausal categories were compared for different symptoms. Results The mean age at menopause was 48.3±3 years (median, 49 years). The symptoms reported to be most prevalent were joint and muscle pain (80.7%), physical and mental exhaustion (64.7%), and hot flushes and sweating (47.1%). Somatic and psychological symptoms were highly prevalent in perimenopausal women compared to other groups. The mean overall quality-of-life score was higher in perimenopausal women, while the total MRS score indicated that the symptoms were mild in severity (MRS <9). Conclusion The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was comparable to previous studies in Asian women; however, the prevalence of classic symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats was lower than reported in Western studies. Saudi women reported an MRS score indicating milder severity of symptoms, reflecting better quality of life and ability to cope with climacteric symptoms. PMID:26170720

  7. Effects of Estradiol and Venlafaxine on Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Women with Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Ensrud, Kristine E.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Hohensee, Chancellor; Caan, Bette; Carpenter, Janet S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Landis, Carol A.; Manson, JoAnn; Newton, Katherine M.; Otte, Julie; Reed, Susan D.; Shifren, Jan L.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Woods, Nancy F.; Joffe, Hadine

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine effects of low-dose estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine on self-reported sleep measures in menopausal women with hot flashes. Design: 3-arm double-blind randomized trial. Participants assigned in a 2:2:3 ratio to 17β estradiol 0.5 mg/day (n = 97), venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day (n = 96), or placebo (n = 146) for 8 weeks. Setting: Academic research centers. Participants: 339 community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with ≥ 2 bothersome hot flashes per day. Measurements and Results: Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline, week 4 and 8; 325 women (96%) provided ISI data and 312 women (92%) provided PSQI data at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) hot flash frequency was 8.1/day (5.3), mean ISI was 11.1 (6.0), and mean PSQI was 7.5 (3.4). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in ISI at week 8 was −4.1 points (−5.3 to −3.0) with estradiol, −5.0 points (−6.1 to −3.9) with venlafaxine, and −3.0 points (−3.8 to −2.3) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.09 for estradiol and 0.007 for venlafaxine). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in PSQI at week 8 was −2.2 points (−2.8 to −1.6) with estradiol, −2.3 points (−2.9 to −1.6) with venlafaxine, and −1.2 points (−1.7 to −0.8) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.04 for estradiol and 0.06 for venlafaxine). Conclusions: Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, both low dose oral estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine compared with placebo modestly reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01418209 at www.clinicaltrials.gov Citation: Ensrud KE, Guthrie KA, Hohensee C, Caan B, Carpenter JS, Freeman EW, LaCroix AZ, Landis CA, Manson J, Newton KM, Otte J, Reed SD, Shifren JL, Sternfeld B, Woods NF, Joffe H. Effects of estradiol and venlafaxine on insomnia symptoms

  8. Maternal HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms among inner-city African American youth: the role of maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child relationship quality, and child coping.

    PubMed

    McKee, Laura; Jones, Deborah J; Roland, Erin; Coffelt, Nicole; Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to examine interactions between psychosocial risk (i.e., maternal depressive symptoms) and protective (i.e., child coping skills and mother-child relationship quality) correlates of depressive symptoms among inner-city African American children of mothers with and without HIV/AIDS. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (a) whether these correlates interact differently in HIV-infected and noninfected samples and (b) whether child coping skills and a positive mother-child relationship interact to protect children from developing depressive symptoms in the context of maternal HIV infection. Results indicated that (a) a positive mother-child relationship, but not child coping skills, was protective in the HIV-infected sample when maternal depressive symptoms were high and (b) the combination of a positive mother-child relationship and child coping skills was associated with the lowest level of child depressive symptoms in the HIV-infected sample. These findings highlight the differential importance of various risk and protective mechanisms for HIV-infected and noninfected African American samples and, as such, have preventative implications for children of HIV-infected women. PMID:17535124

  9. EuroQol 5D Quality of Life in Meniere's Disorder Can Be Explained with Symptoms and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levo, Hilla; Stephens, Dafydd; Poe, Dennis; Kentala, Erna; Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors explaining changes in the generic quality of life among patients with Meniere's disorder (MD) and to evaluate the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measures. A questionnaire focusing on symptoms and disabilities caused by MD was collected from 726 individuals. General health-related quality…

  10. A promotion of stability for temporal compression based on SBS in an interferometric scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Zhaohong; Yuan, Hang; Bai, Zhenxu; Wang, Hongli; Zhu, Xuehua; Liu, Rui; Li, Sensen; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yirui; Cui, Can; Zhang, Hengkang; He, Weiming; Lu, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    An approach that introducing a standing wave into focal area to stabilize the output energy and duration of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) compression is presented. An interferometric scheme filled with FC-770 is used to improve the stability of both output energy and duration two times compared with an equivalent conventional SBS compressor. Moreover, the interferometric scheme shows a promotion for the performance of SBS compression.

  11. Characterization of blends of PP and SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Albano, C.; Candal, M. V.; Ichazo, M. N.; Hernández, M.

    2005-07-01

    The present work has the objective of analyzing blends of PP with 30 wt% SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation. In order to do so, SBS was irradiated at 10, 25 and 50 kGy with gamma rays. Results indicate that the gel fraction increases with irradiation dose, varying from 0.3% to 13.0% for the doses employed. Concerning tensile properties, it can be seen that the incorporation of SBS non-irradiated or irradiated decreases Young's modulus, while increasing elongation at break. Respect to thermal studies, it was detected that SBS decreases melting enthalpy of blends, fact that implies a decrease on crystallinity degree, being this effect more noticeable when SBS is irradiated at doses higher than 10 kGy. On the other hand, melting temperature diminishes slightly when adding SBS to PP, but does not show significant variations when SBS is irradiated. PPs MFI decreased with the addition of SBS, being the effect more notorious with irradiation dose. Finally, it can be concluded that SBS can be vulcanized by gamma irradiation, and that the crosslinking degree increases with irradiation dose.

  12. Chronic Bronchitis Is Associated With Worse Symptoms and Quality of Life Than Chronic Airflow Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Paula M.; Petersen, Hans; Washko, George R.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Kim, Victor; Sood, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD includes the chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema phenotypes. Although it is generally assumed that emphysema or chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) is associated with worse quality of life (QOL) than is CB, this assumption has not been tested. METHODS: The current study’s analyses from the Lovelace Smokers’ Cohort (LSC) were validated in the COPD Gene Cohort (COPDGene). CB without CAO (CB only) was defined as self-reported cough productive of phlegm for ≥ 3 mo/y for 2 consecutive years and postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ 70%. CAO without CB (CAO only) was defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% with no evidence of CB. QOL outcomes were obtained from the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. A priori covariates included age, sex, pack-years of smoking, current smoking, and FEV1. RESULTS: Smokers with CB without CAO (LSC = 341; COPDGene = 523) were younger and had a greater BMI and less smoking exposure than did those with CAO only (LSC = 302; COPDGene = 2,208). Compared with the latter group, QOL scores were worse for those with CB only. Despite similar SGRQ Activity and SF-36 Role Physical and Physical Functioning, SGRQ Symptoms and Impact scores and SF-36 emotional and social measures were worse in the CB-only group, in both cohorts. After adjustment for covariates, the CB-only group remained a significant predictor for “worse” symptoms and emotional and social measures. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this analysis is the first to suggest that among subjects with COPD, those with CB only present worse QOL symptoms and mental well-being than do those with CAO only. PMID:25741880

  13. Quantification of the association of ventilation rates with sick building syndrome symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-06-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fit to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent) as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person and relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

  14. PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 2004–2009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 ± 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

  15. Communication about symptoms and quality of life issues in patients with cancer: Provider perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Halpenny, Barbara; Berry, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative data collection and analysis methods to describe provider perceptions of addressing patient-initiated communication about common or sensitive symptom and quality of life issues (SQIs) in oncology. Eligible participants were healthcare providers who had participated in a larger trial testing a patient-centered technology to assess cancer SQIs and support self care. Audio-recorded vignettes were simulated based on recorded clinic visits from the larger trial and presented during semi-structured cognitive interviews with each participant. Transcripts of the interviews were content analyzed. Twelve providers participated. Participants’ responses included four themes: the institutional and clinical context, the complexity of addressing SQIs, strategies used to understand SQIs, and creating a plan to address SQIs. Participants felt that approaching SQIs inside and outside of the clinic required ongoing communication within a multidisciplinary team both to gather information and manage the SQI. Forming a relationship with the patient was one strategy to facilitate assessing SQIs. Most participants expressed a need for guidance about effective SQI communication. Providers perceived approaching SQIs as a routine part of interdisciplinary clinical care. The specific symptom and the complexity of its management influenced the process of assessing and managing SQIs. Findings have implications for institutional processes, training, evaluation, and program development. PMID:24748096

  16. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate

  17. Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kerr, Stephen J; Kariminia, Azar; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Vun, Mean Chhi; Vibol, Ung; Vannary, Bun; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) 1 in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1-11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms and CD4 15-24% were enrolled. Their caregivers completed the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group QOL questionnaire prior to ART commencement. Six QOL domains were assessed using transformed scores that ranged from 0 to 100. Higher QOL scores indicated better health. Mean age was 6.1 (SD 2.8) years, mean CD4 was 723 (SD 369) cells/mm(3), 57% was female, and%CDC N:A:B was 2:63:35%. One-third knew their HIV diagnosis. Mean (SD) scores were 69.9 (17.6) for health perception, 64.5 (16.2) for physical resilience, 84.2 (15.6) for physical functioning, 77.9 (16.3) for psychosocial well-being, 74.7 (28.7) for social and role functioning, 90.0 (12.1) for health care utilization, and 87.4 (11.3) for symptoms domains. Children with CD4 counts above the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) ART-initiation criteria (n=53) had higher scores in health perception and health care utilization than those with lower CD4 values. Younger children had poorer QOL than older children despite having similar mean CD4%. In conclusion, untreated Asian children without severe HIV symptoms had relatively low QOL scores compared to published reports in Western countries. Therapy initiation criteria by the WHO identified children with lower QOL scores to start ART; however, children who did not fit ART-initiation criteria and those who were younger also displayed poor QOL. QOL assessment should be considered in untreated children to inform decisions about when to initiate ART. PMID:21777076

  18. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children’s Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent–child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794

  19. Morphology and Rheological Behaviour of Ag-SBS Nanocomposite Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peponi, Laura; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, Josè M.; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-08-01

    Block copolymers are of both theoretical and practical importance because of their ability to self-assemble in nano-ordered structures. The self-assembly processes in these materials, are a consequence of the intermolecular micro phase separation between the dissimilar chains covalently linked together. Another important property of block copolymers is that, in solution with a selective solvent, they aggregate to form physical gels. Their technological importance is due to their ability to form elastic solids via self-assembly, with midblocks bridging aggregated end-block micelles. In our study poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), form, by its dissolution in a mid-block-selective solvent (THF) physical gels. So the morphology and the rheological behavior of the thermoreversible gels have been studied and characterized. Moreover, the gel behavior was also studied when Ag nanoparticles were added to the SBS matrix. The results of this study show that the gel stability is not affected by the presence of Ag nanoparticles.

  20. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  1. Quality of life in mothers of children with oppositional defiant symptoms: a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with oppositional defiant symptoms (ODS) are highly related to parental stress, especially in mothers. This study is the first to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of mothers of children with ODS in a community sample. Methods Randomly selected mothers of children attending an elementary school were contacted, and 387 who completed the questionnaire participated in this study. The children's ODS status was determined by the maternal rating of the Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale, version IV. The mothers' QOL was estimated by maternal reports from the World Health Organization Quality of Life – BREF (WHOQOL‐BREF) instrument. The relationship between the children's ODS status and maternal QOL was examined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the participants' sociodemographic factors as covariables. Results Sixty‐three children, mostly boys, met the screening criteria for ODS. The positive screening rate for ODS was 16.49%. The children's ODS status was a significant predictor for the maternal physical capacity, psychological wellbeing and environment domains of QOL. Mothers of children with ODS who rented a house were younger and had lower education levels and worse QOL in all domains. Conclusion A high positive screening rate for ODS children in the elementary school and a relationship between poor maternal QOL and children's ODS were found in this study. Routine screening for ODS in children and mental health services for these children and their mothers are warranted. PMID:22477927

  2. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P.; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Howard-Caldwell, Cleopatra; Templin, Thomas N.; Slaughter, Jaime C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect=.16, p=.011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient=.38 (.02), p=.009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course. PMID:25703670

  3. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course. PMID:25703670

  4. Psychopathology and quality of life burden in chronic daily headache: influence of migraine symptoms.

    PubMed

    Autret, A; Roux, S; Rimbaux-Lepage, S; Valade, D; Debiais, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the psychopathology and the quality of life of chronic daily headache patients between those with migraine headache and those with tension-type headache. We enrolled 106 adults with chronic daily headache (CDH) who consulted for the first time in specialised centres. The patients were classified according to the IHS 2004 criteria and the propositions of the Headache Classification Committee (2006) with a computed algorithm: 8 had chronic migraine (without medication overuse), 18 had chronic tension-type headache (without medication overuse), 80 had medication overuse headache and among them, 43 fulfilled the criteria for the sub-group of migraine (m) MOH, and 37 the subgroup for tension-type (tt) MOH. We tested five variables: MADRS global score, HAMA psychic and somatic sub-scales, SF-36 psychic, and somatic summary components. We compared patients with migraine symptoms (CM and mMOH) to those with tension-type symptoms (CTTH and ttMOH) and neutralised pain intensity with an ANCOVA which is a priori higher in the migraine group. We failed to find any difference between migraine and tension-type groups in the MADRS global score, the HAMA psychological sub-score and the SF36 physical component summary. The HAMA somatic anxiety subscale was higher in the migraine group than in the tension-type group (F(1,103) = 10.10, p = 0.001). The SF36 mental component summary was significantly worse in the migraine as compared with the tension-type subgroup (F(1,103) = 5.758, p = 0.018). In the four CDH subgroups, all the SF36 dimension scores except one (Physical Functioning) showed a more than 20 point difference from those seen in the adjusted historical controls. Furthermore, two sub-scores were significantly more affected in the migraine group as compared to the tension-type group, the physical health bodily pain (F(1,103) = 4.51, p = 0.036) and the mental health (F(1,103) = 8.17, p = 0.005). Considering that the statistic procedure

  5. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G; Sousa, Karen H

    2009-03-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  6. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  7. Child and Parent Perceived Food-Induced Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle J.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Tsai, Cynthia M.; Shulman, Robert J.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) identify specific foods that exacerbate their gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with FGIDs. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11–17 years old with FGIDs and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using chi-squared, t-testing, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Spearman’s rho. Children identified a median of 11 (range 2–25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow’s milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range 1–20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent’s assessment of their child’s QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with FGIDs. Moreover, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms may adversely impact children’s QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

  8. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

  9. The Effects of Traumatic Stressors and HIV-Related Trauma Symptoms on Health and Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Tamara G.; Mattson, Melissa; Thilges, Sarah; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    The study identified relations among traumatic stressors, HIV-related trauma symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and health related quality of life (HRQL) in individuals with HIV. Participants (N = 118) completed a structured clinical interview on HIV as a traumatic stressor and other severe traumatic stressors and completed the Impact of Event Scale to assess HIV-related trauma symptoms and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) to assess HRQL. Medical chart reviews determined comorbid conditions. Path analysis findings indicated participants with prior severe traumatic stressors experienced their HIV diagnosis as traumatic and in turn were more likely to have current HIV-related trauma symptoms which were negatively related to HRQL. HIV as a traumatic stressor was related to coronary artery diseases and HRQL. Traumatic stressors and HIV-related trauma symptoms impact health in individuals with HIV and highlight the need for psychological interventions prior to diagnosis and throughout treatment. PMID:21667297

  10. Depressive Symptoms, Patient Satisfaction, and Quality of Life Over Time in Automated and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Yeon; Jang, Hye Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Cho, Seong; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sung-Ho; Bang, Kitae; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, So Young; Jo, Sang Kyung; Lee, Jonghyo; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important clinical outcome for dialysis patients. However, relative superiority in HRQOL between automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are not clearly known. We compared HRQOL over time between APD and CAPD patients and evaluated factors associated with HRQOL. All 260 incident patients initiating APD or CAPD at multiple centers throughout Korea were prospectively enrolled in this study between October 2010 and February 2013. HRQOL, depressive symptoms, and renal treatment satisfaction were assessed 1 and 12 months after the start of dialysis by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ), respectively. Of 196 patients who completed all questionnaires and did not change the peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality during the 1-year follow-up period, 160 were matched. APD patients showed better baseline HRQOL than CAPD patients for the symptoms, patient satisfaction, pain, and social function domains. There were no differences in HRQOL between the 2 groups at 12 months, and CAPD patients had significantly greater improvements in symptoms (P = 0.02), the mental composite summary (P = 0.03), and health status domains (P = 0.03) than APD patients. There were similar improvements in depressive symptoms (P = 0.01) and patient satisfaction with treatment (P = 0.01) in CAPD and APD patients. Interestingly, depressive symptoms, not PD modality, was the most influential and consistent factor for HRQOL. Despite the spontaneous improvement of depressive symptoms, considerable PD patients still had depressive symptoms at the 1-year appointment. APD has no advantage over CAPD for HRQOL. Considering the substantial negative effect of depressive symptoms on HRQOL, it is important to evaluate PD patients for depression and to treat those with depression to

  11. Properties of dark solitons under SBS in focused beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Erokhin, A. I.; Efimkov, V. F.; Zubarev, I. G.; Mikhailov, S. I.

    2012-12-01

    Using the method of four-wave probing of the waist of the laser beam focused into the bulk of a short active medium (L ll τc, where L is the length of the active medium, τ is the pulse duration, and c is the speed of light), we have studied the dynamics of the behaviour of a dark soliton, appearing upon a jump of the input Stokes signal phase by about π under SBS. The computer simulation has shown that when spontaneous noises with the gain increment Γ, exceeding the self-reflection threshold by 2 - 3 times, are generated, the dark soliton propagates along the interaction region for the time t ≈ T2Γth/2, where T2 is the the lifetime of acoustic phonons, and Γth = 25 - 30 is the stationary threshold gain increment.

  12. The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

  13. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  14. Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university--Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang-Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian-Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen. PMID:26225741

  15. SBS vs Inhouse Recycling Methods-An Invitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jaya Krishanan; Arun; Sundari, Shanta; Chandrasekhar, Shyamala; Kumar, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In today’s world of economic crisis it is not feasible for an orthodontist to replace each and every debonded bracket with a new bracket- quest for an alternative thrives Orthodontist. The concept of recycling bracket for its reuse has evolved over a period of time. Orthodontist can send the brackets to various commercial recycling companies for recycling, but it’s impractical as these are complex procedures and require time and usage of a new bracket would seem more feasible. Thereby, in-house methods have been developed. The aim of the study was to determine the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) and to compare, evaluate the efficiency of in house recycling methods with that of the SBS of new brackets. Materials and Methods Five in–house-recycling procedures-Adhesive Grinding Method, Sandblasting Method, Thermal Flaming Method, Buchman method and Acid Bath Method were used in the present study. Initial part of the study included the use of UV/Vis spectrophotometer where in the absorption level of base of new stainless steel bracket is compared with the base of a recycled bracket. The difference seen in the UV absorbance can be attributed to the presence of adhesive remnant. For each recycling procedure the difference in UV absorption is calculated. New stainless steel brackets and recycled brackets were tested for its shear bond strength with Instron testing machine. Comparisons were made between shear bond strength of new brackets with that of recycled brackets. The last part of the study involved correlating the findings of UV/Vis spectrophotometer with the shear bond strength for each recycling procedure. Results Among the recycled brackets the Sandblasting technique showed the highest shear bond strength (19.789MPa) and the least was shown by the Adhesive Grinding method (13.809MPa). Conclusion The study concludes that sand blasting can be an effective choice among the 5 in house methods of recycling methods. PMID:26501002

  16. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients. PMID:27132122

  17. Impact of depressive symptoms and hepatic encephalopathy on health-related quality of life in cirrhotic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Katherine C; Salinas, Lilian M; Sahebjam, Farhad; Jesudian, Arun B; Weisberg, Ilan L; Sigal, Samuel H

    2016-08-01

    Depression, common in chronic medical conditions, and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome due to liver dysfunction, are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cirrhosis and hepatitis C (HCV). This study investigated the impact of depression and HE on HRQOL in cirrhotic patients with HCV. A convenience sample of 43 ambulatory patients, with varying degrees of cirrhosis secondary to HCV, was prospectively enrolled in this study. Participants were assessed for any current depressive, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness symptoms and underwent a psychometric evaluation to determine the presence of HE symptoms. Participants reported current HRQOL on general health and liver disease-specific questionnaires. Diagnosis and current health status were confirmed via medical records. The associations between disease severity, depressive symptoms, HE, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness were measured. Predictors of HRQOL in this sample were determined. Depressive symptoms (70 %) and HE (77 %) were highly prevalent in this sample, with 58 % actively experiencing both conditions at the time of study participation. A significant positive association was found between depressive symptoms and HE severity (P = .05). Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with fatigue (P < .001), daytime sleepiness (P < .001), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). HE was significantly associated with fatigue (P = .02), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). Depressive symptoms and HE were significant predictors of reduced HRQOL (P < .001), with depressive symptoms alone accounting for 58.8 % of the variance. Depressive symptoms and HE accounted for 68.0 % of the variance. Findings suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and HE in cirrhosis, and potentially a wider-reaching benefit of treating minimal and overt HE than previously appreciated

  18. The Impact of Dyspepsia on Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Adults with Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Norhatta, Norbelinda; Goh, Khean Jin; Moy, Foong Ming; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Asraff, Azman Ahmad; Lee, Qin Zhi; Ng, Jiun Hoong; Tan, Eugene Choon Li; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Dyspepsia and headache frequently co-exist, but the clinical implication of this association is uncertain. We planned to examine the prevalence and impact of dyspepsia in adults with headache. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary care setting. Clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were compared between subjects with headache and controls (non-headache subjects). The impact of dyspepsia was analysed further in subjects with headache alone. Results 280 subjects (93 cases with headache and 187 matched controls) were recruited. The following baseline characteristics of subjects were as follows: mean age 45.0±17.3 years, 57.0% females and ethnic distribution—Malaysian = 45 (48.4%), Chinese n = 24 (25.8%) and Indians n = 24 (25.8%). Headache sub-types among cases with headache were as follows: tension-type headache (TTH) n = 53 (57.0%) and migraine n = 40 (43.0%). Dyspepsia was more prevalent in cases with headache compared to controls (25.8% vs 12.8%, p = 0.011), and headache was independently associated with dyspepsia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.39–5.43). Among cases with headache, there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of dyspepsia in those with migraine (27.5%) compared to TTH (24.5%). Subjects with headache and dyspepsia, compared to those with headache alone, had a greater severity of headache symptoms (63.67±22.85 mm vs 51.20 ±24.0 mm VAS, p = 0.029). Overall HRQOL scores were lower in headache subjects with dyspepsia (EQ-5D summary score 0.82±0.18 vs 0.90 ±0.16, p = 0.037 and EQ-5D VAS 62.08±17.50 mm vs 72.62 ±18.85 mm, p = 0.018), compared to those without dyspepsia. Conclusion Dyspepsia is associated with more severe headache symptoms and results in a lower HRQOL in patients with headache. PMID:25629323

  19. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    PubMed

    Faye, A D; Gawande, S; Tadke, R; Kirpekar, V C; Bhave, S H; Pakhare, A P; Tayade, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. PMID:26425540

  20. The effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Orsak, Gabriela; Stevens, Arlene M; Brufsky, Adam; Kajumba, Mayanja; Dougall, Angela Liegey

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on improvements in quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy. Thirty-six breast cancer patients received usual care, Reiki, or a companion during chemotherapy. First, data were collected from patients receiving usual care. Second, patients were randomized to either receive Reiki or a companion during chemotherapy. Questionnaires assessing quality of life, mood, symptom distress, and Reiki acceptability were completed at baseline and chemotherapy sessions 1, 2, and 4. Reiki was rated relaxing with no side effects. Reiki and companion groups reported improvements in quality of life and mood that were greater than those seen in the usual care group. Interventions during chemotherapy, such as Reiki or companionship, are feasible, acceptable, and may reduce side effects. PMID:25381189

  1. Pediatric Patients with Dyspepsia Have Chronic Symptoms, Anxiety, and Lower Quality of Life as Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rippel, Sara W; Acra, Sari; Correa, Hernán; Vaezi, Michael; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Walker, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about long-term health outcomes of children with dyspeptic symptoms. We studied the natural history of pediatric patients with dyspeptic symptoms, with and without histologic reflux, compared to healthy controls. Methods We performed a prospective study of consecutive new patients, ages 8–16 years, who underwent evaluation for dyspepsia, including upper endoscopy. Patients were assigned to groups with histologic evidence of reflux esophagitis (n=50), or normal histology results (n=53). Healthy children were followed as controls (n=143). Patients and controls were evaluated 5–15 years later. They provided self reports on severity of dyspeptic symptoms, use of acid suppression, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Results When the study began, the groups with histologic evidence for esophagitis and normal histologies did not differ in severity of dyspeptic symptoms, functional disability, or depression. After a mean 7.6-year follow-up period, each group had significantly lower quality of life scores and more severe dyspeptic symptoms and functional disability than controls, but did not differ significantly from each other; both groups were significantly more likely than controls to meet criteria for an anxiety disorder. At time of follow-up, use of acid suppression medication was significantly greater in the group with histologic evidence for esophagitis, compared with patients that had normal histology findings when the study began. Conclusion Among pediatric patients with dyspepsia evaluated by endoscopy and biopsy, those with histologic evidence for esophagitis or normal histology findings are at increased risk for chronic dyspeptic symptoms, anxiety disorder, and reduced quality of life in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22226783

  2. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  3. Preparation and properties of a biomaterial: HEMA grafted SBS by gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hsiue, G H; Yang, J M; Wu, R L

    1988-05-01

    Solvent-cast films of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) were synthesized and a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) layer was grafted onto these films using Co 60 gamma-ray irradiation. The IR absorption spectrum of the graft copolymer was taken and its surface morphology studied by a scanning electron microscope. The degree of grafting and the mechanical properties of SBS, SBS-g-HEMA, and PHEMA were measured. In order to study its biocompatibility, contact angle and blood clotting time experiments were performed. The degree of grafting was related to the soaking time, film thickness and total irradiation dosage. However, it levelled off at 7% when the total dosage reached 1 Mrad. It was found that the mechanical properties of SBS-g-HEMA were the same as those of SBS and were superior to those of PHEMA. The blood compatibility of SBS-g-HEMA as measured by the Lee-White clotting test was better than that of SBS and polystyrene and was quite similar to that of PHEMA. PMID:3397379

  4. Patient-reported Needs, Non-motor Symptoms, and Quality of Life in Essential Tremor and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lageman, Sarah K.; Cash, Therese V.; Mickens, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-motor symptoms, quality of life, service needs, and barriers to care of individuals with movement disorders are not well explored. This study assessed these domains within a sample of individuals with essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods A survey exploring symptoms, needs, and barriers to care was disseminated to a convenience sample (N = 96) of individuals with a primary diagnosis of ET (N = 19) or PD (N = 77). Results Similarities in overall quality of life and impact on daily functioning were found across individuals with ET and PD. Noteworthy differences included endorsement of different types of service needs and utilization patterns and fewer non-motor symptoms reported among those with ET (M = 6.1, SD = 2.4) than those with PD (M = 10.4, SD = 3.4). Non-motor symptoms significantly impacted movement disorder-related quality of life for both diagnostic groups, but this relationship was stronger for individuals with ET, t(12) = 3.69, p = 0.003, β = 0.73 than with PD, t(56) = 4.00, p<0.001, β = 0.47. Individuals with ET also reported higher rates of stigma (31.6% vs. 7.8%) and greater impact of non-motor symptoms on emotional well-being, R2 = 0.37, F(1, 13) = 7.17, p = 0.020. Discussion This is the first study to describe and compare the needs, barriers to care, and impact on quality of life of two distinct movement disorder groups. Our results support the recent efforts of the field to identify interventions to address the non-motor symptoms of movement disorders and indicate need for greater appreciation of the specific differences in symptoms and quality of life experienced across movement disorder diagnoses. PMID:24932425

  5. Effects of Grandmother Coresidence and Quality of Family Relationships on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Spencer, Michael S.; Spieker, Susan J.; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the main and interactive effects of grandmother coresidence, family cohesion, and young mother conflict with grandmother on adolescent reports of depressive symptoms in a sample of predominantly low-income adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers with the greatest depressive symptoms were found to be those who coresided with grandmothers…

  6. Helium Abundance in the Most Metal-deficient Blue Compact Galaxies: I ZW 18 and SBS 0335-052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Foltz, Craig B.; Green, Richard F.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    1999-12-01

    We present high-quality spectroscopic observations of the two most metal-deficient blue compact galaxies known, I Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052. We use the data to determine the heavy-element and helium abundances. The oxygen abundances in the northwest and the southeast components of I Zw 18 are found to be the same within the errors, 7.17+/-0.03 and 7.18+/-0.03, respectively, although marginally statistically significant spatial variations of oxygen abundance might be present. In contrast, we find a statistically significant gradient of oxygen abundance in SBS 0335-052. The largest oxygen abundance, 12+logO/H=7.338+/-0.012, is found in the region 0.6" to the northeast of the brightest part of the galaxy, and it decreases toward the southwest to values of ~7.2, comparable to that in I Zw 18. The underlying stellar absorption strongly influences the observed intensities of He I emission lines in the brightest northwest component of I Zw 18, and hence this component should not be used for primordial He abundance determination. The effect of underlying stellar absorption, though present, is much smaller in the southeast component. Assuming all systematic uncertainties are negligible, the He mass fraction Y=0.243+/-0.007 derived in this component is in excellent agreement with recent measurements by Izotov & Thuan, suggesting the robustness of the technique applied in measurements of the helium abundance in low-metallicity blue compact galaxies. The high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (>=100 in the continuum) of SBS 0335-052 allows us to measure the helium mass fraction with a precision better than 2%-5% in nine different regions along the slit. We show that, while underlying stellar absorption in SBS 0335-052 is important only for the He I 4471 Å emission line, other mechanisms such as collisional and fluorescent enhancements are influencing the intensities of all He I emission lines and should be properly taken into account. When the electron number density derived from

  7. The Mediating Role of Rumination in the Relation between Quality of Attachment Relations and Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruijten, Tamara; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Rood, Lea

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between indices of the quality of attachment relationships of adolescents with parents and peers, rumination, and symptoms of depression. More specifically, a mediation model was investigated in which rumination was hypothesized to mediate the relation between quality of attachment relations and symptoms of…

  8. Building-Related Symptoms among Office Employees Associated with Indoor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Lin, Jia-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints among office workers were associated with the indoor air quality. With informed consent, 417 employees in 87 office rooms of eight high-rise buildings completed a self-reported questionnaire for symptoms experienced at work during the past month. Carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office were simultaneously measured for eight office hours using portable monitors. Time-averaged workday difference between the indoor and the outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2) was calculated as a surrogate measure of ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The prevalence rates of SBS were 22.5% for eye syndrome, 15.3% for upper respiratory and 25.4% for non-specific syndromes. Tiredness (20.9%), difficulty in concentrating (14.6%), eye dryness (18.7%) were also common complaints. The generalized estimating equations multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 100 ppm increase in dCO2 were significantly associated with dry throat (1.10, 95% CI = (1.00–1.22)), tiredness (1.16, 95% CI = (1.04–1.29)) and dizziness (1.22, 95% CI = (1.08–1.37)). The ORs for per 100 ppb increases in TVOCs were also associated with upper respiratory symptoms (1.06, 95% CI = (1.04–1.07)), dry throat (1.06, 95% CI = (1.03–1.09)) and irritability (1.02, 95% CI = (1.01–1.04)). In conclusion, the association between some SBS symptoms and the exposure to CO2 and total VOCs are moderate but may be independently significant. PMID:26024357

  9. Building-Related Symptoms among Office Employees Associated with Indoor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Lin, Jia-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints among office workers were associated with the indoor air quality. With informed consent, 417 employees in 87 office rooms of eight high-rise buildings completed a self-reported questionnaire for symptoms experienced at work during the past month. Carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office were simultaneously measured for eight office hours using portable monitors. Time-averaged workday difference between the indoor and the outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2) was calculated as a surrogate measure of ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The prevalence rates of SBS were 22.5% for eye syndrome, 15.3% for upper respiratory and 25.4% for non-specific syndromes. Tiredness (20.9%), difficulty in concentrating (14.6%), eye dryness (18.7%) were also common complaints. The generalized estimating equations multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 100 ppm increase in dCO2 were significantly associated with dry throat (1.10, 95% CI=(1.00-1.22)), tiredness (1.16, 95% CI=(1.04-1.29)) and dizziness (1.22, 95% CI=(1.08-1.37)). The ORs for per 100 ppb increases in TVOCs were also associated with upper respiratory symptoms (1.06, 95% CI=(1.04-1.07)), dry throat (1.06, 95% CI=(1.03-1.09)) and irritability (1.02, 95% CI=(1.01-1.04)). In conclusion, the association between some SBS symptoms and the exposure to CO2 and total VOCs are moderate but may be independently significant. PMID:26024357

  10. The Impact of Stressful Life events, Symptom Status, and Adherence Concerns on Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Guarino, A.J.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Willard, Suzanne; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Portillo, Carmen; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria E.; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Robinson, Linda; Cuca, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning persons living with HIV (PLWH) report that stressful life events (SLE) contribute to an exacerbation of symptoms and reduced antiretroviral (ARV) adherence and quality of life (QOL). Little is known about whether these findings are site-specific. Our study's aims were to characterize the type and frequency of SLE for PLWH in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States and to assess the impact of SLE by national site, symptoms, and ARV adherence concerns on QOL. The sample consisted of 704 participants. The total number of SLE correlated significantly with the total number of symptoms, adherence concerns, and QOL (p ≤ .001). Overall, 27.2% of the variance in QOL was explained by the aforementioned variables. Although SLE were of concern to PLWH, worries about ARV adherence were of even greater concern. Routine assessment of ARV concerns and SLE can promote ongoing ARV adherence and improved QOL. PMID:23473660

  11. The impact of stressful life events, symptom status, and adherence concerns on quality of life in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Guarino, A J; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William; Jane Hamilton, Mary; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Willard, Suzanne; Kirksey, Kenn; Portillo, Carmen; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Rosa, Maria E; Nicholas, Patrice K; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Robinson, Linda; Cuca, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning persons living with HIV (PLWH) report that stressful life events (SLEs) contribute to an exacerbation of symptoms and reduced antiretroviral (ARV) adherence and quality of life (QOL). Little is known about whether these findings are site-specific. Our study's aims were to characterize the type and frequency of SLEs for PLWH in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States, and to assess the impact of SLEs by national site, symptoms, and ARV adherence concerns on QOL. The sample consisted of 704 participants. The total number of SLEs correlated significantly with the total number of symptoms, adherence concerns, and QOL (p ≤ .001). Overall, 27.2% of the variance in QOL was explained by the aforementioned variables. Although SLEs were of concern to PLWH, worries about ARV adherence were of even greater concern. Routine assessment of ARV concerns and SLEs can promote ongoing ARV adherence and improved QOL. PMID:23473660

  12. Complex Investigation of SBS Galaxies in Seven Selected Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, Susanna

    2014-07-01

    It is known that the main criterion for the selection of active objects in the First Byurakan, otherwise Markarian survey was the presence of signs of UV-excess in their low-dispersion spectra. Using the presence of emission lines as the second criteria became real during the Second Byurakan survey because of its improved technique. Extended (not stellated) objects, selected with the use of this criterion, made the main part of the separate sample of SBS galaxies. Originally, this sample included 1286 objects, selected in 65 fields of the survey (16 square degree each), to which, with the help of other sources than the survey, there were later added some objects. We studied a subsample of SBS galaxies in seven selected fields (the deepest according to the V/Vmax criterion), including about the third of the whole sample. The first, already completed phase of this program was started with carrying out a follow-up slit spectroscopy of all, about 500 objects, based on observations with long-slit spectrographs with 6m telescope of SAO Russia and 2.6.m telescope of Byurakan. As a result redshifts were determined, as well as spectral classification was made for all of objects, using the scheme adapted to the spectral material. Besides other, obtained data allowed us to estimate the efficiency of used criteria for the selection of galaxies of different classes of starformation and nuclear activity along the full scale of the apparent magnitudes, including close to the limit values (18.5 < m pg < 19.5), etc. The fact that the total area of seven fields as the total number of objects in them comparable with these values for the survey as a whole, allows us to extrapolate the results to the whole sample of galaxies as an upper estimate. The second stage is to conduct detailed studies of individual galaxies in the first place, the most interesting in terms of morphology. They are based on panoramic spectroscopy obtained from observations at 6 m telescope of Russia and 2.6m

  13. Menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2000-01-01

    Definition Menopause begins one year after the last menstrual period. Symptoms often begin in the perimenopausal years. Incidence/prevalence In the United Kingdom the mean age for the menopause is 50 years 9 months. The median onset of the perimenopause is between 45.5 and 47.5 years. One Scottish survey (of 6096 women aged 45 to 54 years) found that 84% had experienced at least one of the classic menopausal symptoms, with 45% finding one or more symptoms a problem.1 InterventionsBeneficial:OestrogensTiboloneLikely to be beneficial:ProgestogensClonidineUnknown effectiveness:Phyto-oestrogensTestosteroneAntidepressants Aetiology/risk factors Urogenital symptoms of menopause are caused by decreased oestrogen concentrations, but the cause of vasomotor symptoms and psychological effects is complex and remains unclear. Prognosis Menopause is a physiological event. Its timing may be genetically determined. Although endocrine changes are permanent, menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, which are experienced by about 70% of women, usually resolve with time.2 However, some symptoms, such as genital atrophy, may remain the same or worsen. Aims To reduce or prevent menopausal symptoms, and to improve quality of life with minimum adverse effects. Outcomes Frequency and severity of vasomotor, urogenital, and psychological symptoms; quality of life. Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal December 1999. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews that met Clinical Evidence quality criteria. PMID:11118182

  14. SBS slow light using a novel optical fiber doped with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lang, Peilin; Zhang, Ru

    2008-11-01

    As the key of these all optical techniques which would be widely used in the future optical fiber communication, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) slow light draws a great of attention and shows several advantages over other slow light methods. With recent growth of nano-technology, researchers are hoping to improve the nonlinearity of the optical fiber by using the nano-technology. According to this current situation, a numerical model of the SBS slow light and three typical experiments are discussed. A novel optical fiber doped with nano material as InP is manufactured and introduced into the SBS slow light, serving as the nonlinear medium of SBS process. And the numerical simulations are performed to validate our method. The results show a considerable time delay of the optical light can be achieved through this novel optical fiber.

  15. Menopausal symptoms and its effect on quality of life in urban versus rural women: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To analyze the menopause-related symptoms and its impact on quality of life in post-menopausal women from urban and rural area. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional 1-year study was carried among women of urban (n = 490) and rural (n = 380) areas, attending the outpatient department in the urban area and a house-to-house survey in rural areas, by interviews with the help of a pretested semi-structured standard questionnaire. For assessment of the menopausal symptoms menopause rating scale (MRS) and for quality of life, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) questionnaire was used. Results: There was a significant difference between the MRS total scores of the urban (14.67 ± 6.64) and rural (16.08 ± 7.65) group. The somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms were high in rural women than in urban women. The results were not significant for urogenital subscale. The mean raw scores of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (4-20) of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (0-100) including the physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The result was not significant for physical health. Conclusion: The high proportions and the scores of MRS were observed in both rural and the urban women. The severity of symptoms was found more distressing for rural women. The quality of life in urban society was average and better than in rural women. PMID:25861203

  16. A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of SBS Suppression Through Modification of Amplifier Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeringue, Clint Matthew

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) are conducted in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers when the amplifier is simultaneously seeded with multiple distinct frequencies or with a phase modulated signal. To this end, detailed models of the SBS process are developed consisting of both a steady-state approach described mathematically by a coupled set of ordinary differential equations and also transient effects described by a coupled set of partial differential equations. For the multi-frequency seeded case, the equations are solved in the steady-state limit and include the effects of four-wave mixing (FWM), intrinsic and external thermal gradients, and laser gain. In one configuration of the multi-seeded case, the signals are separated at twice the acoustic frequency of the fiber medium in order to create nonlinear Brillouin gain coupling between the seeds and Stokes signals, which suppresses the SBS process in the highest frequency seed. The concept is theoretically investigated for the two and three seeded cases. It is shown that for this scheme, FWM becomes quite significant making this concept unlikely in a practical application requiring single-frequency output. Alternatively, a novel concept is developed to suppress SBS in fiber amplifiers that relies on laser gain competition among multiple seeds to create both a favorable thermal gradient and a reduced effective length for the SBS process. In one configuration, the amplifier is simultaneously seeded with a broadband (Deltalambda˜ 0.1nm) and single-frequency Delta v ˜100kHz seed. In this case, several experiments are performed to validate the theoretical predictions with experiments leading to a 203 W polarization maintaining (PM), co-pumped monolithic fiber amplifier demonstration. To the best of our knowledge, this output power is the highest reported in the literature to date for such an amplifier. A time-dependent model of the SBS process initiated from random

  17. β‐Glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self‐described ragweed allergy sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Talbott, Tracy L; Dingler, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation for 4 week with 250 mg Wellmune WGP® β-1,3/1,6-Glucan (WGP) with placebo 250 mg/day (rice flour) on physical and psychological health attributes of self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers. Study participants (mean age = 36 ± 9 year; range 18–53 year) were recruited before the beginning of ragweed season (September) in Northeastern Ohio. Serum IgE concentration, allergy symptoms [via self-report, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ)], psychological well-being [Profile of Mood States (POMS)], and physical function (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study) were measured immediately prior to and after supplementation with WGP (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). Compared with placebo, WGP reduced total allergy symptoms (28%), symptom severity (52%), and symptom rating on the VAS (37%) (P < 0.05), but had no effect on serum IgE levels. As measured by the POMS, WGP increased participants' rating of vigor (10%), but reduced tension (34%), depression (45%), anger (41%), fatigue (38%), and confusion (34%) (P < 0.05). Study participants given WGP reported increased physical health (11%), energy (19%), and emotional well-being (7%) compared with study participants given the placebo (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study). The WGP group also reported decreased sleep problems (53%), reduced nasal symptoms (59%), eye symptoms (57%), non-nasal symptoms (50%), activities (53%), emotions (57%), and improved quality of life (QOL) (56%), as well as improved global mood state (13%). Supplementation with WGP for 4 weeks improved allergy symptoms, overall physical health, and emotional well-being compared with placebo in self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers during ragweed allergy season. PMID

  18. Lung function, asthma symptoms, and quality of life for children in public housing in Boston: a case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Welker-Hood, LK; Clougherty, Jane E; Dodson, Robin E; Steinbach, Suzanne; Hynes, HP

    2004-01-01

    Background Children in urban public housing are at high risk for asthma, given elevated environmental and social exposures and suboptimal medical care. For a multifactorial disease like asthma, design of intervention studies can be influenced by the relative prevalence of key risk factors. To better understand risk factors for asthma morbidity in the context of an environmental intervention study, we conducted a detailed baseline evaluation of 78 children (aged 4–17 years) from three public housing developments in Boston. Methods Asthmatic children and their caregivers were recruited between April 2002 and January 2003. We conducted intake interviews that captured a detailed family and medical history, including questions regarding asthma symptom severity, access to health care, medication usage, and psychological stress. Quality of life was evaluated for both the child and caregiver with an asthma-specific scale. Pulmonary function was measured with a portable spirometer, and allergy testing for common indoor and outdoor allergens was conducted with skin testing using the prick puncture method. Exploratory linear and logistic regression models evaluating predictors of respiratory symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function were conducted using SAS. Results We found high rates of obesity (56%) and allergies to indoor contaminants such as cockroaches (59%) and dust mites (59%). Only 36% of children with persistent asthma reported being prescribed any daily controller medication, and most did not have an asthma action plan or a peak flow meter. One-time lung function measures were poorly correlated with respiratory symptoms or quality of life, which were significantly correlated with each other. In multivariate regression models, household size, body mass index, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were positively associated with respiratory symptom severity (p < 0.10). Symptom severity was negatively associated with asthma-related quality of life for the

  19. The Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Optimism on the Relationship between Quality of Life and Depressive Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the mediating effects of the internal psychological factors of self-esteem and optimism on the relationship between breast cancer patients' quality of life in terms of symptoms and functioning and depressive symptoms. Methods The study centered on 384 breast cancer patients who had within a 24-month period received diagnosis of 0-4 stage cancer and had medical treatment. To achieve the study's purpose, the study made use of EORTC QLQ BR23, CES-D, and the Self-Esteem and Optimism Scales. Results Findings revealed that breast cancer patients' quality of life was negatively impacted by self-esteem and optimism, and that self-esteem and optimism impacted negatively on depressive symptoms. Analyses showed that when breast cancer patients' quality of life affects depressive symptoms, the full mediation effect of self-esteem was statistically significant. Also, findings revealed there to be a significant partial mediation effect due to optimism. Conclusion Study findings demonstrated that enhancing self-esteem is crucial in the psychological intervention of depressive symptoms because self-esteem functioned as the main causal factor accounting for all variation when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that optimism is also vital to psychological intervention because it functioned as partial cause of heightened depressive symptoms when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. PMID:25395975

  20. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms and perceived voice quality in teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis

    2005-04-01

    Loud speaking due to noisy working conditions is a common cause for teachers' voice disorders. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is to make use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores: (1) if the use of amplification in classrooms would diminish the teachers' experienced symptoms of vocal fatigue; and (2) whether there is a possible change in perceptual voice quality during a teachers' working day. Thirty-three teachers, from grade school to university level, voluntarily served as subjects. They used amplifiers while teaching for one week at least. After that, they filled out a questionnaire concerning their symptoms and experiences. The results showed that the majority of teachers found amplification beneficial. They found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue. The few disadvantages were technical. For a perceptual analysis, three females and two males (mean age 51 years) with long teaching experience and three or more dysphonic symptoms during the term, had their speech recorded while teaching, with and without amplification. In the clinical examination, no pathological changes were found in the vocal folds. In both studies, the quality of the voices was esteemed better when amplification was used.

  1. Effects of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazzawi, Tarek; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2013-09-01

    Diet is important in triggering the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study investigated the impact of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual diet of patients with IBS. Forty-six patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS were included. Of these patients, 17 completed the entire study. Each patient attended three sessions (~45 min in duration) and received individual guidance on their dietary management. The patients were asked to complete the following questionnaires prior to receiving the dietary guidance, and at least 3 months subsequently: The Birmingham IBS symptom score questionnaire, the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) questionnaire, the Short-Form Nepean and Dyspepsia Index (SF‑NDI) and the MoBa Food Frequency Questionnaire (MoBa FFQ). The time at which patients completed the questionnaires following dietary guidance ranged from 3-9 months (median, 4 months). The total IBS symptom scores were reduced once the patients had received dietary guidance (P=0.001). The total score for the quality of life, as assessed by the IBS‑QOL and the SF-NDI, increased significantly following the dietary guidance sessions (P=0.003 and P=0.002, respectively). There were no statistical differences in the intake of calories, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat or alcohol in the patients with IBS following dietary guidance. There were increases in the consumption of dairy products, β-carotene, retinol equivalents, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and calcium, although only the increase in vitamin B12 consumption was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the consumption of certain fruits and vegetables that were rich in highly fermentable short-chain carbohydrates, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, as well as insoluble fibers. In conclusion, three 45-min dietary guidance sessions, administered by a nurse, reduced the symptoms and improved the quality of life of patients with IBS, and

  2. Exploring Teachers' Depressive Symptoms, Interaction Quality, and Children's Social-Emotional Development in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amy; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; DeCoster, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the role Head Start teachers' (n = 355) depressive symptoms play in their interactions with children and in children's (n = 2,203) social-emotional development, specifically changes in children's problem behaviors and social skills as reported by parents and teachers during the preschool year. Results of the…

  3. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  4. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  5. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  6. Impact of psychiatric symptoms and sleep disorders on the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Tijero, Beatriz; Somme, Johanne; Ciordia, Roberto; Berganzo, Koldo; Rouco, Idoia; Bustos, Jose Luis; Valle, Maria Antonia; Lezcano, Elena; Zarranz, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess how the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as depression, cognitive deterioration, neuropsychiatric and sleep disorders, affect the quality of life, and to compare them with the motor symptoms in order to determine their real impact. A cross-sectional study was designed including 99 patients (mean age 68.5 ± 9.9 years, duration of disease 8.7 ± 6.2 years). Demographic data, onset of PD, years on treatment with levodopa (LD), class of dopaminergic drug prescribed, and dosages were obtained. The following scales were used: quality of life (PDQ-39), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS I-IV), Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth), Mini-Mental State Examination, depression (HAM-D), and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI-10). The PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39 SI) was 24.7 ± 13.2. A linear regression model including all variables showed that four independent variables accounted for 67.2% of the variance in the PDQ-39 SI (F = 33,277; p < 0.001): NPI, PDSS, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS I. When sub-items of the NPI, PDSS and UPDRS IV scales are analyzed, significant correlations (p < 0.001) are found between the PDQ-39 SI and depression, agitation, apathy, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, incontinence of urine, morning painful posturing, restlessness in bed, morning fatigue, duration of off periods, unpredictable and predictable off periods, early morning dystonia, and sudden off periods. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially depression, nighttime sleep disorders such as urinary incontinence, nighttime restlessness, morning fatigue and somnolence, off-period dystonia and motor fluctuations are the variables that most affect the quality of life of patients with PD. PMID:20957384

  7. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  8. “Ninjinto” (Ginseng Decoction), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Improves Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Immune Competence in Patients with Chronic Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treating functional gastrointestinal disorders is extremely difficult. We herein report the effect of the oral administration of Ninjinto (NJT, ginseng decoction), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on chronic intestinal failure. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with chronic intestinal failure treated with NJT were evaluated in this study. The primary diseases included chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO: n = 4), short bowel syndrome (SBS: n = 2), and intestinal atresia (n = 1). All patients orally received NJT extract granules at a dose of 0.3 g/kg BW per day. The treatment outcomes were then assessed according to the patients' symptoms and consecutive abdominal X-ray findings. Results. The targeted symptoms were abdominal distension in four patients, diarrhea in three patients, and frequent hospitalization due to infections in two patients. An improvement in the symptoms was observed in six of the seven patients, whereas one patient with SBS did not show any improvement. An improvement in an abdominal roentgenogram was observed in the four patients with remarkably dilated bowel loops due to CIPO. Conclusions. NJT may be effective in controlling functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with chronic intestinal failure. The use of Kampo medicine in the field of pediatric surgery may help to improve the quality of life in children suffering from such conditions. PMID:26495014

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-28

    Copper thioantimonates have received enormous attention due to their potential for applications in photovoltaic devices. In this work, a new layered compound KCu2SbS3 was synthesized via a reactive flux method using thiourea as a reactive flux. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. The structure features two-dimensional [Cu2SbS3](-) layers stacking along the c axis with K(+) ions intercalated between the layers. Each [Cu2SbS3](-) layer is composed of two single graphene-like layers connected via interlayer Cu-S bonds and CuSb contacts. The optical measurements indicate that the compound has a band gap of 1.7 eV. The Hall effect measurement shows that KCu2SbS3 is a p-type semiconductor with a carrier concentration of 7 × 10(16) cm(-3). First-principles calculations reveal that the direct transition occurs between Cu-3d-S-3p orbitals (VBM) to Sb-5p-S-3p orbitals (CBM). The photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3 under visible light irradiation were analyzed. The photocurrent is 3.7 μA cm(-2) at 10 V bias, demonstrating its potential for applications in photoelectric devices. PMID:26794832

  10. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  11. Symptom Prevalence, Symptom Severity, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Young, Middle, and Older Adults With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Matura, Lea Ann; McDonough, Annette; Carroll, Diane L

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, life threatening illness that affects primarily women. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of PAH symptoms and to determine whether there are differences in symptom severity and HRQOL in PAH symptoms among young, middle, and older adults with PAH. A cross sectional design was utilized. For all the age groups, shortness of breath (SOB) on exertion and fatigue were the two most prevalent symptoms. SOB on exertion had the highest symptom severity scores followed by fatigue for all groups. Symptom severity was significantly different among the groups for palpitations, abdominal swelling and nausea. For components of HRQOL, physical functioning worsened with age. All groups had diminished general health, role physical and vitality levels. There are some differences in symptom prevalence, symptom severity and HRQOL among young, middle and older adults. Awareness of these differences is important for healthcare providers to know and assess overtime. Palliative care should be an integral part of caring for patients with PAH. PMID:25294227

  12. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  13. The impact of nonmotor symptoms on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weng-Ming; Lin, Ru-Jen; Yu, Rwei-Ling; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important factors for quality of life (QoL). Few studies on NMS have been conducted in Asian PD patients. Additionally, effects of anti-PD drugs on risk of NMS are still controversial. We therefore conducted this hospital-based cross-sectional study to examine the clinical factors, including concomitant anti-PD medication use, on the occurrence of NMS and QoL in Taiwanese PD patients. Patients and methods PD patients who received long-term follow-up in the movement disorders clinics were enrolled and received NMS questionnaire (NMSQuest) and the 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was checked for the correlation between clinical factors and NMSQT/PDQSI. Multiple linear regressions were applied to assess the influence of clinical factors on NMSQT/PDQSI. Results A total of 210 PD patients (mean age 66.1±9.86 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.2±0.9) were included in this study. Up to 98% of patients reported at least one symptom of NMS. The most prevalent symptom was urinary complaints (56%), followed by memory/apathy (30%) and depression/anxiety (28%). The correlation between NMSQT and PDQSI was strong (rs=0.667), especially the item of depression/anxiety (rs=0.607). The regression model for NMSQT indicated that disease duration and severity, but not pharmacological therapy, were major predictors of NMS. Conclusion Our data indicated a high prevalence rate of NMS in PD patients. Among symptoms of NMS, depression and anxiety had the greatest impact on QoL. Concomitant anti-PD medication use did not affect the occurrence of NMS and QoL. PMID:26635475

  14. Study of nonlinear optical sBs phenomena in mid IR fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chung; Fong, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first reported attempt at investigation of the sBs phenomena in mid IR fibers using externally fed or laser self generated low frequency and microwave frequency phonon waves as diagnostic probes of such processes. The observation of laser excited phonon emissions in the mid IR fiber and direct modulation of CO2 laser pulse transmission by externally imposed low frequency radiation is the first indication of the predicted low sBs threshold in these fibers in the phonon rich mid IR spectral region. The prospect of wide applications of the sBs process in optical switching, phase conjugation and ultimately optical computing and possible deleterious effects in mid IR laser heterodyne spectroscopy, sideband modulation and transmitted power limitation is discussed.

  15. Investigations of SBS and laser gain competition in high-power phase modulated fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Angel; Dajani, Iyad; Hult, Dane; Robin, Craig

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results of SBS suppression in high power, monolithic, Yb-doped fiber amplifiers via phase modulated laser gain competition. To narrow the linewidth, two-tone laser gain competition between broad (1036 nm) and narrow linewidth (1064 nm) laser signals is investigated in conjunction with phase modulation and yields pump limited output powers of 600 W. Here integration of both two-tone and pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) phase modulation concepts, generated SBS enhancement factors of greater than 17x at a modulation frequency of 500 MHz, without reaching the SBS threshold. Significantly, the results represent a near order of magnitude reduction in linewidth over current high-power, monolithic, Yb-doped fiber amplifiers.

  16. 2D-Spectroscopy of Two SBS Galaxies with Star Formation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, Susanna

    2007-08-01

    About 500 SBS-galaxies in the selected fields were classified using a scheme, adapted to slit spectroscopic data obtained for them. Continuing the investigation of these objects as the members of subclasses of objects with nuclear and starforming activity, we are using 2D - spectroscopy, allowing to extend in understanding of the details of morphology, dynamic and kinematic processes and physical nature, by which the differences and similarities in subclasses are caused. This work presents a detailed study of two starforming galaxies in different stages of activity, both consisting of HII-regions, SBS 1202+583 and SBS 1533+574. Observations have been carried out with multipupil spectrographs VAGR at 2.6m and MPFS at 6m telescopes.

  17. Of PCOS Symptoms, Hirsutism Has the Most Significant Impact on the Quality of Life of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. Materials and Methods A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15–49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. Results The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients’ health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations. PMID:25874409

  18. HI studies of extremely metal-deficient galaxies - II. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of SBS 1129+576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekta; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon A.

    2006-10-01

    We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope HI observations of an extremely metal-deficient galaxy SBS 1129+576. SBS 1129+576 has a weighted mean oxygen abundance of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.41 +/- 0.07, or 1/18 of the solar value. Our HI observations show that the galaxy is strongly interacting with a companion (projected separation ~27 kpc) galaxy, SBS 1129+577. HI emission from a third, smaller galaxy, SDSS J113227.68+572142.3, is also present in the data cube. We study the HI morphology and kinematics of this small group at angular resolutions ranging from ~40 to 8arcsec. The low-resolution map shows a bridge of emission connecting the two larger galaxies and a large one-armed spiral distortion of the disc of SBS 1129+577. We measure HI masses of ~4.2 × 108, ~2.7 × 109 and ~2.1 × 108Msolar for SBS 1129+576, SBS 1129+577 and the gas in the bridge, respectively. Assuming that most of the bridge gas originally came from SBS 1129+576, approximately one-third of its original gas mass has been stripped off. The third smaller galaxy has an HI mass of (MHI ~ 1.1 × 107Msolar) and does not show any sign of interaction with the other two galaxies. The higher-resolution maps show that SBS 1129+577 has a central bar and a ring surrounding the bar; there is also a hint of an integral-shaped warp in SBS 1129+576. All these features are very likely to have been induced by the tidal interaction. In both SBS 1129+576 and SBS 1129+577, there is, in general, a good correspondence between regions with high HI column density and those with ongoing star formation. The two brightest HII regions in SBS 1129+576 have (inclination-corrected) gas column densities of ~1.6 × 1021 and ~1.8 × 1021 atoms cm-2, respectively. The inclination-corrected HI column density near the HII regions in SBS 1129+577 is generally above ~2.0 × 1021 atoms cm-2. These values are close to the threshold density for star formation observed in other blue compact galaxies. In contrast to SBS 1129+576 and SBS 1129

  19. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ovayolu, Ozlem; Seviğ, Umit; Ovayolu, Nimet; Sevinç, Alper

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy and classic massage administered in various ways to breast cancer patients on their symptoms and quality of life. The sampling consisted of 280 patients. Quality of life and symptoms of the patients were evaluated once at baseline and then at week 6 and week 10 following the intervention. After intervention, the control group was observed to have lower total quality of life score and subdomain scores, whereas fragrance, massage and aromatherapy massage groups had higher scores, and the increase was more obvious particularly in the patients in the aromatherapy massage group. Similarly, whereas psychological and physical symptoms were experienced more intensely in the control group, the severity of all the symptoms experienced by the other patients decreased at week 6 and week 10 as compared with baseline especially in the group that was administered massage with aromatherapy. PMID:25157942

  20. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A.; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  1. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study.

    PubMed

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  2. Intimate partner victimization, poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Copp, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 927), we examined physical victimization, poor quality, and depression among young adults in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depression with the inclusion of prior depression, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. With the inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depression. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depression. Associations between victimization and depression did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor quality on depression conditional on gender. Thus, victimization occurs within relationships characterized by a range of negative dynamics. Multifaceted relationship-centered prevention efforts are more useful than focusing only on the use of aggression with a partner. PMID:25131276

  3. Study of SBS slow light based on nano-material doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lang, Pei-Lin; Zhang, Ru

    2009-03-01

    A novel optical fiber doped with nano material InP is manufactured by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD). The slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the optical fiber is studied. The results show that a time delay of ˜738 ps is obtained when the input Stokes pulse is 900 ps(FWHM) and the SBS gain is ˜15. It shows that a considerable time delay and an amplification of the input light can be achieved by this novel optical fiber.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND WORKENVIRONMENT STUDY: HEALTH SYMPTOMS AND COMFORT CONCERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings ofthe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington,DC, area have expressed concerns about air quality and workenvironment discomforts. n February 1989, a two-stage study ofhealth and comfort concerns a...

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  6. Family Context Influences Psychological Outcomes of Depressive Symptoms and Emotional Quality of Life in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Background Although family influences in heart failure (HF) care are considered important, little evidence is available regarding relationships between the family context and specific outcomes for patients with HF. Objective To examine the relationships of patient perceptions of family functioning, autonomy support, and perceived criticism, as well as their family member’s (FM) HF knowledge with patient outcomes of depressive symptoms and HF quality of life (QOL). Methods Participants (n = 117) with HF were enrolled in a family partnership intervention study. Self-report questionnaires measuring the HF patient’s perceptions of family context and the FM’s knowledge were analyzed relative to the HF patient’s outcomes using correlations and sequential multivariate regression analyses. Only pre-intervention, baseline data are reported here. Results Age, ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index, global family functioning and FM’s HF knowledge accounted for 37.8 % (p < .001) of the variance in patient’s depressive symptoms. An additional moderating effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient’s depressive symptoms was significant (change R2 = .06, p = .001) resulting in a final model that accounted 43.3% of depressive symptom variance. Age, ethnicity, global family functioning and autonomy support accounted for 24.9% (p < .001) of the variance in emotional HF QOL. An additional moderating effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient’s emotional HF QOL was significant (change R2 = .05, p = .009) resulting in a final model that accounted for 28.9% of emotional QOL variance. Conclusions This study underscores the importance of the patient’s perspective on family functioning and autonomy support, along with FM’s HF knowledge, on HF patient outcomes moderated by ethnicity. Future interventions could target the modifiable patient-family context relationships for improving

  7. Use of patient-reported outcomes to measure symptoms and health related quality of life in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexandra; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Davidson, Susan; Velikova, Galina

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in routine practice in cancer care to measure symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQOL). PROs are designed to capture the patient's perspective of their care and treatment, and complement the traditional clinical outcomes of survival and toxicity assessment. Integrating routine collection and feedback of PROs has been found to improve care for patients on both an individual level, through improved communication and management of symptoms, and at an organizational level, by enabling aggregation of data to compare performance. This article reviews the benefits and challenges of introducing patient-reported assessments into routine clinical practice. Methods for choosing a questionnaire; collection and presentation of results; timing and frequency of administration as well as clinician training methods to aid the ability of clinicians to integrate the use of PROs into their own practice are described. Electronic PRO capture and integration with electronic health records seems to provide the most effective method for seamless integration into existing patient care pathways. Case studies from our own practice illustrate the issues raised. Electronic methods enabling immediate collection, scoring and interpretation of the data, as well as real-time data capture, email alert systems and individualized, online self-management advice may enable severe symptoms to be managed in a more timely manner. Evaluation methods are described to establish the effectiveness of the PRO intervention. Engaging stakeholders throughout the process of initial consultation and development, during delivery and evaluation is key to success. Future work needs to focus on the effectiveness of PROs in longer-term follow-up of patients in routine care and the relationship between the PRO severity grading and clinician severity grading using the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE). PMID:25448486

  8. The effect of complete transurethral resection of the prostate on symptoms, quality of life, and voiding function improvement

    PubMed Central

    Verikaite, Jone; Jievaltas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) still remains the most popular surgical treatment for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, in some patients, the improvement of symptoms after TURP is insufficient. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the resected prostate tissue weight (RPTW) on the improvement of symptoms (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and voiding function after TURP. Material and methods The study included 89 men who had undergone TURP in our institution. IPSS, QoL, post–voiding residual urine volume (PVR) and Qmax were recorded before the operation and six months after TURP. The total prostate volume (TPV) and transition zone volume (TZV) were measured before the operation by transrectal ultrasound. The impact of RPTW, RPTW/TZV ratio, and RPTW/TPV ratio were analyzed according to the efficacy of TURP. Results The mean Qmax after TURP increased by 10.15 mL/s, IPSS decreased by 16.7 points, QoL increased by 3.57 points, and PVR decreased by 95.3 mL. According to Qmax, the treatment was effective in 74.2%, according to IPSS, in 91%, and according to QoL, in 74.2% of patients. The ROC analysis demonstrated that RPTW/TZV and RPTW/TPV ratios were the most significant predictors of obtaining favorable results. Survival analysis (life table) shows that in order to achieve 50% improvement on Qmax, QoL, and IPSS, more than 30–35% of TPV and more than 60% of the TZV should be removed. Conclusions The efficacy of the TURP at short term follow-up depends on the completeness of the resection. PMID:26251736

  9. Assessment of Menopausal Symptoms among Early and Late Menopausal Midlife Bangladeshi Women and Their Impact on the Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Papia; Nadia, Israt; Ahmed, Farzana; Abdullah-Al-Emran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Every physical abnormal criterion has an impact on the health. Late menopause causes different physiological problems which alike early menopause. The research interest is associated with both early and late menopausal women of Bangladesh as only few menopausal studies available in South East Asia especially in Bangladesh. The aims of this study are not only to assess the symptoms of menopausal abnormality but also to determine the impact of these symptoms on the quality of life (QOL) of the female society in Bangladesh. Methods Data mining techniques are used to rank the 22 factors (conducted with questionnaire) commonly associated with menopause. Among the participants menstruation that stops before 45 years was considered as early menopausal status and after 50 years as late menopausal. The mean of age and mean length of time in years, since menopause for all participants were 61.55±10.7 and 14.13±11.17, respectively. Recorded data indicated 67% were early menopausal women and 33% were late menopausal women. Results Results indicated that feeling tired or lacking in energy and dizziness (83%) and depression (82%) have worst impact on QOL among all factors, respectively. The next prevalent symptoms included hot flashes (64%), osteoporosis (72%), sweating at night (63%), concentration problem (75%), irritability (63%), feeling tense (77%), headache (66%). However, less frequent factors included breathing problems (33%), loss of feeling (31%), coherent heart disease (13%) and type2 diabetics (9%). Conclusion Our study indicates that early menopausal women are facing more physiological problems than the late menopausal women on their QOL. PMID:27152312

  10. Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mi Ah; Kang, Hyung Chang; Park, Kyung Suk; Kim, Kwang Sung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kang, Jina; Park, Eun Ok; Hyun, Mi Yeul; Kim, Chul Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis), depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]), and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL. Results Eighteen percent (18.6%) of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35). The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7) by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19) by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35) by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01) and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047), and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained. Conclusions LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults. PMID:23094219

  11. Sleep duration change across breast cancer survivorship: associations with symptoms and health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Catherine M.; Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Vander Wal, Gregory S.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Reeve, Bryce B.; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Sleep duration among breast cancer survivors correlates with fatigue, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, this has not been studied longitudinally. This study investigated patterns of sleep duration change across the early breast cancer survivorship period, their demographic and clinical predictors, and their relationships with subsequent cancer-related symptoms and HRQOL. METHODS Breast cancer survivors (n=572), were assessed 6 months post-diagnosis (current sleep & retrospective reports of pre-diagnosis sleep), 30 months post-diagnosis (sleep), and 39 months post-diagnosis (symptoms, HRQOL). Sleep duration change was determined by examining sleep at each time point in relation to published norms. Analysis of variance and logistic regression models tested demographic and clinical differences between the sleep change groups; linear regression models tested differences in symptoms and HRQOL. RESULTS Half of the survivors reported no sleep duration change over time; however, 25% reported sleep changes indicating a temporary (5.6%), late-occurring (14%), or sustained (5.9%) change. Survivors reporting sustained or temporary sleep changes were more likely to have been treated with chemotherapy (OR=2.62, p<.001) or gained weight after diagnosis (OR=1.82, p=.04) than those with no sleep change. Sustained sleep changes were related to greater subsequent severity, affective, and sensory aspects of fatigue (βs=2.0, 2.3, 1.8; all p <.0001) and lower vitality (β=−10.8, p=.005). CONCLUSIONS Survivors treated with chemotherapy and those who gain weight after diagnosis may have increased risk for sustained sleep duration changes, which may increase their fatigue. These results point to the need for routine assessment of sleep as part of survivorship care. PMID:21567239

  12. Cancer-related PTSD symptoms in a veteran sample: association with age, combat PTSD, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Patidar, Seema M.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Naik, Aanand D.; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a potentially traumatic experience that may evoke posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among survivors. This paper describes the rates of endorsement of cancer-related PTSS along with the relationship of demographic, cancer, and combat variables on PTSS and quality of life. Methods Veterans (N = 166) with head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers were recruited through tumor registries at two regional Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Standardized scales were used to assess self-report of PTSS, combat, and quality of life. Results Most participants (86%) reported experiencing at least some cancer-related PTSS; 10% scored above a clinical cutoff for probable PTSD. In linear regressions, younger age and current combat PTSS were associated with cancer-related PTSS, whereas disease and treatment characteristics were not; in turn, cancer-related PTSS were negatively associated with physical and social quality of life. Conclusions Individual characteristics and psychosocial factors may play a larger role than disease-related variables in determining how an individual responds to the stress of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Given the rates of reported cancer-related PTSS in this sample, and other non-veteran samples, clinicians should consider screening these following diagnosis and treatment, particularly in younger adults and those with previous trauma histories. PMID:24519893

  13. Bentonite-based organoclays as innovative flame retardants agents for SBS copolymer.

    PubMed

    Franchini, M Comes; Fabbri, P; Frache, A; Ori, G; Messori, M; Siligardi, C; Ricci, A

    2008-12-01

    Two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds, have been synthesised via ion exchange starting from pristine bentonite with octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) and with synthetic melamine-derived N2,N4-dihexadecyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (DEDMEL). The chemical and morphological characterization of the organoclays was based on XRD, TEM, Laser Granulometry, X-Ray Fluorescence and CEC capacity. Copoly(styrene-butadiene-styrene)-nanocomposites (SBS-nanocomposites) were obtained by intercalation of the SBS-copolymer into these new organoclays by melt intercalation method. XRD and TEM analysis of the organoclays and of the micro/nano-composites obtained are presented. The effect of the organoclays on the SBS-nanocomposite's flammability properties was investigated using cone calorimeter. An encouraging decrease of 20% in the peak heat released rate (PHRR) has been obtained confirming the important role of melamine's based skeleton and its derived organoclays to act as effective fire retardants and for the improvement of this important functional property in SBS copolymers. PMID:19205200

  14. Cognitive Styles in Students of Chemistry in SBS-ABU Zaria, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuaibu, M. J.; Ogunsola, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Cognitive preferences of chemistry students (N=156) in School of Basic Studies (SBS) at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) were investigated. Results indicate that the four preferences (recall, principles, application, questioning) appear to be unrelated to sex and location of previous school for these Nigerian subjects. (JN)

  15. Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off≥8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID

  16. Treatment patterns, symptom reduction, quality of life, and resource use associated with lubiprostone in irritable bowel syndrome constipation subtype.

    PubMed

    Solem, Caitlyn T; Patel, Haridarshan; Mehta, Sonam; Mody, Reema; Macahilig, Cynthia; Gao, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Real-world patient outcomes data is scarce concerning the high disease burden of IBS-C. The aim of this study was to compare patient-reported symptom control, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), resource utilization, and treatment satisfaction of lubiprostone vs non-lubiprostone treatment for irritable bowel syndrome-constipation (IBS-C). Research design and methods An observational, retrospective US chart review and computer-assisted telephone patient survey was conducted March to August 2013 recruiting women over 18 years old with physician-confirmed IBS-C who had initiated new treatment from inadequate relief of previous treatments and who had been on the new treatment ≥3 months. Multiple IBS-C treatments were permitted. IBS-C severity, time since diagnosis, age, and race were controlled using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Weighted outcomes were compared using t-tests (continuous outcomes) and chi-squared tests (categorical outcomes). Main outcomes measures Instruments included Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and IBS quality of life (IBS-QoL). A single item assessed current treatment satisfaction. Results Of 162 patients (mean age 45.9 [SD 15.3] years old, 71% white, 61.1% with moderate IBS-C), 76 switched to lubiprostone and 86 to non-lubiprostone. Groups were similar in clinical and demographic characteristics and previous 30 day IBS-C treatment. After weighting, all PAC-SYM scores were lower for lubiprostone (P < 0.05). All IBS-QoL subscales were higher for lubiprostone including overall, dysphoria, social reaction, sexual, and relationship scores (P < 0.05.) More lubiprostone patients reported positive treatment satisfaction (92.3% vs 71.0%, P < 0.001). Conclusions In IBS-C patients with inadequate response to previous therapies, lubiprostone improved patient-reported symptom control, treatment satisfaction, and HRQoL. Key limitations include lack of measurement of patient-reported outcomes

  17. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling. PMID:25698550

  18. Sleep Quality and Reexperiencing Symptoms of PTSD Are Associated With Current Pain in U.S. OEF/OIF/OND Veterans With and Without mTBIs.

    PubMed

    Powell, Margaret A; Corbo, Vincent; Fonda, Jennifer R; Otis, John D; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2015-08-01

    Pain, a debilitating condition, is frequently reported by U.S. veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. This study investigated how commonly reported clinical factors were associated with pain and whether these associations differed for individuals with a history of chronic pain. From the Boston metropolitan area, 171 veterans enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence were assessed for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current mood and anxiety diagnoses, lifetime traumatic brain injury, combat experiences, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the association of these conditions with current pain. Average pain for the previous 30 days, assessed with the McGill Pain Questionnaire, was 30.07 out of 100 (SD = 25.43). Sleep quality, PTSD symptom severity, and alcohol use were significantly associated with pain (R(2) = .24), as were reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD (R(2) = .25). For participants with a history of chronic pain (n = 65), only PTSD symptoms were associated with pain (R(2) = .19). Current pain severity was associated with increased PTSD severity (notably, reexperiencing symptoms), poor sleep quality, and increased alcohol use. These data support the hypothesis that PTSD symptoms influence pain, but suggest that problems with sleep and alcohol use may exacerbate the relationship. PMID:26194844

  19. Physical Therapy in Palliative Care: From Symptom Control to Quality of Life: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Jim, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Physiotherapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Physical therapists practice in a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based settings such as hospice and palliative care centers where as part of a multidisciplinary team of care, they address the physical and functional dimensions of the patients’ suffering. Physiotherapy treatment methods like therapeutic exercise, electrical modalities, thermal modalities, actinotherapy, mechanical modalities, manual physical therapy and assistive devices are useful for a range of life-threatening and life-limiting conditions like cancer and cancer-associated conditions; HIV; neurodegenerative disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis; respiratory disorders like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; and altered mental states. The professional armamentarium is still expanding with inclusion of other miscellaneous techniques which were also proven to be effective in improving quality of life in these patients. Considering the scope of physiotherapy in India, and in palliative care, professionals in a multidisciplinary palliative care team need to understand and mutually involve toward policy changes to successfully implement physical therapeutic palliative care delivery. PMID:21218003

  20. Transurethral Procedures for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Resulting From Benign Prostatic Enlargement: A Quality and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Wook; Choi, Jong Bo; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Son, Hwancheol; Jung, Tae Young; Oh, Seung-June; Jeong, Hee Jong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP. Methods This meta-analysis used a Medline search assessing the period from 1997 to 2011. A total of 784 randomized controlled trials were identified in an electronic search. Among the 784 articles, 36 randomized controlled trials that provided the highest level of evidence (level 1b) were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted a quality analysis of selected articles. Results Only 2 articles (5.56%) were assessed as having a low risk of bias by use of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. On the other hand, by use of the Jadad scale, there were 26 high-quality articles (72.22%). Furthermore, 28 articles (77.78%) were assessed as high-quality articles by use of the van Tulder scale. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) showed the highest reduction of the International Prostate Symptom Score compared with TURP (P<0.0001). Bipolar TURP, bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate, HoLEP, and open prostatectomy showed superior outcome in postvoid residual urine volume and maximum flow rate. The intraoperative complications of the minimally invasive surgeries had no statistically significant inferior outcomes compared with TURP. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the modalities compared with TURP. Conclusions The selection of an appropriate surgical modality for BPH should be assessed by fully understanding each patient's clinical conditions. PMID:23869269

  1. An E-mail Delivered CBT for Sleep-Health Program for College Students: Effects on Sleep Quality and Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Trockel, Mickey; Manber, Rachel; Chang, Vickie; Thurston, Alexandra; Tailor, Craig Barr

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students. Methods: Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ≥ 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention. Results: Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D). Conclusions: A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression. Citation: Trockel M; Manber R; Chang V; Thurston A; Tailor CB. An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):276-281. PMID:21677898

  2. Differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and quality of life outcomes among oncology patients with different types of pain.

    PubMed

    Posternak, Victoria; Dunn, Laura B; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Luce, Judith; Mastick, Judy; Levine, Jon D; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Hammer, Marylin; Wright, Fay; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study, in oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy (n = 926), were to: describe the occurrence of different types of pain (ie, no pain, only noncancer pain [NCP], only cancer pain [CP], or both CP and NCP) and evaluate for differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) among the 4 groups. Patients completed self-report questionnaires on demographic and symptom characteristics and QOL. Patients who had pain were asked to indicate if it was or was not related to their cancer or its treatment. Medical records were reviewed for information on cancer and its treatments. In this study, 72.5% of the patients reported pain. Of the 671 who reported pain, 21.5% reported only NCP, 37.0% only CP, and 41.5% both CP and NCP. Across the 3 pain groups, worst pain scores were in the moderate to severe range. Compared with the no pain group, patients with both CP and NCP were significantly younger, more likely to be female, have a higher level of comorbidity, and a poorer functional status. In addition, these patients reported: higher levels of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbance; lower levels of energy and attentional function; and poorer QOL. Patients with only NCP were significantly older than the other 3 groups. The most common comorbidities in the NCP group were back pain, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and depression. Unrelieved CP and NCP continue to be significant problems. Oncology outpatients need to be assessed for both CP and NCP conditions. PMID:26683234

  3. Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms Predict Sustained Quality of Life Deficits in HIV-Positive Ugandan Adults Despite Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Woolfork, Makhabele N; Guwatudde, David; Bagenda, Danstan; Manabe, Yukari C; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of psychosocial status at onset of antiretroviral therapy on changes in quality of life (QOL) and subjectively rated health (SRH) among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluate the association between stigma, anxiety, depression, and social support and change in QOL and SRH in HIV-infected Ugandan adults during an 18-month period. Psychosocial indicators were assessed at enrollment using structured questionnaires. QOL and SRH measures were assessed at months 0, 6, 12, and 18 using the Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV. Linear mixed models determined risk estimated differences in QOL and SRH in relation to quartiles of each psychosocial status indicator. Repeated measures generalized estimating equations modeling was implemented to assess differences in likelihood of improved versus nonimproved SRH during follow-up. QOL scores and SRH improved significantly for all participants over 18 months (P < 0.0001). The gain in QOL increased dose-dependently as baseline depressive symptoms (time∗depression P < 0.001) and anxiety levels (time∗anxiety P < 0.001) declined. Lower social support was associated with worse QOL at baseline (P = 0.0005) but QOL improvement during follow-up was not dependent on baseline level of social support (time∗social support P = 0.8943) or number of stigmatizing experiences (time∗stigma P = 0.8662). Psychosocial determinants did not predict changes in SRH in this study. High levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at HAART initiation predicts lower gains in QOL for HIV-positive patients for as long as 18 months. Long-term QOL improvements in HIV-infected adults may be enhanced by implementation of psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults. PMID:26945347

  4. EPA's indoor-air-quality and work-environment survey: Relationships of employees' self-reported health symptoms with direct indoor-air-quality measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.J.; Clayton, C.A.; Wallace, L.A.; Highsmith, V.R.; Kollander, M.

    1991-06-07

    In recent years, employees at the three headquarters buildings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Washington, D.C. area have expressed concerns about air quality and work environment discomforts. As part of a large-scale study of health and comfort concerns, environmental monitoring was carried out in March 1989 at approximately 100 sites (rooms) within these buildings. Employees in the vicinity of the monitors were administered a brief questionnaire to elicit information regarding their work environment, comfort levels, odors noticed, health symptoms, mood states, and perceptions of overall air quality. Statistical analyses were carried out for the 191 males and the 192 females for whom both questionnaire and monitoring data were available. The analyses entailed estimation of linear regression and logistic regression models aimed at testing for associations between the employees' responses and the environmental measurements, which included temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and particlate concentrations (100 sites), and various microbiologic and volatile organic compound concentrations (subset of 56 sites). Principal component analyses were used to develop some of the outcome and explanatory variables used in the models. In the paper, the authors describe the study design, the study limitations, the statistical models and methods, and the results and implications of the data analysis.

  5. Itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms in mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with an impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duque, Maria I; Yosipovitch, Gil; Chan, Yiong Huak; Smith, Ronald; Levy, Pavel

    2005-09-01

    To our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of itch, pain, and burning sensation among patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency or assessing the impact of these symptoms on quality of life. In this report 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients who suffered from itch were also assessed with the use of a validated questionnaire and a modified Skindex-16 questionnaire. We found that the prevalence of itch was 66%. Concomitant itch and burning sensation as well as itch and pain were noted in 47% and 44% of the patients, respectively. No correlation was noted between the severity of these symptoms and the degree of venous insufficiency. Itch had a negative impact on quality of life. A limitation of this study is that the participants, who were primarily hospital employees, are more likely to develop these symptoms. Therefore this study does not reflect the true prevalence of these symptoms in the general population. This study found that itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms of mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with a significant impact on quality of life. PMID:16112363

  6. Thermal noise for SBS suppression in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussot, Arnaud; Le Parquier, Marc; Szriftgiser, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a new and simple solution to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber optical parametric amplifiers. Cumbersome PRBS or sinusoidal generators used to broaden the pump spectrum are replaced by a filtered microwave noise source. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold can be increased up to large values still keeping an excellent quality of amplification of nonreturn to zero signals. The simplicity and the performances of this setup open the way for a wide variety of applications for FOPAs.

  7. On the reconstruction of parameters of quasi-Gaussian pump beams during transient SBS

    SciTech Connect

    Dementjev, Aleksandr S; Kosenko, E K; Murauskas, E; Girdauskas, V

    2006-08-31

    The radii and radii of curvature of Stokes stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) beams are measured by the method of moments for smooth nearly Gaussian focused pump beams with the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p{<=}}1.2. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently deeply focused pump radiation, the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}S} of Stokes beams near the threshold of the transient SBS is smaller than M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p} and approaches it with increasing the pump pulse energy. It is also found that the radii of Stokes beams at the output from a nonlinear medium are smaller than the radii of pump beams, while the radii of wave-front curvature are close (in modulus) to the radii of wave-front curvature for pump beams. (laser beams)

  8. STUD Pulse performance comparisons between weak and strong damping limits of SBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros

    2012-10-01

    The physical mechanisms that make STUD pulses (spike trains of uneven duration and delay) optimal rely, among other physical effects, on damping of the driven waves in between spikes. By varying the damping of ion acoustic waves in inhomogeneously flowing plasma regions ranging from -8 to -2 of the Mach number, we can establish to what extent STUD pulses can be effective to control SBS growth in various damping levels. By changing the duty cycle of the chain of spikes, by changing their modulation period, by adding random inter spike phase kicks and by changing the spatial hot spot profile scrambling rate, we establish bounds on how much Brillouin backscattering Rosenbluth gain can be tolerated at the average intensity and still have STUD pulses control SBS as compared to RPP or SSD or ISI. The situation is complicated by the implication of the strong coupling regime in hot spots, by pump depletion and by initial noise level dependencies which we also examine.

  9. Diamino Telechelic Polybutadienes for Solventless Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Triblock Copolymer Formation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shengxiang; Hoye, Thomas R; Macosko, Christopher W

    2008-11-10

    High molecular weight, high functionality diamino telechelic polybutadienes (TPBs) were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) in the presence of a chain transfer agent, 1,8-dicyano-4-octene, followed by lithium aluminum hydride reduction. Melt coupling of diamino TPB with anhydride-terminated polystyrene (PS-anh) resulted in the formation of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymers; ca. 80% maximum conversion of PS-anh was achieved within 30 seconds. The results from SAXS, TEM, and rheological measurements of the coupling products confirmed the formation of SBS triblock copolymers having lamellar morphology. A fluororesent-labeled PS-anh was used to study the coupling kinetics by diluting the reactants by the addition of non-functional PS. PMID:19907636

  10. Beam combining and SBS suppression in white noise and pseudo-random modulated amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian; Flores, Angel; Holten, Roger; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Dajani, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    White noise phase modulation (WNS) and pseudo-random binary sequence phase modulation (PRBS) are effective techniques for mitigation of nonlinear effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS); thereby paving the way for higher power narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers. However, detailed studies comparing both coherent beam combination and the SBS suppression of these phase modulation schemes have not been reported. In this study an active fiber cutback experiment is performed comparing the enhancement factor of a PRBS and WNS broadened seed as a function of linewidth and fiber length. Furthermore, two WNS and PRBS modulated fiber lasers are coherently combined to measure and compare the fringe visibility and coherence length as a function of optical path length difference. Notably, the discrete frequency comb of PRBS modulation provides a beam combining re-coherence effect where the lasers periodically come back into phase. Significantly, this may reduce path length matching complexity in coherently combined fiber laser systems.

  11. Diamino Telechelic Polybutadienes for Solventless Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Triblock Copolymer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengxiang; Hoye, Thomas R.; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    High molecular weight, high functionality diamino telechelic polybutadienes (TPBs) were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) in the presence of a chain transfer agent, 1,8-dicyano-4-octene, followed by lithium aluminum hydride reduction. Melt coupling of diamino TPB with anhydride-terminated polystyrene (PS-anh) resulted in the formation of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymers; ca. 80% maximum conversion of PS-anh was achieved within 30 seconds. The results from SAXS, TEM, and rheological measurements of the coupling products confirmed the formation of SBS triblock copolymers having lamellar morphology. A fluororesent-labeled PS-anh was used to study the coupling kinetics by diluting the reactants by the addition of non-functional PS. PMID:19907636

  12. 2D spectroscopy of galaxies with star formation regions. Study of SBS 1533+574

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.; Balayan, S. K.; Dodonov, S. N.; Movsessian, T. A.

    2006-10-01

    A preliminary analysis is given of 2D spectroscopic data on the galaxy SBS 1533+574(AB) obtained using the multipupil spectrographs on the 2.6-m telescope at the BAO (VAGR) and the 6-m telescope at the SAO (MPFS). The two components of the galaxy are star formation regions in different stages. The component SBS 1533+574B is known to be a BCDG. The plots of the intensity distribution of the radiation in the recombination lines of hydrogen and the forbidden lines of gases with a low degree of ionization obtained here make it possible to compare the basic characteristics of the HII-zones and the surrounding shell. The velocity distribution over the field of the galaxy is indicative of a common rotation of the system and of an intrinsic rotation of the components which is more distinct for component B.

  13. Financial Distress and Its Associations With Physical and Emotional Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. Patients and Methods. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). Results. The patients’ median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6–61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%–93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%–96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–7) versus 8 (IQR: 3–10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1–8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = −0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). Conclusion. FD was very frequent in both

  14. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 2: Methodological Quality and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. Objective To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of

  15. Idea density in the life-stories of people with schizophrenia: Associations with narrative qualities and psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Gallagher, Colin J; Docherty, Nancy M

    2016-04-01

    Disordered speech and language deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Researchers often assess speech samples using manualized rating systems, though recently computerized language assessment methods have been used more frequently in the study of speech from people with schizophrenia. Most typically, these computerized assessments measure aspects of expressivity (i.e., pause durations, prosody) or use word-count technology; less attention has focused on similar methods that can capture more sophisticated aspects of linguistic complexity (e.g., idea density). The primary objective of the present study was to assess idea density - via a computerized measure - in the life-story narratives of people with schizophrenia (n=32) compared to a group of community control participants (n=15). In the schizophrenia group, we also examined associations between idea density, narrative qualities rated via a manualized measure, and psychiatric symptoms. Our findings indicate that idea density is diminished in individuals with schizophrenia compared to controls. Further, our results suggest that though people with schizophrenia with richer idea density tended to have more developed insight into illness, they also had higher levels of depression, anxiety, and avolition. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26925799

  16. Non-Motor Symptoms of Essential Tremor Are Independent of Tremor Severity and Have an Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Musacchio, Thomas; Purrer, Veronika; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Fleischer, Anna; Mackenrodt, Daniel; Malsch, Carolin; Gelbrich, Götz; Steigerwald, Frank; Volkmann, Jens; Klebe, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background Several publications have focused on accompanying non-motor symptoms (NMS) in essential tremor (ET) patients; however, it remains unclear if NMS are an intrinsic part of the disease or secondary phenomena. We present the results of several neuropsychiatric tests and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in community-dwelling patients with ET. Methods Participants were recruited via a newspaper article about ET published in the local media and on the internet. All participants completed several standard neuropsychiatric tests, including those that assess QoL. To compare differences between cases and controls, Student’s t-tests with Bonferroni-Holm post hoc tests were performed. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were also calculated. Results We enrolled 110 patients with definite or probable ET. Highly significant changes were observed for apathy, anxiety, and cognition and negatively impacted QoL. Most aberrations were independent of tremor severity and duration. Discussion The significant neuropsychiatric deficits and reduced QoL demonstrate a degree of illness that appears to be a non-motor phenotype rather than a secondary effect of ET. In the future, NMS should carefully be explored in ET patients as they may have an impact on QoL and treatment. PMID:26989573

  17. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Philip Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients' QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. PMID:27413368

  18. Photocrosslinking of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) networks formed by thiol-ene reactions and their influence on cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gidon, Dogan; Aydin, Derya; Kizilel, Seda

    2015-12-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymer has been conventionally used as synthetic rubber. However, the potential of SBS for biomedical applications has only been considered in limited earlier reports. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to designing a photocrosslinked SBS network. Rheological analysis has been conducted for the investigation of the storage modulus of the resultant network. Crosslinked SBS networks were synthesized and characterized through optical and electron microscope imaging. The crosslink density of the network, calculated from swelling experiments, was 643 mol m(-3), where higher swelling in a hydrophobic medium was observed compared to the swelling measured in water. Cell survival analysis with HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts revealed that these networks are non-toxic, and that they could be considered for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:26526076

  19. Relationship of Somatic Symptoms With Depression Severity, Quality of Life, and Health Resources Utilization in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Primary Health Care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Campayo, Javier; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Caballero, Luis; Romera, Irene; Aragonés, Enric; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Quail, Deborah; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the characteristics of somatic symptoms and depression severity, quality of life (QOL), and health resources utilization in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care setting. Method: This cross-sectional, nationwide epidemiologic study, carried out in 1150 primary care patients with DSM-IV–defined MDD, evaluated the characteristics of somatic symptoms by means of the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview. Depression severity and QOL were evaluated by means of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Health resources utilization was measured in terms of doctor consultations and hospitalizations. The associations were assessed by means of adjusted analyses. The study was carried out from April 2004 to July 2004. Results: Disability associated with somatic symptoms and number of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with increased depression severity (2.45 and 0.29 increase in SDS score, respectively) and health resources utilization (odds ratios of 1.42 and 1.04, respectively). Associated disability, frequency, and persistence during leisure time of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with poorer QOL. In contrast, we found a weaker relationship between duration and intensity of somatic symptoms and depression severity, QOL, and health resources utilization. Conclusions: Of the studied somatic symptom characteristics, somatic symptom–associated disability and number of somatic symptoms are strongly associated with increased depression severity and health resources utilization, as well as with decreased QOL. Our results may help physicians identify relevant characteristics of somatic symptoms to more effectively diagnose and treat depression in primary care patients. PMID:19158973

  20. Neighbourhood environment, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Hong Kong older adults: a protocol for an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Cheung, Martin M C; Lai, Poh-chin; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neighbourhood environment can assist the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle and affect the physical and mental well-being of older adults. The psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms through which the environment may affect physical and mental well-being are currently poorly understood. Aim This observational study aims to examine associations between the physical and social neighbourhood environments, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Chinese Hong Kong older adults. Methods and analyses An observational study of the associations of measures of the physical and social neighbourhood environment, and psychosocial factors, with physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in 900 Hong Kong older adults aged 65+ years is being conducted in 2012–2016. The study involves two assessments taken 6 months apart. Neighbourhood walkability and access to destinations are objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems and environmental audits. Demographics, socioeconomic status, walking for different purposes, perceived neighbourhood and home environments, psychosocial factors, health status, social networks, depressive symptoms and quality of life are being assessed using validated interviewer-administered self-report measures and medical records. Physical functionality is being assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are also being objectively measured in approximately 45% of participants using accelerometers over a week. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, quality of life and depressive symptoms are being assessed twice (6 months apart) to examine seasonality effects on behaviours and their associations with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the University of Hong Kong Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties (EA270211) and the Department

  1. Study of SBS 1202+583. Features of the Radial Velocity Distribution Over the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    This article is a continuation of our study of the galaxy SBS 1202+583 (VV270ab) by using panoramic spectroscopy data obtained in our observations with multipupil spectrographs - the MPFS at the 6-m telescope of the SAO of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the `'VAGR" at the 2.6-m telescope of the BAO in Armenia. An analysis of the radial velocity field in the Hα emission line of this object, previously characterized as a complex consisting of more than nine HII regions [1], indicates the two main substructures of them. The closest substructure associated with the HII region SBS1202+583C1 (from the component VV270b) is disintegrating under the influence of a distant substructure associated with SBS1202+583NE4 (from the component VV270a) which is the most massive and most powerful Hα emission source. The perturbation field, owing to its gravitational effect, stimulates a directed motion of most of the HII regions as they rotate simultaneously.

  2. A theoretical treatment of two approaches to SBS mitigation with two-tone amplification.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Iyad; Zeringue, Clint; Bronder, T J; Shay, Thomas; Gavrielides, Athanasios; Robin, Craig

    2008-09-01

    A technique that employs two seed signals for the purpose of mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is investigated theoretically by constructing a self-consistent model that incorporates the laser gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FWM). The model reduces to solving a two-point boundary problem consisting of an 8x8 system of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Optimal operating conditions are determined by examining the interplay between the wavelength separation and power ratio of the two seeds. Two variants of this 'two-tone' amplification are considered. In one case the wavelength separation is precisely twice the Brillouin shift, while the other case considers a greater wavelength separation. For the former case, a two-fold increase in total output power over a broad range of seed power ratios centered about a ratio of approximately 2 is obtained, but with fairly large FWM. For the latter case, this model predicts an approximately 100% increase in output power (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1068nm seed. More significantly for this case, it is found that at a wavelength separation greater than 10nm, it is possible to appreciably enhance the power output of one of the laser frequencies. PMID:18773034

  3. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and quality of life of mothers of school-aged children: the roles of child, mother, and family variables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Yeh, Chin-Jung; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Jen-Yu; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Shih, Ding-Ho; Chen, Chun-Ing; Lee, Pei-Chin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the impact of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, opposition problems in children, maternal depression, and perceived family support on the quality of life (QOL) of mothers. Mothers of children in one elementary school were contacted. The relationship between sociodemographic variables, the levels of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children and mothers, oppositional symptoms in children, maternal depression, perceived family support, and maternal QOL were examined. Three hundred and eighty-two participants were included in this study. Consistent factors related to the mother's QOL in the four domains were maternal depression, perceived family support, and housing status after controlling for several family, maternal, and child variables. Maternal QOL was more related to her own and family factors including maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, perceived family support, and housing status, instead of parent-rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms of the child. Screening for maternal inattention, hyperactivity and depression symptoms, and mental health services for these mothers are warranted based on these findings. PMID:25476102

  4. EuroQol 5D quality of life in Menière's disorder can be explained with symptoms and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Levo, Hilla; Stephens, Dafydd; Poe, Dennis; Kentala, Erna; Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykkő, Ilmari

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors explaining changes in the generic quality of life among patients with Menière's disorder (MD) and to evaluate the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measures. A questionnaire focusing on symptoms and disabilities caused by MD was collected from 726 individuals. General health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) was evaluated using the time trade-off (TTO) and visual-analogue scale (VAS). Personal traits were measured with the sense of coherence. The TTO-VAS score difference was modeled with activity limitations, participation restrictions, attitudes, and symptoms. For TTO as the outcome measure, one symptom-based, three attitude-based, one activity limitation, and one participation restriction item explained 43% of the variability. For VAS, six attitude-based, one symptom-based, three activity limitations, and one participation restriction item explained 43% of the variability of the data. The correlation between TTO and VAS (r=0.515, P<0.001) explained only 27% of the variance. The difference between TTO and VAS was reflected in attitudes towards the illness. The model explained 10% of the variability in the VAS and TTO difference. There was a disease duration effect in the TTO-VAS difference. In conclusion, a symptom-based model combined with disabilities provided a good description of general quality of life in MD. The TTO-based and VAS-based evaluation explained somewhat different aspects of MD. The difference between TTO and VAS could be described as an attitude toward the ailment. Evaluation of disabilities and the difference in TTO and VAS can be used to guide the rehabilitation to promote attitude change. PMID:22872300

  5. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  6. The Bidirectional Relationship between Quality of Life and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A 9-Year Community-Based Study of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Morin, Alexandre; Mond, Jonathan; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL) in eating disorders (EDs) have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL) and psychological distress (PD). Method Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828) surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated) and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire), HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form), and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year) improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups. Conclusions Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs. PMID:25812047

  7. Hope, quality of life, and benefit from treatment in women having chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian cancer: the gynecologic cancer intergroup symptom benefit study.

    PubMed

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Friedlander, Michael L; O'Connell, Rachel L; Voysey, Merryn; King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Martyn, Julie K; Butow, Phyllis N

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer is motivated by the hope of benefit. We sought to determine the relationships between: (a) trait hope, expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy, and anxiety and depression; (b) hope and perceived efficacy of chemotherapy; and (c) unfulfilled hope (where expectations for benefit are not fulfilled) and depression. Methods. Adult patients enrolled within stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study were included. Patient. Reported outcomes were collected from 126 women with predominantly platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at baseline, prior to the first four treatment cycles (12-16 weeks), and four weeks after completing chemotherapy or at disease progression, whichever came first. Associations were assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio. Results. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy were weakly correlated with each other (r = 0.25). Trait hope, but not expectation of symptom benefit, was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.43) and depression (r = -0.50). The smaller the discrepancy between perceived and expected symptom benefit, the less likely the patient was to have scores indicative of depression (odds ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.96; p = .026). Conclusion. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy appear to be distinct and independent of the aspects of quality of life and scores for depression. Hope did not appear to affect perceived efficacy of chemotherapy in alleviating symptoms, but women whose expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy was not fulfilled were more likely to have scores indicative of depression. It may be preferable to encourage hope toward achievable goals rather than toward benefits from chemotherapy. PMID:24107972

  8. The effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, I-Hung; Wu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Hueih-Shing; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Wang, Hsu-Hsiang; Chuang, Heng-Chang; Tam, Yuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nocturia has been proven to have a negative impact on the quality of life and sleep quality in general elderly population. However, there are limited studies on the quantitative effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction, specifically in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and methods During March 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, a total of 728 patients who visited our urology department due to voiding dysfunction and experienced nocturia at least once per night were enrolled. Three questionnaires were administered to them after obtaining their written consents. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire were applied to evaluate their sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and voiding problems, respectively. Statistical analysis of the impact of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction was performed. Results The mean age of patients was 61 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7. The mean nocturia number was 3.03. The IPSS, PSQI, and ESS scores were 17.56, 8.35, and 8.22, respectively. The nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated to ESS score (daytime dysfunction) and PSQI total score (sleep quality) in overall group. Among subgroups divided by age and sex, there was a significant correlation between nocturia number and daytime dysfunction in male patients or patients younger than 65 years. Conclusion In patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated with poor sleep quality. Nocturia plays an important role in patients younger than 65 years in daytime dysfunction. PMID:27418814

  9. Development and usability testing of a web-based cancer symptom and quality-of-life support intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, SE; Halpenny, B; Whitman, G; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, WB; Berry, DL

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility and acceptability of computerized screening and patient-reported outcome measures have been demonstrated in the literature. However, patient-centered management of health information entails two challenges: gathering and presenting data using “patient-tailored” methods and supporting “patient-control” of health information. The design and development of many symptom and quality-of-life information systems have not included opportunities for systematically collecting and analyzing user input. As part of a larger clinical trial, the Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer–II project, participatory design approaches were used to build and test new features and interfaces for patient/caregiver users. The research questions centered on patient/caregiver preferences with regard to the following: (a) content, (b) user interface needs, (c) patient-oriented summary, and (d) patient-controlled sharing of information with family, caregivers, and clinicians. Mixed methods were used with an emphasis on qualitative approaches; focus groups and individual usability tests were the primary research methods. Focus group data were content analyzed, while individual usability sessions were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. We identified 12 key patient/caregiver preferences through focus groups with 6 participants. We implemented seven of these preferences during the iterative design process. We deferred development for some of the preferences due to resource constraints. During individual usability testing (n = 8), we were able to identify 65 usability issues ranging from minor user confusion to critical errors that blocked task completion. The participatory development model that we used led to features and design revisions that were patient centered. We are currently evaluating new approaches for the application interface and for future research pathways. We encourage other researchers to adopt user-centered design approaches

  10. Development and usability testing of a web-based cancer symptom and quality-of-life support intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, S E; Halpenny, B; Whitman, G; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, W B; Berry, D L

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility and acceptability of computerized screening and patient-reported outcome measures have been demonstrated in the literature. However, patient-centered management of health information entails two challenges: gathering and presenting data using "patient-tailored" methods and supporting "patient-control" of health information. The design and development of many symptom and quality-of-life information systems have not included opportunities for systematically collecting and analyzing user input. As part of a larger clinical trial, the Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer-II project, participatory design approaches were used to build and test new features and interfaces for patient/caregiver users. The research questions centered on patient/caregiver preferences with regard to the following: (a) content, (b) user interface needs, (c) patient-oriented summary, and (d) patient-controlled sharing of information with family, caregivers, and clinicians. Mixed methods were used with an emphasis on qualitative approaches; focus groups and individual usability tests were the primary research methods. Focus group data were content analyzed, while individual usability sessions were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. We identified 12 key patient/caregiver preferences through focus groups with 6 participants. We implemented seven of these preferences during the iterative design process. We deferred development for some of the preferences due to resource constraints. During individual usability testing (n = 8), we were able to identify 65 usability issues ranging from minor user confusion to critical errors that blocked task completion. The participatory development model that we used led to features and design revisions that were patient centered. We are currently evaluating new approaches for the application interface and for future research pathways. We encourage other researchers to adopt user-centered design approaches when building

  11. Health-related personal control predicts depression symptoms and quality of life but not health behaviour following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prospective association between health-related control beliefs, quality of life (QOL), depression symptoms, and health behaviours in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients 6-8 weeks following surgery. 149 patients who were undergoing planned CABG surgery were recruited. Patients completed questionnaires measuring health related personal control, treatment control, depression symptoms, QOL, and health behaviours prior to and 6-8 weeks after surgery. Higher levels of health-related personal control predicted better QOL, and lower levels of depression symptoms, but not adherence to medication, cardiac rehabilitation attendance, or physical activity. These results were independent of demographic, behavioural, and clinical covariates. Treatment control was not associated with any outcome. These results suggest that perceived health-related personal control is associated with key aspects of short-term recovery from CABG surgery. Targeted interventions aimed at improving perceptions of health-related personal control may improve health outcomes in this cardiac population. PMID:26341356

  12. Symptoms induced by environmental irritants and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic cough - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is a common condition, but some patients have no evident medical explanation for their symptoms. A group of patients has been identified, characterized by upper and lower airway symptoms triggered by chemicals and scents, and heightened cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. Chronic cough is usually a prominent symptom in these patients, and it has been suggested that they suffer from sensory hyperreactivity. Our main aim was to analyse, in a group of patients with chronic cough, the presence of symptoms induced by environmental factors such as chemicals, scents, and cold air, and to measure the social and emotional influences of these symptoms in relation to quality of life. A second aim was to pilot-test a Swedish translation of a cough-specific questionnaire. Methods A total of 119 patients with chronic cough were asked to answer three different questionnaires: a local symptom questionnaire, the Chemical Sensitivity Scale for Sensory Hyperreactivity (CSS-SHR), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). In addition, a Swedish version of the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was developed and answered by a subgroup of patients and healthy controls. Results Sixty-two patients (52%) with mean cough duration of 10.6 years answered the local symptom questionnaire, the CSS-SHR, and the NHP. Of these, 39 (63%) claimed to have cough and other symptoms induced by chemicals and scents. Compared to population-based findings, the patients scored higher on the CSS-SHR, and the CSS-SHR score was significantly higher among chemical-sensitive individuals (p < 0.001). The NHP showed that the patients had a significantly reduced quality of life, which was most pronounced among chemical-sensitive individuals. The 31 patients who answered the HARQ had significantly higher scores (p < 0.0001) than 59 healthy controls. Conclusions Among patients with chronic cough, a majority claimed that environmental factors induced coughing. Both the CSS-SHR and the

  13. Effect of Traffic Exposure on Sick Building Syndrome Symptoms among Parents/Grandparents of Preschool Children in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linyan; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Zhang, Yinping; Spengler, John D.; Qu, Fang; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sick building syndrome (SBS) includes general, mucosal and skin symptoms. It is typically associated with an individual's place of work or residence. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of traffic exposure on SBS symptoms in Beijing, China. Methods From January to May, 2011, recruitment occurred at kindergartens in 11 districts in Beijing. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed by teachers to legal guardians of children and then returned to teachers. The questionnaire asked them to recall the presence of 12 SBS symptoms from the previous three months. Living near a highway or main road (within 200 meters) was used as a proxy for traffic exposure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the association between traffic exposure and a higher number of SBS symptoms, controlling for key covariates. Results There were 5487 valid questionnaires (65.0% response rate). Univariate analysis showed that living near a main road or highway (OR = 1.40), female gender (OR = 1.44), and environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR = 1.13) were significant risk factors for general symptoms. Grandparent’s generation (OR = 0.32) and home ownership (owner vs. renter) (OR = 0.89) were significant protective factors. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for the association between living close to a highway and general symptoms remained significant in the multivariable model (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.21: 1.59). ORs and aORs were similar for mucosal and skin symptoms. Conclusions This study found traffic exposure to be significantly associated with SBS symptoms. This finding is consistent with current literature that indicates an association between adverse health effects and living near highway or main road. PMID:26086248

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Stephanie; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.; Meek, Paula; McBryde, Connor; Hattler, Brack; Lorenz, Karl A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care. Objective: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements. Methods: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview). Results: Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques. Conclusions: The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based

  15. The Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form (MFSAF): an evidence-based brief inventory to measure quality of life and symptomatic response to treatment in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Ruben A; Schwager, Susan; Radia, Deepti; Cheville, Andrea; Hussein, Kebede; Niblack, Joyce; Pardanani, Animesh D; Steensma, David P; Litzow, Mark R; Rivera, Candido E; Camoriano, John; Verstovsek, Srdan; Sloan, Jeffrey; Harrison, Claire; Kantarjian, Hagop; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2009-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is severely compromised by severe constitutional symptoms (i.e. fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss), pruritus, and symptoms from frequently massive hepatosplenomegaly. Given that no current instrument of patient reported outcomes (PRO) exists that covers the unique spectrum of symptomatology seen in MF patients, we sought to develop a new PRO instrument for MF patients for use in therapeutic clinical trials. Utilizing data from an international Internet-based survey of 458 patients with MF we created a 20-item instrument (MFSAF: Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form) which measures the symptoms reported by >10% of MF patients and includes a measure of QoL. We subsequently validated the MFSAF in a prospective trial of MF patients involving patient and provider feedback, as well as comparison to other validated instruments used in cancer patients. The MFSAF results were highly correlated with other instruments, judged comprehensive and understandable by patients, and should be considered for evaluation of MF symptoms in therapeutic trials. PMID:19250674

  16. Effects of an early intervention on maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and the quality of mother-infant interaction: the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Ayala; Habersaat, Stephanie; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Nessi, Jennifer; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François; Müller-Nix, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Preterm birth may represent a traumatic situation for both parents and a stressful situation for the infant, potentially leading to difficulties in mother-infant relationships. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an early intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms, and on the quality of mother-infant interactions, in a sample of very preterm infants and their mothers. Half of the very preterm infants involved in the study (n=26) were randomly assigned to a 3-step early intervention program (at 33 and 42 weeks after conception and at 4 months' corrected age). Both groups of preterm infants (with and without intervention) were compared to a group of full-term infants. The impact of the intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms was assessed 42 weeks after conception and when the infants were 4 and 12 months of age. The impact of the intervention on the quality of mother-infant interactions was assessed when the infants were 4 months old. Results showed a lowering of mothers' posttraumatic stress symptoms between 42 weeks and 12 months in the group of preterm infants who received the intervention. Moreover, an enhancement in maternal sensitivity and infant cooperation during interactions was found at 4 months in the group with intervention. In the case of a preterm birth, an early intervention aimed at enhancing the quality of the mother-infant relationship can help to alleviate maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and may have a positive impact on the quality of mother-infant interactions. PMID:25222614

  17. Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Are Associated with Quality of Life–Related Symptoms in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Palevsky, Harold I.; Lederer, David J.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Mathai, Stephen C.; Pinder, Diane; Archer-Chicko, Christine; Bagiella, Emilia; Roberts, Kari E.; Tracy, Russell P.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Girgis, Reda E.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Inflammation is associated with symptoms in many chronic illnesses; however, this link has not been established in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between inflammatory markers and quality of life–related symptoms in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that higher circulating IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels would be associated with worse quality of life–related symptoms. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis using baseline and 3-month assessments of 62 subjects in a clinical trial of aspirin and simvastatin to determine the association between plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 subscales (pain, vitality, mental health). Measurements and Main Results: The mean age was 49.7 ± 13.4 years; 87% were female. Higher IL-6 levels were significantly associated with lower Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 subscale scores, indicating worse bodily pain, vitality, and mental health (all P < 0.01). Higher tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly associated with increased bodily pain, but better mental health scores. Conclusions: IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels are associated with certain quality of life domains in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00384865). PMID:25615959

  18. Functional and symptom impact of trametinib versus chemotherapy in BRAF V600E advanced or metastatic melanoma: quality-of-life analyses of the METRIC study

    PubMed Central

    Schadendorf, D.; Amonkar, M. M.; Milhem, M.; Grotzinger, K.; Demidov, L. V.; Rutkowski, P.; Garbe, C.; Dummer, R.; Hassel, J. C.; Wolter, P.; Mohr, P.; Trefzer, U.; Lefeuvre-Plesse, C.; Rutten, A.; Steven, N.; Ullenhag, G.; Sherman, L.; Wu, F. S.; Patel, K.; Casey, M.; Robert, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In a randomized phase III study, trametinib prolonged progression-free survival and improved overall survival versus chemotherapy in patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma. Patients and methods Patients' quality of life (QOL) was assessed at baseline and follow-up visits using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core QOL questionnaire. Results In the primary efficacy population (BRAF V600E+, no brain metastases) from baseline to weeks 6 and 12, patients' global health status scores worsened by 4–5 points with chemotherapy but improved by 2–3 points with trametinib. Rapid and substantive reductions in QOL functionality (e.g. role functioning, 8–11 points at weeks 6 and 12) and symptom exacerbation (e.g. fatigue, 4–8 points; nausea and vomiting, 5 points, both at weeks 6 and 12) were observed in chemotherapy-treated patients. In contrast, trametinib-treated patients reported small improvements or slight worsening from baseline at week 12, depending on the functional dimension and symptom. The mean symptom-scale scores for chemotherapy-treated patients increased from baseline (symptoms worsened) for seven of eight symptoms at week 6 (except insomnia) and six of eight symptoms at week 12 (except dyspnea and insomnia). In contrast, at weeks 6 and 12, the mean symptom-scale scores for trametinib decreased from baseline (symptoms improved) for pain (11–12 points), insomnia (10–12 points), and appetite loss (1–5 points), whereas those for diarrhea worsened (15–16 points). Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses showed significant (P < 0.05) and/or clinically meaningful improvements (small to moderate) from baseline in favor of trametinib for global health; physical, role, and social functioning; fatigue; pain; insomnia; nausea and vomiting; constipation; dyspnea; and appetite at weeks 6 and/or 12. QOL results for the intent-to-treat population were consistent. Conclusions This first QOL assessment for a MEK

  19. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab).

  20. Orbit and attitude determination results during launch support operations for SBS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, K. R.; Iano, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are orbit and attitude determination results from the launch of Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-5 satellite on September 8, 1988 by Arianespace. SBS-5 is a (HS-376) spin stabilized spacecraft. The launch vehicle injected the spacecraft into a low inclination transfer orbit. Apogee motor firing (AMF) attitude was achieved with trim maneuvers. An apogee kick motor placed the spacecraft into drift orbit. Postburn, reorientation and spindown maneuvers were performed during the next 25 hours. The spacecraft was on-station 19 days later. The orbit and attitude were determined by both an extended Kalman filter and a weighted least squares batch processor. Although the orbit inclination was low and the launch was near equinox, post-AMF analysis indicated an attitude declination error of 0.034 deg., resulting in a saving of 8.5 pounds of fuel. The AMF velocity error was 0.4 percent below nominal. The post-AMF drift rate was determined with the filter only 2.5 hours after motor firing. The filter was used to monitor and retarget the reorientation to orbit normal in real time.

  1. SBS 0846+513: a new γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Finke, J.; Raiteri, C. M.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Giroletti, M.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Perkins, J. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Stawarz, Ł.; Donato, D.

    2012-10-01

    We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the radio-loud active galactic nucleus SBS 0846+513 (z = 0.5835), optically classified as a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, together with new and archival radio-to-X-ray data. The source was not active at γ-ray energies during the first two years of Fermi operation. A significant increase in activity was observed during 2010 October-2011 August. In particular, a strong γ-ray flare was observed in 2011 June reaching an isotropic γ-ray luminosity (0.1-300 GeV) of 1.0 × 1048 erg s-1, comparable to that of the brightest flat spectrum radio quasars, and showing spectral evolution in γ rays. An apparent superluminal velocity of (8.2 ± 1.5)c in the jet was inferred from 2011 to 2012 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images, suggesting the presence of a highly relativistic jet. Both the power released by this object during the flaring activity and the apparent superluminal velocity are strong indications of the presence of a relativistic jet as powerful as those of blazars. In addition, variability and spectral properties in radio and γ-ray bands indicate blazar-like behaviour, suggesting that, except for some distinct optical characteristics, SBS 0846+513 could be considered as a young blazar at the low end of the blazar's black hole mass distribution.

  2. Panoramic spectroscopy of galaxies with star-formation regions. a study of SBS 1202 + 583

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.; Balayan, S. K.; Dodonov, S. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Smirnova, A. A.

    2012-03-01

    The methods of panoramic (3D) spectroscopy are used by us in a detailed study of galaxies with ongoing star formation chosen from among objects in seven selected fields of the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). This article deals with the irregular galaxy SBS 1202 + 583, which our classification scheme identifies as being in a continuous phase of star formation. Observations were made with the panoramic spectrographs MPFS at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences and VAGR at the 2.6-m telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) in Armenia. The data are used to construct maps of the radiative fluxes in the continuum and various emission lines. Special attention is devoted to analyzing the emission in the H α hydrogen recombination line and in the forbidden low-ionization doublets of nitrogen [NII] λλ6548, 6583 and sulfur [SII] λλ6716, 6731, and the ratios of the intensities of the forbidden lines to H α. The observable characteristics (size, H α fluxes, etc.) of nine HII regions are studied. The estimated current rates of star formation in the individual HII regions based on the H α fluxes lie within the range of 0.3-1.2⨀ M /year. The dependence of the ratio of the intensities of the emission in these above mentioned forbidden doublets on the rate of star formation in the HII regions is found.

  3. SBS 0846+513: a New Gamma-ray Emitting Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Finke, J.; Raiteri, C. M.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Giroletti, M.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Perkins, J. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Stawarz, L.; Donato, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report Fermi-LAT observations of the radio-loud AGN SBS 0846+513 (z=0.5835), optically classified as a Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, together with new and archival radio-to-X-ray data. The source was not active at ?-ray energies during the first two years of Fermi operation. A significant increase in activity was observed during 2010 October-2011 August. In particular a strong gamma-ray flare was observed in 2011 June reaching an isotropic ?-ray luminosity (0.1-300 GeV) of 1.0×10(sup 48) erg s(sup -1), comparable to that of the brightest flat spectrum radio quasars, and showing spectral evolution in gamma rays. An apparent superluminal velocity of (8.2+/-1.5)c in the jet was inferred from 2011-2012 VLBA images, suggesting the presence of a highly relativistic jet. Both the power released by this object during the flaring activity and the apparent superluminal velocity are strong indications of the presence of a relativistic jet as powerful as those of blazars. In addition, variability and spectral properties in radio and gamma-ray bands indicate blazar-like behaviour, suggesting that, except for some distinct optical characteristics, SBS 0846+513 could be considered as a young blazar at the low end of the blazar's black hole mass distribution.

  4. Psychometric validation of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in patients with reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Károly R; Malfertheiner, Peter; Madisch, Ahmed; Labenz, Joachim; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Miehlke, Stephan; Carlsson, Jonas; Wiklund, Ingela K

    2003-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heartburn has an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, a linguistic validation is necessary but not sufficient unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim is to document the psychometric characteristics of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. Methods 142 patients with symptoms of heartburn (Age: M = 47.5, ± 14.6; Males = 44.4%) completed the German translation of GSRS, the QOLRAD, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.53–0.91 and of QOLRAD from 0.90–0.94, respectively. The test-retest reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.49–0.73 and of QOLRAD from 0.70–0.84. The relevant domains of the GSRS and QOLRAD domain scores significantly correlated. GSRS domains of Abdominal Pain and Constipation correlated (negatively) with most of the domains of the SF-36. The relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with all SF-36 domains. Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the German translation of GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. The reliability of the GSRS Abdominal Pain domain was moderate. PMID:14613560

  5. Parent Relationship Quality Buffers against the Effect of Peer Stressors on Depressive Symptoms from Middle Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Nicholas A.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Technow, Jessica R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition to adolescence, several developmental trends converge to increase the importance of peer relationships, the likelihood of peer-related stressors, and the experience of depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, there are significant changes in parent-child relationships. The current study sought to evaluate whether positive…

  6. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  7. The Effects of Ethnic/Racial Discrimination and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem Trajectories Among Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70 % female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  8. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

  9. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  10. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Moseholm, Ellen; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with HRQoL at the time of diagnosis. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter survey study that included patients who were referred for a diagnostic evaluation due to non-specific cancer symptoms. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale before and after completing the diagnostic evaluation. The baseline and follow-up EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores were compared with reference populations. The impact of socio-demographic and medical factors on HRQoL at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression. Results A total of 838 patients participated in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis and no clinically important difference between baseline and follow-up scores was found. Patients reported effects on HRQoL both at baseline and at follow-up compared with the Danish reference population and had similar scores as a cancer reference population. Co-morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. PMID:26840866

  11. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required. PMID:25811312

  12. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380. PMID:25610473

  13. The association between quality of life, depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a group of type 2 diabetes patients: comment on Papelbaum et al.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Zsuzsanna; de Lijster, Jasmijn; Kupper, Nina

    2011-07-01

    This comment on the article: "The association between quality of life, depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a group of type 2 diabetes patients" by Papelbaum et al. was aimed to provide some critical remarks concerning the focus of the results section which showed significant discrepancies compared to the introduction and the research question. In addition, we would like to exhort the authors for a more comprehensive approach and for a more complete and congruent description of their results, in order to avoid misunderstanding. PMID:21440947

  14. The Social Behavior Survival Program: (SBS). A Systematic Approach to the Integration of Handicapped Children into Less Restrictive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.

    1983-01-01

    The Social Behavior Survival Program (SBS), a model for the social integration of disabled children into less restrictive settings, is described in terms of its purpose, components, and rationale; validity, efficacy, and replication studies on the model; and school applications and usage guidelines. (CL)

  15. SEPARATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY PERVAPORATION USING S-B-S BLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composite membranes of a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (S-B-S) were cast on highly porous, hydrophobic thin films of PTFE, and used for the separation and recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Trichloroethane, trichloroe...

  16. SEPARATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY PERVAPORATION USING S-B-S BLOCK COPOLYMER MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composite membranes of a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (S-B-S) were cast on highly porous, hydrophobic thin films of PTFE and used for the separation and recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Trichloroethane, trichloroe...

  17. Interpretation of Single- and Multiple-Beam SBS Observations in OMEGA, Long-Scale-Length Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, R. W.; Craxton, R. S.; Seka, W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2001-10-01

    Recent experiments on OMEGA have studied stimulated Brillouin backscatter in preformed long-scale-length plasmas for both single and multiple interaction beams. Scattered light intensities and spectra were obtained for a variety of irradiation conditions. Ion Landau damping is estimated to be sufficiently strong in these plasmas that the locally driven approximation for the ion-sound wave response can be applied. The linear SBS gain coefficient can then obtained by integrating the coupled wave equations for the incident and scattered light throughout the underdense plasma corona. Using density, velocity, and temperature profiles obtained from the two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode SAGE, we have calculated as a function of wavelength the SBS gain coefficients to be expected in these experiments. Comparison with the observed scattering levels and spectra allows several conclusions to be drawn regarding the SBS process in these plasmas. Most saliently, the scattering appears to be dominated by SBS occurring in hot spots, and plasma velocity profiles have a strong influence on the location and level of scattering. Generally good agreement is found between the observations and the calculations, though some discrepancies remain, particularly in the absorption levels and spectral shifts. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  18. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  19. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  20. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  1. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson’s Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D.; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn’t totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  2. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson's Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn't totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  3. SBS management in Yb-fiber-amplifiers using multimode seeds and pulse-shaping.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Alain; Gokhan, Fikri Serdar; Bello, Ramatou; Dupriez, Pascal

    2014-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the technique of Longitudinal-Mode-Filling (LMF) to reduce Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) limitations in Ytterbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (YDFA), for the generation of nanosecond, temporally shaped pulses. A basic Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier (MOPA) system, comprising an output YDFA with 10 µm-core active fibre, is experienced for benchmarking purposes. Input pulse-shaping is operated thanks to direct current modulation in highly multimode laser-diode seeds, either based on the use of Distributed Feed-Back (DFB) or of a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). These seeds enable wavelength control. We verify the effectiveness of the combination of LMF, with appropriate mode spacing, in combination with natural chirp effects from the seed to control the SBS threshold in a broad range of output energies, from a few to some tens of µJ. These variations are discussed versus all the parameters of the laser system. In accordance with the proposal of a couple of basic principles and with the addition of gain saturation effects along the active fibre, we develop a full-vectorial numerical model. Fine fits between experimental results and theoretical expectations are demonstrated. The only limitation of the technique arises from broadband beating noise, which is analysed thanks to a simplified, but fully representative description to discuss the signal-to-noise ratio of the amplified pulses. This provides efficient tools for application to the design of robust and cost-effective MOPAs, aiming to the generation of finely shaped and energetic nanosecond pulses without the need for any additional electro-optics. PMID:25321242

  4. Impact of Sex on the Nonmotor Symptoms and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Weintraut, Rita; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients seem to experience not only more severe motor complications and postural instability but also more pronounced depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances. Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sex as a possible independent predictor of HRQoL in PD. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 621 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pécs were enrolled. Severity of PD symptoms was assessed by MDS-UPDRS, UDysRS, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, PDSS-2, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Lille Apathy Rating Scale, and Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination. HRQoL was assessed by PDQ-39 and EQ-5D. Multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the PDQ-39 and EQ-5D index values based on various clinical factors. Results. Although females received significantly lower dosage of levodopa, they had significantly more disabling dyskinesia and worse postural instability. Anxiety, pain, sleep disturbances, and orthostatic symptoms were more frequent among females while sexual dysfunction, apathy, and daytime sleepiness were more severe among males. Women had worse HRQoL than men (EQ-5D index value: 0.620 ± 0.240 versus 0.663 ± 0.229, p = 0.025, and PDQ-39 SI: 27.1 ± 17.0 versus 23.5 ± 15.9, p = 0.010). Based on multiple regression analysis, sex was an independent predictor for HRQoL in PD. Conclusions. Based on our results, female sex is an independent predictor for having worse HRQoL in PD. PMID:27293959

  5. Impact of cadmium and ozone on foliar symptom development, mineral composition, growth, yield and quality of woody and herbaceous plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    Green mountain (GM), Norchip (NC) and Norland (NL) potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars were grown in the field under standard commercial practices to determine their relative susceptibility to oxidants and to evaluate the effectiveness of two antioxidants, EDU and benomyl, applied as soil drenches. The order of foliar susceptibility to oxidants was NL > NC > GM. Symptom severity directly correlated with cumulative oxidant dose, and the time of maximum plant sensitivity was cultivar-dependent. EDU significantly reduced foliar symptoms but benomyl did not. Untreated plants sustained up to a 31% reduction in tuber yield when compared to EDU treated plants. Reductions in specific gravity, tuber size and tuber number were year x cultivar dependent. The uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd), another phytotoxic pollutant, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in sand culture amended with 0 or 2.0 ..mu..g Cd/ml as CdCl/sub 2/ in a nutrient solution was compared. Tobacco accumulated twice as much Cd in the foliage as in the roots, whereas tomato plants contained only one-seventh as much Cd in the leaves. Although Cd-treated plants exhibited no visual toxicity symptoms, nor changes in percent dry weight, Mn and Fe concentrations were significantly reduced in the roots. Zinc concentrations of root and shoot tissue did not significantly change. When quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) were grown in a sand substrate receiving nutrient solution amended with Cd (0-10 ..mu..g Cd/ml) and exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) in a controlled and ambient environment, cadmium treated plants were more susceptible.

  6. Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms. Results An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP. Conclusion OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of

  7. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light. PMID:19550988

  8. Effects of qigong training on health-related quality of life, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Louisa M Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Joanne W Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

  9. Children dying from cancer: parents' perspectives on symptoms, quality of life, characteristics of death, and end-of-life decisions.

    PubMed

    von Lützau, Pia; Otto, Michael; Hechler, Tanja; Metzing, Sabine; Wolfe, Joanne; Zernikow, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the experience of children who died of cancer, as perceived by their parents. All the pediatric oncology departments in one German federal state were contacted and asked to invite parents who had lost a child to cancer in the period 2005-2006 to participate. Those parents who accepted were interviewed by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. In the participating 16 departments, 158 children died in 2005-2006. Parents of 48 children (38.3 percent) agreed to participate and were interviewed. Nearly all of the children had suffered from at least one distressing symptom. Pain and fatigue occurred most frequently. Symptoms were successfully treated over 65 percent of the time. In all, 64 percent of the children received home care services; 50 percent died at home, and only 10 percent in the ICU. Results suggest that some progress has been made in pediatric palliative care. To further improve end-of-life care for children with cancer, it is also necessary to evaluate parents' perspectives on structures for pediatric palliative care delivery. PMID:23413763

  10. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants’ trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822