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Sample records for quality worldwide 30-year

  1. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans: Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; Flanagan, John C.

    The supplementary report serves as documentation for the summary version (CE 005 383) and provides greater detail regarding study procedures and results. The investigation concerns the impact Army service has had on the quality of life of a representative sample of young Americans, which has been ascertained through interviews, data collection,…

  2. Education's Contribution to the Quality of Life of a National Sample of 30 Year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary data on the longitudinal study, Project Talent, indicate that education is making a large and important contribution to the quality of life of those sampled. Two main areas in which a large discrepancy exists between needs and present status are cited. (AM)

  3. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans. Technical Paper No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; And Others

    An intensive investigation of the impact Army service has had on the quality of life for a representative sample of young Americans is analyzed in terms of possible improvement in Army personnel procedures. A total of 166 men (of a potential 200) and 49 women (of a potential 50) were interviewed. The information from these interviews; a review of…

  4. Adventures in Citizen Science: Lessons learned engaging volunteer water quality monitors for over 30 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program was originally designed by faculty at the University of New Hampshire in 1979 to provide the capacity to better monitor for long-term lake water quality changes and trends. As participants became educated, empowered and engaged the program soon evolved to also become a participatory research enterprise. This resulted in not only providing useful information for informed local stewardship and protection at the local level but also for state and region-wide decision-making, state and federal assessments/reporting and advancing our understanding of lake and watershed science. Our successes and failures have been more dependent on understanding the particular human dimensions that influence our volunteers and less to do with the typical project management, quality assurance, and communication concerns we typically deal with in professional based research efforts. Our participants are extremely diverse in terms of their life experiences, interests and motivations so the key to long-term commitment and high quality participation is understanding the difference between a citizen monitor and your archetypical research technician or student. This presentation will highlight some important lessons learned on how to involve various types of volunteers from school groups to retirees, as well as particular approaches and concerns regarding program management, retention, quality control and communications.

  5. Worldwide report: Environmental quality, Number 407

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-02

    Attention is focused on the following: Government Plan, Conservation Improvements, Soil Salinity, Soil Conservation, Pesticide Study, Erosion, Flood, Reforestation, Endangered Lists, Herbicide Impact, Antipollution, Protect Environment, International Affairs, Pollution Expert, Acid Rain Indicates, Water Purification Systems, Quality Outlined, Agriculture, Fisheries, Inter African affairs, Underground Water, Fight Drought, Water Use, Rainforest, Government Estimates, Salt water, Law Attacked, Air Pollution, Power Cuts, Death, Drains, Environmental Protection, Earthquake, Food Industries.

  6. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood. PMID:26619194

  7. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  8. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  9. Quality Control Measures over 30 Years in a Multicenter Clinical Study: Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Valerie L.; Danis, Ronald P.; Diminick, Lisa; Klumpp, Kandace A.; Morrison, Anthony D.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steffes, Michael W.; Cleary, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of multicenter and/or longitudinal studies requires an effective quality assurance program to identify trends, data inconsistencies and process variability of results over time. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study represent over 30 years of data collection among a cohort of participants across 27 clinical centers. The quality assurance plan is overseen by the Data Coordinating Center and is implemented across the clinical centers and central reading units. Each central unit incorporates specific DCCT/EDIC quality monitoring activities into their routine quality assurance plan. The results are reviewed by a data quality assurance committee whose function is to identify variances in quality that may impact study results from the central units as well as within and across clinical centers, and to recommend implementation of corrective procedures when necessary. Over the 30-year period, changes to the methods, equipment, or clinical procedures have been required to keep procedures current and ensure continued collection of scientifically valid and clinically relevant results. Pilot testing to compare historic processes with contemporary alternatives is performed and comparability is validated prior to incorporation of new procedures into the study. Details of the quality assurance plan across and within the clinical and central reading units are described, and quality outcomes for core measures analyzed by the central reading units (e.g. biochemical samples, fundus photographs, ECGs) are presented. PMID:26529311

  10. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  11. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  12. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  13. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ulrik L.; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating quadrature squeezed light that have been investigated in the last 30 years.

  14. Preface to volume 1: status and trends of water quality worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Ahuja, Satinder; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Water quality and water quantity are closely linked. In all regions of the world, the quality and quantity of water must be considered together in order to sustain abundant water of the quality needed for drinking, irrigation, environmental health, industry, power generation, and recreation. Protecting and managing water to meet water needs requires comprehensive information and understanding of the impacts of natural settings and anthropogenic activities on water quality.

  15. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Grain Appearance and Milling Quality in a Worldwide Collection of Indica Rice Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianjin; Pang, Yunlong; Yuan, Zhihua; Xing, Danying; Xu, Jianlong; Dingkuhn, Michael; Li, Zhikang; Ye, Guoyou

    2015-01-01

    Grain appearance quality and milling quality are the main determinants of market value of rice. Breeding for improved grain quality is a major objective of rice breeding worldwide. Identification of genes/QTL controlling quality traits is the prerequisite for increasing breeding efficiency through marker-assisted selection. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study in indica rice to identify QTL associated with 10 appearance and milling quality related traits, including grain length, grain width, grain length to width ratio, grain thickness, thousand grain weight, degree of endosperm chalkiness, percentage of grains with chalkiness, brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate. A diversity panel consisting of 272 indica accessions collected worldwide was evaluated in four locations including Hangzhou, Jingzhou, Sanya and Shenzhen representing indica rice production environments in China and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and Diversity Arrays Technology based on next-generation sequencing technique called DArTseq™. A wide range of variation was observed for all traits in all environments. A total of 16 different association analysis models were compared to determine the best model for each trait-environment combination. Association mapping based on 18,824 high quality markers yielded 38 QTL for the 10 traits. Five of the detected QTL corresponded to known genes or fine mapped QTL. Among the 33 novel QTL identified, qDEC1.1 (qGLWR1.1), qBRR2.2 (qGL2.1), qTGW2.1 (qGL2.2), qGW11.1 (qMRR11.1) and qGL7.1 affected multiple traits with relatively large effects and/or were detected in multiple environments. The research provided an insight of the genetic architecture of rice grain quality and important information for mining genes/QTL with large effects within indica accessions for rice breeding. PMID:26714258

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Grain Appearance and Milling Quality in a Worldwide Collection of Indica Rice Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhihua; Xing, Danying; Xu, Jianlong; Dingkuhn, Michael; Li, Zhikang; Ye, Guoyou

    2015-01-01

    Grain appearance quality and milling quality are the main determinants of market value of rice. Breeding for improved grain quality is a major objective of rice breeding worldwide. Identification of genes/QTL controlling quality traits is the prerequisite for increasing breeding efficiency through marker-assisted selection. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study in indica rice to identify QTL associated with 10 appearance and milling quality related traits, including grain length, grain width, grain length to width ratio, grain thickness, thousand grain weight, degree of endosperm chalkiness, percentage of grains with chalkiness, brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate. A diversity panel consisting of 272 indica accessions collected worldwide was evaluated in four locations including Hangzhou, Jingzhou, Sanya and Shenzhen representing indica rice production environments in China and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and Diversity Arrays Technology based on next-generation sequencing technique called DArTseq™. A wide range of variation was observed for all traits in all environments. A total of 16 different association analysis models were compared to determine the best model for each trait-environment combination. Association mapping based on 18,824 high quality markers yielded 38 QTL for the 10 traits. Five of the detected QTL corresponded to known genes or fine mapped QTL. Among the 33 novel QTL identified, qDEC1.1 (qGLWR1.1), qBRR2.2 (qGL2.1), qTGW2.1 (qGL2.2), qGW11.1 (qMRR11.1) and qGL7.1 affected multiple traits with relatively large effects and/or were detected in multiple environments. The research provided an insight of the genetic architecture of rice grain quality and important information for mining genes/QTL with large effects within indica accessions for rice breeding. PMID:26714258

  18. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  19. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land in HFRP through the 30-year contract option, a landowner will sign a 30-year contract with NRCS....

  20. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates. PMID:22380930

  1. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  2. Worldwide Status of Fresh Fruits Irradiation and Concerns about Quality, Safety, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2016-08-17

    Development of knowledge-based food preservation techniques have been a major focus of researchers in providing safe and nutritious food. Food irradiation is one of the most thoroughly investigated food preservation techniques, which has been shown to be effective and safe through extensive research. This process involves exposing food to ionizing radiations in order to destroy microorganisms or insects that might be present on and/or in the food. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the enzymatic activity and improvement of functional properties in food have also been well established. In the present review, the potential of food irradiation technology to address major problems, such as short shelf life, high-initial microbial loads, insect pest management (quarantine treatment) in supply chain, and safe consumption of fresh fruits was described. With improved hygienic quality, other uses, such as delayed ripening and enhanced physical appearance by irradiation were also discussed. Available data showed that the irradiation of fruits at the optimum dose can be a safe and cost-effective method, resulting in enhanced shelf life and hygienic quality with the least amount of compromise on the various nutritional attributes, whereas the consumer acceptance of irradiated fruits is a matter of providing the proper scientific information. PMID:25830470

  3. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part III. The South

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.G.; Burkhardt, E.C.; Kellison, R.C.; van Lear, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    This paper discussed the need for modern forestry management in the South. The author defined the South as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Of the 10 billion cubic feet of softwood harvested in the US in 1976, 44% came from the South. In addition, half of the 4.2 billion cubic feet of hardwoods harvested in the US in 1976 came from the South. Less than half of the southern forests were cultivated by trained foresters. With real forest management, a real potential should exist for increased forest production. The author discussed the history of these forest lands and the need for better forest management over the next 30 years. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land...

  5. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.

    1994-10-17

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

  6. 30 years of lymph node pathology: biomarkers and other advances.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Alan D

    2013-03-01

    Over the last 30 years there has been a massive change in both the clinical and pathologic aspects of malignant lymphomas. Pathologists are now able to evaluate cellular phenotypes and lineages of tumor cells using a wide variety of biomarkers and molecular techniques. The ability to identify tumor cell phenotypes has revolutionized the classification of lymphomas, leading to an internationally agreed system based on the reliable recognition of specific clinico-pathologic entities. The World Health Organization classification combines clinical features, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular and genetic marker data to precisely categorize lymphomas. On the clinical front the increasing use of needle core biopsies has made it easier and quicker to obtain tissue samples, and the development of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has revolutionized the assessment of patients both at presentation and after treatment. To improve overall outcomes for lymphoma patients there have been advances in the UK organization of cancer services. Cancer networks have been established, often with network multidisciplinary team meetings, and new diagnoses of lymphoma are reviewed on a network basis by pathologists specializing in the field. National and supranational quality control systems are in place for immunohistochemistry and for molecular techniques and multicenter clinical trials provide information about the efficacy of treatment regimens. The outcome of these advances is that a patient presenting in 2012 with suspected lymphoma can expect to be biopsied rapidly, to receive an accurate pathologic diagnosis by an expert hematopathologist, which will include prognostic marker information, and to have comprehensive disease assessment and discussion by a multidisciplinary team before embarking on the most appropriate treatment for his or her clinical situation. PMID:23417072

  7. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years. PMID:17594966

  8. A novel protein quality control mechanism contributes to heat shock resistance of worldwide-distributed Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone C strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Wigren, Edvard; Trček, Janja; Peters, Verena; Kim, Jihong; Hasni, Muhammad Sharif; Nimtz, Manfred; Lindqvist, Ylva; Park, Chankyu; Curth, Ute; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Römling, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly successful nosocomial pathogen capable of causing a wide variety of infections with clone C strains most prevalent worldwide. In this study, we initially characterize a molecular mechanism of survival unique to clone C strains. We identified a P. aeruginosa clone C-specific genomic island (PACGI-1) that contains the highly expressed small heat shock protein sHsp20c, the founding member of a novel subclass of class B bacterial small heat shock proteins. sHsp20c and adjacent gene products are involved in resistance against heat shock. Heat stable sHsp20c is unconventionally expressed in stationary phase in a wide temperature range from 20 to 42°C. Purified sHsp20c has characteristic features of small heat shock protein class B as it is monodisperse, forms sphere-like 24-meric oligomers and exhibits significant chaperone activity. As the P. aeruginosa clone C population is significantly more heat shock resistant than genetically unrelated P. aeruginosa strains without sHsp20c, the horizontally acquired shsp20c operon might contribute to the survival of worldwide-distributed clone C strains. PMID:26014207

  9. [Revista de Saúde Pública: 30 years of evolution].

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    1996-12-01

    Analysis of the main characteristics of the "Revista de Saúde Pública" during the 30 years of its existence. A parallel is traced with the evolution of brazilian public health. The dynamic aspect of the "Revista" is remembered as one of its main virtues. Its future in the constitution of the Mercosul regional block is discussed. PMID:9302818

  10. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  11. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  12. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  13. Historical Lassa Fever Reports and 30-year Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  14. Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning standards and standard tests for water quality in drinking water sources, reservoirs, and distribution systems. Standards from domestic and international sources are presented. Glossaries and vocabularies that concern water quality analysis, testing, and evaluation are included. Standard test methods for individual elements, selected chemicals, sensory properties, radioactivity, and other chemical and physical properties are described. Discussions for proposed standards on new pollutant materials are briefly considered. (Contains a minimum of 203 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Reinterpretation of gizzard sizes of red knots world-wide emphasises overriding importance of prey quality at migratory stopover sites.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Jan A; Battley, Phil F; Piersma, Theunis; Drent, Rudi

    2005-12-22

    The size of digestive organs can be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to ecological circumstances, but such phenotypic flexibility comes at a cost. Here, we test how the gizzard mass of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), is adjusted to (i) local climate, (ii) prey quality and (iii) migratory fuelling demands. For eight sites around the world (both wintering and stopover sites), we assembled data on gizzard masses of free-living red knots, the quality of their prey and the local climate. Using an energetic cost-benefit approach, we predicted the gizzard size required for fastest fuelling (net rate-maximization, i.e. expected during migration) and the gizzard size required to balance daily energy budgets (satisficing, expected in wintering birds) at each site. The measured gizzards matched the net rate-maximizing predictions at stopover sites and the satisficing predictions at wintering sites. To our surprise, owing to the fact that red knots selected stopover sites with prey of particularly high quality, gizzard sizes at stopovers and at wintering sites were nevertheless similar. To quantify the benefit of minimizing size changes in the gizzard, we constructed a model incorporating the size-dependent energy costs of maintaining and carrying a gizzard. The model showed that by selecting stopovers containing high-quality prey, metabolic rates are kept at a minimum, potentially reducing the spring migratory period by a full week. By inference, red knots appear to time their stopovers so that they hit local peaks in prey quality, which occur during the reproductive seasons of the intertidal benthic invertebrates. PMID:16321783

  16. Reinterpretation of gizzard sizes of red knots world-wide emphasises overriding importance of prey quality at migratory stopover sites

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Jan A; Battley, Phil F; Piersma, Theunis; Drent, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    The size of digestive organs can be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to ecological circumstances, but such phenotypic flexibility comes at a cost. Here, we test how the gizzard mass of a long-distance migrant, the red knot (Calidris canutus), is adjusted to (i) local climate, (ii) prey quality and (iii) migratory fuelling demands. For eight sites around the world (both wintering and stopover sites), we assembled data on gizzard masses of free-living red knots, the quality of their prey and the local climate. Using an energetic cost–benefit approach, we predicted the gizzard size required for fastest fuelling (net rate-maximization, i.e. expected during migration) and the gizzard size required to balance daily energy budgets (satisficing, expected in wintering birds) at each site. The measured gizzards matched the net rate-maximizing predictions at stopover sites and the satisficing predictions at wintering sites. To our surprise, owing to the fact that red knots selected stopover sites with prey of particularly high quality, gizzard sizes at stopovers and at wintering sites were nevertheless similar. To quantify the benefit of minimizing size changes in the gizzard, we constructed a model incorporating the size-dependent energy costs of maintaining and carrying a gizzard. The model showed that by selecting stopovers containing high-quality prey, metabolic rates are kept at a minimum, potentially reducing the spring migratory period by a full week. By inference, red knots appear to time their stopovers so that they hit local peaks in prey quality, which occur during the reproductive seasons of the intertidal benthic invertebrates. PMID:16321783

  17. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  18. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  19. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  20. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  1. Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the laws, regulations, standards, and testing methods for drinking water from domestic and international sources. Citations discuss quality standardization and control. Topics include safety codes for drinking water systems and installations, contaminated water and toxicity analyses, biological and chemical standards, diseases derived from drinking water, plastic materials for water packaging, and natural mineral drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. CIRIL: more than 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaracka, Alicja; Grygiel, Clara; Méry, Alain; Bouffard, Serge; Cassimi, Amine

    2015-07-01

    The CIRIL: 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL meeting was held in Caen, France, in October 2013. The meeting provided an excellent opportunity to present the research performed with ion beams delivered by the GANIL facility (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen, France). This proceedings volume comprises a series of reviews from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc) of the results obtained with GANIL ion beams. Unfortunately, the issue is missing two major research domains concerning the induced damage in metals and insulators. Therefore, we refer the interested readers to the following publications: metals [1] and insulators [2].

  3. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology. PMID:26163747

  4. Plus or Minus 30 Years in the Language Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Elissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The language sciences – Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, and Computational Linguistics – have not been broadly represented at the Cognitive Science Society meetings of the past 30 years, but they are an important part of the heart of cognitive science. This article discusses several major themes that have dominated the controversies and consensus in the study of language and suggests the most pressing issues of the future. These themes include differences among the language science disciplines in their view of numbers and symbols and of modular and distributed cognition; and the need for an increasing prominence of questions concerning language and the brain. PMID:20730034

  5. Photosynthetic responses to 30 years of atmospheric change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunch, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Plant physiological studies of responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration most frequently involve artificially increasing local CO2 concentration. However, CO2 levels in the atmosphere have already risen by more than 100 ppm over pre-industrial levels, and the response to that increase should also be considered. I measured changes in leaf-level photosynthesis over the most recent 50-60 ppm rise in atmospheric CO2, using photosynthetic studies from the late 1970s and early 1980s as a baseline. The study encompassed 17 plant species at three sites in California. The sites covered a rainfall range of 40 to 1000 mm year-1, and a mean annual temperature range of 12 to 24 oC. Species included annual forbs, perennial shrubs, and trees. Over the 30 years since the previous studies were carried out, leaf-level photosynthesis at ambient CO2 has risen by an average of 0.8 μmol m-2 s-1, a nonsignificant change. Stomatal conductance has declined, such that water use efficiency has increased by an average of 12.7%. The largest changes in photosynthetic characteristics were observed at the desert site.

  6. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  7. 30-year PMC variability modeled by WACCM (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Merkel, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear from observational record that polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) exhibit long-term variability, and it is reasonable to assume that this variability is the result of changes in the background mesopause environment. Factors responsible for these changes include variations in solar irradiance over the 11-year sunspot cycle and trends in mesopause composition and temperature caused by increasing anthropogenic emissions in the troposphere. In this study we use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), modified to include parameterized PMCs, to investigate this long-term variability. WACCM is driven with observed changes in the surface composition and solar spectral irradiance. Using multiple-linear regression analysis of WACCM PMC albedos, we calculate that in the northern hemisphere there was an increase of between 19% and 39% over the last 30 years, and that albedos can be reduced by up to 55% during solar maximum relative to solar minimum. Both responses increase with increasing latitude. In the southern hemisphere the solar response is similar to that in the northern hemisphere, but we find no long-term trend. Good agreement is found between WACCM and observations made by the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument when PMC detection thresholds are accounted for. Finally, we examine the relative importance of composition versus temperature changes using a series of sensitivity experiments.

  8. Decadal trends of global precipitation in the recent 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Zhai, Guoqing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the decadal trends of global precipitation are calculated and compared using the CMAP, GPCP and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly precipitation data over the past 30 years from 1979 to 2008. The major results include the followings: (1) The decadal trend of annually and globally averaged precipitation depends on a decreasing trend for the CMAP data, a flat trend for GPCP data, and an increasing trend for the reanalysis data. (2) The analysis of horizontal distributions of differences in temporally averaged precipitation between the second (1993-2008) and the first (1979-1993) 15 years shows that the decreasing trend in the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in precipitation over the oceans. The further analysis of difference in zonally averaged precipitation rate reveals the increased precipitation rate in both the Tropics and mid-latitudes. The reduction in precipitation over the oceans is significantly weaker in the GPCP data than in the CMAP data, which shows the flat trend in the global GPCP data. The increasing trend of global precipitation average for the reanalysis data is associated with the increase in precipitation off the equator as well as in the mid-latitudes. (3) The further analysis of precipitation statistics reveals that the decreasing trend for the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in high precipitation. The flat trend for the global GPCP data corresponds to the offset between the decrease in low precipitation and the increase in high precipitation. The increasing trend for the reanalysis data is related to the increase in high precipitation.

  9. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.

  10. 30 years of change in water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Grogan, K.; Ehammer, A.; Tian, F.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability limits plant growth and production in most terrestrial ecosystems. However these ecosystems do not show the same sensitivity to changes in precipitation. Water-limited ecosystems are defined here as ecosystems where rainfall is the dominant climate constraint to plant growth. Drought-prone and often characterized by increasing human pressure on land and natural resources, these regions are amongst the most vulnerable on Earth. Despite the many years of research, a clear understanding of changes in vegetation dynamics and species distribution, as well as related drivers, has not been reached yet. In this research we take advantage of the 30years time span offered by the GIMMS FAPAR3g dataset to investigate abrupt and gradual changes in Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE). Using the piece-wise regression method implemented in BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) and BFAST01, a change type classification scheme is produced for water-limited ecosystems. Compared to classical non-parametric trend analysis, this approach allows detecting trend shifts during the study period. This global scale analysis revealed that for more than 50% of the cases no significant changes in RUE were registered between 1982 and 2011. Whereas when significant changes were registered, monotonic increase was the predominant type of changes. Large patches of reversing trends were also observed, notably in Asia (China, Kazakhstan), in the Sahelian region (Sudan, Ethiopia, Senegal), and in South America (Peru and Argentina). Even though reversing trends appear to be more frequently observed in regions with high land cover change dynamics, a comprehensive attribution of drivers for all recorded changes is still under discussion. Indeed the co-occurrence of global drivers (such as change in climate and in extreme events) and local drivers (such as land-cover changes) makes it a very delicate task.

  11. Mount St. Helens: A 30-year legacy of volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  12. Mount St. Helens: A 30-Year Legacy of Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2010-05-01

    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  13. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of

  14. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  15. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  16. Worldwide Blackberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of worldwide blackberry (Rubus spp.) production was conducted in 2005. Results indicated there were an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from 1995. Wild blackberries still make a significant contribution to worldwide production...

  17. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  18. The International Cancer Information Service: a worldwide resource.

    PubMed

    Morra, Marion E; Thomsen, Chris; Vezina, Anne; Akkerman, Doreen; Bright, Mary Anne; Dickens, Catherine; Hill, David J; Jefford, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The need for accurate and relevant cancer information continues to grow worldwide. While healthcare professionals are the preferred source of cancer information, their time is limited, and patients are often not sure what to ask and their questions do not always come to mind in the physician's office. In its 30-year history, the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service (CIS) has shown that it can increase users' confidence in their ability to seek more information, understand the causes and risk factors for cancer, and participate in decisions about their treatment. In 1996 the International Cancer Information Service Group (ICISG) was formed to facilitate the development of CIS programs throughout the world. A network of nearly 50 cancer organizations from 30 countries, the ICISG strives to provide its member organizations with standards and resources to ensure that the cancer information is of high quality, credible, and up-to-date and that it is delivered in a personal manner that complements and supports the patient/physician relationship. The ICISG offers worldwide resources that can augment the healthcare professionals' offering of information and support to cancer patients and their families. PMID:17572003

  19. Quality of Higher Education: Organisational or Educational? A Content Analysis of Chinese University Self-Evaluation Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic educational reform, China has established a nationwide…

  20. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  1. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 625.8 Section 625.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL... § 625.8 Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. (a) Determination of easement payment...

  2. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global database and linked Antimalarial Quality Surveyor, an online visualization tool. Analysis of the database is described here, the limitations of the studies and data reported, and their public health implications discussed. Methods The database collates customized summaries of 251 published anti-malarial quality reports in English, French and Spanish by time and location since 1946. It also includes information on assays to determine quality, sampling and medicine regulation. Results No publicly available reports for 60.6% (63) of the 104 malaria-endemic countries were found. Out of 9,348 anti-malarials sampled, 30.1% (2,813) failed chemical/packaging quality tests with 39.3% classified as falsified, 2.3% as substandard and 58.3% as poor quality without evidence available to categorize them as either substandard or falsified. Only 32.3% of the reports explicitly described their definitions of medicine quality and just 9.1% (855) of the samples collected in 4.6% (six) surveys were conducted using random sampling techniques. Packaging analysis was only described in 21.5% of publications and up to twenty wrong active ingredients were found in falsified anti-malarials. Conclusions There are severe neglected problems with anti-malarial quality but there are important caveats to accurately estimate the prevalence and distribution of poor quality anti-malarials. The lack of reports in many malaria-endemic areas, inadequate sampling techniques and inadequate chemical analytical methods and

  3. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  4. Worldwide Production of Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of blackberry production conducted in 2005 found that an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries were planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from estimated area in 1995. In Europe, 7692 ha of black berries were commercially cultivated with Serbia accounting for 69% of the...

  5. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…

  6. Worldwide use of mycoinsecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A considerable number of mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides have been developed worldwide over the past 50 years. At least 12 species or subspecies of fungi have been used as active ingredients in these products for inundative or inoculative biological control. Beauveria bassiana (34%), Metarhizi...

  7. 1988 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

  8. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  9. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  10. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  11. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  12. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  13. What We Write about When We Write About AAC: The Past 30 Years of Research and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2015-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) journal has both documented and instigated change in the field of AAC. We reviewed the papers published in the AAC journal from 1985-2014 in order to identify trends in research and publication activities. Intervention research made up the largest proportion of the four types of research (i.e., intervention, descriptive, experimental, and instrument and measurement development) reported in the journal. Intervention research has most commonly focused on the individual with complex communication needs, and most frequently on younger individuals (aged 17 and younger) with developmental disabilities. While much has been learned in the past 30 years, there continues to be a need for high quality research in a large number of areas. There is a special need for reports of interventions with older individuals with complex communication needs as a result of acquired disabilities, and for information on effective interventions for the communication partners of persons with complex communication needs. PMID:26490318

  14. "Fear of Success" Revisited: A Replication of Matina Horner's Study 30 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer

    This study updated and extended the classic "fear of success" study conducted by Matina Horner more than 30 years ago. Horner (1970) asked college students to respond to a scenario in which "Anne" or "John" is at the top of her/his medical school class. Based on the negative responses of students to "Anne," Horner concluded that women have a…

  15. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 1467.8 Section 1467.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS...

  16. 7 CFR 1467.11 - Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements. 1467.11 Section 1467.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS...

  17. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  18. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  19. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  20. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  1. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  2. How will Climate Change Affect Agriculture over the Next 10-30 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is dependent upon the climate resources of temperature, sunlight, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. Efficient production depends upon optimum conditions of temperature and water supply and changes in these climatic variables will affect plant and animal systems over the next 10- 30 year...

  3. 30 years of preserving clonal genetic resources in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has preserved clonal plant genetic resources of horticultural crops in field gene banks. Facilities in Hilo, Hawaii; Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Miami, Florida; and...

  4. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  5. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  6. Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of…

  7. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  8. Challenges Facing Rural Community Colleges: Issues and Problems Today and over the Past 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.; Karvonen, Meagan

    2006-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers and practitioners have identified challenges unique to small, rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine the distinctive problems facing rural community colleges today and the challenges those institutions must address to fulfill their mission in rural America. There are 5 current challenges…

  9. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  10. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier. PMID:20197588

  11. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  12. Improving worldwide reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1993-01-01

    The 14th International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics World Congress will be held in Montreal, Canada, in 1994, under the auspices of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. The World Congress will 1) promote and facilitate international cooperation in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, 2) develop and improve the exchange of information and ideas, and 3) encourage the adoption of an international perspective on issues of concern. The 1994 program will survey recent research advances and introduce new equipment, instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Issues addressed will include maternal mortality, reproductive technologies, continuing education, malignancy, family planning, and contraception. The Conference's symposia, industry-sponsored events, and cultural activities are being designed to increase speaker-audience interaction and to stimulate debate and the exchange of views. The continuing education goals are 1) to encourage appropriate research with valid and applicable results and 2) to extend the patient-counseling abilities of participating physicians. Canada's socialized health care system, which carefully scrutinizes new expensive technologies, will be highlighted for the international delegates. The scientific program will include 1) general topics 2) reproductive endocrinology, 3) maternal/fetal medicine, and 4) gynecological oncology. Poster sessions followed by open discourses and free communications sessions will facilitate the exchange of views and information. The overall goal of the conference is to improve reproductive health care for mothers and babies worldwide. PMID:12318476

  13. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  14. Coral reef crisis in deep and shallow reefs: 30 years of constancy and change in reefs of Curacao and Bonaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Rolf P. M.; Nieuwland, Gerard; Meesters, Erik H.

    2005-11-01

    Coral reefs are thought to be in worldwide decline but available data are practically limited to reefs shallower than 25 m. Zooxanthellate coral communities in deep reefs (30-40 m) are relatively unstudied. Our question is: what is happening in deep reefs in terms of coral cover and coral mortality? We compare changes in species composition, coral mortality, and coral cover at Caribbean (Curacao and Bonaire) deep (30-40 m) and shallow reefs (10-20 m) using long-term (1973-2002) data from permanent photo quadrats. About 20 zooxanthellate coral species are common in the deep-reef communities, dominated by Agaricia sp., with coral cover up to 60%. In contrast with shallow reefs, there is no decrease in coral cover or number of coral colonies in deep reefs over the last 30 years. In deep reefs, non-agaricid species are decreasing but agaricid domination will be interrupted by natural catastrophic mortality such as deep coral bleaching and storms. Temperature is a vastly fluctuating variable in the deep-reef environment with extremely low temperatures possibly related to deep-reef bleaching.

  15. Trends in global monsoon area and precipitation over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pang-chi; Li, Tim; Wang, Bin

    2011-04-01

    The analysis of the GPCP and CMAP datasets during the past 30 years (1979-2008) indicates that there are consistent increasing trends in both the global monsoon area (GMA) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP). This positive monsoon rainfall trend differs from previous studies that assumed a fixed global monsoon domain. Due to the increasing trends in both the GMA and GMP, a global monsoon intensity (GMI) index, which measures the global monsoon precipitation amount per unit area, is introduced. The GMI measures the strength of the global monsoon. Our calculations with both the GPCP and CMAP datasets show a consistent downward trend in the GMI over the past 30 years. This decreasing trend is primarily attributed to a greater percentage increase in the GMA than in the GMP. A further diagnosis reveals that the decrease of the GMI is primarily attributed to the land monsoon in the GPCP, but to the oceanic monsoon in the CMAP.

  16. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  17. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V; de la Fuente, Jesus M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  18. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  19. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  20. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  1. Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Hip Osteonecrosis: A 30-Year Review of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Trousselier, Matthieu; Roubineau, François; Bouthors, Charlie; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is caused by a multitude of etiologic factors and is associated with collapse with a risk of hip arthroplasty in younger populations. A focus on early disease management with the use of stem cells was proposed as early as 1985 by the senior author (PH). We undertook a systematic review of the medical literature to examine the progress in cell therapy during the last 30 years for the treatment of early stage osteonecrosis. PMID:26929793

  2. A new model of Tidal EOP variations from VLBI data spanning 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, John M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2009-04-01

    We report on a new solution for tidal EOP variations derived from VLBI data. This solution uses approximately 6.5 million VLBI delay measurements spanning almost 30 years, and is the most precise VLBI solution to date. We compare this solution to earlier VLBI solutions, solutions from other techniques, and theoretical predictions. We give theoretical and empirical estimates of the error of the estimates. We also compare the predictions from the VLBI tidal solution with hourly VLBI and GPS measurements of EOP.

  3. Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.

  4. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  5. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  6. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma. PMID:25695198

  7. A 30 year High -Spatial Resolution Cloud Climatology from NOAA's PATMOS-x Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Walther, A.; Foster, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) project at NOAA has recently developed a new higher spatial resolution data set derived from over 30 years of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The PATMOS-x data is now online and has been submitted into the GEWEX cloud climatology assessment library of cloud climate data sets. This data also benefits from a recent recalibration of the solar reflectance channels. This work will present our latest analysis and provide our insights into the strengths and limitations of this new data. Comparisons with GEWEX data sets and to the recently generated AVHRR cloud climatology from EUMETSAT will be shown.

  8. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  9. Arctic Climate Change Analysed By Two 30-year Scenario Regional Climate Model Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Christensen, J. H.

    High-resolution climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The emission sce- narios used were the IPCC SRES1 marker scenarios A2 and B2. Three 30-year time slice experiments were conducted with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. Changes of the climate between these two periods will be presented with special emphasize on the climate of Greenland.

  10. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  11. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. PMID:25613517

  12. History of echocardiography in the Netherlands: 30 years of education and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, O.

    2008-01-01

    The development of ultrasound has created great opportunities for diagnostic cardiac imaging. For more than 30 years, echocardiography has been the most important and cost-effective diagnostic imaging modality in clinical cardiology. Many developments originated in the Netherlands, including the very first practical real-time crosssectional imaging of the moving heart with a linear array. Milestones include the first portable echo apparatus, early versions of echo catheters and transoesophageal echocardiography probes as well as many clinical ‘firsts’ with reference to the more than 100 Dutch dissertations related to echocardiography. The future of echocardiography promises to be as productive and exciting as it has been in the previous three decades, including threedimensional echocardiography, myocardial perfusion echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking. New potential therapeutic applications are upcoming. In this article, the advances of echocardiography in the Netherlands are described, in the past and during 30 years of education, as was recently presented by three Dutch pioneers during the ‘Echomiddagen 2006-2007’ organised by the CVOI. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:16-20.18317539) PMID:18317539

  13. Lessons from 30 years' data of Korean end-stage renal disease registry, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Chan; Yun, Sung Ro; Lee, Seoung Woo; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Won; Park, Jongha; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide official survey program about dialysis therapy in 1985. Nowadays, the accumulated data for 30 years by this "Insan Prof. Min Memorial end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Registry" program have been providing the essential information for dialysis clinical practice, academic nephrology research, and health management policy. We reviewed 30 years of data to identify important changes and implications for the future improvement of dialysis therapy in Korea. Hemodialysis patients, especially diabetics and elderly patients have increased in number very rapidly during recent years in Korea. The Korean prevalence rate of ESRD patients was about 70% of the United States and about 50% of Japan according to the international comparisons in the annual data report of United States Renal Data System. The blood pressure control, anemia control, and dialysis adequacy have continuously improved year by year. The importance of calcium and phosphorus control has also been increasing because of the increase in long-term dialysis patients. In addition, chronic dialysis complications should be closely monitored and dialysis modifications, such as hemodiafiltration therapy, might be considered. Because of the increase of private clinics and nursing hospitals in dialysis practice, the role of dialysis specialists and continuing education are thought to be essential. For strict cost-effective dialysis control of increasing elderly, diabetic, and long-term dialysis patients, the KSN ESRD patient registration should be run by the KSN and health ministry in cooperation, in which the dialysis fee reimbursement should be accompanied. PMID:26484037

  14. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Decadal Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A 30-year satellite record of sea ice extents derived mostly from satellite microwave radiometer observations reveals that the Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30+0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr from 1972 through 2002, but by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased. Over the full 30-year period, the Antarctic ice extent decreased by 0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent in the early 1970's, an anomaly that apparently began in the late 1960's, as observed in early visible and infrared satellite images.

  15. Trends in maternal deaths from epilepsy in the United Kingdom: a 30-year retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurological diseases remain the second most common cause of maternal mortality from indirect causes, according to the last United Kingdom confidential enquiry into maternal death. The maternal mortality rate from epilepsy is reported as 0.61 per 100,000 maternities. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends and causes of maternal death from epilepsy in the UK over the last 30 years. Information on sub-standard care associated with fatalities was also consolidated to inform guidance and clinical care by obstetricians and physicians caring for pregnant women with epilepsy. Study design A retrospective review of 10 triennial confidential enquiry into maternal death reports (1979–2008) was performed, encompassing 21,514,457 maternities. Late and coincidental deaths were not included in the analyses. Results Between 1979 and 2008, there were 92 maternal deaths from epilepsy. The proportion of total maternal deaths from epilepsy over 30 years is 3.7% (95% CI 3.0–4.5), which showed an increasing trend. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy remains the single greatest cause of maternal death from epilepsy followed by aspiration of gastric contents during seizures and drowning during bathing. Conclusion All women with epilepsy should be looked after by specialist combined obstetric and medical or neurological teams in pregnancy to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

  16. What Can We Learn About Glaciers and Ice Sheets From 30 Years of Landsat Imagery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Moholdt, G.; Nilsson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier and ice sheets are known to be rapidly changing and currently account for two thirds of observed sea level rise. Attributing the causes of the rapid decline in land ice requires separation of mass change processes, i.e. accumulation of precipitation, meltwater runoff, and solid ice discharge. Here we examine a 30 year record of Landsat imagery to determine trends in glacier velocity at a global scale in an attempt to identify anomalies in glacier flow that are contributing to changes in land ice mass. The Landsat archive represents a treasure trove of information with hundreds of thousands of images acquired over glaciers and ice sheets during the past 30 years. Gleaning useful and consistent surface displacement information from a multiple sensor archive that is heavily contaminated by cloud, saturated images, poorly resolved sensor geometry, and data gaps has proved challenging. Temporal stacking of displacement fields (Dehecq et al., 2015) and correcting for unresolved topography (Roseanau et al., 2012) have been shown to greatly improve derived velocities. Here we present results from a global processing of the complete Landsat archive for information on glacier surface displacements. We highlight patterns of coherent regional change as well as well as rapid basin-scale changes in glacier flow.

  17. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-07-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS (High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) data to produce a 30-year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite Programme), which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern midlatitude zone 30-60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered midlatitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  18. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-03-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS data to produce a 30 year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A, which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern mid-latitude zone 30 to 60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered mid-latitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  19. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    PubMed

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  20. Overall Decrease in the Susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to Antimicrobials over the Past 30 Years in France

    PubMed Central

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within comtemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978–1979 and in 2010–2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  1. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... shows examples of discoveries and their impact. Diseases Discoveries The Benefits for All Americans Huntington's Disease Venezuela— ...

  2. 30-year changes in the nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinxue; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Liu, Chen; Otsubo, Kuninori

    2014-11-01

    To understand both spatial and temporal changes in nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), we collected decadal statistical data for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the county level and the annual statistical data for the period 1980-2010 at the provincial level of China. Based on these datasets, we estimated the nitrogen inputs, including the atmospheric deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, biological N fixation and recycling reactive N inputs, such as N from human waste and animal excrement, crop residue recycled as manure, and N emission from burning crop residue. The results showed that, geographically, the variation of the total amount of N input during the last 30 years (δN = N2010 - N1980) has increased about 0-50 kg ha-1 over most of the area of the YRB. Moreover, it has increased dramatically by about 50-300 kg ha-1 in the Sichuan Basin, the Han River Basin, the Poyang and Dongting lake basins, and the Yangtze Delta as well. Temporally, the total amount of N inputs to the whole YRB was approximately 16.4 Tg N in 2010, which was a 2.0-fold increase over 1980. It increased dramatically in the 1990s and then stabilized at a high level in the 2000s. The major N inputs were human and animal wastes as well as synthetic fertilizers, but they varied regionally. Animal waste was the major input to the water source regions, and its contribution percentage gradually decreased from upper to lower reaches. In contrast, the contribution of N fertilizer increased from upper to lower reaches, and became the major input to the middle and lower reaches. The total N inputs changed slightly in the upper reaches, but increased largely in the middle reaches in the last 30 years. However, in the lower reaches, it had increased remarkably before 2000, and then tended to decrease in the last decade. Finally, the atmospheric N deposition over the basin increased continuously in the last 30 years.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbud, M.; Lisson, J.

    1983-03-01

    The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological features first summarized by Sterner and Eisenbud continue to be evident. The early studies also led to formulation of standards that have resulted in effective control of both the acute and chronic pulmonary forms of beryllium disease. No case of acute chemical pneumonitis has been reported among beryllium workers in about 15 years, and the number of chronic cases has diminished greatly despite a marked increase in the use of beryllium.

  4. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  5. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  6. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, G T; Gold, D R

    1999-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064555

  7. Analysis of 30 Years Sea Surface Elevation (sse) Data Obtained From A Global Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.

    In this presentation the sea surface elevation (SSE) as obtained from a global OGCM will be analysed. The model used is the Hamburg LSG model with a 2 degree hori- zontal resolution, 23 layers in the vertical and a 10 day timestep. The model has a free surface and includes the thermo- and halosteric effects. It is integrated for 50 years forced by monthly NCEP reanalyzes data (1950-1999). The last 30 years of model output are analyzed on regional to global scale to judge the role of the different contributions to the interannual sea level variations as there are: horizontal redistribution of volume (mass), surface freshwater flux (precipitaion- evaporation) and steric effects. On the global scale the surface freshwater flux can clearly be identified as the main contributor, while on regional to local scale it is the steric effect.

  8. From Cloning Neural Development Genes to Functional Studies in Mice, 30 Years of Advancements.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Alexandra L

    2016-01-01

    The invention of new mouse molecular genetics techniques, initiated in the 1980s, has repeatedly expanded our ability to tackle exciting developmental biology problems. The brain is the most complex organ, and as such the more sophisticated the molecular genetics technique, the more impact they have on uncovering new insights into how our brain functions. I provide a general time line for the introduction of new techniques over the past 30 years and give examples of new discoveries in the neural development field that emanated from them. I include a look to what the future holds and argue that we are at the dawn of a very exciting age for young scientists interested in studying how the nervous system is constructed and functions with such precision. PMID:26970637

  9. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern. PMID:23013115

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km(2) in 1981 to 485.0 km(2) in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km(2) in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km(2) in 1981 to 366.5 km(2) in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km(2). Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km(2) in 1981 to 146.2 km(2) in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  11. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  12. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occured on Saturn at the end of year 2010. The storm produced lightning at a rate greater than 10 SEDs per second. It wrapped around the planet, with a wake depleted in ammonia, and after 6 months it died. These kinds of storms are rare and episodic. They happen every 20-30 years. In this study, we discuss the role of moist convection on the development of the storm and explain the observed post-storm ammonia depletion. The study is composed of two parts. First, thermodynamcis on Saturn indicates that strong convection is prohibited by the waterloading-effect when the troposphere is warm. After 20-30 years, the troposphere has cooled below a critical value so that deep convection develops at the base of the water cloud. The deep water mixing ratio is best estimated as 1.2% relative to H2 so as to match the cooling time. Second, strong convection can produce a warm convective column that overshoots into the stratosphere. We solve the cylindrically symmetric hydrostatic primitive equations to investigate the large scale response of the ambient flow to the geostrophically unbalanced column. We find that during the subsequent large scale adjustment, ammonia vapor condenses and precipitates out of the troposphere, causing high residual brightness temperatures as observed by Cassini/RADAR (Janssen et al., 2013; Laraia et al., 2013). Further, for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.2%, we find that the ammonia vapor is depeleted down to 5 bar, that the speed of remaining anticyclonic vortex is about 30 m/s, and the residual large scale warming is about 10 K. These values are consistent with observation within the measurement uncertainties.

  13. Beyond a pedagogical tool: 30 years of Molecular biology of the cell.

    PubMed

    Serpente, Norberto

    2013-02-01

    In 1983, a bulky and profusely illustrated textbook on molecular and cell biology began to inhabit the shelves of university libraries worldwide. The effect of capturing the eyes and souls of biologists was immediate as the book provided them with a new and invigorating outlook on what cells are and what they do. PMID:23340575

  14. Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  15. World-wide precision airports for SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Lugsch, Bill; Launer, Marc; Baca, Diana

    2004-08-01

    Future cockpit and aviation applications require high quality airport databases. Accuracy, resolution, integrity, completeness, traceability, and timeliness [1] are key requirements. For most aviation applications, attributed vector databases are needed. The geometry is based on points, lines, and closed polygons. To document the needs for aviation industry RTCA and EUROCAE developed in a joint committee, the DO-272/ED-99 document. It states industry needs for data features, attributes, coding, and capture rules for Airport Mapping Databases (AMDB). This paper describes the technical approach Jeppesen has taken to generate a world-wide set of three-hundred AMDB airports. All AMDB airports are DO-200A/ED-76 [1] and DO-272/ED-99 [2] compliant. Jeppesen airports have a 5m (CE90) accuracy and an 10-3 integrity. World-wide all AMDB data is delivered in WGS84 coordinates. Jeppesen continually updates the databases.

  16. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents The ... years, and help chart its course for the future. They were drawn to "The National Library of ...

  17. Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting: the Brazilian buttock technique: 30 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Luiz S

    2015-04-01

    The author started injecting large quantities of fat in the breasts, thighs, and buttocks in 1985. The Brazilian Buttock technique was first presented in 1987; since then, The author has been writing and lecturing about it worldwide. In the past few years, the technique became very popular; it has changed the ideal of beauty in many countries. Recently, The author started using adipose-derived stem cell-based therapies for buttock augmentation to improve the results of fat graft survival. PMID:25827567

  18. Free Delivery of a 30-YEAR Vegetation Product Archive by the Biopar Land Monitoring Core Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, P.; Makhmara, H.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Verger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Geoland2 project is part of the GMES EU-lead initiative and intends to prepare, validate and demonstrate pre-operational service chains and products of the Land Monitoring Core Service. The BioPar Core Monitoring Service distributes through the Geoland 2 portal global products related to biophysical variables : the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of green Vegetation Cover (FCover), the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI). Long term global biophysical products are of great interest for earth science modeling applications and global change monitoring. Since end of 2011 a 12-year archive (1999-2011) of these biophysical vegetation products derived from SPOT/VEGETATION sensor, called GEOV1_VGT, is available and is continuously updated every ten days. Since this summer, a 20-year archive (1981-2000) of LAI, FAPAR and FCover biophysical vegetation products derived from the AVHRR long term data archive, called GEOV1_AVHRR, has been processed by CNES and is now available through the Geoland 2 portal. The LAI, FAPAR and FCover products issued from VGT and AVHRR data have the same characteristics (temporal resolution 10 days, global coverage) except for the spatial resolution (1/112° for VGT and 0.05° for AVHRR), with an overlap of two years (1999-2000). The evaluation of GEOV1_VGT and GEOV1_AVHRR archive indicates a very good agreement between the two datasets, including a similar level of accuracy in comparison with ground-based measurements made during the 1999-2000 overlap period. Despite that a more consistent 30-year global product at a lower resolution is very useful for communities studying carbon cycle, climate or water cycle. The last step, foreseen for this Autumn, is to process these two archives and to provide to the users a continuous 30-year vegetation product (called GEOV1_GCM) at 0.5° scale. Close to its end the BioPar project has provided demonstration products

  19. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  20. World-Wide Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell A. H. W.

    The future paths of research and development towards world-wide, automated information networks in full operation are examined. From international networked planning and projects under way it appears that exploratory as well as normative approaches have been taken. To some extent adequate technolgical facilities have already come into existence…

  1. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  2. Busulfan-melphalan in high-risk neuroblastoma: the 30-year experience of a single institution.

    PubMed

    Proust-Houdemont, S; Pasqualini, C; Blanchard, P; Dufour, C; Benhamou, E; Goma, G; Semeraro, M; Raquin, M-A; Hartmann, O; Valteau-Couanet, D

    2016-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) was investigated in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) to reduce the risk of relapse. We report the results of the 30-year experience of a cohort of patients with HR-NBL treated with high-dose (HD) busulfan (Bu)-containing regimens. From 1980 to 2009, 215 patients aged >1 year with stage 4 NBL were treated with HD Bu-containing regimens at Gustave Roussy. These data were prospectively recorded in the Pediatric Transplantation Database. The median age at diagnosis was 40 months (12-218 months). All patients had a stage 4 neuroblastoma. NMYC amplification was displayed in 24% of the tumors. The hematopoietic support consisted of bone marrow or PBSCs in 46% and 49% of patients, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of the whole cohort were 35.1% and 40%, respectively. Age at diagnosis, bone marrow involvement and tumor response after induction chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Toxicity was manageable and decreased over time, owing to both PBSC administration and better supportive care. Based on this experience, HD Bu-melphalan (Mel) has been implemented in Europe and compared with Carboplatin-Etoposide-Mel in the European SIOP Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN)/HR-NBL randomized protocol. It has now become the standard HDC in the SIOPEN HR strategy. PMID:27042850

  3. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  4. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010. PMID:19962635

  5. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  6. Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of misinformation, and conversely when are they resistant. Warnings about the potential for misinformation sometimes work to inhibit its damaging effects, but only under limited circumstances. The misinformation effect has been observed in a variety of human and nonhuman species. And some groups of individuals are more susceptible than others. At a more theoretical level, investigators have explored the fate of the original memory traces after exposure to misinformation appears to have made them inaccessible. This review of the field ends with a brief discussion of the newer work involving misinformation that has explored the processes by which people come to believe falsely that they experienced rich complex events that never, in fact, occurred. PMID:16027179

  7. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly; Sims, Michelle; Meylan, Anne; Witherington, Blair; Brost, Beth; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population status for endangered species is critical to developing and evaluating recovery plans mandated by the Endangered Species Act. For sea turtles, changes in abundance are difficult to detect because most life stages occur in the water. Currently, nest counts are the most reliable way of assessing trends. We determined the rate of growth for leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nest numbers in Florida (USA) using a multilevel Poisson regression. We modeled nest counts from 68 beaches over 30 years and, using beach-level covariates (including latitude), we allowed for partial pooling of information between neighboring beaches. This modeling approach is ideal for nest count data because it recognizes the hierarchical structure of the data while incorporating variables related to survey effort. Nesting has increased at all 68 beaches in Florida, with trends ranging from 3.1% to 16.3% per year. Overall, across the state, the number of nests has been increasing by 10.2% per year since 1979. Despite being a small population (probably < 1000 individuals), this nesting population may help achieve objectives in the federal recovery plan. This exponential growth rate mirrors trends observed for other Atlantic populations and may be driven partially by improved protection of nesting beaches. However, nesting is increasing even where beach protection has not been enhanced. Climate variability and associated marine food web dynamics, which could enhance productivity and reduce predators, may be driving this trend. PMID:21516903

  8. "Evolving nanoparticle gene delivery vectors for the liver: What has been learned in 30 years".

    PubMed

    Crowley, Samuel T; Rice, Kevin G

    2015-12-10

    Nonviral gene delivery to the liver has been under evolution for nearly 30years. Early demonstrations established relatively simple nonviral vectors could mediate gene expression in HepG2 cells which understandably led to speculation that these same vectors would be immediately successful at transfecting primary hepatocytes in vivo. However, it was soon recognized that the properties of a nonviral vector resulting in efficient transfection in vitro were uncorrelated with those needed to achieve efficient nonviral transfection in vivo. The discovery of major barriers to liver gene transfer has set the field on a course to design biocompatible vectors that demonstrate increased DNA stability in the circulation with correlating expression in liver. The improved understanding of what limits nonviral vector gene transfer efficiency in vivo has resulted in more sophisticated, low molecular weight vectors that allow systematic optimization of nanoparticle size, charge and ligand presentation. While the field has evolved DNA nanoparticles that are stable in the circulation, target hepatocytes, and deliver DNA to the cytosol, breaching the nucleus remains the last major barrier to a fully successful nonviral gene transfer system for the liver. The lessons learned along the way are fundamentally important to the design of all systemically delivered nanoparticle nonviral gene delivery systems. PMID:26439664

  9. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  10. Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient presenting with right arm paralysis and a diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Clinical Features After receiving nerve entrapment release surgery, a 30-year-old man presented with a right arm contracture, atrophy, and weakness with general paralysis of the forearm and index finger of 6 weeks' duration. Intervention and Outcome The patient was provided chiropractic care that included high-velocity/low-amplitude spinal manipulation based upon applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, soft tissue trigger point therapy, exercises, and stretches. The patient demonstrated improvement in range of motion after the first treatment session. By the eighth treatment, he was able to fully straighten his arm. Three years later, the patient reported that he was able to do mountain climbing and that his arm was fully functional and pain-free. Conclusion For this patient, chiropractic care seemed to be successful in relieving his right arm paralysis and restoring normal arm movement. PMID:22654689

  11. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  12. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984–2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer. PMID:26114895

  13. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Past and Present—88 Surgeries in 30 Years at Chang Gung

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Frank; Nai-Jen Chang, Tommy; Chuieng-Yi Lu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a highly controversial clinical entity. There is much debate on its terminology, existence, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe our opinions about these controversial topics of TOS and the treatment of TOS over the past 30 years. Methods: From 1985 to 2014, a total of 80 patients underwent decompressive surgery for TOS. Eight patients requested a second surgery on the contralateral limb. They all had at least 1-year follow-up. Preoperative evaluation included provocative tests, plain X-ray, magnetic resonance angiography/computed tomography angiography, and electromyography. Surgical intervention for each patient involved a supraclavicular approach and near-total resection of the anterior scalene muscle and the first rib and of any cervical rib if it was present. Rib resection was performed with the use of Kerrison bone punch forceps. The operative time was typically 2 hours. Results: Major postoperative complications were rare. Nearly all patients (98%) experienced significant symptom relief, with improvement in soreness and tightness of the shoulder, neck, and arm immediately on the first postoperative day or within a few weeks thereafter. There were no cases with symptoms recurring. Conclusions: It is evident that decompressive surgery through a supraclavicular approach for TOS not only is an effective and safe procedure but also provides a diagnosis of the cause of TOS. For a patient who meets the criteria for surgical indication, decompressive surgery usually results in resolution of symptoms and no recurrence. PMID:27482476

  14. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  15. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase. PMID:25945849

  16. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  17. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  18. Medical thoracoscopy: Analysis on diagnostic yield through 30 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Alberto; Arondi, Sabrina; Marchetti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical thoracoscopy (MT) or pleuroscopy is a procedure performed to diagnose and treat malignant and benign pleural diseases. Totally 2752 pleuroscopies executed in 1984–2013 in our center were considered in this study. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed. Observational time was divided into six series of 5 years. We calculated MT diagnostic yield and analyzed trends of main diseases diagnosed along the time. RESULTS: Along the 30 years population became progressively older. Number of pleuroscopies firstly increased, then stabilized and decreased in the last 5 years. The overall diagnostic yield of MT was 71%, increasing from 57% to 79%. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the presence of monolateral pleural effusion. Cancer represented more than half of diagnosis; tuberculosis was the most common nonneoplastic disease. The frequency of all cancers, mesothelioma, and lung cancer increased through the time; tuberculosis first decreased and then increased. All specimens resulted appropriate during the last 25 years. CONCLUSION: MT has a great diagnostic yield that can be improved by practice, permitting to achieve a specific histological diagnosis in about 80% of patients. Our experience demonstrates that the accurate selection of the patients undergoing to MT is very important to reach these results. PMID:27512506

  19. Reversible cardiomyopathy after radiofrequency ablation of 30-year persistent atrial tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Kotaro; Shoda, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is a reversible form of the left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and is believed to be a relatively acute process. We report a TIC case with a 30-year history of long-lasting persistent atrial tachycardia involving a 44-year-old man previously diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and a low LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 20%. ECG revealed atrial tachycardia at 110–120 bpm. He was hospitalised with a worsening heart failure. His clinical status was New York Heart Association functional class III, and echocardiography revealed LV dilation and an LVEF of 9%. A two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain measurement revealed LV mechanical dyssynchrony. He underwent radiofrequency ablation for atrial tachycardia. After restoring sinus rhythm, his cardiac symptoms improved immediately. The LV mechanical dyssynchrony decreased a week after ablation, without changes in the LV dilation or LVEF. Thereafter, the LV dilation and systolic function gradually improved, and atrial tachycardia and heart failure remained absent. PMID:24326427

  20. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occurred on Saturn on Dec. 5th, 2010 at planetographic latitude 37.7oN. It produced intense lightning, created enormous cloud disturbances and wrapped around the planet in 6 months. Six such storms, called Great White Spots, have erupted since 1876. They have alternated between mid-latitudes and the equator at intervals ranging from 20 to 30 years. The reason for the intermittent explosion is hitherto unclear and there are no similar storms on brother Jupiter. Here we describe the water-loading-mechanism, which could suppress moist convection for decades due to the larger molecular weight of water in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere. We show that this mechanism requires the deep water vapor mixing ratio to be greater than 1.0%. Observations imply that Saturn's atmosphere is more enriched in water than Jupiter, which could explain why Saturn has such storms and Jupiter does not. We further use a two-dimensional axisymmetric dynamic model and a top-cooling convective adjustment scheme to connect our theory to observation. We show that for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.1%, the ammonia vapor is depleted down to 6 bars, the tropospheric warming is about 6 K, and the interval between two consecutive storms at one place is about 70 years. These values are confirmed by both ground-based and spacecraft observations.

  1. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  2. 30 Years on Selected Issues in the Prevention of HIV among Persons Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D. C.; Pinkerton, S.; Hagan, H.; Guardino, V.; Feelemyer, J.; Cooper, H.; Hatzatkis, A.; Uuskula, A.

    2013-01-01

    After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP) and antiretroviral therapy (ARV) suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective. PMID:23840957

  3. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  4. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  5. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  6. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport: A revisit based on 30 year expendable bathythermograph data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin-Yan; Feng, Ming; Wang, Dongxiao; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Based on 30 year repeated expendable bathythermograph (XBT) deployments between Fremantle, Western Australia, and the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, from 1984 to 2013, interannual variability of geostrophic transport of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and its relationships with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are investigated. The IOD induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the Sumatra-Java coast of Indonesia, and ENSO induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the northwest coast of Australia, both influencing interannual variations of the ITF transport. The ITF geostrophic transport is stronger during La Niña phase and weaker during El Niño phase, with the Niño3.4 index leading the ITF variability by 7 months. The Indian Ocean wind variability associated with the IOD to a certain extent offset the Pacific ENSO influences on the ITF geostrophic transport during the developing and mature phases of El Niño and La Niña, due to the covarying IOD variability with ENSO. The ITF geostrophic transport experiences a strengthening trend of about 1 Sv every 10 years over the study period, which is mostly due to a response to the strengthening of the trade winds in the Pacific during the climate change hiatus period. Decadal variations of the temperature-salinity relationships need to be considered when estimating the geostrophic transport of the ITF using XBT data.

  7. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds more likely to link to hepatitis C virus care: an opportunity to decrease transmission.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Huang, W; Horsburgh, C R; Linas, B P; Assoumou, S A

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence among 18- to 30-year-olds is increasing and guidelines recommend treatment of active injection drug users to limit transmission. We aimed to : measure linkage to HCV care among 18- to 30-year-olds and identify factors associated with linkage; compare linkage among 18- to 30-year-olds to that of patients >30 years. We used the electronic medical record at an urban safety net hospital to create a retrospective cohort with reactive HCV antibody between 2005 and 2010. We report seroprevalence and demographics of seropositive patients, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with linkage to HCV care. We defined linkage as having evidence of HCV RNA testing after reactive antibody. Thirty two thousand four hundred and eighteen individuals were tested, including 8873 between 18 and 30 years. The seropositivity rate among those ages 18-30 was 10%. In multivariate analysis, among those 18-30, diagnosis location (Outpatient vs Inpatient/ED) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49) and number of visits after diagnosis (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.91-7.19) were associated with higher odds of linking to care. When we compared linkage in patients ages 18-30 to that among those older than 30, patients in the 18-30 years age group were more likely to link to HCV care than those in the older cohort even when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, birthplace, diagnosis location and duration of follow-up. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds are more likely to link to HCV care than their older counterparts. During the interferon-free treatment era, there is an opportunity to prevent further HCV transmission in this population. PMID:26572798

  8. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  9. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  10. A 30-Year Multi-Sensor Vegetation Index and Land Surface Phenology Data Record: Methods Challenges and Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didan, K.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2013-12-01

    30 years of Earth surface observation. Now in its third generation (V3) this record is capable of supporting environmental, resources management and climate studies as well provide for the parameterization of various ecosystem and climate models. All data are public and are available via a highly interactive online tool, the VIP Data Explorer (vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer.php) and concurrently via the LP-DAAC.

  11. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  12. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  13. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change. PMID:25223006

  14. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  15. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*

    PubMed Central

    Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262

  16. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  17. Mortality after exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzofurans: 30 years after the “Yucheng Accident”

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Rogan, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 1979, approximately 2,000 people in central Taiwan were accidentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil. This event was called Yucheng, “oil-syndrome” in Chinese. We followed the exposed persons and compared their cause-specific mortality with that of neighborhood referents 30 years after the accident. METHODS We obtained age- and gender-matched referents from the 1979 neighborhoods of the exposed people. Cause-specific mortality was compared between exposed subjects (N=1803) and their neighborhood referents (N=5170) using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Total person-years for the Yucheng subjects and neighborhood referents were 48,751 and 141,774, respectively. RESULTS The SMR for all causes (SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (SMR=6.4, 95% CI: 2.8–12.7) were elevated in Yucheng subjects. Among Yucheng males, the SMRs for diseases of the digestive system (SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8), malignant neoplasm of stomach (SMR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5–7.0), and malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (SMR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–6.6) were increased. The SMR for total neoplasms was increased (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7). CONCLUSION We conclude that exposure to PCBs/PCDFs at levels that produced symptoms in many affects mortality patterns 3 decades after exposure. PMID:23026800

  18. The epidemiology of drowning worldwide.

    PubMed

    Peden, M M; McGee, K

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the magnitude of death and disability from drowning and near-drowning worldwide and to provide epidemiological data on which to base prevention efforts. All data are from the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 1) estimates in which deaths and disabilities are based on the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Extrapolations were made by age, sex, and WHO region. The six WHO regions of the world were further divided into high-income, and low- and middle-income based on the 1998 World Development indicators. According to the GBD 2000 data, an estimated 449,000 people drowned worldwide (7.4 per 100,000 population) and a further 1.3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were lost as a result of premature death or disability from drowning. 97% of drownings occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Although 38% of drownings occurred in the Western Pacific Region, Africa had the highest drowning mortality rate (13.1 per 100,000 population). Males had higher drowning mortality rates than females for all ages and in all regions. Children under the age of 5 years had the highest drowning mortality rate for both sexes in all of the WHO regions except for Africa, where children aged 5 to 14 years had the highest mortality rate. Worldwide, for children under the age of 15 years, drowning accounted for a higher mortality rate than any other cause of injury. Drowning is a significant problem worldwide particularly for children under the age of 15 years. Low- and middle-income countries have the highest rates of drowning and account for more than 90% of such fatalities. Primary prevention efforts should thus be focused on these countries where many children who cannot swim drown in large bodies of water. PMID:14664361

  19. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Center, Melissa M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Smith, Robert A; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide. PMID:19897840

  20. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  1. Social media: the key to health information access for 18- to 30-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry

    2015-04-01

    This work examines where 18- to 30-year-old college students seek health information on the Internet and how they determine site and message credibility. Using a qualitative methodology, five focus groups were conducted with 18- to 30-year-old college students, and transcripts were analyzed with MaxQDA text analysis software. The study revealed that 18- to 30-year-old college students have Internet health information source preferences, reasons for seeking health information on the Internet, and message design factors that improve their perception of site and message credibility. We conclude that the Internet and social media show great promise as effective health communication channels for 18- to 30-year-old college students and confirm that preferred Internet/social media sites can be utilized by health educators to present important risk management/disease prevention information to 18- to 30-year-old college students. In addition, message design factors can lend credibility to both sites and the health information delivered there. PMID:25887107

  2. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  4. Editorial: Our top 10 developments in stem cell biology over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Buckley, Noel; Lappin, Terry R J; Murphy, Martin J; Nolta, Jan A; Pittenger, Mark; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate 30 years of peer-reviewed publication of cutting edge stem cell research in Stem Cells, the first journal devoted to this promising field, we pause to review how far we have come in the three-decade lifetime of the Journal. To do this, we will present our views of the 10 most significant developments that have advanced stem cell biology where it is today. With the increasing rate of new data, it is natural that the bulk of these developments would have occurred in recent years, but we must not think that stem cell biology is a young science. The idea of a stem cell has actually been around for quite a long time having appeared in the scientific literature as early as 1868 with Haeckels' concept of a stamzelle as an uncommitted or undifferentiated cell responsible for producing many types of new cells to repair the body [Naturliche Schopfungsgeschichte, 1868; Berlin: Georg Reimer] but it took many years to obtain hard evidence in support of this theory. Not until the work of James Till and Ernest McCulloch in the 1960s did we have proof of the existence of stem cells and until the derivation of embryonal carcinoma cells in the 1960s-1970s and the first embryonic stem cell in 1981, such adult or tissue-specific stem cells were the only known class. The first issue of Stem Cells was published in 1981; no small wonder that most of its papers were devoted to hematopoietic progenitors. More recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been developed, and this is proving to be a fertile area of investigation as shown by the volume of publications appearing not only in Stem Cells but also in other journals over the last 5 years. The reader will note that many of the articles in this special issue are concerned with iPSC; however, this reflects the current surge of interest in the topic rather than any deliberate attempt to ignore other areas of stem cell investigation. PMID:22162299

  5. Distant outcomes of the Chiari osteotomy 30 years follow up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Tomasz; Szulc, Andrzej; Głowacki, Maciej; Strzyzewski, Wojciech

    2006-02-28

    Background. The aim of my paper was to assess distant treatment results of patients who were treated because of hip displasia and the Chiari osteotomy was performed on those patients. Material and methods. I evaluated treatment outcomes of 27 patients who were treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Clinic of Orthopedics, in 1965-1990. The Chiari osteotomy was performed on all patients for hip decenteration or hip subluxation after developmental displasia. 34 hips were evaluated (20 female and 7 male). The average age of patients was 13 years in the moment of the operation. The follow up examination was conducted 10-36 years after the Chiari osteotomy Results. After many years (30 years after the operation on the average), 37% of patients could fit into groups of very good and good results. I could assess the hips before the operation using only parameters marked on anteroposterior films. The radiographs of the hips showed displasia characterized by shallowness and steepness of the acetabulum, an increased apparent neck-corpus angle, low submersion of the femoral head in the acetabulum, and insufficient coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. On the radiographs taken one year after the operation I observed very good coverage of the femoral head proved by higher values (above quota) of the Wiberg angle, the Sharp angle, the Heyman and Herndon acetabulum-head indicator. I defined also a course of the osteotomy drafting an osteotomy angle, setting a degree of bone fragments displacement (medialisation), and a height of the osteotomy. Conclusions. 1. The Chiari osteotomy as a hip saving operation allows patients to function in satisfactory clinical conditions for many years. 2. When conducted correctly, the Chiari osteotomy considerably improves femoral head coverage not only in the frontal plane but also in the transverse plane. 3. Too wide osteotomy angle, more than 20 degrees , further than 50% displacement of a distal bone fragment and too low

  6. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  7. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  8. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  9. Spatial structure of 60- and 30-year variations of the geomagnetic field according to data of analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, V. I.; Rotanova, N. M.; Golovkov, V. P.

    1984-10-01

    The distribution of the amplitudes and phases of 60-year variations of the geomagnetic field on the earth's surface is obtained on the basis of analytical models. It is shown that the characteristic features or foci of these variations have different configurations and a dissimilar intensity. A global map of the spatial distribution of 30-year variations is also obtained; and a comparison of maps of the 60- and 30-year variations shows that, although the structure of the latter variations is more complex, the characteristic foci of both types of variations are manifested in the same regions.

  10. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt ‑4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  11. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  12. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  13. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  14. Worldwide Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria C; Bain, Lisa J; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Weiner, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was launched in 2003 to speed drug development by validating imaging and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease clinical treatment trials. ADNI is a naturalistic (nontreatment) multisite longitudinal study. A true public-private partnership, the first phase of ADNI (ADNI 1) set a new standard for data sharing without embargo. In addition, it has been extended to 2017 by additional funding (North American-ADNI Grand Opportunities and ADNI 2) as well as multiple projects around the world, collectively known as Worldwide ADNI (WW-ADNI). The goal of WW-ADNI is to harmonize projects and results across different geographical sites and to encourage and harmonize data management and availability to investigators around the world. WW-ADNI projects are currently underway in North America, Europe, Japan, Australia, Korea, Taiwan, and Argentina, with a nascent program in China and a possible future program in Brazil. PMID:22748939

  15. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  16. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  17. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-08-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  18. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  19. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected "CMS Centres" at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running "telepresence" video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  20. Periodontitis among adults aged ≥30 years - United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Thornton-Evans, Gina; Eke, Pau; Wei, Liang; Palmer, Astrid; Moeti, Refilwe; Hutchins, Sonja; Borrell, Luisa N

    2013-11-22

    Periodontal disease, or gum disease, is a chronic infection of the hard and soft tissue supporting the teeth and is a leading cause of tooth loss in older adults. Tooth loss impairs dental function and quality of life in older adults. The chronic infections associated with periodontitis can increase the risk for aspiration pneumonia in older adults and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation that impairs general health. The severity of periodontal disease can be categorized as mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of multiple measurements of periodontal pocket depth, attachment loss, and gingival inflammation around teeth. PMID:24264502

  1. World-Wide Intelligent Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…

  2. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  3. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  4. New worldwide hydrological initiative needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. James

    This essay argues for a new, decade-long worldwide hydrological initiative to permit change in the paradigm that underlies hydrological design and management. It is stimulated by the fact that over the last 20 years there has been a distinct change in our understanding of the nature and origin of the statistics of hydrological variables as measured in an individual watershed or region. The assumption was that these statistics are entirely haphazard in nature and indeterminate in origin, and do not change with time.Thus the most important hydrological variables (such as precipitation, runoff, and potential evaporation) are sampled over a calibration period (of perhaps only a few decades), and the statistics observed within that calibration period are used as the basis for hydrological design and water resource management. Now, however, there is increasing realization that the nature of the locally observed statistics of hydrological variables may be significantly determined by global-scale phenomena and might be prone to long-term change.

  5. Feminising genitoplasty: one-stage genital reconstruction in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 30 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Roll, M F; Kneppo, C; Roth, H; Bettendorf, M; Waag, K-L; Holland-Cunz, S

    2006-10-01

    The study objective is to evaluate the results of our surgical technique for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia at the University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery. The records of 19 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated between 1972 and 2004 were reviewed with respect to age at surgery, operative procedures and outcome. We describe the recession clitoroplasty technique currently used in our hospital and highlight the importance of short and long-term follow-up results with respect to appearance, position and size of the clitoris and quality of the vagina. One-stage recession clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty gives very satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, with few complications and a reduced need for secondary surgical interventions. The results of this study support the assumption that total correction can be achieved through a single-stage operation, performed in infancy. PMID:17160777

  6. The Relationship of Housing and Population Health: A 30-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Smith, Janet; Evens, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the relationship between health status and housing quality over time. Methods We combined data from two nationally representative longitudinal surveys of the U.S. population and its housing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the American Housing Survey, respectively. We identified housing and health trends from approximately 1970 to 2000, after excluding those trends for which data were missing or where we found no plausible association or change in trend. Results Changes in housing include construction type, proportion of rental versus home ownership, age, density, size, moisture, pests, broken windows, ventilation and air conditioning, and water leaks. Changes in health measures include asthma, respiratory illness, obesity and diabetes, and lead poisoning, among others. The results suggest ecologic trends in childhood lead poisoning follow housing age, water leaks, and ventilation; asthma follows ventilation, windows, and age; overweight trends follow ventilation; blood pressure trends follow community measures; and health disparities have not changed greatly. Conclusions Housing trends are consistent with certain health trends over time. Future national longitudinal surveys should include health, housing, and community metrics within a single integrated design, instead of separate surveys, in order to develop reliable indicators of how housing changes affect population health and how to best target resources. Little progress has been made in reducing the health and housing disparities of disadvantaged groups, with the notable exception of childhood lead poisoning caused by exposure to lead-based paint hazards. Use of these and other data sets to create reliable integrated indicators of health and housing quality are needed. PMID:19440499

  7. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades. Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification. Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES). The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age. Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not necessarily evident

  8. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  9. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of spring dust emissions in northern China over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongquan; Zhang, Kesheng; Piao, Shilong; Wan, Shiqiang

    2016-02-01

    Dust emissions caused by wind erosion have significant impacts on land degradation, air quality, and climate change. Dust from the arid and semiarid regions of China is a main contributor to atmospheric dust aerosols in East Asia, and their impacts can stretch far beyond the territory of China. Spatial-temporal patterns of dust emissions in China over the last several decades, however, are still lacking, especially during the spring season. In this study, we simulated the spatial-temporal dynamics of spring dust emissions from 1982 to 2011 in arid and semi-arid areas of China using the Integrated Wind Erosion Modeling System. Results showed that the most severe dust emission events occurred in the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, and Ulan Buh Desert. Over the last three decades, the magnitude of spring dust emissions generally decreased at the regional scale, with an annual spring dust emission of ˜401.10 Tg. Among different vegetation types, the highest annual spring dust emission occurred in the desert steppes (˜163.95 Tg), followed by the deserts (˜103.26 Tg). The dust emission intensity in the desert steppes and the deserts was ˜150.83 kg km-2·yr-1 and ˜205.46 kg km-2·yr-1, respectively. The spatial patterns of the inter-decadal variation are related to climate change and human activities. Mitigation strategies such as returning farmland to grassland, fenced grazing, and adequate grass harvesting, must be taken to prevent further soil losses and grassland degradation in northern China.

  11. Postbaccalaureate program at Wayne State University School of Medicine: a 30-year report.

    PubMed

    Whitten, C F

    1999-04-01

    In 1969, Wayne State University School of Medicine established the first postbaccalaureate program for medical students, with the focus on African American students whose applications to medical school had been rejected. The ten-month program was designed to improve students' scientific knowledge, academic skills, and personal adjustment and thereby ultimately to increase the number of African Americans enrolled in the school. The criteria included the quality of the student's high school, employment workload, parents' ability to assist financially, and several other factors. The school covered expenses, provided a living stipend, and guaranteed admission for students who attained a B average in the program. Consistent with the Bakke court decision, in 1979 the program eligibility was shifted to disadvantaged students irrespective of race or ethnicity; all other criteria remained unchanged. Until 1990 Wayne State University's program was the only one of its type. From 1969 to 1992, 214 African American students who could have graduated by 1997 had been admitted to the program: 192 (90%) of them attained a B average in the program and matriculated in the medical school, and 160 (83%) graduated. From 1978 (when the program was opened to all racial and ethnic groups) to 1992, 58 non-African American students who could have graduated by 1997 were been admitted to the program: 54 (93%) attained a B average and matriculated in the medical school, and 51 (94%) graduated. The program's success suggests that similar programs at more medical schools could have an immediate and substantial impact on the number of underrepresented-minority students who enter medical education and succeed. PMID:10219220

  12. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations. PMID:23223322

  13. NASA Worldwide Emergency Medical Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, George A.; Tipton, David A.; Long, Irene D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to maintain employee health and welfare, ensure customer satisfaction, and to deliver high quality emergency medical care when necessary to employees located overseas, NASA has instituted a new contract with International SOS Assistance INC. International SOS Assistance INC. will provide civil servants and contractors engaged in official NASA business with many services upon request during a medical or personal emergency. Through the years, International SOS Assistance INC. has developed the expertise necessary to provide medical service in all remote areas of the world. One phone call connects you to the SOS network of multilingual staff trained to help resolve travel, medical, legal, and security problems. The SOS network of critical care and aeromedical specialists operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year from SOS Alarm Centers around the world. This exhibit illustrates the details of the NASA-International SOS Assistance INC. agreement.

  14. Worldwide supercritical power plants: Status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhov, V.A.; Ramezan, M.; Ruth, L.A.; Kim, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    During the last decade leading industrial countries initiated a new wave of research and development on supercritical (SC) steam power plants. This new interest is accompanied by the jump from SC steam parameters to ultra-supercritical (USC) parameters and was initiated mostly due to the increase in cost of fuel on the world market, and by increased environmental regulations including reduction of greenhouse gases. As a result, a significant number of new pulverized coal (PC) power units with increased efficiency and reduced emissions were installed in the last two decades, and a few more are planned to be installed in the near future. Different driving forces are responsible for development and implementation of highly efficient advanced PC-fired systems: need for new capacity, quality and cost of fuel, level of technology development, environmental requirements, and internal situation with regard to power supply (deregulation). For example, in Europe, Germany in particular, controlling CO{sub 2} is a major issue in any new installation, while in Japan economics is the major issue as the costs of imported fuels are high, and there are greater economic incentives for efficiency improvement. This paper discusses the status of existing and planned SC and USC power plants worldwide and their technical and environmental performance.

  15. Worldwide Geomagnetic Data Collection and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Papitashvili, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Geomagnetic data provided by different platforms piece together a global picture of Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with geospace. Furthermore, a great diversity of the geomagnetic field changes, from secular (over decades to centuries) to short time variations (down to minutes and seconds), can be detected only through continued observations. An international effort to watch and record geomagnetic changes first began in the 1830s with a network of scientific observers organized by Karl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, and this effort has continued since then. One of the most remarkable achievements in understanding the geomagnetic field morphology and time behavior was made possible by the International Geophysical Year (IGY), an exploration and research effort that lasted for 18 months, starting on 1 July 1957. The IGY encompassed 11 geoscience disciplines, including geomagnetism. The IGY has represented a giant step forward in the quality and quantity of worldwide geomagnetic measurements, as well as in the widespread interest in magnetic measurements. A half century of probing the geomagnetic field spatial and temporal variations has produced a number of outstanding results, and the interested reader can find recent reviews on various geomagnetic field topics (from measurements to modeling) in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism [Gubbins and Herrero-Bervera, 2007] or Treatise on Geophysics: Geomagnetism [Kono, 2007].

  16. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  17. Statistical estimation of extreme ocean waves over the eastern Canadian shelf from 30-year numerical wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2015-11-01

    Reliable estimation of extreme ocean surface gravity waves is important for many scientific and practical issues. In this study, WAVEWATCHIII is used to simulate wave conditions over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS) for the 30-year period, 1979-2008. The wave model is forced by the 6-hourly winds and ice cover taken from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). A parametric vortex is inserted into the CFSR winds to better represent surface winds associated with tropical storms or hurricanes. The model performance in simulating the bulk significant wave height is assessed by comparing model results with wave observations at 12 buoy stations over the ECS. The peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate the extreme significant wave heights from 30-year wave simulations. The estimated extreme waves with the 50-year return period over the ECS feature large wave heights of more than 12 m in the offshore deep waters and about 8-12 m over the open shelf waters of the ECS. By comparison, the 50-year extreme waves are moderate and 7 m or less in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and inner Gulf of Maine.

  18. A Conversation with the Richmonds on Their 30 Years of Service with the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David A.; Mongero, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: David A. PalmerLinda B. MongeroBeth A. Richmond, PhD, and Mark G. Richmond, EdD, Co-Executive Directors serving for the ABCP, have assumed this role for the past 30 years. Their experience working with a variety of perfusionists in the field influenced the profession and some of the professionals we view as perfusion leaders. Anyone with time working as a clinical perfusionist acknowledges the role they have had establishing the certification process and influencing perfusion education. The goal of this article is simply to highlight the Board’s history through the words of both Co-Directors. Our profession, young in years, has a unique history. The names have not been changed and many of the stories have yet to be told. During the winter of 2009, we sat down with Beth and Mark Richmond to talk about their experience working with different Boards over the past 30 years. The following article is their story in their words. PMID:19806795

  19. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  20. Trends in blunt abdominal trauma among hospital in-patients. Developments in a Swedish rural district over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1979-01-01

    To analyse changes in background factors, injury pattern, and prognosis regarding blunt abdominal trauma in Sweden, the 30-year postwar (1946--75) development was investigated in a rural district. 396 patients were treated, showing a great increase during the last 5 years. The highest frequency was seen in patients aged 11--30 years. Abdominal trauma occurred most commonly during July and August. The growing aetiological importance of road accidents is shown. Equestrian accidents were common early in the period and again towards the end. The incidence of cerebrally confused patients increased. The organs most commonly traumatized were kidney, liver, and spleen. The frequency of multiple intra-abdominal injuries and also associated extra-abdominal injuries increased with time. There was a tendency towards shorter hospital stays. Mortality rates did not change during the period, even though injuries have become increasingly severe (judged by the Injury Severity Score). It is concluded that the improved care of patients compensated precisely for the increased severity of injuries, as reflected in mortality. PMID:432565

  1. On Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Geoffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss some key aspects of quality in education in the light of over 30 years practical experience of doing quality assurance (QA). Design/methodology/approach: Reflection on three concepts, which are still the subject of debate, namely: "quality"; "total quality management (TQM)"; and "autonomy".…

  2. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  3. Comparison of temperature, precipitation and snow characteristics in two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Differences in some characteristics of temperature, precipitation totals and snow cover, for two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were examined at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). The analysis of highest maximum air temperature for individual days showed higher values of maxima for 1981 - 2010 period primarily during the summer months. The differences between corresponding values of two periods were relatively often higher at some stations during the winter months, but unlike the periods in summer months they were more regional in nature. The comparison of long-term average of daily air temperature for two 30-years periods showed increase in 1981 - 2010 period. The most significant change occurred mainly in January, July and August. Warming was not significant in September - December period. The annual regime of mean monthly precipitation amount was different in both 30-years periods in the most of the selected stations with noticeable increase in the average monthly sum in May and decline in June in 1981 - 2010 period. The only exception is the station Košice airport, where on the contrary the increase in June was registered in the 1981-2010 period. Increase of precipitation in May in the second thirty year period was probably caused by a higher number of storms in the spring months as a result of faster warming of the earth's surface and occurrence of more frequent convective precipitation. Average number of days with a snow cover in the period 1981-2010 compared with the period 1951-1980 is significantly lower in January at meteorological stations lying at lower altitudes. This is due to the higher air temperature and a higher amount of mixed and liquid precipitation during this month. In February, small increase in the average number of days with a total snow cover

  4. What is driving changes in long-range transport of dust from Africa to the Americas? A 30 year synthesis of the GEOS-Chem model and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Sahara and Sahelian regions produce approximately half of the world's dust emissions, resulting in significant radiative effects, air quality issues and mineral deposition, not only in Africa, but across the Atlantic and in the Americas. Determining how these impacts may change in the future requires a thorough understanding of the processes controlling emission, transport and deposition of dust. Long-term records of dust concentration measured in the Caribbean have, until the nineties, correlated with Sahelian precipitation and climatic indicators, potentially providing ways to predict changes in dust. However, this relationship is no longer clear and there are significant changes in the seasonality of dust transported to the Americas currently with no obvious explanation. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with NASA GMAO meteorological re-analyses (MERRA) to simulate the 30 year period 1979 - 2008. A synthesis of observations from multiple satellite and surface-based platforms is used to evaluate the model, primarily in terms of its ability to simulate the long-range transport of mineral dust from Africa. We then investigate what drives the changes in long-range transport of African dust to the Americas over diurnal to decadal timescales. This enables understanding of the relative importance of the individual processes controlling these changes, and the sensitivity of air quality and dust deposition downwind. This work aims to determine 1) how sensitive air quality and dust deposition in the Americas is to changes in African dust emissions, 2) the role of meteorological variables affecting the inter-annual variability of dust emission and deposition, and 3) the impact that land use changes and desertification in the Sahel may have in terms of the influence on dust transported to the Americas.

  5. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E.; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  6. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R&D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R&D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability.

  7. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  8. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities. PMID:26160672

  9. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  10. Evolution of induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer over the last 30 years: A surgical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Elizabeth; Rivera, Caroline; Mordant, Pierre; Gibault, Laure; Dujon, Antoine; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is supposed to reduce the risk of micrometastatic progression and improve resectability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, best indications for ICT strategy remain unclear in published meta-analyses. Based on this observation, an evaluation of daily practice is of importance. Therefore, we reviewed indications and efficacy time trends in our 30-year series. Methods A database including all patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 (n = 5563) was prospectively set and retrospectively reviewed. The indications, clinical and pathologic response rates, and overall survival of ICT patients (n = 732) were analyzed during three successive time-periods: P1 from 1980 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 1999, and P3 from 2000 to 2009. Results The proportion of patients who benefited from ICT increased over time, from 2.8% (n = 35) in P1 to 12.5% (n = 274) in P2, and 20.2% (n = 423) in P3. Indications evolved over time with more N2 patients (n = 211; 49.8%) and less initially unresectable patients (n = 72; 17%) in P3. The clinical response rate between P1 and P2 increased. Five and 10-year survival rates of ICT patients were 35.2% and 21.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, time-period, age, type of resection, histology, and pathologic response to chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions Our report on the off-trial use of induction therapy during the last 30 years demonstrates an increased use of ICT, a progressive focus on N2 disease, and improved response rates. PMID:26557911

  11. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Precipitation, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; J.W. Brakebill, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  14. Little evidence for an epidemic of myopia in Australian primary school children over the last 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Barbara M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2005-01-01

    Background Recently reported prevalences of myopia in primary school children vary greatly in different regions of the world. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in an unselected urban population of young primary school children in eastern Sydney, Australia, between 1998 and 2004, for comparison with our previously published data gathered using the same protocols and other Australian studies over the last 30 years. Methods Right eye refractive data from non-cycloplegic retinoscopy was analysed for 1,936 children aged 4 to 12 years who underwent a full eye examination whilst on a vision science excursion to the Vision Education Centre Clinic at the University of New South Wales. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalents equal to or less than -0.50 D, and hyperopia as spherical equivalents greater than +0.50 D. Results The mean spherical equivalent decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) with age from +0.73 ± 0.1D (SE) at age 4 to +0.21 ± 0.11D at age 12 years. The proportion of children across all ages with myopia of -0.50D or more was 8.4%, ranging from 2.3% of 4 year olds to 14.7% of 12 year olds. Hyperopia greater than +0.50D was present in 38.4%. A 3-way ANOVA for cohort, age and gender of both the current and our previous data showed a significant main effect for age (p < 0.0001) but not for cohort (p = 0.134) or gender (p = 0.61). Conclusions Comparison of our new data with our early 1990s data and that from studies of over 8,000 Australian non-clinical rural and urban children in the 1970's and 1980's provided no evidence for the rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia described elsewhere in the world. In fact, the prevalence of myopia in Australian children continues to be significantly lower than that reported in Asia and North America despite changing demographics. This raises the issue of whether these results are a reflection of Australia's stable educational system and lifestyle over the last 30 years. PMID:15705207

  15. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  16. Software Facilitates Sharing of Water Quality Data Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    John Freighery was an environmental engineer at Johnson Space Center when a new, simplified version of the coliform bacteria test was developed for astronaut use on the International Space Station. Through his New York City-based mWater Foundation, Freighery is using the test to help rural communities monitor their water supplies for contamination. The organization has also developed a mobile phone app to make the information publicly available.

  17. Secular trend in the maturation of permanent teeth in a sample of Turkish children over the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Uzuner, Fatma Deniz; Yeniay, Altug; Darendeliler, Nilufer

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the influence of secular trends on dental maturation among Turkish children over the past 30 years. Orthopantomograms of 757 (385 boys, 372 girls) Turkish children born in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s were evaluated. Three groups were formed based on decade with five subgroups by age from 9 to 13 years old for each gender. The number of samples in each age group and gender were matched. The mandibular left seven permanent teeth were evaluated based on formation stage to determine the overall dental maturity score. The groups were compared based on decade and gender. The Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical evaluation. Among 11-, 12-, and 13-year-olds born in the 2000s, girls exhibited significantly more mature dentition than did boys (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively). Twelve-year-old girls born in the 1990s and 2000s exhibited significantly more mature dentition than did girls born in the 1980s (p<0.01). Girls generally exhibited more mature dentition than boys. No significant positive secular trends in dental maturity were observed from the 1980s through the 2000s. Dental maturation among Turkish children was not affected by a secular trend. PMID:26773225

  18. Treated versus non-treated subjects with depression from a 30-year cohort study: prevalence and clinical covariates.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, Michael P; Angst, Felix; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence rates of several components of depression (unipolar and bipolar major, minor, recurrent brief depression, and dysthymia) and to identify covariates of treatment. We analysed a representative population-based, long-term prospective cohort study from age 20 to 50. Across the seven semi-structured interviews, generalized estimating equations examined the associations between diagnoses and treatment status during the course. The results show that the mean annual treatment rate across 30 years in persons with MDE was 39.2%. The weighted treatment prevalence for any depressive disorder was 23.4% (15.7% for MDE, 4.3% for minor depressive disorders and 3.4% for non-diagnosed subjects). Persons were more likely to seek treatment as they grew older. Women with MDE had triple the treatment prevalence of men (23.8 vs. 7.4%). Variables of distress/suffering under depression (OR 1.36-1.52) and the number of diagnostic depressive symptoms (OR 1.47) were statistically significant predictors of treatment, as were episode duration (OR 2.21) and various variables assessing impairment due to depression (OR 4.65-8.02). In conclusion, only a minority of persons with depressive disorders seek professional treatment in the year of disorder onset. Women and subjects suffering from high levels of depressive symptoms, frequent episodes, long episode duration and consecutive high distress and impairment were more likely to seek treatment. PMID:26499773

  19. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic “fluffy” surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  20. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  1. A 30-year follow-up of the effects of child abuse and neglect on obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tyrone; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a Midwest county during 1967-1971 (n=410) were matched with children without histories of abuse or neglect on age, sex, race/ethnicity and approximate family social class (n=303) and followed up and assessed at mean age 41. Outcome measures include BMI and obesity assessed in 2003-2004 as part of a medical status examination and interview. Childhood physical abuse predicted significantly higher BMI scores in adulthood (beta=0.14, P<0.05), even controlling for demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (beta=0.16, P<0.01). Childhood sexual abuse (beta=0.07, not significant) and neglect (beta=0.02, not significant) were not significant predictors of adult BMI scores. These results demonstrate the long-term impact of childhood physical abuse on weight into adulthood and suggest that physically abused children may be at risk for other adverse health outcomes associated with increased weight. Health professionals need to understand this risk for physically abused children and researchers should identify and evaluate strategies for effective interventions. PMID:19478789

  2. Recovery and reproduction of an Antarctic tardigrade retrieved from a moss sample frozen for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term survival has been one of the most studied of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of cryptobiosis in micrometazoans such as nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers. In the available studies of long-term survival of micrometazoans, instances of survival have been the primary observation, and recovery conditions of animals or subsequent reproduction are generally not reported. We therefore documented recovery conditions and reproduction immediately following revival of tardigrades retrieved from a frozen moss sample collected in Antarctica in 1983 and stored at -20 °C for 30.5 years. We recorded recovery of two individuals and development of a separate egg of the Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, providing the longest records of survival for tardigrades as animals or eggs. One of the two resuscitated individuals and the hatchling successfully reproduced repeatedly after their recovery from long-term cryptobiosis. This considerable extension of the known length of long-term survival of tardigrades recorded in our study is interpreted as being associated with the minimum oxidative damage likely to have resulted from storage under stable frozen conditions. The long recovery times of the revived tardigrades observed is suggestive of the requirement for repair of damage accrued over 30 years of cryptobiosis. Further more detailed studies will improve understanding of mechanisms and conditions underlying the long-term survival of cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:26724522

  3. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque. PMID:25246511

  4. Oral carcinoma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation – a new classification based on a literature review over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Astrid LD; Grätz, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a higher risk of developing secondary solid tumors, in particular squamous cell carcinoma, because of several risk factors, including full-body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Based on the review presented here, a classification of oral changes is suggested in order to provide a tool to detect high-risk patients. Methods and Results The literature over the last 30 years was reviewed for development of malignoma of the oral cavity after HSCT. Overall, 64 cases were found. In 16 out of 30 cases, the tongue was the primary location, followed by the salivary gland (10 out of 30); 56.4% appeared in a latency time of 5 to 9 years after HSCT. In 76.6%, GVHD was noticed before the occurrence of oral malignancy. Premalignant changes of the oral mucosa were mucositis, xerostomia, and lichenoid changes, developing into erosive form. Conclusion All physicians involved in the treatment of post-HSCT patients should be aware of the increased risk, even after 5 years from the development of oral malignancy, in particular when oral graft versus host changes are visible. In order to develop evidence based management, screening and offer adequate therapy as early as possible in this patient group, multicenter studies, involving oncologists and head and neck surgeons, should be established. PMID:19624855

  5. Proximity to Food Establishments and Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort Over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jason P.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; O’Malley, A. James; Subramanian, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971–2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject’s residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: −0.20, −0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain. PMID:21965186

  6. Committed retreat of Smith, Pope, and Kohler Glaciers over the next 30 years inferred by transient model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Heimbach, P.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    A glacial flow model of Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers is calibrated by means of control methods against time varying, annually resolved observations of ice height and velocities, covering the period 2002 to 2011. The inversion - termed "transient calibration" - produces an optimal set of time-mean, spatially varying parameters together with a time-evolving state that accounts for the transient nature of observations and the model dynamics. Serving as an optimal initial condition, the estimated state for 2011 is used, with no additional forcing, for predicting grounded ice volume loss and grounding line retreat over the ensuing 30 years. The transiently calibrated model predicts a near-steady loss of grounded ice volume of approximately 21 km3 a-1 over this period, as well as loss of 33 km2 a-1 grounded area. We contrast this prediction with one obtained following a commonly used "snapshot" or steady-state inversion, which does not consider time dependence and assumes all observations to be contemporaneous. Transient calibration is shown to achieve a better fit with observations of thinning and grounding line retreat histories, and yields a quantitatively different projection with respect to ice volume loss and ungrounding. Sensitivity studies suggest large near-future levels of unforced, i.e., committed sea level contribution from these ice streams under reasonable assumptions regarding uncertainties of the unknown parameters.

  7. Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ni, Yi-Lin; Steele, Joshua C; Wu, Ling-Ling; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-01

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches. PMID:27144960

  8. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  9. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region. PMID:20830516

  10. Sensitivity of a 30 year model climatology of Middle and Central America to resolution and atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, A. I.; Sein, D.; Martinez Lopez, B.

    2013-05-01

    A 30 year climatology experiment has been completed with a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model (REMO) over a vast region that covers latitude-wise the Middle and Central Americas up to Western Europe. The control simulation uses a horizontal resolution of 1 degree and REMO was forced at its lateral walls with ERA data for the period 1979-2010. The ocean model was initialized using previously integrated solutions from an atmospherically forced only ocean simulation. In order to gauge the impact that the atmosphere-ocean coupling had, an identical experiment was performed with prescribed SST for the same period. A couple of identical experiments but with a resolution of 1/2 degree were also performed to investigate the effect of horizontal spatial resolution. It is seen that model climatology is increasingly closer to observed precipitation climatology (compared to CRU data for that period) as the model goes from a SST-forced condition to one of full coupling and from coarser resolution to increasing resolution as well. Of note, is the significantly better representation of the ITZC annual latitudinal excursion over the Eastern Pacific Ocean corresponding to the onset of monsoon precipitation season over western Mexico.